modal verbs - iis Nobili

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modal verbs - iis Nobili
MODAL VERBS
 Esprimere abilità, capacità al presente:
 Fare richieste:
CAN
I can swim as far as that island.
I can’t find my glasses.
Can Jim speak Italian?
CAN/COULD/WILL
Can you give me a hand?
Could you turn down the radio a little, please?
Will you open the window, please?
Will you help me with these bags, please?
 Esprimere abilità, capacità al passato:
COULD
esprime una capacità generica di fare qualcosa
al passato
Harry Houdini could escape from padlocks and
chains.
I could read when I was five.
 Chiedere il permesso:
Con verbi come imagine, remember,
understand, hear, smell, taste, see di norma si
utilizzano can e could:
They speak/spoke in a low voice, but I
can/could understand what they are/ were
saying.
 Concedere/rifiutare un permesso:
 Esprimere ipotesi, supposizioni,
probabilità, incertezza
MUST – CAN/COULD – SHOULD –
MAY/MIGHT
must e can’t esprimono sostanziale certezza:
It must be 11 o’clock.
It’s very late. They must be sleeping.
He can’t be Tom: he’s tall.
can esprime possibilità sempre
potenzialmente presenti, mentre may e
should manifestano sempre un dubbio:
You can travel for miles without seeing anyone
in Ireland.
Take an umbrella. It may start raining again
soon.
There shouldn’t be much traffic at this time.
My mother should arrive tomorrow.
could e might esprimono maggiore
incertezza:
It might be a secret test area.
It could be the entrance to another dimension.
If I could help you, I certainly would.
If the roads weren’t so icy, we could go by car.
CAN/COULD – MAY/MIGHT
Can/Could I turn on the TV?
May/Might I have a look at your newspaper, please?
CAN – MAY
You can/may stay up late as it’s your birthday.
Visitors may not / cannot feed the animals.
You can’t buy alcoholic drinks in pubs if you are under
eighteen.
 Per offrirsi di fare qualcosa:
SHALL – WILL
Are you cold? Shall I close the window?
Shall I lay the table?
Will I help you with the housework?
 Esprimere un consiglio/raccomandazione:
SHOULD – SHALL
People shouldn’t buy pets if they are not prepared to
look after them.
I don’t think you should drive if you’re so tired.
I think you should say sorry to your mother.
shall I…? / shall we…?
si utilizzano per chiedere un consiglio (sempre e solo
alla forma interrogativa con la prima pers. singolare e
plurale).
 Fare una proposta:
SHALL
Shall we go out for dinner tonight?
Shall we dance?
Why don’t we go out for dinner?
How about/What about going out for dinner?
Let’s go out for dinner.
MODAL VERBS
CAN
HAVE To / MUST
 essere in grado di fare qualcosa:

I can swim as far as that island.
I can’t find my glasses.
Can Jim speak Italian?
esprimere necessità:
I must / have to go now.
They must / have to wear uniforms at school.
Sheila must / has to work on Saturday.
Do you have to get up early in the morning?
 chiedere il permesso di fare qualcosa
(informale):
Can I turn on the TV?
Can I open the window?
 concedere/rifiutare un permesso:
MUSTN’T

You can stay up late as it’s your birthday.
Visitors cannot feed the animals.
You can’t buy alcoholic drinks in pubs if you are
under eighteen.
 chiedere a qualcuno di fare qualcosa
(informale):
Can you close the door, please?
Can you pass me the salt, please?
Can you tell me the way to the station, please?
esprimere divieti / proibizioni
You mustn’t smoke at school.
Passengers mustn’t use mobile telephones on
board.
don’t / doesn’t HAVE to

esprimere mancanza di necessità:
You don’t have to go to school tomorrow: it’s
Sunday.
She doesn’t have to study for the test: her teacher
cancelled it.
COULD

esprimere abilità, capacità al passato
I could read when I was five.
They spoke in a low voice, but I could understand
what they were saying.
 chiedere il permesso di fare qualcosa
(formale):
Could I have a salad, please?
Could I open the window?
SHOULD

dare/chiedere consigli:
People shouldn’t buy pets if they are not prepared
to look after them.
I don’t think you should drive if you’re so tired.
I think you should say sorry to your mother.
What should I do?
 fare richieste(formale):
Could you close the door, please?
Could you pass me the salt, please?
Could you tell me the way to the station, please?
SHALL
 offrirsi di fare qualcosa:
Are you cold? Shall I close the window?
Shall I lay the table?
MAY

chiedere il permesso di fare qualcosa:
May I go to the toilet?
May I have a look at your newspaper, please?
 chiedere un consiglio (shall I…? / shall we…?):
What shall I do?
Shall I tell her the truth?
 fare una proposta:
Shall we go out for dinner tonight?
Shall we dance?

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