Print this article - Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali



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Research Paper / Contributo di ricerca
(*) Owner “Nocella” Forestry Estate Ficulle (TR), viale del Quattro Venti n. 246, 00152 Roma (RM), Italia.
(**) Statistician consultant “Nocella” Forestry Estate, via Cesare Pascarella n. 55, 00153 Roma (RM), Italia.
(***) Geology Professor “Tuscia” University Viterbo (VT), Italia.
(°) Corresponding author; [email protected]
The “Nocella” forest farm (Ficulle Umbria Italy) presents database collection of spontaneous truffle
production following the forestation of fields previously cultivated with traditional crops. Critical points
and constraints to reach the assessment of the symbiotic plants and the truffle quarries are explained.
Some of the first results of the Multivariate Analysis MVA analysis on the database and soil analysis are
reported and the map of truffle quarries and “cultivar” and forest plants is presented. The non-wood forest
products, as truffles are, have agro- forestry theoretical and operational consequences for the conservation
of biodiversity. The data popularization of detailed data of truffle production is not popular, even it is a
scientific task to fulfill a complete understanding of the ecosystem. The truffle’s “underground” economy
and the anthropological convictions are hostile surroundings. The importance of improving cooperation of
sociology and forest sciences for forestry management needs more efforts. Silence due to an underground
economy does not help the safeguard of truffle heritage, which, though a renewable resource, is tied to
a complex and vulnerable forest ecosystem. Silence nevertheless enhances the abuses by illegal hunters
who are used to prey upon the forest. We can confirm that the area of study is an ecosystem that changes
and grows constantly with a collection of truffles compatible and respectful of biodiversity. Multivariate
analysis (MVA) of the data would suggest good reasons for more investigation on soil and partly confirm
the mythical mind of the truffle hunters.
Key words: biodiversity; truffle; forestation; cultivar.
Parole chiave: biodiversità; tartufo; forestazione; cultivar.
Citation - Meoni A.M., Imola P., Biondi F., 2012 – A database on truffles diffusion on forestation plot:
the contribution to biodiversity by forest ecosystem. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 67 (3): 263-272.
1. Introduction
The truffle crop is an empirical practice based
on traditional conviction as truffle hunting
does (Granetti, 2005). We wanted to start a
trial to study the mystery tied to truffle finding
in aim to check if the traditional convictions are
in some way connected to scientific theory and
experimental of the truffle cultivation. On the
other hand, the underground economy needs
more fiscal rules in order to improve collection
of data of truffle productivity. The introduction
of rules to extend the tax base by reducing
avoidance and tax evasion has been a long term
topic in the Italian Parliament (Fiorio, 2009;
Carlucci, 2008). The scientific reports on
the amount of wild truffles harvested by spot
of sample areas can’t explain the “where, how
and when” on all the land (Salerni, 2010), the
same to determine soil characteristics (Gardin,
2005). Predicting truffle production based on
forest site characteristics is required as happens
in the mushroom situation (Palahì, 2009).
The “know how” in the truffle debate mainly
– L’Italia Forestale e Montana / Italian Journal of Forest and Mountain Environments
© 2012 Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali
67 (3): 263-272, 2012
doi: 10.4129/ifm.2012.3.04
a.m. meoni et al.
comes out only by specific silviculture for
truffle production (Bencivenga, 2000; Bonet,
2009; Raggi-Vivai, 2011; Di Massimo, 2005).
The study of biodiversity itself is a complex
technical problem of objective observation,
but also a reflection of the dynamics acting in
the interdisciplinary approach. The concept of
complex adaptive system has to be analyzed
within the current theoretical and operational
debate in silviculture and forest management
area (Nocentini, 2011). The body of
knowledge from different disciplines require a
psychological semeiotic of complexity to ensure
a multidisciplinary approach to a complex
adaptive system such as the forest is and the
man who inhabits it (Di Cesare, 2011). The
social policy, forest and economics, demand
more attention to non-timber products and its
own scientific methods and managing results
(EFIMED, 2007; Rete Rurale Nazionale,
2011). In the real situation, discussed in
this paper, there is a new component, which
influences, the degree of performance of the
working dog and, consequently, the amount
of truffle collection that depends not only
on the performance of dogs’ sense of smell,
but also by the dynamics that dogs have with
the environment: people and other dogs that
day. The dynamics that interdisciplinary
cooperation raises support “dynamic group of
organizations” (Meoni, 2004) and are described
in particular about truffle gathering in a
previous report (Meoni, 2009). The “Nocella”
forestry farm has run an assessment of the
symbiotic plants and the truffle quarries of a
new forestry ecosystem, developed on former
fields traditionally cultivated, and has collected
detailed data of truffle production and diffusion
over 10 years. In 1988 the “Nocella” rural farm
changed into a forestry estate, helped by the
set aside PAC benefits which help forestation
of rural fields. In 1988 the mountainous district
administration Comunità Montana started a
forestation plan with the approval and courtesy
of the owner. In the new resulting forest truffle
species grew spontaneously. In ancient time the
area was backwoods. The rural socio economic
development which followed was connected
to the traditional home farming. The area has
ifm lxvii -
been slowly deforested, terraced, planted again
and cultivated. At that time, the seeds were
selected by chance experiments on sustainable
agriculture, based on biodiversity (Biscotti,
2010). The new forestation process brought
back the old times, but still conserved memories
of plants (cultivar) and even introduced some
non native species. A peculiar biodiversity
naturally occurred and resulted with truffle
symbiotic plants and truffle production. The
list of species and relevant soil site data are
reported in Table 1.
After the final planting test (2001), the
Regional Government has admitted the
resulting backwoods as Controlled Truffle
Ground n.15 of the Umbria Region. Sorry
Table 1 – Qualitative and quantitative description of soil and
of forestry characteristics.
site condition
rilevant data
Planting time
Spring 1989
14.09 ha
Forestry species
Pine and Cedar, Oak, Alder,
European Mountainash, Walnut
Ball planting
1998 (7.0 ha)
Backwoods (N/S); fields set
aside (E/O)
Truffle species
Aestivum; brumale; uncinatum,
borchii; rufum; excavatum; indicum;
balsamia vulgaris; genea fragrans
Cultivar species
Olive, vine, fig, mulberry, cherry,
apple, pear, plum, poplar cultivar
Niche ecological Ornamental liliaceae, broom,
hornbeam, bramblebush and
bramblerose, herbs, strawberries
Wilde animals
Wild boar; roe deer; fox; squirrel;
badger; woodcock; viper
m 545-490
South East
Slope range
5% - 30%
Soil formation
Pliocene Sabbie gialle
Area climate
Moist, first mesothermal, thermal
efficiency of 53.2% (formula climate:
B1 B1's b3')
Soil condition
Soil texture
Sandy-fine (FS) send clay loam (SCL)
Soil classification Typica Xerorthents and Lithic
Source: data from land survey study area.
a database on truffles diffusion on forestation plot
to say however that since October 2010
the environmental protection of this truffle
grounds ended with the sole responsibility of
the local department of Comunità Montana no
thanks to the new Federal Regional policies
with the only aim to acquire more votes
instead of promoting educational policies for
a sustainable forest management. As a matter
of fact the action of the forest administration is
not carried out aimed to protecting the forest
and conserving biodiversity. The range of this
site study represent a new forest ecosystem of
high complexity. Nocella Forestry Farm ran the
truffle grounds from October 2001 to October
2010 with its first aim to mark and define the
localization of symbiotic plants and collect a
detailed daily report of the amount of truffles
gathered. The site has been an open site: free
entrance to wild animals and ruled entrance to
hunters during the study here presented. The
site can be found on a hill west to the mountains
between the fertile valleys of the Chiani, Paglia
and Tevere rivers (Umbria - Italy).
2. Methodology
Ten hunters were selected from a call extended to 80 truffle hunters. It took a lot of experimentation with different techniques to add
substantially a new task to the normal activity
of finding truffles: the task to annotate, mark
and record. It took many meetings and different social experiences to motivate searchers to
a task that did not show immediate results and
to stimulate dialogue and cooperation. Eventually the group has established itself as a reliable group in data collection. In the formation
and management of the group were applied
the rules of group analytic technique to groups
task orientation. The task sharing in the team
of hunters and researchers introduced to connection troubles regarding language, alliance
and mirroring ambivalent feeling. The working team grew slowly with many changes. After
many difficulties the group has been working
happily and seriously with great motivation for
many years. It was not easy to solve problems
connected with putting into practice the ex-
perience of noting information during truffle
hunting. Technical demand in gathering data
and technical demand in gathering truffles are
not similar. Gathering truffles is a speedy activity lead by an excited dog. Data collecting is a
quiet thoughtful activity, truffle gathering is an
operative activity. The hunter hand and mind
have to cooperate at different speed. Defining
permanent methods to mark symbiotic plants
was not often successful. Visible marking were
difficult to have due to the weather conditions
and other natural elements. Signals lost, fallen
to the ground, were renewed and errors cannot
be excluded.
The signals required constant maintenance
and updating for predictable deterioration
or unpredictable actions of intentional
interference (some illegal disruptive hunters
eliminated cartels) or animal interference (the
squirrels gnawed the ropes of plastic signals
and made them fall, perhaps as a joke). It
was not always possible to guarantee the
maintenance of numbers assigned to symbiotic
plants and in some cases the basic data in detail
have no precise references (records in albums
as “T without number” or “?”): no relevance
to the percentage at statistical analysis of the
data in detail (Tab. 2). The recognition of
symbiotic plants and their identification on
site has been processed in stages as follows.
We started by marking the plant we can
identify by its natural exterior natural marks
suggesting the presence of truffles. Once the
presence of truffles was confirmed the plant
was labeled and numbered. The plant close to
Table 2 – Three-year period (2008-2010) total truffle
productivity and percentage corresponding to plots of
coniferous and deciduous.
PlantsTruffles Index
Deciduous 202
Coniferous 104
Not known
Source: our elaboration of primary data.
a.m. meoni et al.
the truffle findings was said to belong to that
particular symbiotic plant. From spring 2008
to autumn 2010 the daily truffle gatherings
around the labeled plants were collected and
separated in numbered bags. Unlabelled plants
with new truffle presence were marked in the
same way. At home the weight of the bags
were registered, stating the number of truffle
found, the hunter and the dogs cooperating
in the hunt. The collected data on the albums
are actually the Nocella forestry estate database
reporting the truffle daily productivity of every
symbiotic plant during 2008-2010 gathering
seasons. The data in the album have been
registered in a system creating three database
on an excel program reporting the day, the
plant number, plant species, dogs and hunter
name and the amount of truffle gathered. The
database was processed by statistical analysis
MVA and the results were then related to the
soil characteristics. The plant symbiotic from
the samples on site were transferred to the map
with the aid of aerial photography with better
accuracy than GPS counting the rows of the
system which is allowed by the arrangement
leopard spots of the different species easily seen
in aerial photography and with the help of many
landmarks (Meoni, 2011). The stations for soil
sampling from the samples on site were even
located on map by GPS coordinate. Based on
morphological conditions of the soil 6 stations
for soil sampling were chosen, casually close to
6 symbiotic plants (Fig. 1). The sampling was
carried out by taking the land from each station
at depths between -10 and -30 cm below the
surface. On each soil sample collected various
chemical analyses were preformed. In addition,
we calculated the following parameters: water
pressure (Riu) and deficit irrigation (DI). The
particle size analysis was performed for the
fraction silt and clay, with the densimeter wet,
after dispersion with sodium hexametaphosphate,
while the sand fraction was determined by
sieving. The pH was performed in water
with soil/water 1:2.5. The organic matter was
calculated indirectly by means of total organic
carbon analysis of the attack with sulfuric acid
and potassium dichromate, then multiplied by
the organic factor. The useful water reserve
ifm lxvii -
was calculated by the method of Saxton as a
function of particle size (Saxton, 1986). The
water deficit was determined for each station
using the Thornthwaite water balance of the soil
(Thornthwaite, 1957) (Tab. 3).
The statistical analysis of data (Rizzi, 1992)
was here conducted first for each year and subsequently for all the three years observed in
order to give greater consistency, stability and
statistical significance in any analysis. Most of
the phenomena observed for a single year were
confirmed on the total of three years. One exception is the year 2008, being the first year of
data collection, probably, as mentioned earlier,
still suffers from the subjectivity of the seekers in choosing methods and collection days.
A statistically non-relevant data of trees has
remained non-coded with regard to the species. This percentage is for all the three years
around 10% (2008 primarily it goes to 16%
and is much lower in the years 2009 and 2010).
The correlation coefficient Pearson ρ has been
applied to verify the existing relationship between each characteristic found in the soil and
truffles productivity (Tab. 2) at the station pedon
(Fig. 1) and between the other stations (Fig. 2).
3. Discussion
The data collection concerns the truffles actually found and not all the truffles in this woodland, because variable factors (subjective emotion of the moment and the overall situation of
the relationship and different abilities of dogs
and hunters) can’t be eliminated. The database
therefore does not represent the actual amount
of truffles of those symbiotic plants, but only
the amount of the “here and now” those people
and not “others” were able to find. The figures,
however, may be related because the actors of
the research (hunters and dogs) are the same
throughout the experiment lasting three years.
The cycle term of the experiment may be too
short (inappropriately interrupted) considering
the lifetime of the natural cycles, however, is
fairly indicative. We hope to stimulate further
research more guaranteed over time. Early results are separate aspects of a complex system
a database on truffles diffusion on forestation plot
Figure 1 – Locations for soil sampling.
Table 3 – Chemical and physical analysis of soil of the six stations layer sampled (about 20 cm, including the AB horizons and
AC horizon). Average texture (tex): franc-sandy-clayey (FSA), with a total amount of sand about 55% and clay that ranges
between 18% and 23%.
Sc Sf St L C Tex.DenpHS.O.RiuD
%%% %%Kg/dm3 %mm
12.844.056.8 24.918.3
10.844.855.6 24.819.6
10.446.456.8 20.223.0
14.041.655.6 22.322.1
17.236.453.6 26.420.0
15.238.854.0 23.622.4
FS 1.45
FS 1.44
FSA 1.42
FSA 1.43
FSA 1.43
FSA 1.42
a.m. meoni et al.
ifm lxvii -
Figure 2 – Trend percentage of clay in the soil samples and truffle productivity. It can be seen that at
higher values of the percentage of clay match the
lower values of productivity. There exists a negative
correlation (as shown on
the sign of ρ Pearson reported in the table). The
regression line drawn,
which describes the linear
model is downward sloping (variables differ).
Source: elaboration of our
primary data.
interrelated to the truffle amount collected during the summer seasons in the course of three
years (the data submitted refer only to black
truffle). The conduction of an operative team
of truffle hunters whose aim is collecting data
is quite unusual. There are no similar research
findings noted in this reference. Due to damaging of the quarries by the illegal hunters the
“where about” is a secret. The tradition is not to
say where and when truffles are found. The truffle hunt is a very complex activity having need
of people and dogs, therefore only by a directive
group activity a real census of all the symbiotic
plant in a defined area can be achieved. For at
least 3 years we collected precious information
in productivity change (Tab. 2).
The operating cycle of wild truffle hunting is damaged by the illegal hunters who use
spades instead of dogs thereby destroying the
ecosystem without knowing that truffles are
an important non-wood product strictly related to biodiversity. Professional and technical difficulties emerged while investigating and
describing biodiversity especially if the members of the team belonged to radically different
cultural backgrounds (Meoni, 2009). We tried
to test correlations with known variables such
as traditional beliefs about the influence of the
lunar cycle or soil analysis (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3),
the truffle diffusion and steady amount of the
increase of symbiotic plants (Tab. 2).
The experimental non fenced area suggests
the role of wild boar, much feared by truffle
hunters as predators, to ensure the renewal resource (Salerni, 2010). The new moon influences the maturation of the truffle (Fig. 3): a
highlight which requires a specific protocol to
be tested on the different abilities of dogs and
Figure 3 – Average production (kgs) of truffles
during moon phases in the
three years analyzed (20082010).
Source: elaboration of our
primary data.
a database on truffles diffusion on forestation plot
hunters. We recall here that the maturation of
the truffle with the release of the perfume is the
first and only reason for which the dog finds
the truffle and that the moon calendar is the
popular biological calendar. The anthropological cultural beliefs about the effects of “moon
phases” on human activities in agriculture, as
sowing, harvesting, pruning, handling or storage of products, is radical even not scientifically
proved. The popular perception of the influence of lunar phases on the maturation of the
truffle produces behavior resulting in the collection habits according to the change of the
moon mainly during the fourth period before
the new moon. The strength of magnetic attraction that the Moon exerts on the earth’s crust
it is tested, most evident in the aqueous component (tides), especially in the days of New
Moon and Full Moon. The statistical averaging
in this study confirms the traditional belief of
the influence only in the day of new moon: in
each year of the whole of three years the day of
collection corresponding to the new moon is
on average more productive than others. The
increase in average productivity during the
new moon is related to the increase of the absolute production of the entire plant (Fig. 3).
The two phenomena appeared to be positively
correlated and the increase of one corresponds
to a similar increase of the other. In this respect it should be specified that in the analysis
of data were considered the actual day of the
new moon (new moon entered the evening at
23.30) means that the actual collection day of
new moon is the following day to that of the
calendar. The production seems to be “messy”
and casual for the duration of the lunar cycle
except at the new moon. Statistical analysis of
data denies, however, the popular belief according to which the production would be also
higher throughout the last phase of the waning
moon and the first three days of new moon (socalled first quarter). The popular belief was so
strong that it was not easy to get used to collecting the truffles methodically, for scientific
reasons, regardless of the lunar cycle, because,
to save time, they would prefer to hunt, as they
are accustomed, during the waning moon and
first quarter. This statement is supported by the
fact that in 2008, the first year of data collection method, however, the collection of the full
moon day is lost.
We have also linked the numeric variables
that indicate the composition and characteristics of the soil samples pedon with the productivity of the plant in the sampling station.
The organic matter tends to be low, is somewhat more abundant in surface horizons for a
greater accumulation of leaves. The water supply is greater in station 1, because, being a colluvium, the ground is deeper and more sandy,
the other stations are almost identical and are
between 80 and 95 mm. As the water deficit
(determined by the soil water balance for each
station) is greater in the n.3 station, which is
located at a lower altitude and exposed to the
South (Fig. 1, Tab. 3), some samples station, in
one case n.6 coincides with symbiotic plants
that have begun to be productive only in recent
years. Once calculated the values of the coefficient Pearson ρ for each feature highlighted
by the sample, where this indicator had noted
the existence of a correlation not negligible,
we proceeded to the linearity tests using the
Fisher’s F statistic to see if such a linear correlation was statistically namely to test whether
the significant relationship between the two
variables was linear (Fig. 2). Since the random
sampling of the ground pedon was not in relation the productivity of the plant, but addressed to define the different characteristics
in the soil, it is clear that the issue should be
further explored with target samples to detect
differences in relation to plant symbiotic (or
quarries areas).The index of correlation (Pearson’s ρ), which varies between -1 and 1, can tell
us as a function of X, if Y varied and in what
manner if given two variables, one independent
of X (soil pH, percentage of clay, sand, organic
matter contained in the soil, bulk density, etc.)
and other dependent on Y ( truffles on the turf
from which the soil sample was taken). If this
index assumes a value of 0 means that the two
variables are unrelated and therefore vary independently of one another, when this index
was equal to 1 there would be a perfect linear
correlation between two variables that say agree
(of one increases the other also increases), then
a.m. meoni et al.
if the index takes the value -1, we are facing a
perfect negative linear correlation like for clay
in our studies (Fig. 2) This means that the variation of the variable X, Y varies in the opposite
direction (if one increases the other decreases)
and the variables are said to differ. All other
cases indicate intermediate levels of correlation,
strong or weak depending on the value of ρ is
close to 0 or -1.
3. Results
The map of symbiotic plants followed for
six years from 2004 to 2010 shows a gradual
increase in productivity that is almost doubled
from 2008 to 2010. We can’t exclude that the
increased focus on operational research program in 2008, when the collection was introduced to the retail plant by plant, has encouraged the more accurate identification of the
symbiotic plant. The data, however, agree in
ifm lxvii -
the course of three last years because there was
an increase both in the symbiotic plants number and truffles collected (Tab. 2). The map of
the quarries (Fig. 4) presents plants related to
the previous area’s traditional crop (cultivar)
suggestive of a correlation between cultivars
and “cave” (slang term that corresponds to the
concentration of plants in a symbiotic area).
The quantity harvested also varies indirectly
proportional to the number of dogs present in
the area simultaneously: note that it requires
further testing and a special ethological approach. The quantity harvested on days of new
moon is for statistical analysis (MVA) consistently higher than that collected in other phases
of the moon (Fig. 3). The chemical-physical
analysis of soil explored in the six stations
(Tab. 3) in general confirms the well-known
compatibility of the truffle with some reactions
of the soil, (Bencivenga, 2000; Bonet, 2009;
Di Massimo, 2005; Gardin, 2005; RaggiVivai, 2011) but we cannot ignore that the
Source: Meoni.A.M. poster session congress Romaforest2011.
Figure 4 – Aerial photography of “Nocella” forestry farm (detail): map showing the areas with a maximum density of truffle
quarries (marked with closed circles) and the location of the cultivars/ ecological niches joined with truffle quarries (marked
by descriptive notes).
a database on truffles diffusion on forestation plot
overall figure is seemingly contradictory because it shows more productivity of coniferous (Tab. 2) responsible for soil acidification:
surely we need additional testing on this point.
The chi-square test (χ2) was conducted to verify
any dependency between the different productivity of deciduous/coniferous trees and soil
parameters of the championship. The results
suggest more investigation on this point. The
small sample size makes it impossible to find
a relationship between the productivity of the
soil and the characteristics of tree plantation on
pedon. What we see, in the map we draw, is the
increasing number of new plant symbiotic. The
evidence of localization of the cultivar still present from former rural growing can be seen by
the map of the areas of symbiotic plants (Fig. 4)
(Meoni, 2011).
4. Conclusions and perspectives
The map drawn of the symbiotic plants have
shown evidence of new symbiosis coming out
each season, apparently not related to former
method of forestry control such as thinning,
for example, which must be considered an
external environmental threat to biodiversity.
The map we draw of the quarries also show
a progressive enlargement and confluences
of the areas of productivity which can be related to excrement or droppings of wild animals and birds, as well as the localization of
the former cultivar (Fig. 4, Tab. 1). We can
confirm that the area of study is an ecosystem
that changes and grows constantly with a collection of truffles compatible and respectful of
biodiversity (Tab. 1, Tab. 2, Fig. 4) Multivariate analysis (MVA) of the data would suggest
good reason for more investigation on soil and
partly confirms the mystic minded beliefs. The
traditional hunters’ beliefs remain an element
of truth. We must recognize that once past the
first operational difficulties of collecting data,
the complexity of the problem presented to
us results from many variable factors. When
studying the forest system in relation to truffles, our findings must be studied applying
various interdisciplinary semeiotics includ-
ing even the mythological mind of the truffles
hunters. The underground economy has influenced scientific research on truffles to satisfy
their material gain without giving insight or
support to the “real” situation. During our
trial, once the “silence” governing the collection of truffles had been broken, we were able
to collect many and varied information. The
many variables can frighten and discourage
the scientific approach, but must not be ignored for they are primary cause of life preservation. Unfortunately we verified that the
underground economy doesn’t preserves life
conservation and forest ecosystem only material gain.
Due thanks to Miss. Teresa Avenia (teresa.
[email protected]) who with enthusiasm gave
the English mother tongue touch to the report.
Sincere thanks must be given to all the
proud, qualified and motivated truffle hunters
of the cooperating team who made this
research possible: Mr. Massimo Parrini, Mr.
Franco Muccifora, Mr. Silvano Nuccioni, Mr.
Valentino Mezzoprete, Mr. Michele Serranti,
Miss. Jasmina Rubick and Miss. Anna Maria
Meoni and their own skilled friendly dogs
named Camilla, Dolly, Alice, Zago, Professore,
Briciola, Pallini, Zara, Bubi, Kingo, Betty, Passy
and my lady Elisabetta.
Una raccolta di dati sulla diffusione dei tartufi
in un impianto forestale:
il contributo alla biodiversità dall’ecosistema forestale
L’azienda forestale “Nocella” (Ficulle, Umbria, Italia)
presenta un database della produzione spontanea di tartufi
che segue l’imboschimento di terreni precedentemente
coltivati con colture tradizionali. Il contributo spiega i
punti critici e i limiti che si incontrano nell’individuazione
delle piante simbionti e dei siti di estrazione dei tartufi.
Vengono riportati alcuni dei primi risultati dell’Analisi
Multivariata (MVA) condotta sui valori di database e sulle
analisi dei suoli così come viene presentata la mappa dei
siti di estrazione del tartufo, delle cultivar e delle piante
forestali. I prodotti forestali non legnosi come il tartufo
hanno conseguenze agroforestali sulla conservazione
della biodiversità di tipo sia teorico che operativo. La
diffusione dei dati di dettaglio sulla produzione del
a.m. meoni et al.
tartufo non è cosa comune, anche se rappresenta un
obiettivo scientifico importante che permetterebbe di
completare la comprensione dell’intero ecosistema.
L’economia “sommersa” del tartufo e le convinzioni
antropologiche sono, in più, elementi di contorno
molto ostili. è importante migliorare la cooperazione
tra sociologia e scienze forestali per la gestione delle
risorse forestali, ma questo richiede maggiori sforzi. Il
silenzio connesso all’economia sommersa non aiuta a
salvaguardare il patrimonio tartuficolo che, essendo
una risorsa rinnovabile, è connesso ad un complesso e
vulnerabile ecosistema forestale. Il silenzio senza dubbio
accresce gli abusi dei raccoglitori non autorizzati che
normalmente operano in bosco. Relativamente al caso
studio, si può confermare che l’area rappresenta un
ecosistema che cambia e cresce costantemente con un
grado di raccolta dei tartufi che è compatibile e rispettoso
della biodiversità. L’analisi multivariata (MVA) dei dati
suggerisce buone ragioni per maggiori indagini sul suolo
e conferma in parte le credenze diffuse tra i raccoglitori
di tartufi.
Bencivenga M., 2000 – Risultati produttivi di tartufaie
coltivate di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. in Umbria.
Micologia Italiana, 2: 38-44.
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