heidelberg castle

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heidelberg castle
Originalveröffentlichung in: Fontes : rivista di filologia, iconografia e storia della tradizione classica 2 (1999),
Nr. 3/4, S. 97-116 u. Tafel 45-55
VIRGIL W I T H PANPIPES
OBSERVATIONS ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF AN ITALIAN PANEL
FROM THE LANCKORONSKI COLLECTION'
JERZY MIZIOLEK
Ergo a d h i b e et r e r u m successus disce tuarum:
Tityrus ut t e n u e m senior iam perflat a v e n a m
(Petrarca, Familiarium renin Htm 2 4 , 1 1 , 5 4 - 5 5 ) * *
A m o n g t h e Italian p a i n t i n g s d o n a t e d in 1994 by K a r o l i n a L a n c k o r o n s k a to t h e Royal Castle in Cracow (usually called t h e Wawel Castle)
t h e r e is a small, almost s q u a r e p a n e l (36,2x31,2 cm) d e p i c t i n g a halfl e n g t h p o r t r a i t of Virgil w e a r i n g a laurel w r e a t h (Tav. 46)'. T h e poet, of
s o m e w h a t g l o o m y c o u n t e n a n c e , is p e e r i n g to t h e left. H e is l e a n i n g o n
his right elbow, placed o n a kind of p a r a p e t o r window-sill b e a r i n g t h e
i n s c r i p t i o n «VIRGILIUS MARO», while h e h o l d s in b o t h h a n d s a syrinx,
k n o w n also as p a n p i p e s , which by Virgil is called fistula. It consists of
seven r e e d s , g r a d u a t e d in l e n g t h , j o i n e d t o g e t h e r in t h e f o r m of a r a f t
by two d i a g o n a l splints o r cords. T h e i n s t r u m e n t is r e m a r k a b l y large,
o c c u p y i n g almost half of t h e r i g h t p o r t i o n of t h e p a n e l . Besides s o m e
d i s p r o p o r t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e r i g h t h a n d of t h e p o e t a n d his body,
strangely f o l d e d sleeve of t h e left a r m a n d neck of slightly e x a g g e r a t e d
e l o n g a t i o n , t h e p o r t r a i t is not devoid of s o m e artistic traits a n d displays
a certain d e g r e e of e x p r e s s i v e power.
Like all the Italian p a i n t i n g s d o n a t e d in 1994 to t h e Wawel Castle, t h e
p o r t r a i t of Virgil also o n c e b e l o n g e d to t h e Viennese collection of C o u n t
* This paper was written during my fellowship held at The Center for Advanced Study in the
Visual Arts at the National Gallery in Washington D.C. in the early Fall of 1997. I am most grate­
ful to Roberto Cuerrini for stimulating discussions concerning literary sources of the panel in ques­
tion. Peter Martyn kindly emended my F.ngtish.
*• English trans, by Coscnza, in Petrarch 1910, p. 139: -O Vergil [...] learn of the great
success of thy works. Learn that Tityrus, though older, continues to blow upon the slen­
der reed­pipe­.
1
For this donation see Miziolek 1995, pp. 27­49; Miziolek 1996, pp. 73­84.
98
Jerzy Miziolek
Karol L a n c k o r o n s k i (1848-1933) 2 . It was first m e n t i o n e d by t h e C o u n t
himself in his lecture o n domestic p a i n t i n g s delivered in 1905 3 . H e was
of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e piece was originally a cassone p a n e l . K a r o l i n a
L a n c k o r o n s k a in h e r u n p u b l i s h e d List of Paintings Donated to the Royal
Castle in Cracow gave it to Dosso Dossi. Following t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i Col­
lection's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to Poland t h e p a i n t i n g was a t t r i b u t e d by t h e p r e ­
s e n t w r i t e r to a follower of Giulio R o m a n o 1 a n d t h e n by A n d r e a De
M a r c h i to G i o v a n n i Agostino d a Lodi r '. However, I still believe that it was
p r o d u c e d within t h e circle of Giulio R o m a n o , w h o in several scenes
d e p i c t e d , as will b e s h o w n later, a s e v e n ­ p i p e d syrinx. Besides, t h e r e
exists a certain r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i Virgil a n d t h e
p o r t r a i t s p a i n t e d by Giulio R o m a n o in t h e Camerino dei Cesari of t h e
Palazzo Te 6 . P e r h a p s t h e p a n e l in q u e s t i o n is a copy of a n original p r o ­
d u c e d by Giulio R o m a n o n o t long a f t e r his arrival in M a n t u a in 1524.
W h a t e v e r t h e a t t r i b u t i o n of t h e p o r t r a i t , which is not t h e m a i n sub­
j e c t of this p a p e r , it m u s t h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d b e f o r e 1532, w h e n its
w o o d c u t r e p r o d u c t i o n was p l a c e d in t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e of a Venetian edi­
tion of Aeneid (Tav. 45) 7 . An u n k n o w n artist p r o d u c e d a n almost exact
m i r r o r i m a g e of t h e p a i n t i n g , m a k i n g it h o w e v e r e v e n m o r e interest­
ing. H e a c h i e v e d this by m a k i n g t h e i m a g e slightly m o r e vertical a n d
t h e face m o r e g e n t l e . H e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e clearly visible t h a n in t h e
original, which is still n o t c l e a n e d a n d t h u s q u i t e d a r k , a r e t h e folds of
t h e p o e t ' s clothes a n d his b e a u t i f u l l a u r e l w r e a t h . Finally t h e s y r i n x ,
t h o u g h still big e n o u g h , is f a r m o r e suitably p r o p o r t i o n e d to t h e p o r ­
trait of Virgil, which a p p e a r s to h a v e b e e n m o d e l l e d o n a n c i e n t busts of
poets or emperors".
2
For Count Lanckoronski and the history o f his collection see Miziolek 1995. See also
his f o r t h c o m i n g book: Miziolek 2000.
3
Lanckoronski 1905, p. 2 3 (without illustration); he argues that «[...) das Pendant (und
welcher a n d e r e Dichter als Dante k o n n n t e damals auf e i n e m solchen neben Virgil gemalt
w o r d e n sein) b e f i n d e t sich im w u n d e r v o l l e n Meim incines e d l e n Freundes, d e s Grafen
Gregor Stroganoff in Rom». I have been unable to find a reproduction o f this panel as yet.
4
Miziolek 1995, p. 38, fig. 38.
5
De Marchi's o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d in 1996 in a letter to [be author of the present
paper. For this painter see H u m f r e y 1992, pp. 358-9; Ballarin 1995, pp. 194-6.
6
See Ciulw Romano 1989, p. 4 0 0 with further bibliography.
7
Prince d'Kssling 1907, fig. o n p. 77. For this edition o f Aeneid of B e r n a r d i n o dei Vitali
-tradotta in terza rima» see Kallendorf 1994, p. 24.
8
For the Renaissance fashion for busts alianlica see Lavin 1970, pp. 2 0 7 - 2 6 . See also
Fittschen 1985.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
99
W h a t is t h e message of this p i c t u r e , p r o d u c e d most p r o b a b l y foraitodiolo o r a villa rustica of a h u m a n i s t o r a lover of p o e t r y a n d m u s i c in
N o r t h e r n Italy, possibly in M a n t u a , P a d u a o r Venice? T h e most i m p o r ­
t a n t aspect of this i m a g e of Virgil, w h o t o g e t h e r with H o m e r a n d D a n t e
b e l o n g s to t h e triad of t h e most distinguished poets of all times, is t h e
fact that h e is d e p i c t e d with a s e v e n ­ p i p e d syrinx. T h e p o r t r a i t , which
d u e to this i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r s to b e a l m o s t u n i q u e in t h e a r t of t h e
Renaissance, s h o u l d b e seen first against t h e b a c k d r o p of earlier iconog­
r a p h y of Virgil.
As o p p o s e d to O v i d , w h o b e c a m e p o p u l a r only f r o m t h e 12 ,h c e n ­
t u r y o n w a r d s , Virgil was k n o w n a n d a d m i r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e
M i d d l e Ages'. Since t h e late Antiquity his t h r e e m a j o r w o r k s , Eclogues,
Georgics a n d Aeneid, w e r e r e a d , c o m m e n t e d a n d s o m e t i m e s e v e n
a d o r n e d with i l l u m i n a t i o n s of g r e a t artistic quality 1 ". D u e to t h e b e a u t y
a n d p r o f o u n d i t y of his p o e t r y , a n d p a r t i c u l a r t l y d u e t o his f o u r t h
e c l o g u e , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o s u c h a u t h o r i t i e s as L a c t a n t i u s a n d S a i n t
A u g u s t i n , a m o n g o t h e r s , s h o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r o p h e c y of
C h r i s t ' s Nativity, Virgil was seen as a sage a n d a p r o p h e t " . D a n t e , in
w h o s e Divine Comedy Virgil plays such a n i m p o r t a n t role, d e s c r i b e d h i m
as Quel savio gentil che tutto seppe (Inferno 7,3) 12 . T h e p o e t ' s g r e a t a u t h o r ­
ity is also r e f l e c t e d in t h e allegorical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of his p o e t r y to b e
f o u n d in t h e w o r k s of such w r i t e r s as Servius, M a c r o b i u s , F u l g e n t i u s
t h e M y t h o g r a p h e r , B e r n a r d Silvestris, A n g e l o Poliziano a n d C r i s t o ­
f o r o L a n d i n o 1 3 . His Eclogues, which so o f t e n r e f e r to t h e s y r i n x a n d t h e
g o d Pan (the m a t t e r to b e discussed later), p a v e d t h e way f o r t h e Arca­
d i a n m y t h , which in t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d was t a k e n u p a n d devel­
o p e d by N a l d o Naldi, L e o n e E b r e o , J a c o p o S a n n a z a r o a n d L o r e n z o il
M a g n i f i c o himself 1 4 .
9
For the f a m e of Vergil through the ages see a m o n g others Comparetti 1997; Zabughin
1921; Fagiolo 1981; Poeschl 1983; Bernard 1986.
10
B u o n o c o r e 1996, pp. 142-53, cat. nos. 1-2. A g o o d introduction to Virgil's writings
is Horsfall 1995, for Bucolics, pp. 27-62, o n their reception in the Middle Ages a n d the
Renaissance pp. 3 0 3 - 1 2 (with bibliography).
11
For the Christian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e IV e c l o g u e s e e C o u r c e l l e 1957, pp. 2 9 4 -
3 1 9 . For Virgil as sage, p h i l o s o p h e r a n d p r o p h e t : De Lubac 1972, pp. 1 3 8 5 - 4 3 3 . Fur­
ther b i b l i o g r a p h y o n Virgil a n d his i n f l u e n c e is c o n v e n i e n t l y a s s e m b l e d in Kaske 1988,
pp. 118­21.
12
S e e also De Lubac 1972; Comparetti 1997.
» S e e Patterson 1987, pp. 81­5; Kallendorf 1989, pp. 129­65.
M See H y d e 1990, pp. 97­9; Chastel 1945, pp. 61­7.
100
Jerzy Miziolek
T h e first p o r t r a i t s of t h e p o e t a p p e a r e d a l r e a d y in Antiquity 1 5 . S o m e
scholars believe t h a t t h e so-called " p r e p r o e m i o " to t h e Aeneid s t a r t i n g
with t h e w o r d s Ille ego qui ... was c o m p o s e d to c o m p l e m e n t a n effigy of
Virgil 16 . I n M a n t u a , t h e poet's native city, n o t only w e r e two statues of
Virgil e r e c t e d in t h e 13"' century, b u t coins w e r e even struck b e a r i n g his
effigy". T h e first Renaissance imago of Virgil is that by S i m o n e Martini,
d a t i n g f r o m a r o u n d 1340, a d o r n i n g t h e frontispiece of Petrarch's p r e ­
cious copy of Virgil's w o r k (with a c o m m e n t a r y by Servius), c u r r e n t l y
h o u s e d in t h e Biblioteca A m b r o s i a n a , Milan 1 ". Classically clad, a laurel­
w r e a t h e d p o e t in a state of g a i n i n g inspiration is reclining b e n e a t h a tree
with a p e n in his h a n d . Servius, t h e g r e a t a n c i e n t c o m m e n t a t o r o n Vir­
gil, is d r a w i n g aside t h e p a t t e r n e d c u r t a i n to reveal t h e poet. T h e r e a r e
t h r e e o t h e r figures p o r t r a y e d in the m i n i a t u r e ­ a soldier a n d two rus­
tics, o n e of w h o m p r u n e s a vine while t h e o t h e r milks a s h e e p . T h e y sym­
bolise respectively Aeneid, Georgics a n d Eclogues1'3. O n e of t h e two Latin
i n s c r i p t i o n s h e l d aloft by w i n g e d h a n d s r e a d s : Servius altiloqui retegens
archana Maronis I utpateant ducibus pastoribus atque colonis.
Since t h e s e c o n d half of t h e 14,h c e n t u r y i m a g e s of Virgil a r e to b e
f o u n d in t h e most a m b i t i o u s p a i n t e d cycles of uomini illustrim. S o m e of
t h e s e h a v e c o m e d o w n to t h e p r e s e n t day a n d , as in t h e case of those in
t h e studiolo of Federico d a M o n t e f e l t r o at Urbino 2 1 a n d in t h e San Brizio
c h a p e l at t h e c a t h e d r a l in O r v i e t o (Tav. 4 7 ) " , a r e q u i t e closely related to
o u r p o r t r a i t . B o t h J u s t u s of G h e n t a n d Luca Signorelli p o r t r a y e d t h e
g a r l a n d e d p o e t fixing his gaze to t h e left; h o w e v e r his a t t r i b u t e (as in t h e
15
See a m o n g others D'Ancona 1927, pp. 245-62; Nogara 1930, pp. 127-38.
16
Brandt 1928, pp. 331-5; La Penna 1985, pp. 76-91. Roberto Gucrrini kindly drew my
attention to these papers. T h e English version of "preproemio" is cited at the e n d of this paper.
17
Liebenwein 1983, pp. 109-59 w h o deals mostly with two statues (first of them is dated
ca. 1215 and the s e c o n d ca. 1227), with earlier bibliography.
18
S e e Prince d'Essling, Ivliintz 1902, pp. 12-3; Martindale 1988, pp. 191-2 and plate
XV; B u o n o c o r e 1996, no. 46, pp. 2 5 7 - 5 9 , Fig. 180, with earlier bibliography. S e e also the
f o r t h c o m i n g paper by Guerrini 2 0 0 0 , in press. Guerrini argues convincingly that o n e o f
the literary sources of this miniature was the so-called "preproemio" to the Aeneid.
19
For interesting interpretations of this miniature see Rowlands 1965, pp. 264-9; Gre­
gory 1980, pp. 33­40.
20
For Uomini Famosi in visual arts see Donato 1987, pp. 27­42, with further bibliography.
21
Cheles 1986, plate 111, and fig. 22. The portrait of Vergil is now housed in the I.ouvre.
For these recently c l e a n e d frescoes s e e a m o n g o t h e r s San Juan 1989, pp. 7 1 ­ 8 4 ;
Testa 1996, with earlier bibliography. The identification of the portraits is still the sub ject
of discussions.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
101
well-known design f o r t h e statue of Virgil by M a n t e g n a , now in t h e L o u ­
vre) 25 is n o t a musical i n s t r u m e n t b u t a b o o k . It is w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t in
t h e frescoes in O r v i e t o t h e laurel w r e a t h constitutes t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e
e l e m e n t in o t h e r depictions of Virgil r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e role of D a n t e ' s
guide 2 4 . It is n o t at all s t r a n g e since h e was t h e first a m o n g poets to r e f e r
to g a r l a n d i n g s h e p h e r d ­ p o e t s with laurel, ivy o r myrtle 2 5 . T h e e i g h t h
e c l o g u e reads: accipe iussis /carmina coepta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circum I inter victrices hederam tibi serpere lauros'16. Besides, to w h o m m o r e t h a n
Virgil, s o m e t i m e s praised o v e r H o m e r a n d D a n t e (all t h r e e poets with
laurel c r o w n s o n t h e i r h e a d s a r e p i c t u r e d t o g e t h e r in R a p h a e l ' s Parnas­
sus)'", could such a w r e a t h b e a t t r i b u t e d ?
A p a r t f r o m t h e d e p i c t i o n of Virgil in t h e Stanza della Segnatura, to
R a p h a e l is s o m e t i m e s a t t r i b u t e d a m u c h less k n o w n p o r t r a i t of Virgil,
m a d e with a pencil, which is h o u s e d in t h e Accademia, Venice 28 . As in
t h e case of t h e p a i n t i n g s by J u s t u s of G h e n t (on which it seems to b e pat­
t e r n e d ) a n d Luca Signorelli, t h e p o e t is r e p r e s e n t e d with a book in his
h a n d a n d a g a r l a n d o n his h e a d . It t o o is p r o v i d e d with a n inscription,
which leaves n o d o u b t as to t h e p o r t r a i t ' s identification. A m o n g t h e
f a m o u s cycles of p o e t s c r o w n e d with laurel w r e a t h s , it is w o r t h m e n ­
t i o n i n g h e r e that in t h e Castello di Buonconsiglio in T r e n t , t w e n t y ­ f o u r
such p o r t r a i t s p r o d u c e d by Dosso Dossi a n d his b r o t h e r Battista in
1531/32 originally a d o r n e d t h e ceiling of t h e Castello's library; only
23
Lightbown 1986, pp. 463-4, with bibliography. See also Panofsky 1972, fig. 87.
24
See Testa 1996, fig. o n p. 2 0 0 and passim. For other 16'" century representations o f
g a r l a n d e d Virgil see Tea, Mieli 1931, fig. o n p. 86.
25
O n garlanding o f poets see an excellent paper by Trapp 1990, p p . 2 2 7 - 5 5 (chapt.
111). See also Wilkins 1951, pp. 9-69. For poetic coronation could also be used ivy and myr­
tle; Petrarch's desire to be c r o w n e d with laurel was caused by important reason; the asso­
ciation otlaurea with Laura. Boccaccio suggests that Laura stands allegorically for the lau­
rel crown, see S t u r m ­ M a d d o x 1992, pp. 13­21.
26
Verg. eel. 8 , 1 1 ­ 1 3 . English trans, by Fairclough, in Virgil 1942, p. 55: .Accept the
s o n g s essayed at the bidding, and grant that about thy brows this ivy may c r e e p a m o n g
t h e victor's laurels­. For c r o w n i n g with ivy see 7,24­25 hie arguta sacra pendebit Jhtubi pniu.
I Pastores, hedrra rrescentem ornate poetam; in 10,25 a crown o f flowers is m e n t i o n e d ; for myr­
tle see 2,54 and 8,64.
27
J o n e s , Penny 1983, pp. 68­72, fig. 79 i 81. It is worth n o t i n g that in an earlier pro­
ject for Parnassus, k n o w n t h r o u g h an e n g r a v i n g by Marcantonio R a i m o n d i , o n e o f the
M u s e s (most probably Calliope, the Muse o f philosophical inspiration) holds a syrinx, see
J o n e s , Penny (as above) 1983, p. 72, fig. 81. For an interesting description o f the fresco
inc l u d i n g also identification of the poets s u r r o u n d i n g Apollo see Bellori 1645, pp. 23­6.
28
Fagiolo 1981, see section titled: Vtrgilio xurmo celebre, fig. 2.
102
Jerzy Miziolek
twelve of t h e m a r e p r e s e r v e d (Tav. 48)2<J. T h e y r e m a i n u n i d e n t i f i e d , since
they possess n o inscriptions. However, similarly to the L a n c k o r o n s k i Vir­
gil, t h e s e p o r t r a i t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a b u n d a n t laurel w r e a t h s . T h e i r
only attributes a r e t h e books, which they h o l d in t h e i r h a n d s or, alter­
natively, a r e placed in f r o n t of t h e m .
J u d g i n g f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d u p to this p o i n t , o u r effigy of
Virgil is traditional in t h e i c o n o g r a p h y of t h e p o e t with t h e e x c e p t i o n of
o n e e l e m e n t . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t is c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e s e v e n ­ p i p e d
syrinx, t h e beloved i n s t r u m e n t of s h e p h a r d s a n d Pan, t h e most f a m o u s
deity of Arcadia 3 0 . T h e syrinx ( b e a r i n g t h e n a m e of a n y m p h , who, b e i n g
p u r s u e d by Pan o n a b a n k of t h e river L a d o n , was t u r n e d into r e e d s ,
f r o m which h e c r e a t e d t h e r e e d ­ p i p e s j o i n i n g t h e m with wax) was not
a n i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t in a n c i e n t G r e e c e " . Plato in t h e t h i r d b o o k of
his Republic says t h e following: «[...] will you a d m i t m a k e r s o r players of
t h e aulas into the city? " T h e n you a r e left with the lyra (...) a n d the kithara,
as t h i n g s u s e f u l in t h e city; a n d in t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h e h e r d s m e n m i g h t
h a v e s o m e sort of syrinx"» M .
T h u s in a n c i e n t G r e e c e Paris fistula was only a musical i n s t r u m e n t
of low s t a t u s a n d c o u l d n o t s t a n d aulos, t h e o t h e r w i n d i n s t r u m e n t of
t h e G r e e k s , i n v e n t e d by A t h e n a , o r t h e kithara, a s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t
of Apollo 3 1 . D u r i n g t h e c o n t e s t b e t w e e n Apollo a n d Pan t h e k i t h a r a of
P h o e b u s easily t r i u m p h e d o v e r t h e s y r i n x of t h e g o a t ­ f o o t e d deity 3 1 .
Besides, b e f o r e Virgil t h e g o d of A r c a d i a h i m s e l f d i d not b e l o n g to t h e
29 Gibbons 1968, pp. 68-70, figs. 181-2; Ballarin 1995, p. 4 7 7 , figs. 200-5. S o m e of these
portraits depict not poets but «learned m e n of Antiquity»; they differ from the f o r m e r by
wearing turbans and not garlands.
30
Pan is m e n t i o n e d , a m o n g others, in the following eclogues: 2,31-32; 8,22; 10,27-28.
For the i c o n o g r a p h y of this deity see H e r b i g 1949. S e e also Merivale 1969; K a u f m a n n
1984, passim, for Pan and his music pp. 19-27.
31
See Barker 1989, p. 16, w h o a m o n g others says the following: «Of the other melodic
instruments used by the Greeks, the o n e most c o m m o n l y mentioned is the syrinx or 'Pan­
pipe'. It had little or n o place in serious 'art' music (i.e. in the Greek c o n t e x t , the music o f
the elaborate religious festivals and competitions), and was largely c o n f i n e d to pastoral or
'folk' setting.. Cf. Howard 1893, pp. 1­60, o n Panpipes pp. 32­5; Smith 1970, pp. 4 9 7 ­ 5 1 0 .
For the myth o f the N y m p h Syrinx see also ()v. Witt. (1,689­711). For the i c o n o g r a p h y of
this subject see Di Gioia, Fiorani 1981, pp. 171­7.
32
Plato resp. 3 9 9 d . English trans, in Barker 1989, p. 132.
33
H o w a r d 1893; Smith 1970, pp. 4 9 8 ­ 5 0 4 . S e e also Restani 1995. T h e aulos o r tibia was
usually c o m p o s e d of a pair of pipes; Virgil calls it averm (Verg. eel. 1,2). Unlike the syrinx,
the aulos was provided with finger­holes.
34
For the i c o n o g r a p h y of this myth see O n l i l i 1988, pp. 225­43.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
103
group of the most important gods. The Arcadian myth created by Vir­
gil in his Eclogues changed the status of both Pan and his beloved instru­
ment. We should not forget that the bucolic genre flourished already
in the 3rd century BC in the poetry of Theocritus, who however placed
the realm of pastoral felicity in Sicily. Virgil was the first who moved
this realm of happiness to Arcadia. Due to his imagination, this name
became synonymus of locus amoenus, the domain of poetry and tender
love. Virgil's Arcadia is ruled by Pan and peopled by herdsmen who,
like their goat­footed deity, are skilled in composing songs and playing
the syrinx or fistula™. This instrument is referred to in several eclogues
but the key­passage concerning it is to be found in the second eclogue,
which reads:
Mecum una in silvis imitabere Pana canendo.
Pan primum calamos cera coniungere plures
Instituit; Pan curat oves oviumque magistros.
Nec te paeniteat calamo trivisse labellum:
haec eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amintas?
Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis
Fistula
In the already cited eighth eclogue, where Virgil refers to «the victor's
laurels» we read in turn the following:
Maenalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentes
Semper habet; semper pastorum ille audit amores
Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertes.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus57.
35
T h e t e n t h e c l o g u e (27-28) r e a d s : «Pan c a m e , A r c a d y ' s g o d a n d we o u r s e l v e s saw h i m
[...] A r c a d i a n s only k n o w h o w to sing. O h o w softly t h e n w o u l d m y b o n e s r e p o s e , if in o t h e r
d a y s y o u r p i p e s s h o u l d tell m y love». T r a n s , by H . R. F a i r c l o u g h , in Virgil 1942, p . 73. For
t h e m y t h of A r c a d y see F r e e d m a n 1989. F u r t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g this m y t h a r e
q u o t e d in n o t e s 4 3 a n d 59.
S6
Verg. eel. 2,31-36. English t r a n s , by H . R. F a i r c l o u g h , in Virgil 1942, p . 13: . W i t h m e
in t h e w o o d s y o u shall rival Pan in s o n g . Pan it was w h o first t h o u g h t m a n t o m a k e m a n y
r e e d s o n e with wax; Pan c a r e s f o r t h e s h e e p a n d t h e s h e p h e r d s of t h e s h e e p . N o r w o u l d
you b e s o r r y to h a v e c h a f e d y o u r lip with a r e e d ; to l e a r n this s a m e art, w h a t d i d n o t A m y n tas d o ? I h a v e a p i p e f o r m e d of seven u n e v e n h e m l o c k - s t a l k s (...)».
" Verg. eel. 8 , 2 2 - 2 5 . English t r a n s , by H. R. F a i r c l o u g h , in Virgil 1942, p . 57: . M a e ­
n a l u s h a t h e v e r t u n e f u l g r o v e s a n d s p e a k i n g p i n e s ; e v e r d o e s h e listen to s h e p h e r d s ' loves
a n d t o Pan, w h o first a w o k e t h e idle r e e d s . Begin with m e , m y f l u t e , a s o n g of M a e n a l u s ­ .
S e e also 8,22­25; 3,26; 5,2 i 48; 7,24; 10, 35.
104
Jerzy Miziolek
T h i s vision of Arcadia, with M a e n a l u s , t h e favorite m o u n t a i n of Pan,
with t h e h e r d s m e n singing a n d playing syrinx, b e c a m e o n e of t h e topoi
of E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e . Even d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages t h e Eclogues w e r e
always k n o w n a n d v e n e r a t e d . T h e i r poetic ideas fascinated p o e t s a n d
scholars f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e Renaissance p a v i n g t h e way f o r t h e
r e b i r t h of p a s t o r a l p o e t r y in Italy a n d later in o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n ­
tries 38 . I n t h e light of Virgil's verses cited above, t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i p o r ­
trait of t h e p o e t s h o u l d b e seen not only as a k i n d of eulogy of t h e r e a l m
of pastoral felicity in which p o e t r y a n d music b e c o m e t h e essence of life,
b u t also a kind of allegory of bucolic poetry as a g e n r e . In o r d e r to u n d e r ­
s t a n d this R e n a i s s a n c e p o r t r a i t of Virgil m o r e fully we s h o u l d discuss
s o m e texts of Medieval a n d Renaissance m y t h o g r a p h e r s , as well as texts
of c o m m e n t a t o r s of eclogues. However, given t h e fact of the g r e a t i m p o r ­
t a n c e of t h e syrinx in this i m a g e , which like t h e o n e m e n t i o n e d in the
s e c o n d e c l o g u e is c o m p o s e d of seven r e e d s o r pipes, it is necessary to
d e a l first with t h e i c o n o g r a p h y of this i n s t r u m e n t .
I n Antiquity t h e s y r i n x was n o t always c o m p o s e d of seven p i p e s
(reeds); in fact t h e r e is archeological e v i d e n c e for every n u m b e r of tubes
f r o m f o u r to twelve, even if the seven­tube i n s t r u m e n t was the m o r e com­
mon 3 9 . It too has n o t always h a d a raft­like s h a p e since it could also h a v e
t h e f o r m of a bundle 4 ". I n G r e e c e t h e syrinx was c o m p o s e d of r e e d s of
t h e s a m e size s t o p p e d with wax at t h e l e n g t h d e s i r e d for t h e given note.
I n Italy t h e s a m e effect was achieved by c u t t i n g t h e p i p e s into succes­
sively s h o r t e r lengths. T h e earliest e x t a n t E u r o p e a n p a n p i p e s possess­
i n g this s h a p e a p p e a r e d o n b r o n z e u r n s f r o m t h e Hallstatt c u l t u r e of
N o r t h e r n Italy, d a t i n g f r o m 500 B C " . At times the syrinx was m a d e of
tubes of two d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s " . O n R o m a n s a r c o p h a g i this i n s t r u m e n t
is usually c o m p o s e d of p i p e s cut into successively s h o r t e r lengths, like
t h a t in t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i p a n e l " .
I n s o m e l a t e ­ m e d i e v a l m i n i a t u r e s , as f o r e x a m p l e t h o s e a d o r n i n g
S8
S e e C u r t i u s 1990, pp. 190-3; Wittkower 1978, pp. 161-73.
39
S e e S m i t h , 1970, pp. 4 9 8 - 5 0 1 . A syrinx d a t i n g f r o m the 16"'century p r e s e r v e d in
the Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m , V i e n n a , is c o m p o s e d o f 2 0 tuhes, s e e S c h l o s s e r 1920,
p. 9 5 , no. 2 7 5 .
40
See Herbig 1949, lig. 10, plates X V I , 2, X X I I , 1, X X X I I I , 1-2.
«1 Kleischhauer 1964, pp. 22-3, no. 1.
42
43
Bober, Rubinstein 1986, fig. 74.
See Fleischhauer 1964, pp. 78-9, no. 41; Herbig 1949, fig. 14; Koch, Sichtermann
1982, figs. 2 4 7 , 2 4 8 , 4 5 9 .
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
105
Ovide moralise (housed in the Vatican Library), the syrinx has the form of
a fan (Tav. 49)". This mistaken shape offistula was apparently caused by
the lack of knowledge of the iconography of Pan by medieval artists.
Among drawings illustrating the Libellus de imaginibus deorum of ca. 1420
(being a medieval handbook of mythology), the syrinx looks like a bun­
dle of reeds 4 '. No more than twenty years later an archeologically cor­
rect, seven­piped instrument of Pan appeared on the Vatican bronze
door by Antonio Averlino (known as Filarete, Tav. 50)46. It hangs on a
tree above the seated god of Arcadia. One can be sure that Filarete, who
was so much interested in classical art, based his depiction of panpipes
on a model from Antiquity.
With the increasingly great interest in both the poetry of Virgil and
commentaries on it in 15 ,h ­century Italy (only in the 1470s seven edi­
tions of Servius' commentary were printed), accompanied by the rebirth
of pastoral literature, the syrinx, usually of quite large size, and com­
posed of seven tubes, came to be represented very often. Beautiful
examples are to be found in Filippino Lippi's paintings: in a fresco in
the Strozzi chapel, in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence,
depicting Parthenke, (Tav. 51) and in a panel with the Allegory of Music,
housed in the Gemaldegalerie, Berlin47. The syrinx in the Strozzi chapel
is so big for the little musician that Parthenice must help him to hold it.
This instrument is of course the most important attribute of Pan (at times
of Marsyas too) in several images of the late 15,h century and the begin­
ning of the next century. Excellent cases in point are Signorelli's Concerts
of Pan (or The School of Pan) ­ a lost Sienese fresco, known through a
preparatory drawing kept in the British Library, and the famous panel
produced for Lorenzo il Magnifico, destroyed during the Second World
War in Berlin4". Very interesting examples are also provided by Tribolo's
44
B u o n o c o r e 1996, p. 293, fig. 235. However, in the MS. o f Hraban Maurus' De Uni­
verse, f r o m 1022 ca., h o u s e d in the Abbazia di Montecassino, the s h a p e o f syrinx is arche­
ologically correct, see C h a n c e 1994, p. 382, fig. 22.
« C o d . Vat. Reg. 1290, fol. 3r; see I.icbeschiitz 1926, p. 120, plate X X . For further
medieval depictions o f Pan with syrinx s e e H i m n i e l m a n n 1986, Plates 6, 2 a n d 6, 3.
46
N i l g e n 1988. fig. o n p. 371.
47
T h e Berlin panel is r e p r o d u c e d and discussed by Panofsky 1972, pp. 203­4, fig. 150;
H a m a n n 1909, figs. 5 2 ­ 5 3 . For the fresco see Berti, Baldini 1991, fig. o n p. 2 7 7 .
48
T h e literature o n the Sienese fresco (and its preparatory drawing) and particularly
o n the Berlin Concert of Pan is h u g e , the most important publications are cited by Seidel
1984. pp. 181­256, n o t e 3 0 o n p. 189. See also H e r b i g 1952, pp. 3­23; Agosti 1982, pp.
70­7. An interesting representation of Pan with the s e v e n ­ p i p e d syrinx is to be f o u n d in
106
Jerzy Miziolek
p r o j e c t of t h e statue of Pan for t h e Medici Villa in Castello 49 a n d Titian's
canvas d e p i c t i n g t h e Punishment of Marsyas in Kromeriz 5 0 . T h e s a m e sub­
j e c t was p r o d u c e d in a f r e s c o by a f o l l o w e r of Giulio R o m a n o in t h e
Palazzo Torelli, n o w in t h e M u s e o di Castelvecchio, Verona 5 1 . I n Tri­
bolo's d r a w i n g , Pan's syrinx is very large, a n d it s h o u l d r a t h e r b e t r e a t e d
as a symbol a n d n o t a n i n s t r u m e n t to p r o d u c e music. Particularly inter­
esting f o r this r e s e a r c h is a n e n g r a v i n g of Giulio R o m a n o with Pan Play­
ing the Syrinx (Tav. 52) 52 . T h e g a r l a n d e d deity, w h o lost h e r e his a n i m a l
f e a t u r e s (his legs a r e h u m a n a n d n o t those of a goat), is g a i n i n g inspi­
r a t i o n f r o m a n y m p h , o r Venus herself, w h i s p e r i n g in his ear. At first
glance t h e viewer m a y observe t h a t t h e syrinx in this p a i n t i n g is almost
identical with t h e o n e d e p i c t e d in t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i p a n e l . It is i m p o r ­
t a n t to n o t e t h a t this i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r s in several o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n s
by Giulio R o m a n o p r o d u c e d f o r t h e Palazzo Te; s o m e of t h e m a r e
k n o w n t h r o u g h copies m a d e by his pupils. T h u s , t h a n k s to a d r a w i n g
by J a c o p o S t r a d a , c u r r e n t l y h o u s e d in t h e O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e National Bib­
liothek in V i e n n a , we k n o w his composition d e p i c t i n g t h e Contest between
Apollo and Marsyas, in which, curiously e n o u g h , b o t h musicians a r e p o r ­
t r a y e d with a syrinx 5 1 . In t u r n t h r o u g h a d r a w i n g by Ippolito Andreasi
( h o u se d in the K u n s t m u s e u m , Diisseldorf, Tav. 53) we know the c o m p o ­
sition of a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t stucco f r o m t h e Loggia delle Muse d e p i c t i n g
Apollo, Pegasus and HippocreneM. T h i s time Apollo is h o l d i n g the i n s t r u m e n t
o n his s h o u l d e r f r o m which the waters of H i p p o c r e n e issue. Since nearby
a portrait of Virgil was also r e p r e s e n t e d it may be d e d u c e d that this p a r t
of the Palazzo Te must have been devoted to the Muses a n d to Virgil. Thus,
Dosso Dossi's a Mythological Scene in the J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , Lot Angeles, see Giammili
1998, pp. 8 3 - 1 1 1 , figs. 1-3.
49
For this d r a w i n g dated from ca. 1540 see Gox-Rearick 1982, pp. 167-210, particu­
larly p. 198, fig. 27, with earlier bibliography.
50
See Gentili 1988, pp. 2 2 5 ­ 4 3 , figs. 114­20 with bibliography; the book also repro­
d u c e s and discusses the (anions drawing by Giulio R o m a n o with the same snli]ec I kepi in
the L o u v r e (see (lentili 1988, p. 229, fig. 115). See also Konccny in T o g n e r 1998, pp. 410­
21, no. 4 4 2 , with bibliography.
51
Giulio Romano 1989, p. 4 5 3 , with illustration.
52
Zlatohlavek 1997, p. 181, no. 103 (Inv. no. R. 5 2 753). S e e also Massari 1993, p. 123,
no. 125. For o t h e r representations of this g o d with his favorite instrument sec Staid 1990,
pp. 6 9 ­ 1 1 3 .
53
J a n s e n 1989, p. 3 6 7 , fig. 10. Most probably the original c (imposition u.is exec ulecl
in the Gamera degli Stucchi.
M
Giulio Rom/mo 1989, p. 339.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
107
for Giulio Romano the syrinx became the instrument par excellence and
linked even with Apollo himself.
At this stage it is necessary to refer briefly to the late-Antique com­
mentary on Virgil's Eclogues by Servius. His passage of some length deal­
ing with Pan in a number of ways was taken up by Sannazaro, Leone
Ebreo, as well as by mythographers such as Vincenzo Cartari and Cesare
Ripa (Tav. 54), a m o n g others". Servius says the following:
Nam Pan deus est rusticus in naturae similitudinem formatus, unde et Pan
dictus est, id est omne: habet enim cornua in radiorum solis et cornuum
lunae similitudinem; rubet eius facies ad aetheris imitationem; in pectore
nebridem habet stellatam ad stellarum imaginem; pars eius inferior hispida
est propter arbores, virgulta, feras; caprinos pedes habet ut ostendat terrae soliditatem; fistulam septem calamorum habet propter harmoniam
caeli, in qua septem soni sunt56.
Thus, in this text the deity of Arcadia, which played a marginal role
in Greek religion, became a symbol of the Universe, and his fistula came
to stand for heavenly harmony. Similar ideas occured in Macrobius, in
the previously mentioned Libellus de imaginibus deorum", and in Boccac­
cio, w h o in his Genealogia deorum gentilium put together all the previously
expressed thoughts on Pan and the syrinx. O n e of the passages in the
Genealogia reads:
Is ante alia frond habet infixa cornua in celum tendentia, barbam prolixam
et in pectus pendulam, et loco pallii pellem distinctam maculis, quam nebri­
dem vocavere prisci, sic et manu virgam atque septem calamorum fistu­
lam. Preterea inferioribus membris yrsutum atque hyspidum dicit, et pedes
habere capreos et, ut addit Virgilius, purpuream faciem [...]. Per virgam
autein inlin e regimen intelligendum reor, quo omnia et potissime ratione
carentia reguntur, et in determinatum finem in suis operibus etiam dedu­
cuntur. Fistulam vero ad armoniam celestem designandam illi apposuere 58 .
M Cartari 1996, pp. 116­30; Ripa 1603, p. 331.
56
Scrv. ad. eel. 2,31. English trans, is cited after Cox­Rearick 1982, p. 196: «Pan is a rus­
tic god. formed like nature. He is called Pan, which means everything. He has horns like
the rays of the sun and like the horns of the m<x>n. His face is ruddy in imitation of air. On
his breast he has a fawnskin in the likeness of stars. His lower part is hairy because of the
trees, shrubs, and wild beasts. He has goat's feet to demonstrate the solidity of the earth.
He has a pipe of seven reeds because of the harmony of the heavens, of w hich there are
seven tones*.
57
Macr.sa/. 1,22,2­7.
M
Boccaccio, gen. 1,4.
108
Jerzy Miziolek
T h e texts by b o t h Servius a n d Boccaccio e x p l a i n at t h e s a m e time p e r ­
fectly well t h e s h a p e of Pan's h o r n s as well as t h e motif of stars o n his
breast d e p i c t e d in t h e m i n i a t u r e f r o m t h e Ovide moralise (Tav. 49).
A k i n d of praeparatio for t h e creation a n d t h e n for t h e f a m e of J a c o p o
S a n n a z a r o ' s Arcadia (written ca. 1480 a n d p u b l i s h e d only in 1502), a n d
t h e Dialoghi d'amore by L e o n e E b r e o (written ca. 1500 a n d first p u b l i s h e d
in 1535) was t h e u n u s u a l flourishing of bucolic p o e t r y in Florence r u l e d
by L o r e n z o il Magnifico M . Beautiful c o m m e n t a r i e s o n Virgil's Georgks a n d
Bucolics w e r e p r o d u c e d by Angelo Poliziano. I n t u r n , N a l d o Naldi in his
several eclogues c o m p a r e d L o r e n z o il Magnifico with t h e deity of Arca­
dia 60 . L o r e n z o i n d e e d loved greatly t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , a n d u s e d to s p e n d
long p e r i o d s in his villas in the vicinity of Florence (some of t h e m a d o r n e d
with Arcadian subjects); besides, h e himself was a gifted p o e t w h o com­
p o s e d interesting pastoral poetry" 1 . In his Altercazione h e says:
Sanza esser suto da altro nume scorto,
modulato ho con la zampogna tenera
il verso, col favor che Pan ne ha porto;
Pan, quale ogni pastore onora e venera,
il cui nome in Arcadia si celebra,
che impera a quel che si corrompe e genera62.
T h e zampogna or syrinx played by Pan, to w h o m «every s h e p h e r d pays
d e v o u t h o m a g e , w h o s e n a m e is f a m o u s in Arcadia», b e c a m e in a way a
symbol of a n ideal world filled with p o e t r y a n d music. In t h e e p i l o g u e
to t h e Arcadia of S a n n a z a r o titled To his zampogna, d e a l i n g beautifully with
P a n p i p e s a n d poetry, Pan is d e s c r i b e d n o t only as t h e i n v e n t o r of this
i n s t r u m e n t a n d as t h e g o d of h e r d s m e n b u t also as t h e most c u l t u r e d
y o u t h (coltissimo giovene)'™. Vasari in his Raggionammti, b e i n g a detailed
59
See a m o n g others Maisak 1981, pp. 52-71; Patterson 1987, pp. 62-92; Dezzi Bardeschi, in Dezzi Bardeschi et aL 1985, pp. 19-30.
60
See for e x a m p l e Naldi Naldii eel. 10 (Micon), in Naldi 1974, pp. 52-5. See also CoxRearick 1982, note 102.
61
Chastel 1945, pp. 61-7; C o x Rearick 1982, p. 196. For illustrated manuscripts con­
taining Lorenzo's poetry (some of them depic t h e r d s m e n playing a syrinx), see l.enzuni
1992, pp. 26­7.
62
63
L o r e n z o de' Medici Altercazione 4,1­6, in L o r e n z o de' Medici 1913, p. 53.
English trans, by Nash, in Sannazaro 1966, p. 153 reads: «So m u c h the m o r e that he
w h o c o m p o s e d you of these reeds, w h e n h e c a m e into Arcadia, c a m e there not as a rustic
s h e p h e r d but as a most cultured youth, a l t h o u g h u n k n o w n and a pilgrim of Love». For
Italian version see Sannazaro, Arcadia (A la Sampogna 16­18), in Sannazaro 1961, p. 131.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
109
description o f the painted decoration of n u m e r o u s r o o m s o f the Palazzo
Vecchio, recalls b o t h the m y t h o f Syrinx a n d t h e m u s i c o f Pan, w h i c h
b r i n g s t o F l o r e n c e dolcissima armonia ( s w e e t h a r m o y ) 6 4 . T h u s , t h e r e is
n o t h i n g s t r a n g e in t h e fact t h a t t h e s e v e n - p i p e d s y r i n x s h o u l d a p p e a r i n
t h e c e n t r e o f t h e M a r t e l l i Mirror, d a t i n g f r o m ca. 1 5 0 0 ( h o u s e d i n t h e
Victoria a n d Albert Museum)65, a n d a m o n g illustrations a d o r n i n g both
V i n c e n z o C a r t a r i ' s Le imagini delli dei de gl'antichi a n d R i p a ' s Iconologia
(Tav. 55) M .. T h e t r u e k e y t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i p o r ­
trait o f Virgil w i t h his l a r g e s e v e n ­ p i p e d s y r i n x a r e t h e Dialoghi d'Amore
(The Dialogs of Love)61. I n this l o n g p o e m Virgil's v i s i o n o f t h e r e a l m o f
Pan, t h e m y t h o f Syrinx, late­Antique a n d early­Renaissance interpreta­
t i o n s o f p a n p i p e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l way. O n e o f t h e
p a s s a g e s o f t h e Dialoghi d'Amore r e a d s :
Oltre il senso historiale d'uno Silvano d'Arcadia il quale e s s e n d o innamo­
rato si diede alia musica, et fu inventore della fistula con gli sette calami
congiunti insieme con cera, n o n e dubbio che ha u n o altro senso alto, et
allegorico, cioe che Pan, che in Greco vuol dire tutto, e la natura univer­
sale ordinatrice di tutte le cose m o n d a n e (...) di sopra habbiamo detto della
musica, et melodia celeste. Questi sono i calami delle canne del fiume, ne
quali fu convertita Siringa, ne quali calami lo spirito genera soave suono,
et harmonia, perche il spirito intellettuale, che m u o v e i cieli, causa la sua
consonante correspondentia musicale. De quali calami Pan fece la fistula,
con sette di loro, che vuol significare la congregatione delli orbi de sette
pianeti, et le sue mirabili concordantie harmoniali, et per questo d i c o n o
che Pan porta la verga, et la fistula con la quale sempre suona, perche la
natura di c o n t i n u o si serve dell'ordinata mutatione de sette pianeti per le
mutationi continue del m o n d o inferiore 6 *.
64
Vasari, Raggtormmento terzo: Sala della dea OfH, in Vasari 1906, pp. 53-4.
65
Maclagan 1924, p. 11; Winternitz 1979, pp. 205-6, plate 89a.
66
Cieri Via 1996, pp. 296-7 and 302-3.
67
Robb 1935, pp. 176-7. See also Ariani 1984.
68
Leone Ebreo 1535, II, cc. 66r-67r. English trans, by Friedeberg-Seeley and Barnes,
in Leone Ebreo 1937, pp. 130-2: «Apart from the historic sense: that a rustic of Arca­
dia, having fallen in love, devoted himself to music and invented the pipe of seven reeds
joined with wax, it is certain that [the story] contains another, elevated and allegoric,
meaning, to wit: that Pan, which in Greek signifies 'all', represents universal Nature,
who governs all things in the world. (...) Heaven is indeed not free from continuous
instability in respect of its perpetual locomotion: howbeit this instability is regular and
eternal ­ a stainless maiden ­ and its deviations are [redeemed] by a regular and har­
monious concord (the music or melody of heaven, about which we spoke earlier). This
[explains] the reeds of the river grass into which Syrinx was changed. In these reeds
110
Jerzy Miziolek
In the context of this quotation, let us mention the fact that in North­
ern Italian art (in Venice, Mantua and elsewhere) of the earlier half of
the Cinquecento, musical contests with syrinx became enormously pop­
ular. Apart f r o m the already discussed paintings by Titian, Giulio
R o m a n o and his followers, o n e may mention Lorenzo Costa's Comos (in
the Louvre) 69 , an e n g r a v i n g by B e n e d e t t o Montagna™, and a woodcut
in the Italian edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses in volgare of 1497". Usu­
ally the winner in them, as in the myths, is Apollo playing his kithara
or lira da braccio. T h e Lanckoronski portrait of Virgil is not an illustra­
tion of a myth, but an allegorical imago of garlanded poet, the author
of Eclogues w h o presents his vision of Arcadia and whose verses like the
fistula of Pan, possess the valour of the music of the Universe and har­
mony. Besides, the poet can be seen here as Tityros, the h e r o of the
first e c l o g u e w h o is also recalled by Petrarch in his Letter to Virgil from
which derives the motto of this paper". T h e bucolic character of the
image was not an obstacle in putting its woodcut version into the Venet­
ian edition of the Aeneid from 1532 (Tav. 46). T h e placing of this por­
trait in the book would be e v e n more appropriate if it included the so­
called "preproemio" which has the following lines: Ille ego, qui quondam
gracili modulatus avena I carmen, et egressus silvis vicina coegi / ut quamvis
avido parerent arva colono, / gratum opus agricolis; at nunc horrentia Martisn. T h e s e o p e n i n g words are to be f o u n d , a m o n g others, in Petrarch's
t h e spirit p r o d u c e d a s w e e t s o u n d a n d h a r m o n y , b e c a u s e t h e intelligent spirits w h i c h
m o v e the h e a v e n s c a u s e this c o n c o r d a n t musical h a r m o n y . O f t h o s e r e e d s Pan took
s e v e n to f o r m t h e p i p e , a n d this refers to t h e c h o i r o f t h e s p h e r e s o f t h e s e v e n p l a n e t s
a n d t h e i r w o n d e r f u l m e l o d i o u s h a r m o n y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e n P a n is s a i d t o c a r r y t h e
rod a n d the p i p e s which h e ever plays; b e c a u s e N a t u r e ever m a k e s use of the regular
m o t i o n s o f the s e v e n p l a n e t s to p r o d u c e the c h a n g e s o f the l o w e r world». For the i m p o r ­
t a n c e o f this b o o k in V e n i c e s e e Gentili 1988, pp. 124­5.
69
Verheyen 1971, pp. 46­9, plates 33­4.
70
W i n t e r n i t z 1 9 5 9 , f i g . 8 ; G e n t i l i 1 9 8 8 , fig. 6 5 .
71
G e n t i l i 1 9 8 8 , fig. 6 3 .
72
See Caviglia 1990, pp. 196­201.
73
V e r g . Aen. l'-l4 (Preproemium). F . n g l i s h t r a n s , b y H . R . F a i r c l o u g h , i n V i r g i l 1 9 4 2 , p .
2 4 1 : «I a m h e w h o o n c e t u n e d m y s o n g o n .i s l c n d c i r e e d , t h e n , l e a v i n g t h e w o o d l a n d ,
c o n s t r a i n e d t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g fields to s e r v e t h e h u s b a n d m e n , h o w e v e r g r a s p i n g a work
w e l c o m e to f a r m e r s : b u t n o w o f Mars' bristling". S o m e s c h o l a r s a r e o f the o p i n i o n thai
t h e s e o p e n i n g l i n e s w e r e p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n by Virgil in a n e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f t h e c o m p o s i ­
t i o n , b u t r e j e c t e d b y h i s l i t e r a r y e x e c u t o r s , s e e Introduction in V e r g i l 1 9 4 2 , p . X I , cfr. L a
P e n n a 1 9 8 5 , p p . 7 6 ­ 9 1 . It is d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e w h e t h e r P e t r a r c h b y s a y i n g aveim ( s l e n ­
d e r r e e d ) m e a n t a s y r i n x o r a tibia.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
111
c o p y of Virgil's works, a d o r n e d with t h e b e a u t i f u l m i n i a t u r e by S i m o n e
Ma r t i n i , which h o w e v e r lacks t h e syrinx.
I n conclusion, it is w o r t h noting, t h a t a p a r t t h e fact that r e p r e s e n t a ­
tions of Virgil with Panpipes a r e so r a r e , t h e L a n c k o r o n s k i p a n e l belongs
to a q u i t e n u m e r o u s g r o u p of Renaissance d e p i c t i o n s of p o e t s a n d
h u m a n i s t s p o r t r a y e d with a musical i n s t r u m e n t . P e r h a p s o n e of t h e best
k n o w n is the portrait of a n unidentified y o u n g poet with flute in his h a n d s
a n d laurel c r o w n o n his h e a d , h o u s e d in the Museo Civico, P a d u a ; it is
d a t e d f r o m the first q u a r t e r of t h e 16lh c e n t u r y a n d usually a t t r i b u t e d to
L o r e n z o Luzzo 74 . In the same time were r e p r o d u c e d in two books p r i n t e d
in N o r t h e r n Italy (in 1501 a n d 1511 respectively) portraits of two m e n of
letters; o n e of t h e m r e p r e s e n t s a p o e t seated u n d e r a tree, t h e o t h e r a
h u m a n i s t in his studiolo (Tav. 55) 75 . Both a r e g a r l a n d e d a n d a b s o r b e d in
writing, while their musical instruments (lire da braccio) h a n g at their sides.
'•> BaOarin, Bonzato 1991, pp. 137-8, no. 63, with earlier bibliography.
75
Winternitz 1979, pp. 97-8, figs. 15 i 16. For the importance of music for the Renais­
sance Society see Lowinsky 1968, pp. 337­81.
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Abstract
The present paper deeds with a panel painted, mast pmlxibly by a follower nj (initio Romano, m the
third decade of the 16th century for a library or a s t u d i o l o . The dale a n t e quoR for us execution is
the Venetian edition of Virgil's A e n e i d printed in 1532, which is adorned with a woodcut version of
the panel. The key objects for an interpretation of this painting are tlie seven-piped \ynnx or panpipes
held by the poet and a laurel wreath on his head. Hath refer to bucolic poetry and the myth of Arca­
dia. The sound of Panpipes was regarded by Semtus, Boccaccio, Sannaz/iro ami Leone Khreo as the
music of the spheres which brings harmony to the world.
II presente articolo ngimrda un dipmto eseguiio probabilmente da un seguace dt (indio Rovuino nel
terzo decennio del Cinquecento per una biblioteca o uno studiolo. I.a data a n t e q u e r n per la sua esecuuone e I'edizwne venezmna dW/'Eneide stampata nel 1532, nella tpude si trova I'incMcme dalla
tavola in esame. (Hi attnbuti per identijicare tl soggetto del dipmto sono la siringa con sette canne
lenuta in memo ded poeta e la corona d'alloro sulla sua testa; entrambt alludono alia poesui biuolica
e al mito di Arcadia. II sutmo delta smnga fu mterpretala da Servto, Hoccaccw, Sannazaro e Leone
Ebreo come la mmica delle sfere che ptrrta armonia al mmulo.
jerzy Miziolek
r
If
Si
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AS
V.
Si
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VIRGILIVS>MARO
• W W
l a v . 4 5 . Virgiliti con /« siringn, f i o n t i - s p i / i o ( I r H Y d i / i o n r
v c n e z i a n a (Ifll'/'.'nc/Wc, l k i n a i d i n o (lei V i l a l i , 1 5 3 2 .
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
%•
V I R G I LI V S
N't
n
Tav 4 6 S e e u a c e di Giulio Romano, Virgilio t on la siringa.
C i a o n i a . Castt-llo Rcali' (Gastello di Wavvel).
ferzy Miziolek
{ff m
i.
' l a v . 4 7 . L u c a S i g n o i c l l i , Hilmttndi Virgilto.
O t v i c i o , C a i u d r a k . C a p p c l l a cli S a n B r i / i o .
I 'irgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
Jerzy Miziolek
am
I 43
'it
m
I it-'
7
4
5
WJ
lav. 49. Pan \unna la siring!. niinialuia ih-U'Ovnle moralise.
Cilia del Valkano, Uibliotcta Vaticana.
lav. 50. l ilarcli-. Pan (pan.). Cilia de l Valuano,
BwHica di s. Pietro, porta bronzea.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
V.
ft
4
t
PARTIWN-ICL-
lav ri 1. l i l i p p i n o I.ippi. I'arlhenice con ihic putti mimicanti ( p a r t i c o l a r c ) .
F i i r n / e , S. Maria Novella, C a p p e l l a Strozzi.
Jerzy Miziolek
mr\ i
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El
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Tav. 52.
Giulio
Romano, /•„„
'HM (7/c siuDid la striHga, una nin/ti nl mi hullo,
IVa^a, (iallrria Na/ionalc.
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
Jerzy Miziolek
DI C E S A R E R I P A
JJ!
M 0 71 D 0.
Ctme dip'mto dal Boccaccio nel primo libra detla Centologta delll
Dei, con le quattro Jue Tarti.
3
2
i
s
IT.
rf
Si A i m o f t r a a n c o p e r l a v e r g a r i t o r r a 1' a n n o , il q u a l fi r i t o r c c in fe (leflb.
n e l l a l t r a m a n o t i c n e la fiftula dellc fetcc c a n n e , p c r c h c fu Pan il p r i m o ,
chc t r o u a f l e il m o d o di c o m p o r r c piu c a n n e i n f i c m c c o n c c r a , & il p r i m o
d i e l a f o n a f f e a n c o r a , c o m e d i c e V i r g i l i o n e l l ' e g l o g a i.
Si r a p p r e f e n r a d a l m e z o in giii in f o r m a di c a p r a p e l o f o , & i f p i d o , m t c n d c n d o f i p e r c i o la t e r r a , la q u a l c d u r a , a f p r a , & t u t t a d i f u g u a l c , c o p e r t a d'arbori d'infinitc p i a n t e , & di m o l c ' h e r b e .
Tav
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Pan c me
nn•
" "'"''»/» ileirVniverso (Mondo).
I'.'H.t prim., <di/u>nc dell;, lamnhgia di (:< s.n<•
Ri, Ripa, Roma, KiO.'i.
.csiiic
Virgil with panpipes. Observations on the iconography
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Tav. 55. Un umanista con la lira da braccio.
Da Q u i n t i a n u s Stoa, De Syllabarum quantitate, 1511.

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