Atmospheric physics (Fisica dell`atmosfera)

Transcript

Atmospheric physics (Fisica dell`atmosfera)
Programmes
Atmospheric physics (Fisica dell’atmosfera)
Statics and thermodynamics. Vertical structure of the atmosphere. Forces in the atmosphere in
equilibrium. Hydrostatic equation. Dry atmosphere state equation. Moist atmosphere state equation.
Conventional temperatures and their meaning. Barometric equation of isothermal and general
atmosphere. Scale variables. Coordinate transformations. Hygrometric fundamental variables. First
thermodynamics principle for non-saturated processes. First thermodynamics principle for saturated
processes. Adiabatic non-saturated and saturated transformations. Poisson equation. Potential
temperature. Equilibrium atmospheric conditions: particle method and layer method. Lapse rates.
Wet-bulb temperature and psychrometers. Dew-point temperature. Pseudo-adiabatic processes and
pseudo-potential temperature.
Dynamics and waves. Apparent forces in the rotating Earth. Polar coordinates. Scale analysis of
motion equations in polar coordinates. Motion equations at synoptic scale. Geostrophic equilibrium.
Mass conservation equation in Eulerian and Lagrangian form. Thermodynamic energy conservation
equation. Vorticity. Lagrangian and Eulerian description of atmospheric processes.
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics (Fisica dello strato limite)
The atmopheric boundary layer. Turbulence and statistical properties. Governing equations for the
turbulent flow. Prognostic equations for the turbulent flow. Prognostic equations for the turbulent
departures. Prognostic equations for the turbulent fluxes. Prognostic equations for the turbulent
variaces. Turbulent kinetic energy equation. Stability indeces. Main schemes of turbulence closure.
The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Non-dimensional functions in the boundary layer. Drag
coefficients. Aerodynamic resistances.
Fluid dynamics (dinamica dei fluidi)
Motion equations in fluids. Energy equations in fluids. Vorticity dynamics. Frictional effects. Oceanic
circulation driver by wind. Thermohaline circulation. Large scale wave motion, in the shallow water
approximation: rotation and layering effects. Small scale wave motion. Formation of waves. Nonlinear interactions. Dissipation.
Clouds and Precipitation Physics (Fisica delle nubi e delle precipitazioni)
The water in the atmosphere. The Clausius – Clapeyron equation. Stability and convection. “Warm”
and “cold” clouds. The nucleation process. Microstructure of the clouds. Aerosol physics. The
removal: physical mechanisms. Hydrodynamics of precipitatine elements. Diffusion of cloud droplets.
Evaporation of cloud droplets. The precipitation. Growth and aggregation of crystals. Relations with
the electric terrestrial field. Electrical and optical features of the clouds and precipitations. Artificial
stimulation of cloud and rainfall.
Synoptic meteorology (meteorologia sinottica)
Historic background of meteorology. Variables and instrumentation for measurements in meteorology
at the surface. Meteorological codes. High level measurements. Coordinate systems. Meteorological
maps. Analysis of mean sea level pressure field on surface synoptic maps. Localization of
atmospheric fronts. Thermodynamic variables and their representation on the maps. Thermodynamic
conditions of the fog creating. Clouds and precipitations. The atmospheric fronts classification. Slope of
a front. The peculiarities of baric field and pressure tendency field in fronts area. The characteristics
and peculiarities of simple and composite fronts. The frontogenesis and the frontolysis. The cyclones
and anticyclones in temperate geographic zones and their types. Cyclogenesis and anticyclogenesis.
Characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones in various phases of development. The orography
influence upon fronts. The general atmospheric circulation. Local phenomena: the breezes. The
thunderstorms. The foehn.
Dynamic meteorology (meteorologia dinamica)
Summary of governing equations. The vorticity equation. The quasi-geostrophic approximation. The
tendency equation. The omega equation. The ageostrophic wind. The altitude change of geostrophic
wind in the various oriented thermobaric field. The time changes of temperature and air pressure in
the dependence on direction change geostrophic wind by altitude. The thunderstorm splitting.
Micrometeorology (micrometeorologia)
Land surface processes in the surface atmospheric layer. The radiative balance. The surface energy
balance. The thermal balance. The hydrological balance. The soil moisture. The vegetation layer. The
urban canopy layer. Generalità sugli anemometri sonici: tipologie e loro utilizzo. Instruments for
turbulence measurements in the surface layer. The sonic anemometer: operation and theory. Sonic
temperature and sonic heat flux. How to deduce the turbulent heat fluxes with a sonic anemometer.
The gravity waves in the troposphere and the microbarometers.
Alpine meteorology (meteorologia alpina)
The alpine environment and its climatic factors: breezes, wind circulation, exposition and radiation.
Climatology of Alps and mountain environments. Evolution of the climate in the time. Evolution of
the glaciers. Climate and climatic risks (floods, avalanches). Climate and tourism (summer and
winter). The snow: energy balance of snowpack, evolution of snowpack. Historical variations of
glaciers and their measurements. Theoretical approach of viscous flow of ice.
Hydrometeorology (idrometeorologia)
Definizioni di bacino idrografico, bilancio idrologico e proprietà idrauliche dei suoli.
Strumenti di misura ed elaborazione dei dati idrologici con particolare attenzione alle misure di
contenuto idrico e carico idraulico nel suolo.
Trasformazione afflussi-deflussi e parametri morfometrici dei bacini idrografici.
Scale spaziali e temporali nel sistema idrologico suolo-pianta-atmosfera : esempi relativi al Piemonte.
Tropical meteorology (meteorologia tropicale)
Biometeorology and Bioclimatology (biometeorologia e bioclimatologia)
Agrometeorology and Agroclimatology (agrometeorologia ed agroclimatologia)
Satellite, Radar and Remote Sensing Observations of Meteorological Phenomena (osservazioni
con satelliti e radar dei fenomeni atmosferici)
Operational use of the main remote sensing instruments. The Lidar. The Sodar. The Radar. The
RASS. Multifunction instruments to reveal and characterize the atmospheric precipitations
(disdrometers). Meteorological satellites and weather radars. Physical principles of meteorological
phenomena observation by satellites and radars. Outputs from meteorological satellites and weather
radars. Interpretation of radar and satellite observations.
Air-Sea Interactions (interazioni aria-mare)
The Meteorological Organization (l’organizzazione meteorologica)
Atmospheric Chemistry (chimica dell’atmosfera)
Origin of the terrestrial atmosphere and its actual chemical composition. Vertical distribution of the
photoreactive species. Ozone and stratosphere chemistry. Spatial and temporal variability of
tropospheric composition and causes. Meteorological dispersion, local winds, urban dispersion,
vertical gradient dispersion, thermal inversion, residence times. Reactive species and their formation.
Chemical reactivity in troposphere. Urban emission. Vehicular emissions. Aerosol, primary and
secondary sources. Effects on atmospheric properties (visibility, albedo). Acid rain, photochemical
smog. Chemical kinetic. Concepts of receptor and source, definition of atmospheric pollution.
Concepts of toxicology and related measures (Ames test, cancerogenity). Laboratories on analyses
techniques of relevant compounds for atmospheric pollution: 1) sampling and measurement of
GC/MS of VOC; 2) measurement of NOx and ozone for absorption and UV-Vis spectroscopy; 3)
sampling of particulate, extraction, GC/MS analysis of adsorbed compounds in scan and SIM; 4)
sampling of carbonilic compounds for absorption and HPLC measurements.
Pollutants Transport and Diffusion Processes in the Atmosphere (trasporto di inquinanti e
processi di diffusione in atmosfera)
Generalities about atmospheric pollution. Instruments to measure the atmospheric dust, aerosols and
other pollutants. Fundamental concepts of diffusion processes in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Passive tracer dispersion. Approaches to study the diffusion processes. Simulation of the diffusion
processes. Models to determine the turbulent parameters. Linking between diffusion models and
mesoscale models. Examples of applications.
Numerical Modelling in Meteorology and Climatology (modelli numerici in meteorologia)
Numerical integration of standard differential equations with finite differences method. Numerical
schemes and their characteristics: order, accuracy, stability. Explicit, implicit, mixed and 2 or 3 levels
schemes. Forward, backward, trapezoidal and leapfrog schemes applied to the equation for a body
cooling. Numerical integration of diffusion equation and of linear advection equation. A simplified
prognostic model based on barotropic vorticity equation. Meteorological models. Predictability.
Statistical Methods and Analyses in Meteorology and Climatology (metodi statistici ed analisi in
meteorologia e climatologia)
Subject of the statistics, elementary terms, statistical analysis stages and technique of climatological
data processing, frequency distribution characteristics (moments, quantile, central values, variability
measures, skewness, kurtosis), theoretical distributions, selection methods in climatology, term and
problems of selection exploration, estimation theory, statistical hypothesis testing, variance analysis.
Regression analysis, non-linear regression, multiple correlation and regression. Neural networks.
Experimental data analysis. Statistical analysis. Spectral analysis. Representation in frequence of
discrete signals: DTFT e DFT. Power spectrum of a random signal and its estimate with the
periodogram. Numeric filtering: selective filters FIR in frequence: project and applications. Hilbert
discrete trasform and Hilbert filters. Analysis in complex principal components to reveal the
propagation of wave disturbances in spatial and temporal fields.
General and Regional Climatology (climatologia regionale e generale)
Earth’s global climate system, climate forming factors and processes and their interactions. Sources
utilized in climatology. Radiative and circulation climate forming factors. Climatic patterns for
selected climatic elements. Climate and its peculiarities in the individual Earth’s regions. Dynamic
climatology. Climatic classifications. Climate characteristics according to principal types of climatic
classifications. Climate changes and variability. Anthropogenic impacts on climate. Climate
modeling. Climatic scenarios for the 21st century. Climate change impacts.
Climate of Europe (clima dell’Europa)
Central European climate sub-system, climate forming factors and processes and their interactions.
Climatic patterns for selected climatic elements. Climate and its peculiarities in the individual Central
European regions. Dynamic climatology. Climatic classifications for Central Europe. Climate and
mesoclimate of the atmospheric boundary layer and aeroclimatology. Climatic normals and
characteristics of selected Central European cities and in Slovakia at changing climate forming
conditions.
Climate Physics (fisica del clima)
Paleoclimatology (paleoclimatologia)
Theory of Climatic Changes (teoria dei cambiamenti climatici)
Applied Climatology (climatologia applicata)

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