Untitled - INAF-OABO
Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna
Annual Report 2008
Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna
Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, ITALY
Tel.: +39-051-2095701 ; Fax: +39-051-2095700
Cover: Mosaic colour image of the globular cluster NGC5466, from a
series of deep r, B, and V band images obtained with the LBC camera
at the LBT telescope (from Beccari et al. 2009). The zoomed region
magnifies the exquisite resolution reached by the observations.
The Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna is one of the nineteen research structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics
(INAF), operating under the supervision of the Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). The Ministry provides most
of the financial resources which make our activity possible.
This Report gives an overview of our scientific research, covering
a wide range of astrophysical topics, as well as operational and educational activities. OAB astronomers are mostly involved in:
• studies of stellar populations and galactic evolution and their
• studies of the structure, evolution and distribution of galaxies,
clusters and AGNs, and their contribution to the cosmological
• numerical studies in the field of gas hydrodynamics and turbulence simulations;
• management and upgrading of the two telescopes in Loiano (152
and 60 cm) and development of astronomical instruments in the
framework of national and international programs.
• outreach and educational initiatives, through exhibitions, lectures and workshops.
Most of these studies are based on an intensive use of the most
advanced ground-based and space instruments available today at all
wavelengths. They are carried out in collaboration with many international and national institutes and, locally, with the Università
di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia and with two other research
structures of INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia and Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-Bologna. A large fraction of the
staff is involved in international long-term projects, at the forefront of
This report was edited by Alberto Buzzoni, Alberto Cappi, Antonio De Blasi, Annibale D’Ercole, Emiliano Diolaiti, Silvia Galleti,
Monica Marra, Roberto Merighi, Francesco Poppi, Giovanna Stirpe,
and Valentina Zitelli.
Flavio Fusi Pecci
Osservatorio Astronomico di
• Director: Flavio Fusi Pecci
• Deputy Director: Monica Tosi
• Scientific Staff: Bardelli, Sandro; Bedogni, Roberto; Bellazzini,
Michele; Bolzonella, Micol; Bragaglia, Angela; Buzzoni, Alberto;
Cacciari, Carla; Cappi, Alberto; Carretta, Eugenio; Ciliegi, Paolo;
Clementini, Gisella; Comastri, Andrea; D’ Ercole, Annibale; De
Ruiter, Hans Rudolf; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Ettori, Stefano; Federici, Luciana; Finelli, Fabio; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Gilli, Roberto;
Gruppioni, Carlotta; Londrillo, Pasquale; Meneghetti, Massimo;
Merighi, Roberto; Mignoli, Marco; Montegriffo, Paolo; Origlia,
Livia; Pancino, Elena; Parmeggiani, Gianluigi (retired, July 1);
Pozzetti, Lucia; Stanghellini, Letizia; Stirpe, Giovanna Maria;
Tosi, Monica; Zamorani, Giovanni; Zitelli, Valentina; Zucca,
• Computer Centre: Di Luca, Roberto; Gatti, Michele; Lolli, Marco;
• Laboratory: Bregoli, Giovanni; Innocenti, Giancarlo (retired,
• Logistic Support: Ravaglia, Maurizio
• Loiano Staff: Bernabei, Stefano; Bruni, Ivan; De Blasi, Antonio;
Gualandi, Roberto; Muzi, Ivo
• Administration: Abicca, Renata; Caddeo, Sandra; Diodato, Olga;
Orlandi, Marco; Piccioni, Annalia; Polastri, Tiziana; Venturini,
• Library: Marra, Monica
• Reception: Caputo, Silvana; Iuso, Annalisa
PhD, fellows and contracts:
• PhD grants funded by INAF–OAB: Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo;
Coppa, Graziano; Lombardi, Gianluca; Lombini, Matteo; Lusso,
Elisabeta; Macario, Giulia; Maruccia, Ylenia; Perina, Sibilla.
• PhD students with OAB supervisors: Bellagamba, Fabio; Correnti, Matteo; Dalessandro, Emanuele; De Boni, Cristiano; Donnarumma, Annamaria; Fabbri, Sara; Guido, Vincenzo; Morandi,
Andrea; Moresco, Michele; Moretti, Maria Ida; Morgan, John;
Paci, Francesco; Schiavon, Francesca; Schreiber, Laura; Verma,
• Post-grad: Altavilla, Giuseppe; Bellocchi, Enrica; Galleti, Silvia;
Poppi, Francesco; Ragaini, Silvia; Rossetti, Emanuel.
• Post-doc: Cignoni, Michele; Gitti, Myriam; Iwasawa, Kazushi;
Ranalli, Piero; Romano, Donatella; Vergani, Daniela.
• Contracts: Ciattaglia, Sante Costantino.
• Collaborations: Braccesi, Alessandro; Innocenti, Giancarlo; Parmeggiani, Gianluigi; Sancisi, Renzo.
1 Stars and Stellar Populations
1.1 The Galaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1 A census of the Galaxy with GAIA . . . . . . .
1.1.2 Open clusters as tracers of the evolution of the
abundance gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.3 The structure of the Galactic halo . . . . . . . .
1.1.4 The accreted component of the Galactic Halo:
The Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal and other large
structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.5 Chemical evolution models . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Globular Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 Observational tests of theoretical stellar models
1.2.2 The Blue Straggler Star Population in Globular
Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Metal abundance and elemental (anti)-correlation
in Halo Globular Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 Mass loss in RGB stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.5 Clusters and field stars in the Galactic bulge:
infrared view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.6 ω Centauri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.7 The Globular Cluster System of the Andromeda
galaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Nearby Galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 The Magellanic Clouds: field and cluster populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.2 Super Star Clusters in nearby star forming galaxies
1.3.3 Star formation histories and evolution of resolved
galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Pulsating variable stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 The infrared JHK light curves of RR Lyr . . . .
1.4.2 Variable stars in the remote Galactic globular
cluster NGC 2419 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.3 Variable stars in nearby galaxies . . . . . . . .
1.4.4 Variable stars in the Andromeda galaxy . . . .
2 Extragalactic Astronomy and
Structure and evolution of galaxies . . . . . . . . . . .
Active galactic nuclei and star-forming
galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Optical studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 X-ray studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Surveys and observational cosmology . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 The VIMOS/VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) . . . .
2.3.2 The VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey
(VIPERS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 The GMASS redshift survey . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 The Herschel guaranteed time extragalactic survey: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) . . . . .
2.3.5 Multiwavelength studies of IR and X-ray selected
AGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.6 The Ultra deep XMM and Chandra surveys in
the CDFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.7 The COSMOS project . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.8 Radio surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.9 The EUCLID project . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.10 The SAFARI instrument for the ESA/JAXA
joint mission SPICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.11 Future X-ray missions: WFXT and IXO . . . .
2.4 Galaxy clusters and large-scale structure . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Mass Reconstruction in Galaxy Clusters . . . .
2.4.2 Strong lensing by galaxy clusters and arc statistics
2.4.3 The MUSIC project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4 Galaxy clusters in the CFHTLS . . . . . . . . .
2.4.5 A search for Relics and Halos in the redshift
range z = 0.2–0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.6 Properties of cooling cores in X-ray galaxy clusters
2.4.7 Metal abundance of the Intracluster Medium . .
2.4.8 X-ray properties of high-redshift galaxy clusters
4 Instruments and Technology
4.1 The GAIA project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.2 GIANO: an ultra-stable IR spectrometer for TNG . . . 87
4.3 Site testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
LINC-NIRVANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LBT Infrared Test Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAORY: an adaptive optics module for E-ELT . . . .
SIMPLE: a high resolution IR spectrograph for E-ELT
5 Loiano Observing Site
5.1 Operations and use of the 152 cm telescope . . . . . .
5.2 Loiano computer station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Applications to the 152cm telescope . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Loiano cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Scientific production involving
the 152 cm Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 International refereed publications . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Published conference proceeding and circulars
6 Computer Centre and Computer
6.1 General Description . . . . . . .
6.2 Computer centre improvements
6.3 Web applications . . . . . . . .
6.4 Routine activities . . . . . . . .
8 Outreach and Educational Activities
8.1 Outreach Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.1.1 Col Favore del Buio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.1.2 Il giorno del Sole — 8 June . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8.1.3 BoSky 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8.1.4 Guida al cielo con il laser nella Città dello Zecchino128
8.1.5 La Scienza in Piazza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
8.1.6 Tunguska 1908: un asteroide colpisce la Terra
— 23–24 October . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
8.1.7 Federico Delpino. Astronomo, Informatico, Amico — 27 November . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
8.1.8 Venus occultation — 1 December . . . . . . . . 130
8.2 Educational Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
8.2.1 Il Big Bang e la Cosmologia della Divina Commedia — XVIII Science Week, 6 March . . . . . 130
Il destino dell’Universo — IX Astronomy Week,
13 May . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 Giampietro Puppi Prize . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 The Planetarium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.5 Parco delle Stelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.6 Conferenze alla Specola . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Educational and Public Outreach . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 e-articles and web pages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 List of Publications
10 Observing Campaigns
11 National and International
memberships & policy committees
12 Organization of Workshops
13 Seminars and Visiting Astronomers
14 “Laurea” thesis
15 PhD theses
16 Post-Doctoral, Post-Laurea fellowships and Contracts226
Stars and Stellar Populations
The effect of the SFH on the theoretical CMD of a hypothetical galactic region with (m-M)0 = 19, E(B-V) = 0.08, and with the photometric errors and incompleteness typical of HST/WFPC2 photometry (see Sect. 1.3.3). All the shown synthetic CMDs contain 50000
stars and are based on the Padova models (Fagotto et al. 1994a,b)
with the labelled metallicities. Top-central panel: the case of a SFR
constant from 13 Gyr ago to the present epoch. Top-left panel: the
effect of adding a burst 10 times stronger in the last 20 Myr to the
constant SFR. The CMD has a much brighter and thicker blue plume.
Top-right panel: same constant SFR as in the first case, but with a
quiescence interval between 3 and 2 Gyrs ago; a gap appears in the
CMD region corresponding to stars 2–3 Gyr old, which are completely
missing. Bottom-central panel: SF activity only between 13 and 10
Gyr ago with Z = 0.004. Bottom-right panel: SF activity only between
13 and 10 Gyr ago with Z = 0.0004: notice how colour and luminosity
of turnoff, subgiant and red giant branches differ from the previous
case. Bottom-left panel: SF activity between 13 and 11 Gyr ago, followed by a second episode of activity between 5 and 4 Gyr ago: a gap
separates the two populations in the CMD, but less evident than in
the top-right panel case, when the quiescent interval was more recent.
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, A. Buzzoni, C. Cacciari, E. Carretta, G. Clementini, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci, P.
Montegriffo, L. Origlia, E. Pancino, G. Parmeggiani, M. Tosi;
• Technical staff: M. Lolli;
• Fellows and contracts: G. Altavilla, M. Cignoni, R. Contreras,
M. Correnti, S. Galleti, S. Perina, S. Ragaini, D. Romano, E.
The study of stellar populations and stellar systems is a very active research field at the OAB since its foundation. The interests range from
the evolution of galaxies to Galactic and extragalactic star clusters,
from chemical evolution to variable stars, covering the whole range of
The present description of the activity in the year 2008 has been
organized, as usual, in a few main Sections to provide a very general
overview: 1. The Galaxy, 2. Globular clusters, 3. Nearby Galaxies, 4.
Pulsating Variable stars.
A census of the Galaxy with GAIA
People involved at OAB: Altavilla, Bellazzini, Bragaglia, Cacciari,
Clementini, Montegriffo, Pancino, Ragaini
The Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT) is a
programme to bring together relevant scientific expertise by promoting
topical workshops, training events, exchange visits, conferences and so
forth with the aim of addressing the major scientific issues that the
Gaia satellite will impact upon (see http://camd08.ast.cam.ac.uk/Greatwiki, and Fig. 1). In this context, the OAB personnel
mentioned above is involved in several working groups to develop
and coordinate the scientific activities across Europe, in particular in
the following areas: WGA2: Census of Supporting Surveys; WGA3:
Chemical Tagging; WGA4: Local Group, Dwarf Spheroidals and Tidal
Streams; WGA5: Alerts; WGA7: New Statistical Techniques; WGA8:
Distance Scales (with leading role of OAB); WGB1: Gaia science on
Figure 1: The sky between RA =
0–90 deg and DEC = +10 to +20
deg is mapped showing stellar
distances and uncertainties from
ground-based parallaxes (top left
panel, from van Altena et al
1995), from the Hipparcos Catalogue (top right panel) and from
simulated stellar distances and
uncertainties expected from Gaia
(bottom panel). The Hyades cluster can be recognized top right in
each panel. The Gaia simulation
is limited to stars down to apparent mag 15.
Open Clusters and Young Associations. In addition there is involvement from UniBO personnel (L. Ciotti, C. Nipoti) in the WGA1: The
Gaia - Model interface.
Technical details on the Gaia mission and on the involvement of
OAB personnel in the fields of absolute photometric calibration and of
variable stars are given in the “Instruments and Technology” Section.
Open clusters as tracers of the evolution of the abundance gradients
People involved at OAB: Bragaglia, Carretta, Cignoni, Pancino, Tosi
Open clusters are very useful tracers of the properties of the Galactic
disk; in the context of the BOCCE project (the Bologna Open Cluster
Chemical Evolution project) Bragaglia and Tosi proceeded with the
analysis of photometric data. We studied the old, anticentre cluster
Tombaugh 2, possibly associated with the Canis Major overdensity
(in collaboration with Andreuzzi, TNG and Marconi, ESO; a paper is
We obtained [email protected] data for three more open clusters (King
8, Berkeley 23, and Berkeley 31) in September 2008, determining their
age, distance, metallicity, and radial distribution, in collaboration with
G. Beccari (ESTEC) and a paper is in preparation (see Fig. 2).
Bragaglia, Carretta and Tosi completed and published the analysis of FLAMES/UVES spectra of a sample of 10 open clusters, and
of the Li abundance in Berkeley 32 in collaboration with Randich,
Sestito, and others (Bragaglia et al. 2008; Sestito et al. 2008; Randich
et al. 2009). We also continued with the acquisition of [email protected]
spectra of clusters in the framework of the BOCCE project and in
collaboration with Gratton (OA-Pd).
Bragaglia and Carretta submitted in 2008 a proposal to observe
giant stars in NGC6791 with [email protected] (Kitt Peak), in collaboration with Sneden (Univ. Austin), Gratton and Lucatello (OA-Pd). We
intend to derive the Na and O abundances to see whether the Na-O
anticorrelation is really seen exclusively in globular clusters. Spectra
were aquired in June 2009 and analysis in under way (see Fig. 3).
The web page http://www.bo.astro.it/~angela/bocce.html displays all the OCs in our sample already studied, with the relative
bibliography; the photometry tables can be downloaded from there.
This research is in collaboration with Gratton, Lucatello (INAF5
Figure 2: The Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of the three anticentre open
clusters Be 23, Be 31, and King 8, obtained with [email protected] In the right
panels only the central regions for
each of them is plotted, with the bestfit isochrones.
Padova Obs.), Marconi (ESO, Chile), Andreuzzi (INAF-Roma Obs.,
TNG), Beccari (ESTEC, NL), Randich, Sestito (INAF-Arcetri Obs.),
Sneden (Univ. Texas, USA).
We have also collected several high-resolution spectra of open clusters using [email protected] m and [email protected] Three red clump
stars have been observed in each of the following clusters, spanning a
range of metallicities and ages, some of which have never been studied
before with high resolution spectroscopy: Cr 110, M 67, NGC 2099,
NGC 2420, NGC 7789, Trumpler 5, Berkeley 39, M 11, NGC 2141,
Berkeley 32, NGC 752 plus the Hyades and Praesepe. All spectra are
of a suitable quality (R ∼ 30000 and S/N ∼ 100 per pixel) to derive accurate abundances of iron peak elements, α-elements, heavy s-process
elements and light elements. The data reduction is now complete and
the first paper of the series has been recently submitted (Pancino et al.
Figure 3: Spectral synthesis for Na i lines in the high-metallicity ([Fe/H] =
+0.45) open cluster NGC 6791 observed with [email protected]; as a comparison, we also show the same for Arcturus ([Fe/H] = −0.5)
2009). Moreover, the detailed abundance analysis of the second group
of clusters is presently under way (Carrera et al., in preparation).
This research is in collaboration with C. Gallart and R. Carrera
(IAC Tenerife, Spain) and R. Zinn (Yale University, USA)
The structure of the Galactic halo
People involved at OAB: Bragaglia, Cacciari
RR Lyrae (RRL) variables and blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars are
good tracers of the old stellar population in the Galactic halo. Samples
of these stars reaching as far as 10–12 kpc have been observed in a few
directions, e.g. towards the North Galactic Pole, the South Galactic
Pole and the Anticentre. The photometric data, radial velocities and
proper motions allow us to derive the space motion vectors UVW,
and hence map the structure of the halo stellar population. As a
continuation of the study performed at the NGP, we are doing a similar
analysis of the RRL and BHB stars at the Anticentre. Preliminary
results indicate the presence of sub-structure, retrograde rotation and
down-streaming motion by BHB stars (typical of old halo population),
as opposed to the NGP where this type of kinematics was shown by
Oosterhoff-I RRL stars (typical of younger halo population). These
results have been presented at the meeting The Milky Way and the
Local Group – Now and in the Gaia Era, Heidelberg, August 31 –
September 4, 2009. A paper is in preparation.
This work is in collaboration with A. Spagna and R. Smart (INAFOA Torino) and T.D. Kinman (NOAO)
The accreted component of the Galactic Halo:
The Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal and other large
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Correnti.
There is now a growing body of observational evidence in favour of
an inhomogeneous halo, where the traces of the slow building up by
hierarchical merging of sub-units should be still observable (Bell et
al. 2007). The Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (Sgr dSph; Ibata
et al. 1994) is the most evident and striking example of a real time
accretion event occurring in the Galactic Halo. The main body of Sgr
dSph orbits well within the Galactic spheroid (RGC ' 16 kpc) and
shows clear signs of being disrupted by the Galactic tidal field. Thus,
the Sgr dSph is (and has been) one of the major contributors to the
stellar content of the whole Galactic Halo.
Our research on the Sagittarius galaxy and its Stream is continuously ongoing with a constant production of new published results (Monaco et al. 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005a,b, 2007; Bellazzini et al.
1999a,b, 2003a,b, 2006a,b; Correnti et al. 2007). A high-resolution
spectroscopy survey of stars in the various branches of the Sgr Stream
is also ongoing and is providing the first interesting results (Monaco
et al. 2007).
A huge kinematical study of the nucleus of Sgr and of the giant
cluster M54 that resides in the nucleus itself, including the analysis
of the radial velocity for 1152 stars observed with VLT-FLAMES and
Keck-DEIMOS, as well as a suite of N-body simulations has been
concluded, and a paper has been published (Bellazzini et al. 2008;
see Fig. 4). The results presented in this paper open a new window
on the process of galaxy nucleation. A follow-up search for a central
Figure 4: Velocity dispersion profile of M54 stars. The upper panel shows
the Vr distribution as a function of distance from the cluster centre for individual stars of M54. Only stars plotted as dots encircled by open pentagons
are retained for the computation of σ in the various radial bins: small dots
alone are stars rejected only because they are “local” 3σ outliers of the
bins, crosses are stars that would have been rejected also as 3σ outliers of
the whole Sgr,N + M54 sample (the global ±3σ range is enclosed by the
long-dashed lines). The vertical lines display the adopted independent bins,
of variable size. The global mean is marked by the continuous horizontal
thick line. The lower panel displays the actual Velocity dispersion profile.
The large filled pentagons are the dispersions estimated in the corresponding bins displayed in the upper panel, with their bootstrapped errors. The
number of stars per bin is also reported below the points. The small filled
pentagons are the estimates in the additional, partially overlapping, bins.
The open pentagon is the estimate of σ at the centre of M54, obtained
by Illingworth (1976) from integrated spectroscopy. From Bellazzini et al.
intermediate mass Black Hole is ongoing.
M. Correnti, within his PhD project, is using SDSS data to take
accurate measures of the northern branch of the Sgr tidal Stream.
Preliminary results of this study were presented in Correnti et al.
Figure 5: Adaptive density map of the Bootes III dwarf galaxy using Red
Clump stars as tracers, following Correnti et al. (2009).
(2007, 2008). During this project we serendipitously re-discovered the
stellar system Bootes III (see Fig. 5), showing that it hosts also a Red
Clump population (Correnti et al. 2009). The system has been later
spectroscopically confirmed to be a real ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal
galaxy (Carlin et al. 2009).
An extension to the analysis of the whole CMa/Monoceros system,
using Main Sequence stars as tracers, is in progress and is expected to
provide clear indications on the actual nature of this huge substructure
in the outer Galactic Disc (Conn et al. 2007, 2008).
This research is in collaboration with F. Ferraro (Univ. of Bologna), L. Monaco (ESO, Chile), R. Ibata (Obs. Strasbourg, France),
N. Martin (MPI, Germany), M. Irwin (Cambridge, UK), D. Mackey
(Edinburgh Univ., UK), and S. Chapman (Caltech, USA). Matteo
Correnti’s PhD project is focussed on the study of galactic relics, including Sgr. This research was partly supported by INAF-PRIN05
grant n. CRA 1.06.08.02 (PI: M. Bellazzini).
Chemical evolution models
People involved at OAB: Romano, Tosi.
Models of Galactic chemical evolution can nowadays reproduce the
vast majority of the observed characteristics of our Galaxy. Yet, there
are a number of open questions which require further studies. In 2008,
to better understand the evolution of the Galaxy, we have started a
new project, in collaboration with Luca Ciotti (Astr. Dept., Univ.
of Bologna), to combine our detailed chemical evolution code with a
more appropriate treatment of star and gas dynamics. The difficulty
of this combined approach resides in the very different timescales of
the chemical and dynamical processes, and requires a careful tuning of
the numerical procedure. Once completed, the code will be applied to
the disk of the Milky Way, for which a wealth of observational data are
available to constrain the models. The impact of this new approach on
the predictions for the evolution of the metallicity gradient is likely to
be fundamental. We are proceeding towards a complete and accurate
comparison of the various stellar nucleosynthesis yields available in
literature and their capability (or lack thereof) of reproducing all the
major observed chemical properties of Galactic objects. Particular
attention is being payed to the evolution of Galactic open clusters.
We have also studied the chemical evolution of ω Cen, assuming it
to be both a real globular cluster and the fossil nucleus of an accreted
galaxy (see Sect. 1.2.6).
These studies are in collaboration with F. Matteucci (Trieste Univ.),
L. Ciotti (Bologna Univ.), V. Hill (Nice Obs., France), C. Charbonnel
(Geneva Univ., CH).
Observational tests of theoretical stellar models
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Cacciari, Fusi Pecci, Origlia, Pancino.
Stellar evolutionary models are often used to derive relevant properties of globular star clusters (GCs) and galaxies, such as their age and
metal content. The Luminosity Function of the stellar sequences in
the CMDs, from the Main Sequence Turn-Off (MS-TO) up to the termination of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), has been recognized
as the most powerful tool for testing stellar evolutionary models (with
particular regard to the accuracy of the input physics, the reliability
of canonical assumptions, etc.).
A fully fruitful test requires that the observations be a) complete, b)
statistically significant, and c) accurate and adequate for each specific
evolutionary sequence. Point (a) means that virtually all of the stars
in a given area of the cluster are measured down to a given magnitude
level, and that reliable corrections for incompleteness can be applied
below that level. Point (b) means that observations should cover most
of the cluster extension. Point (c) requires infrared observations to
measure the cool Red Giant Branch (RGB) stars and UV observations
to properly study the blue sequences such as the Horizontal Branch
and the Blue Stragglers.
This research is in collaboration with Beccari (ESTEC, NL)
The Blue Straggler Star Population in Globular Clusters
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Fusi Pecci
It is now generally accepted that Blue Straggler Stars (BSS) are more
massive than the normal MS stars, and are the result of mass transfer
between binary companions (MT-BSS), possibly up to the coalescence
of the binary system, or merger of two single or binary stars driven by
stellar collisions (COL-BSS).
To finally unveil their nature and their formation mechanisms, we
are using several different and complementary approaches, including
high-resolution and multi-wavelength photometric observations, deep
high-resolution spectroscopy, and Monte-Carlo dynamical simulations.
We performed high-resolution and wide-field photometry in the
ultraviolet and optical bands to study the radial distribution of BSS
within their host globular clusters (GCs). While normal cluster populations (such as red giant and horizontal branch stars) do not show
any spatial segregation, the radial distribution of BSS was found to
be bimodal (i.e., highly peaked in the centre, decreasing at intermediate radii, and rising again outward) in several GCs (such as M3,
47 Tucanae, NGC 6752, M5, M55). Suitable dynamical simulations
were used to show that such a bimodality can be explained only if
a sizable fraction (≥ 20–40%) of the cluster BSS population is made
of MT-BSS, responsible for the external rising branch of the distribution, with the balance being COL-BSS, mainly contributing to the
central peak. This suggests that both formation channels are simultaneously at work in GCs. Once a larger sample of GCs will have
been studied with such an approach, the detailed comparison between
the BSS population properties, and the cluster structural and dynamical characteristics will allow us to shed light on the complex interplay
between stellar evolution and dynamical processes in dense stellar systems (Lanzoni et al. 2007a,b,c; Mapelli et al. 2006). This line of research has received a remarkable boost in the last year thanks to the
availability of the wide-field camera LBC on the part-Italian 2 × 8 m
LBT telescope. This instrument is ideal to obtain the very efficient
multi-wavelength radial coverage of GCs required for the detailed analyses of the BSS populations which we are performing. In particular
we have completed a thorough study of M53 (Beccari et al. 2008), of
NGC2419 (Dalessandro et al. 2008) and the final analysis of the clusters NGC5466 (Beccari et al. 2009) and M2 (Dalessandro et al. 2009)
is currently ongoing (see Fig. 6).
This work is in collaboration with F. Ferraro, E, Dalessandro,
B. Lanzoni, A. Sollima (Univ. Bologna), G. Beccari (ESTEC, NL),
R. Rood, R. Schiavon (Univ. of Virginia, USA), M. Mapelli (Zurich
Univ., Switzerland), S. Sigurdsson (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA),
E. Sanna (Univ. Roma Tor Vergata), A. Sills (McMaster Univ., Canada),
C. Mancini (Univ. Firenze).
Metal abundance and elemental (anti)-correlation in
Halo Globular Clusters
People involved at OAB: Bragaglia, Carretta, Pancino.
Thanks to the new efficient optical and IR spectrographs with high
resolution and multi-object capabilities mounted on 4m- and 10mclass telescopes, high-quality spectra can be obtained for tens to hundreds of stars in each GC in very reasonable exposure times. Detailed
and precise chemical abundances of many key elements (Fe, light, α,
proton-capture and neutron-capture elements) can now be measured
for stars in Galactic GCs from the RGB tip to the MS Turn-Off.
In this regard, the recent investigation in this field revealed several
Figure 6: UV CMD of M2 from [email protected] data. The selected BSS
population is marked as filled dots, RR Lyrae stars as asterisks.
clear exceptions to the classical view of Galactic Globular Clusters as
purely mono-metallic populations. The only elements showing very
homogeneous abundances in GC stars are those produced by explosions of Supernovae, in particular iron peak elements and, in some
cases, α elements.
However, large star-to-star intrinsic variations for abundances of
the lightest elements (from Li and C to Mg and Al) are known to
exist in every GGC examined so far. Part of these chemical anomalies
(those related to Li, C, N, and their isotopes) share the same behaviour
of field stars of similar metallicity, but heavier nuclei (noticeably Na,
O, Mg, Al) present in GGC a peculiar pattern not seen in halo field
analogs and still not well explained.
The emerging picture is that globular clusters are not a true example of Simple Stellar Population, and that their early evolution was
probably not very simple. This is indicated by stars that populate
side-by-side the same evolutionary locus from the late RGB down to
the unevolved main sequence and show very different surface abundances of light elements (C, N, O, Na, Al).
The star-to-star anti-correlation between the O and Na abundances
(see Gratton, Sneden, Carretta 2004) is the main sign of the (unexpected) presence of material processed through the complete CNO
cycle in GC stars, most likely from thermally pulsing intermediatemass AGB (IM-AGB) stars of an early stellar generation, undergoing
hot bottom burning and/or fast rotating massive stars losing material at the end of their main sequence phase. The age difference between the two populations (a few 108 yr) is too small to be directly
detectable as different Turn-Offs (TO’s), but may be unveiled by a
careful abundance analysis of the relics of now-extinct first generation
stars, whose nucleosynthetic yields are possibly incorporated in the
present observed GC stars.
We completed the analysis of about 2000 red giant stars in 19
GCs of different metallicity, mass, HB morphology, etc. Using this
homogeneous and unprecedented database, we studied the Na-O anticorrelation in each cluster, finding that 2 stellar generations co-exist in
every GC: (i) a Primordial component of first generation stars, present
in all clusters with a constant fraction of one third and (ii) two components of second generation stars distinct from their Intermediate or
Extremely modified composition. The run of the slopes of the Na-O
and Mg-Al anticorrelations change from cluster to cluster, and are well
reproduced by a combination of cluster metallicity and luminosity. We
show in Fig. 7, as an example, the run of Na and Al, very different in
the various GCs. We interpret this as evidence that the properties of
polluters in GCs change regularly with these two main global cluster
parameters (Carretta et al. 2009a,b). Using high resolution spectra
we established also a new metallicity scale for GCs (Carretta et al.
The relation between the detailed chemistry of first and second
generation stars and global cluster parameters was extensively analysed in a study leading to: (i) a new definition of GCs (those stellar
aggregates able to develop the Na-O anticorrelation), (ii) a new classification of sub-populations of GCs, (iii) a qualitative scenario for the
formation of GCs that constitutes a first benchmark to test the new
evidences we are finding, and (iv) the finding that most of the “phenotypes” of GCs are fairly well reproduced by variations of the main
parameters mass, metallicity and age. A paper is submitted to A&A.
Figure 7: Na-Al correlations found from UVES spectra in 18 of the 19 GCs
observed with [email protected] (red circles are measures and blue symbols
are upper limits). Notice the different extensions and trends: they indicate
that in different clusters first-generation polluters of different mass were at
We sampled the extremes of the mass range of typical GCs: 1)
we analysed M54, the second most massive cluster in the Galaxy,
associated to the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (analysis
completed, paper to be written), and 2) we tested our definition of
GC by looking for the Na-O anticorrelation in the old open cluster
NGC 6791 (data acquired, analysis in progress).
Finally, we started a study to derive abundances of Li, Na and O in
main sequence stars in GCs. Lithium is the best tracer of the dilution
with primordial matter in GCs. We collected and started to analyse
archival ESO data for NGC 6397, NGC 6752 and 47 Tuc. Moreover,
we submitted a new proposal to ESO telescopes to gather new data
on M 22, M 4 and NGC 6752.
This work is in collaboration with R. Gratton, S. Lucatello, Y. Momany, V. D’Orazi (INAF-Padova Obs.), G. Piotto (Univ. of Padova),
F. D’Antona (INAF-Roma Obs.), F. Leone, G. Catanzaro (INAFCatania Obs.), S. Cassisi (INAF-Teramo Obs.), P. François (Obs.
Paris), A. Recio-Blanco (Obs. Nice) and many more. This project
received funding by INAF-PRIN 2005 and by the PRIN-MIUR 2007.
Mass loss in RGB stars
People involved at OAB: Bragaglia, Cacciari, Carretta, Fusi Pecci,
The IR spectral range is also particularly suitable to study the mass
loss process in giant stars. Mass loss is a crucial parameter in any
stellar evolution modelling. The late evolutionary stages of low- and
intermediate-mass giant stars are strongly influenced by mass loss processes. Yet, our lack of empirical estimates on mass loss in low-mass
RGB and AGB stars remains one of the most serious stumbling blocks
for a comprehensive understanding of stellar evolution. A pilot survey
of GCs performed with ISOCAM in the 10 µm spectral region (Origlia
et al. 2002) has placed the whole problem into a new perspective that
we can explore in deeper detail now, thanks to the powerful capabilities
of the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up Spitzer observations
have been obtained, aimed at studying mass loss along the entire RGB
in 17 globular clusters with different metallicities. Data analysis has
been completed, mass loss rates and duty cycles have been derived for
most of the clusters. First results on 47 Tuc have been published in
Origlia et al. (2007). The results for the other clusters are ready for
publication. A relevant fraction of giant stars show an excess of midIR light above that expected from their photospheric emission. This
is plausibly due to dust formation in mass flowing from these stars.
This mass loss extends down to the level of the horizontal branch and
increases with luminosity. The mass loss is episodic, occurring in only
a fraction of stars at a given luminosity. Using the DUSTY code and
our observations we derive mass-loss rates for these stars. Finally, we
obtain the first empirical mass-loss formula calibrated with observations of Population II stars. The dependence on luminosity of our
mass-loss rate is considerably shallower than the widely used Reimers
This work is in collaboration with F. Ferraro, S. Fabbri (Univ.
of Bologna), E. Valenti (ESO, Chile), R.T. Rood (Univ. of Virginia,
USA), R.M. Rich (UCLA, USA).
The mass loss phenomenon can be studied in the brightest globular
cluster red giant stars, by comparing the CaII K and Hα lines from
high resolution spectra with accurate chromospheric models. This
type of analysis is being performed on several bright red giant stars
in the stellar system Omega Cen, selected on the basis of their luminosity, metallicity and IR excess. Preliminary results indicate that in
some cases the introduction of an outward velocity field in the chromospheric model is needed in order to fit adequately the chromospheric
line profiles. A paper is in preparation.
This work is in collaboration with P. Mauas (Univ. of Buenos Aires,
Argentina) and S. Fabbri (PhD student, Univ. of Bologna).
With a fruitful alternative approach, we examined the issue of
the second parameter in globular clusters, within the framework of
multiple populations. We determined the extreme and median colours
of the HB from HST and ground-based photometry available for about
100 GCs. We transformed these values into masses using models from
the Pisa Evolutionary Library (PEL), accounting for the evolution.
Comparing these masses with those at the RGB-tip we determined
the mass loss of stars: a simple linear dependence on [Fe/H] well
reproduces the data. By assuming that this is a universal mass loss
law, we found that the age is the second main parameter. However,
at least a third parameter is required to explain the bluest colours of
some GCs; preliminary evidence suggests that this parameter is He.
A paper is currently under referee’s review.
This work is in collaboration with R. Gratton, S. Lucatello, and
V. D’Orazi (INAF-Padova Obs.).
Clusters and field stars in the Galactic bulge: an
People involved at OAB: Origlia, Diolaiti.
Bulge GCs are a fundamental stellar population of our Galaxy and
it is most interesting to compare their detailed chemical abundances
with the Galactic halo populations. For most of the bulge population,
foreground extinction is so large as to preclude any photometric and
spectroscopic optical study. In the last few years we have undertaken a
long-term project devoted to study the Galactic bulge in the infrared,
to minimize the effects of extinction.
Using the SOFI medium-resolution imager/spectrograph at the
ESO NTT and the NIRSPEC high-resolution echelle spectrograph at
Keck II, we are performing a systematic survey of M giant stars in
bulge GCs as well as in several fields at different distances from the
Galactic centre. From a detailed analysis of the IR colour-magnitude
diagrams we construct a catalogue of 24 Galactic GCs toward the
bulge (Valenti, Ferraro, Origlia 2007). The compilation includes measurements of the cluster reddening, distance, photometric metallicity, horizontal branch/red clump, and red giant branch morphological
(e.g., mean ridge lines) and evolutionary (e.g., bump and tip) features.
From the analysis of the high resolution spectra, we measured several single roto-vibrational OH lines and CO bandheads to derive accurate oxygen and carbon abundances. Other metal abundances can
be derived from the atomic lines of Fe I, Mg I, Si I, Ti I, Ca I and
Al I. Abundance analysis is performed by using full spectral synthesis
techniques and equivalent width measurements of representative lines.
In the past years results have been already published for 8 GCs
(Origlia, Rich & Castro 2002, Origlia & Rich 2004, Origlia et al. 2005,
Origlia, Valenti & Rich 2005), and for the Baade window (Rich &
Origlia 2005). The results of two additional massive clusters (Origlia,
Valenti & Rich 2008), namely NGC6440 and NGC644 have been published this year (Origlia, Valenti & Rich 2008). We are also surveying a number of fields in the inner bulge at different distances from
the Galactic centre. Results for the Baade’s Window and a field at
` = 0, b = −1 have been already published (Rich & Origlia 2005,
Rich, Origlia, Valenti 2007). Other fields are under analysis. We find
an overall [α/Fe] enhancement up to about solar metallicities, both in
the cluster and field populations, that is consistent with a scenario in
which the bulge formed early, with rapid enrichment.
We also started a survey of Galactic bulge clusters by using adaptive optics imaging in the near IR with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT.
The goal of this project is to obtain deep photometry in the J and H
bands well below the Turn-Off region for an accurate estimate of the
absolute and relative ages of the clusters. First results on NGC 6440
have been published (Origlia et al. 2008).
Finally, we started an IR spectroscopic screening of the young populations of red supergiants in the central bar/bulge (Scutum) and in
the Galactic centre. First results have been recently published (Davies
et al. 2009a,b).
This work is in collaboration with F. Ferraro, (Univ. of Bologna),
E. Valenti (ESO, Chile), R.M. Rich (UCLA, USA), B. Davies (University of Leeds, UK).
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Cacciari, Origlia, Pancino, Romano, Tosi.
ω Centauri is the largest (M = 2.9 × 106 M , Merrit et al. 1997),
brightest cluster in the Galactic Halo, and surely the most peculiar one
in terms of structure, kinematics and stellar contents. It is in fact the
only GC which shows undisputed variations in the chemical content of
its stars. From this point of view, ω Cen could be considered a bridge
system between genuine globulars, which are unable to retain the gas
ejected by their former massive stars, and dwarf galaxies, which are
the least massive self-enriching stellar systems known.
Our group is conducting a long-term multi-approach programme
to investigate the nature and the evolution of this fascinating stellar
system (see Ferraro et al. 2003) and has actively participated in many
of the most exciting discoveries of the latest years (for example, on
the anomalously red and metal-rich RBG and faint SGB), publishing
a number of original results on the structural, photometric, chemical
and kinematic properties of ω Cen (Pancino et al. 2000, 2002, 2003;
Ferraro et al. 2002, 2004; Sollima et al. 2004, 2005a, 2005b; Origlia et
al. 2003; Bellazzini et al. 2004; Ferraro et al. 2006).
In particular, during 2008 we focussed (a) on a very large kinematic
survey (radial velocities for ∼ 2600 stars from FLAMES spectra) to
study the velocity dispersion curve at very large distance from the cluster centre (Sollima et al. 2009), (b) on a more detailed modelling of the
chemical evolution of the system (Romano et al. 2009), and (c) a dedicated search for the tidal debris of ω Cen in the solar neighbourhood,
using both kinematical and chemical information, with proposals to
both [email protected] and [email protected] submitted in autumn 2008.
In addition, new numerical models were computed for the chemical
evolution of ω Cen (see Sect. 1.1.5) to examine in detail the issue of
the high He-content of some of its stars, assuming the system to be the
relic nucleus of an accreted dwarf spheroidal galaxy, disrupted during
the capture by the Milky Way. We find (Romano et al. 2009) that
only with a significant contribution of galactic winds, triggered by
SNeII and enriched in their synthesized elements, can all the chemical
abundances measured in ω Cen be reproduced.
In summary, the Bologna key project on ω Cen is fully active, with
a wealth of data being reduced and new observations being continuously performed. The work is in collaboration with scientists of several
international institutes, among which F. Ferraro (Univ. of Bologna),
O. Straniero (INAF-Teramo Obs.), M. Catelan (Univ. Cat. Chile),
J. Borissova (ESO, Chile), D. Minniti (Univ. Cat. Chile), H. Smith
(MSU, USA), and R. T. Rood (UVA, USA).
The Globular Cluster System of the Andromeda galaxy
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Buzzoni, Cacciari, Federici, Fusi
Pecci, Parmeggiani, Perina, Galleti.
The M31 globular cluster system is the largest found in the Local
Group, sufficiently close to allow detailed observations and little affected by reddening, at least for a large outer sub-set. Since the intrinsic depth of the spheroid is small compared to the distance to M31, in
the study of the basic properties and comparisons one can remove the
degeneracies introduced by the uncertain knowledge of the individual
distances. In practice, M31 offers the unique opportunity of studying
in very good detail the GC system of a spiral galaxy that is similar to
the MW, without some of the limitations that affect the Galactic GC
The study of the M31 GC system is a long-term project started at
the OAB in the early 1980s, and recently revived by new observational
programmes (Galleti et al. 2004, 2005, 2006a,b, 2007; Federici et al.
2007; Fusi Pecci et al. 2005). The OAB M31 team, in collaboration
with scientists of other Italian and foreign institutions, is carrying out
the exhaustive systematic census of M31 GC candidates using both
photometry (from the UV to the IR bands) and spectroscopy. The
purpose of the project is to use the globular cluster system to improve
our knowledge of the mass, dynamics and chemical evolution of the
The main ongoing programmes are summarized in the following:
1. Our continuously updated on-line catalogue (Revised Bologna
Catalogue of M31 globular clusters–RBC, Galleti et al. 2004)
has become the most complete and widely used reference in
Figure 8: CMDs of different circular annuli around the centre of the cluster
VdB0 in the PC field, all having the same area ( upper panels and lower
left panel), and of the whole WF2 field, whose area is 32 times that of the
PC annuli ( lower right panel). The thin line is an isochrone of age 25
Myr; the heavy lines at F450W 24.0 are 12Gyr old isochrones of metallicity
Z=6 × 10−4 and Z=6 × 10−3 , from blue to red, respectively. The additional
isochrone plotted in the lower right panel has Z=0.008 and age 125 Myr.
All the isochrones are from Girardi et al. (2002). From Perina et al. (2009).
the field. The RBC web site (http://www.bo.astro.it/M31/)
scores more than 600 contacts per year from all over the world. A
thorough analysis to add spectroscopic metallicities to as many
RBC clusters as possible is currently ongoing (Galleti et al.
2. The study of a sample of 63 M31 GC candidates using HST/ACS
archive data has been completed. We derived sufficiently accurate CMDs for 17 such objects, namely 11 old GCs and 6 luminous young clusters. For the 11 old GCs, estimates of metallicity,
reddening and distance could be obtained by comparison with
template Galactic GCs. The age of the young clusters was estimated by fitting with theoretical isochrones. This work brings
to 44+11 the total number of M31 old+young GCs with usable
CMD. A paper is in press (Perina et al. 2009b).
3. The presence in M31 of stellar systems similar to the MW globulars in luminosity and shape, but with integrated colours significantly bluer than the bluest MW counterparts, is well known
and documented. As a follow-up of our recent study (Fusi Pecci
et al. 2005) on these young and bright clusters, a large HST survey in collaboration with scientists of foreign institutions (HST
cycle 15, PI Cohen) is in progress, to check the real nature of
these objects that seem to have no counterpart in the Milky
Way. Twenty candidates were imaged with WFPC2. The data
reduction is now complete (see Fig. 8) and four papers will be
published in 2009 (Huchra et al. 2009, Barmby et al. 2009, Perina
et al. 2009a,c).
This work is in collaboration with J. Cohen (Caltech, USA), P.
Hodge (Univ. Washington, USA), P. Barmby (Univ. Ontario, Canada),
M. Rich (Caltech, USA), C. Corsi (INAF-OAR) and many others. The
PhD research project of Sibilla Perina is aimed at the study of star
clusters in M31, particularly focussed on the class of young and luminous clusters identified by Fusi Pecci et al. (2005).
The Magellanic Clouds: field and cluster populations
People involved at OAB: Carretta, Cignoni, Fusi Pecci, Origlia, Tosi.
At OAB several studies are being performed on the Magellanic Clouds,
using both their clusters and field populations to trace galaxy and
The spectral evolution of a Simple Stellar Population (SSP) and
its most evident colour glitches are ideal clocks for dating primeval
galaxies and deriving a suitable, empirical relation between look-back
time and redshift. The empirical calibration of the clock which determines the spectral evolution of SSPs and its readability are the
primary goals of our project. The globular cluster system of the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the
integrated spectrophotometric behaviour of stellar populations as a
function of both age and chemical composition. We are tackling these
major astrophysical objectives by means of a coordinated spectrophotometric survey on a representative sample of MC clusters, aimed at
determining with great accuracy and in a homogeneous way their age,
metallicity and overall integrated spectral properties.
During a number of successful observing runs with [email protected],
our group secured high quality J, H, K photometry of 20 LMC and
a few SMC clusters spanning the age range between 50 Myr and a
few Gyr. We have also obtained mid-IR photometry during Cycle 1
observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Populous and
complete near-IR CMDs covering the entire RGB extension have been
obtained. The mid-IR data are under analysis. The high quality
and homogeneity of such an IR database provided the most accurate
empirical determination of the occurrence of the so-called AGB and
RGB phase transitions.
The results for the intermediate age clusters in the LMC have been
published in Ferraro et al. (2004), Mucciarelli et al. (2006) and demonstrated that the full development of the RGB occurs at around 700
Myr and is a relatively fast event (duration ∼ 300 Myr). The results for 4 intermediate age clusters in the SMC have been recently
published (Mucciarelli et al. 2009). For these clusters we also derived photometric metallicities computed by using the properties of
the RGB and finding an iron content of [Fe/H] = −1.18, −1.08, −0.99
and −0.96 dex for NGC 339, 361, 416 and 419 respectively. We find
that in the 5–7 Gyr old clusters AGB stars account for 6% of the total
light in the Ks-band, Carbon stars are lacking and RGB stars account
for 45% of the total bolometric luminosity. These empirical findings
are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Accurate ages for individual clusters based on deep [email protected]
photometry and updated models of stellar evolution have been also
obtained. Results for 2 intermediate-age clusters, namely NGC 1978
and NGC 1783, were published in Mucciarelli et al. (2007); Mucciarelli,
Origlia & Ferraro (2007). We find ages of 1.4 and 1.9 Gyr respectively,
with an overall uncertainty of 0.1 Gyr. Other clusters are under analysis. The correct reading of the age from a SSP requires the accurate
knowledge of the global metallicity. This major piece of information,
namely a self-consistent metallicity scale and a detailed description
of the abundance patterns of MC clusters, is still lacking. In order
to fill such a gap, we undertook a medium-term project to provide
a homogeneous metallicity scale based on high-resolution optical (using UVES+GIRAFFE at the ESO-VLT) and IR spectroscopy (using
[email protected]) for a representative sample of MC clusters.
The detailed iron abundance analysis of 11 giant stars in NGC
1978, a massive, intermediate-age stellar cluster, characterized by a
high ellipticity and suspected to have a metallicity spread, was published in Ferraro et al. (2006). Recently, we published the chemical
abundances of light odd-Z, α, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements
for 27 red giant stars in NGC 1651, 1783, 1978, and 2173 (Mucciarelli
et al. 2008). All the analysed abundance patterns behave similarly in
the four clusters and also show negligible star-to-star scatter within
each cluster. We find [Fe/H] = −0.30±0.03, −0.35±0.02, −0.38±0.02,
and −0.51±0.03 dex for NGC 1651, 1783, 1978, and 2173, respectively.
The measurement of light odd-Z nuclei gives slightly subsolar [Na/Fe]
and a more significant [Al/Fe] depletion (∼ −0.50 dex). The [α/Fe]
abundance ratios are nearly solar, while the iron-peak elements well
trace those of the iron. S-process elements behave in a peculiar way:
light s-elements give subsolar [Y/Fe] and [Zr/Fe] abundance ratios,
while heavy s-elements give enhanced [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe], and [Nd/Fe]
with respect to the solar values. Also, the [Eu/Fe] abundance ratio
turns out to be enhanced (∼ 0.4 dex).
Recently, we also discovered chemical abundance anomalies in three
old LMC clusters, namely NGC 1786, 2210, and 2257 (Mucciarelli
et al. 2009). We have detected significant inhomogeneities for the
[Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], [O/Fe], and [Mg/Fe] abundance ratios, with evidence
of [O/Fe] versus [Na/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] versus [Al/Fe] anticorrelations.
The trends detected nicely agree with those observed in Galactic GCs,
suggesting that such abundance anomalies are ubiquitous features of
old stellar systems and they do not depend on the parent galaxy environment. In NGC 1786 we also detected two extreme O-poor, Na-rich
stars. This is the first time that a firm signature of extreme chemical abundance anomalies has been found in an extragalactic stellar
This research is in collaboration with F. Ferraro, A. Mucciarelli
(Univ. of Bologna), V. Testa (INAF-Roma Obs.), C. Maraston (Univ.
of Portsmouth, UK).
As major players in the international collaboration aimed at studying the evolution of the SMC as a prototype of dwarf irregular galaxies,
in 2008 we completed the analysis of our [email protected] data of 7 old clusters in the SMC (Glatt et al. 2008a, Glatt et al. 2008b, Glatt et al.
2009) and the data reduction (Tosi et al. 2008, Sabbi et al. 2009) of
6 fields in key galactic locations (three ACS fields in the SMC central
region, two in the wing toward the LMC, and one in the SMC halo).
Within the same collaboration, we also continued our analysis of
the HST/ACS fields in and around the young clusters SMC NGC 346
and NGC 602. We have derived the present-day mass function of
NGC 346 from its most massive stars (60 M ) down to 0.6 M and
described the uncertainties and problems affecting the derivation of the
Initial Mass Function (Sabbi et al. 2008). The star formation history
in the NGC 602 field, has been inferred using the synthetic CMD
method with two independent approaches, finding that the activity
in the young cluster is extremely recent, but overimposed on a rather
continuous, although much lower, level of star formation typical of
the whole SMC (Cignoni et al. 2008). The same approach has been
applied to the region of NGC 346 (Cignoni et al. 2009).
This collaboration includes, among others, A. Nota, E. Sabbi,
(STScI, USA), J. Gallagher (Univ. of Wisconsin, USA) and E. Grebel
(ARI, Heidelberg, Germany). The work has been partially supported
Super Star Clusters in nearby star forming galaxies
People involved at OAB: Origlia.
Integrated high-dispersion spectroscopy of massive star clusters is a
promising method for abundance analysis in extragalactic young stellar populations. Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck II, we
have obtained IR spectra of a few young and luminous super-star clusters (SSCs) in nearby galaxies. First results on the SSC in the spiral
galaxy NGC 6946 were published in Larsen et al. (2006). This year
we published the results for the massive star cluster ‘B’ in the nearby
dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 (Larsen et al. 2008). From spectral
synthesis and equivalent width measurements, we obtain abundances
of iron, C and alpha elements and abundance patterns, a supersolar
[α/Fe] abundance ratios and low 12 C/13 C ≈ 5 ± 1 isotopic ratio. Using archival imaging from the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard
the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we construct a Colour Magnitude
Diagram for the cluster in which we identify about 60 red supergiant
(RSG) stars, consistent with the strong RSG features seen in the Hband spectrum. From the CMD, we derive an age of 15–25 Myr,
slightly older than previous estimates based on integrated broad-band
colours. We derive a radial velocity of 78 ± 3 km s−1 and a velocity
dispersion of 9.6 ± 0.3 km s−1 . In combination with an estimate of the
half-light radius of 0.20 ± 0.05 arcsec from the HST data, this leads
to a dynamical mass of (4.4 ± 1.1) × 105 M . The dynamical mass
agrees very well with the mass predicted by simple stellar population
models for a cluster of this age and luminosity, assuming a normal
stellar initial mass function.
This work is in collaboration with S. Larsen (University of Utrecht,
NL), J. Brodie (UCO/Lick Observatory, USA) and J. Galagher (University of Wisconsin, USA).
Star formation histories and evolution of resolved
People involved at OAB: Cignoni, Romano, Tosi.
We are applying the method developed at the Bologna Observatory to
infer the star formation history (SFH) from the CMDs of their resolved
stellar populations to a number of galaxies of different morphological
type, mass and metallicity. In 2008 we worked at the derivation of the
SFHs of metal-poor late-type dwarf galaxies located both inside and
outside the Local Group.
Late-type dwarf galaxies are ideal systems to understand galaxy
evolution, because their proximity allows one to examine in detail important issues, such as the occurrence of galactic winds, the chemical
enrichment of the interstellar and intergalactic media, the photometric evolution of galaxies. Their low level of evolution, as implied by
the low metallicity and the high gas content, makes these systems the
most similar to primeval galaxies and, therefore, the most useful to
infer the primordial galaxy conditions. Furthermore, they have been
suggested to represent the building blocks of larger galaxies. Understanding how late-type dwarfs evolve and what were their conditions
at early epochs is therefore crucial also for cosmological purposes. It is
fundamental to derive the SFH in a number of representative systems
of the major morphological sub-classes: blue compact galaxies, dwarf
irregulars, giant irregulars.
To this aim we have undertaken a long term project to study,
from deep and accurate HST photometric data, the stellar populations
of dwarfs of particular interest (“normal” ones, the most metal-poor
ones, the most active ones, those with evidence of galactic winds). In
2008 we concentrated on the most active ones, NGC 4449 (Annibali et
al. 2008), NGC1569 (Grocholski et al. 2008) and NGC 1705 (Annibali
et al. 2009), all with proprietary ACS or WFPC2 HST data.
As mentioned in Sect. 1.3.1 we are also studying the SFH of the
SMC fields observed with [email protected] In this case, we are using our
classical Bologna synthetic CMD method together that developed by
M. Cignoni and described in Cignoni et al. (2006) (see frontispiece of
this chapter for an illustrative example of the theoretical output). The
comparison between the two independent approaches will also allow a
better estimate of the uncertainties.
The importance of deriving the SFHs of galaxies from their resolves
stellar populations, the relative intrinsic uncertainties in the synthetic
CMD method have been described in invited review papers (Tosi 2009;
Cignoni & Tosi 2009). Our current understanding of dwarf galaxy
evolution as resulting from the SFH combined with the results with
chemical and kinematical analyses has been summarized in an Annual
Review article (Tolstoy, Hill & Tosi 2009).
These studies are in collaboration with, among others, A. Aloisi,
A. Nota and E. Sabbi (STScI, USA), F. Annibali, L. Greggio and E.V.
Held (INAF-Padova Obs.), J. Gallagher (Wisconsin Univ., USA). This
research was partly supported by ASI-COFIS-2007.
Pulsating variable stars
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Cacciari, Clementini, Contreras,
Federici, Fusi Pecci, Tosi.
Pulsating variable stars are fundamental tools to set the astronomical
distance scale, and to sample different stellar populations in galaxies.
In particular, the RR Lyrae stars are excellent tracers of the oldest stellar population and can provide fundamental insights on the processes
that lead to the assembling of galaxies. They are also the primary
Population II distance indicators. On the other hand, Cepheids are
among the brightest stellar candles. Their P -L relation remains the
most important of the primary distance indicators for nearby galaxies
hosting a young stellar population, up to distances of 30 Mpc.
The role of pulsating variable stars in establishing the astronomical distance scale has been a major field of study at the INAF-OAB.
A large number of new projects were started in recent years, in collaboration with scientists of the INAF-Padova, Napoli, Merate, Teramo
Observatories and the Bologna University, as well as with scientists of
several International Institutes, to map out the variable star content in
galaxies of different morphological type and to exploit their potential
as distance indicators and stellar population tracers.
The infrared JHK light curves of RR Lyr
People involved at OAB: Cacciari
RR Lyr is the nearest (i.e. brightest) and the best-studied variable
star of its type and therefore plays a crucial role in setting the zeropoint of the distance scale. We have obtained the first infrared (JHK)
complete light curves for RR Lyr, derived a new estimate of reddening,
distance and physical parameters for this star, provided a more reliable
and accurate absolute calibration of the period K-luminosity relation
and discussed the implications of these new results on the zero-point
of the distance scale (Sollima et al. 2008).
This work was done in collaboration with A. Sollima (Univ. of Bologna) and A. Piersimoni (INAF-Teramo Obs.), as well as astronomers
from the Pulkovo Observatory and the Sobolev Astronomical Inst. (St.
Variable stars in the remote Galactic globular cluster
People involved at OAB: Clementini, Federici
NGC 2419, one of the brightest and most distant clusters in the MW
halo, is a metal poor Oosterhoff type II system suspected to be the
relic of an extragalactic system accreted by the MW. Using deep B,
V , I time-series CCD photometry over about 10 years, we have identified 101 variable stars in NGC 2419, of which 60 are new discoveries,
doubling the known RR Lyrae stars and detecting for the first time SX
Phoenicis stars (Ripepi et al. 2007). A paper presenting the catalogue
of light curves and the distance to the cluster derived with different
techniques based on the various variable stars detected in NGC 2419
is in an advanced stage of preparation (Di Crescienzo et al. 2009).
This work is in collaboration with M. Marconi, I. Musella, V.
Ripepi, M. Dall’Ora (INAF-Napoli Obs.), R. Di Crescienzo (INAFRoma Obs.), L. Di Fabrizio (INAF-TNG), C. Greco (UniGe). This research was partly supported by MIUR-PRIN04 grant n. CRA 1.06.02.03
and by PRIN-INAF06 grant n. CRA 1.06.09.15.
Variable stars in nearby galaxies
People involved at OAB: Clementini, Contreras, Tosi.
Increasing samples of pulsating variable stars populating the classical
instability strip, from the turnoff of the oldest populations to several
magnitudes brighter than the HB, are being found in the LG galaxies, irrespective of the galaxy morphological type. The detection and
study of the pulsating variables in a number of LG galaxies (Fornax,
Ursa Minor, Small Magellanic Cloud), as well as in several of the new
satellites of the Milky Way recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey (SDSS) catalogue, and in most distant systems like the blue
compact galaxy (BCD) IZw18, is being carried out in collaboration
with E. Held, M. Gullieuszik and L. Rizzi (INAF-Padova Obs.), E.
Poretti (INAF-Brera Obs.), M. Moretti (Univ. Bologna), M. Marconi,
I. Musella, V. Ripepi, M. Dall’Ora (INAF-Napoli Obs.), L. Di Fabrizio (INAF-TNG), C. Greco (UniGe), G. Fiorentino (Groningen), H.
Smith (MSU, USA), M. Catelan (PUC, Chile), B. Pritzl (Macalester
Univ., USA), A. Nota (STScI, USA), J. Gallagher (Univ. Wisconsin,
USA), E. Grebel (ARI, Heidelberg, Germany), K. Kinemuchi (Univ.
of Florida, USA), T. Beers (MSU, USA), A. Aloisi, R. van der Marel
(STSci, USA), F. Annibali (INAF-Padova Obs.), A. Saha (NOAO,
The Fornax Project The Fornax project (Clementini et al. 2007)
is an international collaboration set up to make a comprehensive and
deep (V ≤ 26 mag) study of the variable star population in the field
and globular clusters of the Fornax dSph. To this end we have carried out a wide-area (∼ 1 deg2 ) time series photometric survey of
the galaxy field with the wide field imagers of the 2.2m ESO/MPI
telescope at La Silla and of the CTIO 4m Blanco telescope. High
spatial resolution photometry of the Fornax GCs was obtained instead with the 6.5m Baade telescope and the SOAR 4.1m telescope,
and complemented by Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 data. The
galaxy instability strip was mapped from the Dwarf Cepheids (DCs,
V ∼ 24–25 mag) to the Anomalous Cepheids (ACs, V ∼ 19 mag),
with a total number of about 2000 variable stars. The vast majority
of the variable stars detected in the Fornax dSph are of RR Lyrae
type (including an extraordinarily large number of double-mode pulsators). However, several ACs tracing the galaxy’s intermediate-age
stars and 85 high-amplitude short-period variables with properties
similar to metal-poor galactic SX Phoenicis stars were also detected
(see Greco et al. 2008, Poretti et al. 2008). The latter were used to
reconstruct the Period-Luminosity relation for short-period pulsating
stars (Poretti et al. 2008). According to the pulsation properties of
the RR Lyrae stars the Fornax GCs have been found to belong to an
Oosterhoff-intermediate class and to fill the Oosterhoff-gap defined by
the Galactic GCs (Greco et al. 2007, 2008, 2009).
This study is in collaboration with E. Held, M. Gullieuszik (INAFPadova Obs.), E. Poretti (INAF-Brera Obs.), M. Catelan (PUC, Chile),
H. Smith (MSU, USA), B. Pritzl (Macalester Univ., USA). This research was partly supported by MIUR-PRIN04 grant n. CRA 1.06.02.03
and by PRIN-INAF06 grant n. CRA 1.06.09.15.
The Ursa Minor dSph galaxy The star formation history of the
Ursa Minor (UMi) dSph is being investigated through the study of the
galaxy’s variable star populations. We have obtained V , I time series
photometry of selected fields of Ursa Minor with the 1.5m telescope
of the Bologna Observatory at Loiano and near-infrared (K) photometry with [email protected] The proprietary visual data were combined
with SUBARU and INT archive data of the galaxy. Our CMD for
the galaxy reaches 3.5 magnitudes below the galaxy turnoff, showing
an extraordinarily rich harvest of SX Phoenicis stars (Dall’Ora et al.
2009). The study of the light curves of the variable stars is in progress.
This study is in collaboration with M. Marconi, V. Ripepi, I.
Musella, M. Dall’Ora (INAF-Napoli Obs.).
The “Small Magellanic Cloud in Space and Time” As part of
an international collaboration aiming at the detailed study of the stellar populations, structure and evolution of the Small Magellanic Cloud
(SMC, see Sect. 1.3.1), new candidate variable stars were identified in
the SMC cluster NGC121 based on HST WFPC2 archival and ACS
proprietary (PI: J. Gallagher) images of the cluster. The new candidates are located from the cluster’s Main Sequence up to the Red
Giant Branch. Twenty-seven of them are on the cluster’s Horizontal Branch and are very likely RR Lyrae stars. We also detected 20
Dwarf Cepheid candidates in the central region of NGC121 (Contreras
et al. 2009). Our results confirm the “true” globular cluster nature of
NGC121, a cluster which is at the young end of the Galactic globulars
age range (Glatt et al. 2008).
Guaranteed time observations to study constant and variable star
populations of the SMC body, Bridge and Stream down to the turn-off
of the oldest stars, are planned for [email protected] (the [email protected]
survey, PI: V. Ripepi, CoIs: members of the OAB; Ripepi et al. 2006).
The SMC project was also extended to the near-infrared in the framework of the approved [email protected] (The VISTA near-infrared Y JKs
survey of the Magellanic System, PI: M. Cioni, CoIs: members of the
OAB) ESO public survey (see Cioni et al. 2008), whose observations
have started in fall 2009.
This study is in collaboration with M. Moretti (Univ. Bologna), V.
Ripepi, M. Marconi, I. Musella, E. Cappellaro (INAF-Napoli Obs.),
A. Nota, M. Sirianni (STSCI, USA), J. Gallagher (Univ. Wisconsin,
USA), M.R. Cioni (Univ. Hertfordshire, UK), and E. Grebel (ARI,
Stellar Archeology in the Milky Way halo: variable stars
and stellar populations in the newly discovered Milky Way
satellites Λ-cold-dark-matter hierarchical models of galaxy formation
suggest that the halo of the Milky Way (MW) was assembled, at least
in part, through the accretion of protogalactic fragments partially resembling the present-day dwarf Spheroidal (dSph’s) companions of
the MW (e.g., Grebel 2005). In the last couple of years 15 new dSph
companions of the MW were discovered in the SDSS photometric catalogue (see e.g. Belokurov et al. 2006a,b; Zucker et al. 2006a,b), which
could be the shreds from the violent building phase of the MW.
Our team is studying the variable star content as well as the stellar
populations of 9 of these new LG members (namely: Bootes I, Bootes
II, Coma, Canes Venatici I – CVn I –, Canes Venatici II – CVn II
–, Ursa Major II, Leo IV, Hercules and UMa I). In 2008–2009 we
published results for CVn I (Kuehn et al. 2008), CVn II (Greco et al.
2008), Coma (Musella et al. 2009), Leo IV (Moretti et al. 2009) and
UMa II (Dall’Ora et al. 2009), while analysis is in progress on Hercules
and UMa I. RR Lyrae stars were identified in all the galaxies we have
analysed so far. According to the pulsation properties of their RR
Lyrae stars Bootes I, CVn II, Coma, UMa II and Leo IV turned out
to belong to an Oosterhoff II class (Dall’Ora et al. 2009), while CVn
I is found to be of Oosterhoff-intermediate type (Kuehn et al. 2008).
This study is in collaboration with M. Moretti (Univ. Bologna), V.
Ripepi, M. Marconi, I. Musella, M. Dall’Ora (INAF–Napoli Obs.), L.
Di Fabrizio (INAF–TNG), H. Smith (MSU, USA), M. Catelan (PUC,
Chile), B. Pritzl (Macalester Univ., USA), K. Kinemuchi (Univ. of
Florida, USA), T. Beers (MSU, USA).
IZw18 We have identified 34 variable stars for the first time in the
very metal-poor BCD IZw18, using proprietary [email protected] time-series
photometry (Aloisi et al. 2007). Of these 34, two are long-period
variables and 3 are Classical Cepheids, the lowest metallicity ones
found so far. We have studied these variable stars in detail and derived
from the Classical Cepheids a new distance to IZw18 (19 Mpc) much
more reliable than from other indicators (Fiorentino et al. 2009). We
have exploited the unique value of this metal-poor sample of Cepheids
to constrain theoretical models for pulsation (Marconi et al. 2009) and
extend the calibration of the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale to
low metallicity regimes.
This study is in collaboration with G. Fiorentino (Groningen, NL),
M. Marconi and I. Musella (INAF-Napoli Obs.), F. Annibali (INAFPadova Obs.), A. Aloisi and R. van der Marel (STScI, USA), A. Saha
(NOAO, USA) and is partially funded by ASI-Cofis-2007.
Variable stars in the Andromeda galaxy
People involved at OAB: Bellazzini, Cacciari, Clementini, Contreras,
Federici, Fusi Pecci, Tosi
The Andromeda galaxy (M31) provides a unique opportunity to study
the structure and evolution of a massive galaxy and, by comparison
with the Milky Way (MW), to address the question of variety in the
evolutionary histories of massive spirals. Our team is studying the
pulsation characteristics of short and intermediate period pulsating
variable stars in the M31 halo, in its giant tidal stream and in the
M31 GCs. Fourteen hours of observing time with the Large Binocular
Telescope ([email protected]) were awarded to the project in 2008, data
Figure 9: V, V − I CMD of B514 in 4 regions at increasing distance from
the cluster centre, which was set at RA = 00h 31m 09s.83, δ = 37◦ 530 5900.6
(J2000), based on our reductions of the ACS archive photometry. Bona-fide
RR Lyrae stars are marked by filled red circles, candidate variable stars by
blue and green filled circles.
are being reduced. In addition, 78 orbits with WFPC2 on board of
the HST have been awarded in HST Cycle 15 (PI G. Clementini) to
study the variable star population of six properly selected globular
clusters of M31. Data reduction has been completed for all 6 clusters,
analysis of the light curves was completed for B514 (Clementini et al.
2009), and is in progress for the other clusters. Among 161 candidate
variables identified in the cluster B514, we eventually discovered 89 RR
Lyrae stars (see their location across the cluster CMD in Fig. 9), 82 of
which are fundamental-mode pulsators (RRab), and 7 first-overtone
pulsators (RRc). A collection of the excellent light curves we have
obtained for these stars is shown in Fig. 10.
The average period of the RR Lyrae variables and the position
in the period-amplitude diagram both suggest that B514 is likely an
Oosterhoff type I cluster (Clementini et al. 2009).
The study is in collaboration with M. Marconi, V. Ripepi (INAFNapoli Obs.), H. Smith (MSU, USA), M. Catelan (PUC, Chile), B.
Pritzl (Macalester Univ., USA), K. Kinemuchi (Univ. of Florida,
Figure 10: V (left panels) and I (right panels) light curves of RR Lyrae
stars identified in B514. Upper two rows: fundamental-mode pulsators.
Bottom two rows: first-overtone pulsators. Filled and open circles indicate
WFPC2 and ACS data, respectively. Typical error of the single data point
at the magnitude level of the HB is about 0.06 mag.
Extragalactic Astronomy and
The XMM-Newton ultra-deep pointing (exposure time of about 1.8
Msec, equivalent to 3 weeks) in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). The image was obtained by combining three energy bands: soft
(0.4–1 keV), medium (1–2 keV), and hard (2–8 keV), coded with different colours (red, green, and blue, respectively). The image size –
about 30 arcmin on a side – has been adaptively smoothed. The CDFS has become the centre of the deepest and most comprehensive multiwavelength campaign ever performed with ground-based and space
observatories. Currently, the XMM survey in the CDF-S represents
the deepest look at the sky in the very hard (5–8 keV) X-ray band.
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: S. Bardelli, M. Bolzonella, A. Cappi, P. Ciliegi,
A. Comastri, H.R. de Ruiter, S. Ettori, R. Gilli, C. Gruppioni,
M. Meneghetti, R. Merighi, M. Mignoli, L. Pozzetti, R. Sancisi,
G.M. Stirpe, G. Zamorani, V. Zitelli, E. Zucca;
• Fellows and contracts: A. Braccesi, M. Gitti, K. Iwasawa, R. Sancisi, D. Vergani.
Observational extragalactic astronomy has traditionally been one of
the main themes of research at the Bologna Observatory. It includes a
wide range of subjects, from the structure and evolution of “normal”
galaxies, to the physical properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and
galaxy clusters, to large-scale structures and observational cosmology.
The extragalactic research at the Bologna Observatory is characterized by a multi-wavelength (radio, infrared, optical, X-ray) study of
galaxies, AGN and clusters of galaxies. Much of this research is based
on an intensive use of the most advanced instruments available today:
the ESO optical/NIR telescopes (including VLT), the Hubble Space
Telescope, the X-ray satellites Chandra and XMM-Newton, the IR
satellite Herschel, the Westerbork, VLA and ATCA radio-telescopes.
Structure and evolution of galaxies
People involved at OAB: R.Sancisi.
HI halos of spiral galaxies R. Sancisi is participating in a large observational project (HALOGAS) with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio
Telescope to study the presence and dynamics of neutral hydrogen in
the halo region of spiral galaxies. This is a collaboration with a number of colleagues in The Netherlands, the USA and Bologna. P.I. is
G. Heald of ASTRON (Dwingeloo, The Netherlands). A number of
spiral galaxies have already been observed and reduced. They are being analysed.
Luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies R. Sancisi, F.
Fraternali (Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of Bologna) and P. Kamphuis
(Groningen) have studied the distribution of mass (luminous and dark)
in the edge-on galaxies NGC 891 and NGC 7814. They have derived
a new rotation curve for NGC 7824 and compared the distributions of
light and the rotation curves for the two galaxies. It has been pointed
out in the past that the two galaxies have different light distributions
but similar rotation curves, suggesting that the mass distribution is
probably dominated by dark matter. The new results show that the
curves of the two galaxies differ significantly. A new discussion of the
relative distribution of luminous and dark matter is being carried out.
Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies R. Sancisi has
studied in collaboration with F. Lelli and F. Fraternali (Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of Bologna) the distribution of luminous and dark
matter in two GLSB galaxies. Existing 21 cm line observations have
been re-analysed and new rotation curves have been derived. These
have a steeper rise in the inner parts of the galaxies than the previous ones. This has led to a new interpretation of GLSBs. These
are not Low but High Surface Brightness galaxies surrounded by very
extended LSB disks, and baryons may dominate the dynamics of their
inner regions. A paper is in advanced stage of preparation.
Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies R. Sancisi has started the
study of the density distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen
in BCD galaxies. The central starburst regions of these galaxies are
characterized by large HI concentrations and very steep rotational velocity gradients.
Late-type Dwarf galaxies R.A. Swaters (Maryland), R. Sancisi,
T.S. van Albada (Groningen) and J.M. van der Hulst (Groningen)
have completed their study of Dark Matter in Late-type Dwarf Galaxies. A paper is ready to be submitted for publication.
Active galactic nuclei and star-forming
People involved at OAB: de Ruiter, Stirpe, Zitelli.
Optical monitoring of bright AGN V. Zitelli and G. Stirpe,
in collaboration with D. Trevese (Univ. of Roma La Sapienza) and
F. Vagnetti (Univ. of Roma Tor Vergata), are continuing the analysis of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of high-z quasars
using the Loiano and Asiago telescopes to study the variability of the
continuum and broad emission lines in AGN. The aim of the project
is the extension to MB > −26 of the correlation found, in type 1
Seyferts and low-z QSOs, between source luminosity and the primary
estimate of the size of the Broad Line Region (BLR) obtained from
echo-mapping, in order to obtain primary estimates of the black-hole
masses for high-luminosity AGN.
Continuum variability Despite the huge number of QSOs discovered by recent surveys, constraining the evolution of the luminosity
function at the bright end, adequate AGN samples are still lacking at
the faint end. Most QSO samples are selected by the colour technique,
which cannot be applied at low intrinsic luminosities, due to contamination by the host galaxy. In 2008 Zitelli and Stirpe, in collaboration
with Trevese and Vagnetti, continued a study of a composite sample of
AGN candidates selected in SA57 following different searching techniques, to identify low luminosity AGN (LLAGN), and break down
the sample into different classes of objects. Spectroscopy at the WHT
and TNG revealed the presence of AGN with a low X-ray/optical ratio, and of optically variable LLAGN. These results were published
in Trevese et al. (2008, A&A, 477, 473). Further observations were
obtained at the TNG, and the results are undergoing analysis.
Emission lines in AGN G. Stirpe, in collaboration with P. Marziani,
M. Calvani (INAF–Padova Observatory), J. Sulentic, and S. Zamfir
(Univ. of Alabama), has continued the study of the broad-emission
line characteristics of a sample of high-z QSOs. An extensive analysis
of a sample of more than 50 QSOs (selected from the Hamburg-ESO
survey) with z = 0.9 ÷ 3.0 was published. The spectral properties
obtained from VLT/ISAAC observations of the Hβ region were used
within the framework of the Boroson-Green Eigenvector 1 (E1), which
correlates various measured properties of the optical emission lines of
AGN, extending it to the high-luminosity domain. Work is in progress
with more observations at the VLT and at the TNG.
The environment of AGN V. Zitelli, in collaboration with P. Focardi (Univ. of Bologna) is continuing the study of compact groups
of galaxies and, in particular, of the role of active galaxies (AGN)
in a dense environment. While it is well established that radio loud
quasars, radio galaxies and BLLacs reside in denser than average regions, the role of the environment and of interactions on Seyfert galaxies is to some extent still controversial, also because the samples used
so far are limited in number. To reduce the statistical uncertainty,
Zitelli and collaborators adopted a strategy based on the analysis of a
statistically significant sample of nearby AGN, and appropriate control
samples selected on the basis of criteria independent of morphology
and environmental properties. A sample of about 300 physical compact groups was extracted applying an automatic code to 3-D galaxy
catalogues. Following the publication of the sample and preliminary
results, Focardi et al. (2008, A&A, 484, 655) presented the first nuclear spectral classification of 48 UZC-BGPs, and showed that AGN
are characterized by an advanced morphological type, while the SB
phenomenon occurs with the same frequency in early and late spirals.
Whether and how these unusual characteristics relate to the pair environment needs to be further investigated.
HST images of B2 radio galaxies H.R. de Ruiter, in collaboration
with P. Parma (INAF-IRA), and D. Bettoni and R. Falomo (INAFOAPD) has continued the study of B2 radio galaxies. For some of
the B2 radio galaxies spectroscopic observations with the TNG have
been carried out, in order to obtain central velocity dispersions, and
study the core fundamental plane. The observations are discussed in
Bettoni et al (2009, A&A, in press).
People involved at OAB: Comastri, Gilli, Iwasawa
Suzaku observations of a small, but representative sample of hard Xray selected (> 10 keV) candidate Compton Thick AGN were obtained
over the last two years after three successful proposals. Thanks to the
good sensitivity in the 10–60 keV band of the Suzaku pin detector,
good quality, broad band (∼ 0.5–60 keV) spectra were obtained. The
data analysis was completed in 2008. The results indicate a variety
of spectral shapes. Three out of the five sources are Compton Thick
and two of them reflection dominated. The remaining two sources
are heavily obscured (NH ∼ a few 1023 ). The covering fraction of
the X-ray absorber is also very different among the sources. In one
object the lack of X-ray emission below ∼ 4 keV suggests that the
nuclear source may be fully covered by the obscuring material. The
shape of the soft X-ray continuum is best fitted by a blend of emission
lines arising by photoionization of circumnuclear gas by the nuclear
The GOALS project aims to study multi-wavelength properties
of the most luminous infrared-selected galaxies in the local universe.
These would provide an unbiased picture of the process responsible
for the enhanced infrared emission during galaxy evolution, and local
analogues of the submillimetre galaxies at high redshift.
In 2008 we mainly focussed on the X-ray to IR luminosity relation
and X-ray iron line properties for the complete sample of the GOALS
sources, and on the multi-wavelength observation of the starburstobscured AGN composite LIRG NGC 2623, published by Evans et al.
(2008) and also featured in APOD. Finally an X-ray imaging study
of the double-sided X-ray jet of the FRII radio galaxy 3C 353 was
performed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory to infer a synchrotron
This research is in collaboration with C. Vignali, P. Ranalli (Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna)
Surveys and observational cosmology
A large fraction of the Observatory staff is involved in surveys of extragalactic objects1 . Some of these surveys are ongoing long-term
projects, but quite a few have started only recently, or will start in
the near future. They will require observing time with state-of-theart optical, infrared and X-ray telescopes such as VLT, HST, Spitzer,
Herschel, Chandra, XMM-Newton.
As an aid to observational cosmologists, de Ruiter has made available a collection of cosmological formulae, which is updated periodically. For a number of models (the standard Friedmann model, flat models with non-zero cosmological constant, and some more exotic ones) distances, volumes and look-back times are given
as a function of redshift. The latest version (in PDF format) can be consulted at (or
downloaded from) the WEB-site: http://www.bo.astro.it/~deruiter/cosmo/
The VIMOS/VLT Deep Survey (VVDS)
People involved at OAB: Bardelli, Bolzonella, Cappi, Ciliegi, Merighi,
Pozzetti, Vergani, Zamorani, Zucca.
The VVDS consists in a Deep sample (IAB ≤ 24 objects over 1 deg2 ),
a Wide sample (IAB ≤ 22.5 objects over 8.6 deg2 ) and an Ultra-Deep
sample (IAB ≤ 24.75 objects over 0.16 deg2 ) for a total of about 50,000
measured redshifts. The data reduction process has been completed
in 2009. The results of the survey have been published in the last few
years in about 50 refereed papers. A few of the main issues which
have been addressed with these data are the estimate of the Luminosity and Mass Functions of galaxies and their star formation history up
to z ∼ 2, the comparison with models of galaxy evolution, the study
of the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, the analysis of
spectroscopic features and their evolution (mass-metallicity relation),
the estimate of the merger rate from the number of galaxy pairs, the
Luminosity Function of type-1 AGN and the relation between black
hole mass (or Eddington ratio) and bolometric luminosity, the properties and evolution of clustering and the relation between the spatial
distribution of luminous and dark matter (bias). Moreover, parallel studies, joining VVDS data with surveys at different wavelengths,
have produced other interesting results, e.g. the VVDS-VLA (see the
Section on Radio Surveys) and the VVDS-SWIRE, with the estimate
of the mid- and far-infrared Luminosity Functions.
In 2008, the main contributions to the VVDS survey by the researchers at the Bologna Observatory were:
1. the study of the history of the mass assembly in galaxies and
the environmental effects on galaxy evolution up to z ' 1.3;
2. the reconstruction of the three-dimensional density fluctuation
map up to z ∼ 1.5;
3. the extension of the K-band photometric data with SOFI observations;
4. the comparison of the VVDS data with hierarchical models from
the Millennium simulations.
1. Using a mass-limited sample we have discussed to what extent
stellar mass drives galaxy evolution, showing the interplay between
stellar ages and stellar masses over the past ∼ 8 Gyr (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.3).
Using the amplitude of the 4000 Å break (Dn 4000) as a stellar age
estimator, we observe that low-mass galaxies have younger ages of the
underlying stellar population, i.e. smaller Dn 4000, while the galaxy
distribution moves to higher Dn 4000, or older stellar ages, at increasing stellar mass. As cosmic time goes by, we witness an increasing
abundance of massive spectroscopically defined early-type systems at
the expense of the late-type systems, also confirmed by the evolution
of our type-dependent stellar mass function. This is a process started
at early epochs and continuing efficiently down to the local universe.
The underlying stellar ages of late-type galaxies apparently do not
show evolution, most likely as a result of a continuous and efficient
formation of new stars. The activity and efficiency of forming stars
are mechanisms that depend on galaxy stellar mass, and the stellar
mass assembly becomes progressively less efficient in massive systems
as time elapses (Vergani et al. 2008).
Using the extended broad-band photometric dataset available in
the VVDS-Deep area, we confirmed the efficiency of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting in recovering the physical properties
of galaxies like stellar mass, age, and star formation rate. From the
number density function of galaxies as a function of stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and redshift we studied whether the stellar
mass function at a later time can be predicted from the stellar mass
function and star formation rate distribution at an earlier time. We
found that the predicted stellar mass density is lower than observed
for massive galaxies, with major mergers accounting for up to half of
their mass build-up and with minor mergers contributing the missing
fraction (Walcher et al. 2008).
Moreover, we studied how the large-scale environment, defined by
the galaxy number density contrast on scales of 8 Mpc, affects galaxy
evolution. Studying a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.2 <
z < 1.4, we observed a significant mass and optical colour segregation,
with redder galaxies populating regions of higher density. When we
consider only galaxies in narrow bins of stellar mass, i.e. excluding
the effects of stellar mass segregation on galaxy properties, the colour
segregation disappears, showing that the colour segregation is only a
mirror of the more fundamental stellar mass segregation, in its turn
connected to the halo mass. The environmental effects on galaxy
properties, therefore, should mainly be the result of the dark matter
halo mass segregation (Scodeggio et al. 2009).
2. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional map of density
fluctuations has been used to test up to high redshift the gravitational instability paradigm, i.e. the statement that the cosmic growth
is driven by gravity. To this aim, the distribution of galaxies in the
VVDS-Deep survey has been used to compute the overdensity field
in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.5 and to characterize its evolution.
The result of the comparison with the predictions of the perturbation
theory confirms the standard gravitational instability paradigm over
nearly 9 Gyr of cosmic time (Marinoni et al. 2008).
3. The K-band photometric coverage of the VVDS-Deep field has
been increased by a further 458 arcmin2 , using observations made with
[email protected] The final K-band sample contains ∼ 52,000 sources, with
a completeness of 90% at KVega = 20.5. Near-IR photometric data are
very important to improve the accuracy of quantities derived from
the SED fitting, like the photometric redshifts, the absolute magnitudes and the stellar masses. The angular correlation function and the
galaxy counts show a good agreement with those in literature (Temporin et al. 2008).
4. The comparison of the observed MFs and LFs with hierarchical model predictions from the Millennium simulation (De Lucia et
al. 2006) is still ongoing. Preliminary results show an excess of the
Millennium MFs at intermediate/low masses (< 1010 M ) compared to
the VVDS MFs. Furthermore, Millennium MFs show no or only small
evolution with redshift compared to the local estimate, i.e. milder than
in VVDS, up to z = 1.6, and a faster evolution at higher redshifts.
While the global LFs are in good agreement, the Millennium LFs are
significantly different from the VVDS ones when considering the various photometric types. This is particularly true for early type galaxies,
with the Millennium simulation having too many red galaxies of low
luminosity. The differences between VVDS and Millennium LFs decrease towards the latest type galaxies, even if an excess of very bright
blue galaxies appears at low redshift in the Millennium with respect
to the VVDS.
MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS)
People involved at OAB: Bardelli, Vergani, Zucca.
A spin-off of the VVDS is the survey MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey
with SINFONI In the VVDS), an ESO Large Programme started in
Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in the VVDS First results from resolved kinematics of z=0.91.4 galaxies from restframe optical emission lines 020283083 020283830 020294045 020363717 020370467 020386743 020461235 020461893 020465775 140083410 140096645 140123568 140137235 140217425 140258511 140262766 140545062 220015726 220148046 220376206 220386469 220397579 220544394 220576226 220578040 220596913 910193711 910279515 Observed velocity fields
020193070 020208482 020214655 020239133 020240675 020255799 020278667 Figure 11: Collection of resolved velocity fields obtained with SINFONI/VLT for a representative sample of z ∼ 1.2 star-forming galaxies
selected in the purely flux-limited VVDS fields.
2007 with 300h of observation time at SINFONI, to sample a hundred
star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2. So far half of the sample has been
observed, fully reduced, and analysed. The modelling of the SINFONI
integral field dynamics allows us to obtain a robust measurement of
the maximum rotational velocity and other kinematic properties (see
Fig. 11) to properly assess the dynamical vs baryonic mass budget.
This has implications on the gas fraction, the evolution of fundamental
relations, and the relative contributions of merging and other processes
(i.e., continuous gas accretion or feedback) in the early assembly of
massive galaxies. First results based on a small pilot sample have
already been published (Epinat et al. 2009, Queyrel et al. 2009).
The VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey
People involved at OAB: Bolzonella, Cappi, Vergani, Zamorani.
VIPERS (P.I. Guzzo) is an ESO Large Programme approved and
started in 2008, consisting of a spectroscopic survey, the widest ever
approved by ESO, aiming at mapping the spatial distribution of galaxies up to z ∼ 1. The survey will measure 100,000 redshifts of IAB ≤
22.5 galaxies using the [email protected] spectrograph over an area of 24
square degrees with a sampling of ∼ 50%, realizing the high redshift
analogue of local surveys like the 2dFGRS. Additional photometric
information is provided in 5 optical bands by the CFHTLS. The main
goal of the survey is the study of the large scale structure and its cosmological implications, but the huge amount of data will also allow to
study the evolution of bright galaxies in different environments with a
high statistical accuracy, minimizing the issues related to the cosmic
variance as well. Observations started during summer 2008, and the
first data reduction is currently ongoing.
The GMASS redshift survey
People involved at OAB: Bolzonella, Mignoli, Pozzetti, Zamorani.
The Bologna Observatory has participated in the “Galaxy Mass Assembly ultradeep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS)” project, an ESO
Large Programme which has been carried out in collaboration with
the Astronomy Department of the Bologna University and with the
observatories of Arcetri, Padova and ESO.
This project (145 hours with FORS2 at VLT on about 50 sq.arcmin
in the GOODS-CDFS) aimed at understanding and tracing the cosmic history of galaxy mass assembly at z > 1.4, through ultra-deep
FORS2 multi-object spectroscopy with very long integration times
(15–40 hours per mask) of infrared-selected galaxies (m4.5 < 23) with
high-quality photometric redshifts zphot > 1.4. The observations, completed in 2005, have provided spectra for 208 objects and reliable redshift measurements for 182 of them. The most striking feature of the
GMASS z distribution is a very significant peak in the redshift distribution at z ' 1.6 (32 objects from GMASS + 10 from the literature).
In the last couple of years in Bologna we have carried out the deter-
mination of optimised photometric redshifts, stellar masses, star formation efficiency and age of the stellar population through the fitting
of the multi-band photometric SEDs, using different codes of stellar
population models (i.e. Bruzual & Charlot 2003, Maraston 2005 and
Charlot & Bruzual 2007). An analysis of the Galaxy Stellar Mass
Function (GSMF) up to z = 3 using the spectroscopic sample and the
whole photometric sample is currently in progress in Bologna.
We have analysed in detail the subsample of 13 early-type galaxies
at 1.4 < z < 2.5 in collaboration with Bologna University and Padova.
A stacked spectrum with an equivalent integration time of ∼ 500 h
was obtained, covering the UV range from 2500 to 3500Å and showing typical features of an old stellar population. Both the spectral and
photometric SED properties indicate very weak or absent star formation, moderately old stellar ages of ∼ 1 Gyr (for solar metallicity) and
stellar masses in the range of 1010−11 M , thus implying that the major star formation and assembly processes for these galaxies occurred
at z > 2. These galaxies have morphologies that are predominantly
compact and spheroidal. However, their sizes (Re ≤ 1 kpc) are much
smaller (by a factor 2–3) than those of spheroids with similar mass in
the present-day universe. We suggest that these “superdense” passive
galaxies at 1 < z < 2 are the remnants of the powerful starbursts occurring in submillimetre-selected galaxies at z > 2, and evolve subsequently by gradually increasing their sizes with mechanisms like major
dry-merging and/or envelope accretion, more or less rapidly depending
on their mass and environment (Cimatti et al. 2008).
In parallel, we have studied also the structure at z = 1.61, concluding that it is a sheet in the web-like distribution of galaxies. The
region with the highest surface density of galaxies within this sheet
already contains seven massive, passively evolving galaxies, has a velocity dispersion (∼ 500 km s−1 ), typical of a large group of galaxies in
the local universe, and a virial mass of 9×1013 M . We have also studied differences, in terms of mass, colour and age, between the galaxies
within the structure and field galaxies at the same redshift (Kurk et
A systematic analysis on both the single spectra of the brightest
galaxies and the composite spectra of homogeneous classes of fainter
objects is currently underway at the Bologna Observatory. This study
is aimed at measuring the equivalent widths of the main nebular lines,
the UV spectral slopes and the interstellar gas dynamics.
In addition, various analyses have been carried out or are ongo49
ing, in collaboration with the other institutes involved in the project:
(a) the colour bimodality at z ∼ 2 (Cassata et al. 2008); (b) the
stellar metallicities (Halliday et al. 2008); (c) the properties of dust
attenuation at rest-frame UV wavelengths (Noll et al. 2008); (d) the
dynamical masses of Early-Type galaxies at z ∼ 2 (Cappellari et al.
The Herschel guaranteed time extragalactic survey:
PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP)
People involved at OAB: Gruppioni
The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) is a Herschel guaranteed time
key programme survey of the extragalactic sky, aimed at studying
the restframe far-infrared emission of galaxies up to redshift ∼ 3, as
a function of environment. The survey will shed new light on the
constituents of the cosmic IR background and their nature, as well as
on the co-evolution of AGN and starbursts.
The PEP survey is driven by science goals addressing a number of key
open topics in galaxy evolution.
• Resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background and determine the nature of its constituents
• Determine the cosmic evolution of dusty star formation and of
the infrared luminosity function
• Elucidate the relation of far-infrared emission and environment,
and determine clustering properties
• Determine the contribution of AGN
• Determine the infrared emission and energetics of known galaxy
The Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) PEP data in the GOODSNorth Field will be released to the consortium at the end of November
2009. C. Gruppioni is the PI of one of the main scientific projects with
PEP data, titled: ”Luminosity function of FIR galaxies and AGN and
its evolution with redshift”.
Multiwavelength studies of IR and X-ray selected
People involved at OAB: Comastri, Gruppioni, Mignoli, Pozzetti, Zamorani.
This research is in collaboration with C. Vignali, F. Pozzi (Astronomy
Dept., Univ. of Bologna)
The multiwavelength properties of a large (about 200) sample of
spectroscopically identified (0.1 < z < 1.3) sources selected at 15 µm
from the ELAIS-SWIRE S1 field are presented in Gruppioni et al.
(2008). The dense coverage from UV to MID IR allowed us, for the
first time, to characterise the spectral properties of the sources responsible for the strong evolution observed in the MID infrared. The
most important result is the identification of a large fraction (about
50%) of AGN in the sample, significantly larger than that obtained by
optical spectroscopy. It is suggested that a significant revision of the
models so far developed to explain the strong cosmological evolution
of infrared galaxies, is needed.
The optical identification and multiwavelength properties of the
∼ 500 X-ray-detected sources in the central half square degree of
the ELAIS-S1 field are presented and discussed in Feruglio et al.
(2008). On average the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of highluminosity Broad-Line AGNs resemble the power-law typical of unobscured AGNs. The SEDs of non-Broad-Line AGNs are dominated by
the galaxy emission in the optical/near-infrared, and show a rise in
the mid-infrared which suggests the presence of an obscured active
The broad band Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of a small
sample of luminous (log LX > 44), high-redshift (z ∼ 1–2) quasars selected from the HELLAS2XMM survey are presented in a paper submitted to A&A (Pozzi et al. 2009). The SED are best fitted by multiple
components, including: a stellar component to account for the optical
and near-IR emission; an AGN component modelled with a radiative
transfer code from the putative dusty torus heated by the nuclear
radiation, which dominates in the mid-IR; and, whenever needed, a
starburst component to reproduce the far-IR. Torus parameters (optical depth and inclination angle), accretion luminosities, host galaxies
stellar mass and black hole mass estimates are obtained. The results
indicate that these obscured AGN are powered by massive black holes
in massive galaxies with relatively low (< 0.1) Eddington ratios. The
obscured AGN in the sample are characterized by relatively low Eddington ratios (λ < 0.1), and a correlation between the Eddington
ratio and the bolometric correction is also found.
The Ultra deep XMM and Chandra surveys in the
People involved at OAB: Comastri, Gilli, Iwasawa
This research is in collaboration with C. Vignali and P. Ranalli (Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna)
The Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) is, by far, the most extensively studied extragalactic field. The deepest surveys at virtually
all wavelengths are carried out in the CDFS. In the X-ray band it was
targeted by Chandra with a long (2 Ms) exposure in the central 0.1
sq. degree, complemented by 4 shallower (250 ksec) flanking fields (the
Extended CDFS), bringing the covered area to about 0.25 sq. degrees.
An ultradeep (∼ 3 Ms) XMM exposure, which will provide the most
sensitive view of the hard X-ray sky, was approved (PI: A. Comastri).
This is the largest ever approved XMM programme. The most important scientific issues which will be addressed include: the search for
and the detailed spectroscopic study of obscured and Compton-thick
AGN at the redshift peak of their activity (z ∼ 1–2), and, thanks to
the excellent multiwavelength coverage, the role of accreting SMBHs in
the context of galaxy evolution. This project, targeting a “new” unexplored discovery space, will create an XMM legacy and a pathfinder for
future X-ray missions. The winning XMM proposal greatly benefitted
from previous work of the OAB X-ray group on the XRB synthesis
models. A web-based tool, which allows to compute the contribution to the XRB spectrum and the logN-logS in different bands for
AGN in any redshift, luminosity or NH bin, was developed, tested and
officially released to the international community in 2008 at the Xray Universe 2008 conference in Granada (A. Comastri, invited talk).
The tool, available at http://www.bo.astro.it/~gilli/xrb.html
and http://www.bo.astro.it/~gilli/counts.html, was very well
received, and is used and cited by several colleagues in scientific papers and in observational proposals.
In 2008 the data reduction and source catalogues of the full Chan52
dra exposure (about 2 Msec) in the CDFS were completed and published (Luo et al. 2008). The X-ray catalogue contains more than 460
X-ray sources. The first part (about 1 Ms) of the XMM observations
was received and combined with archival data in the same field. We
started the data reduction and analysis, which turned out to challenge
the available software, requiring the developement of new tools and
The COSMOS project
COSMOS is a pan-chromatic imaging and spectroscopic survey of a
1.4 × 1.4 deg2 field, designed to study the co-evolution of galaxies and
their central black holes out to high redshifts, placing them in the
context of the large scale structure in which they reside and with high
resolution morphological information. This global multiwavelength
collaboration is built around an HST Treasury programme (PI: Scoville), entailing the largest ever allocation of HST telescope time (590
orbits for ACS I band imaging of the full field) integrated by numerous observational campaigns at all wavelengths (from radio to X-ray).
A large number of OAB scientists are deeply involved in the analysis
and interpretation of several datasets and in particular in the projects
The XMM-COSMOS and Chandra-COSMOS surveys
People involved at OAB: Comastri, Gilli, Iwasawa, Zamorani.
This research is in collaboration with C. Vignali, P. Ranalli, E. Lusso
(Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna), and the XMM-COSMOS and
Because of their superb efficiency in localizing and identifying AGN
and distant clusters of galaxies, X-ray observations are a crucial element of the COSMOS survey. The 2 deg2 COSMOS field was observed
for a total of 1.4 Msec (25 pointings repeated twice) with XMMNewton. The central square degree of the COSMOS field was also
observed by Chandra for a total integration time of 1.8 Msec (the
largest ever approved Chandra programme) reaching a sensitivity of
about a factor ∼ 3 deeper than XMM) with an excellent (< 2 arcsec
HPD over the entire field) spatial resolution.
In 2008 a special effort was made to finalize the complex Chandra
data reduction and analysis. The X-ray catalogue and source counts,
the strategy for data reduction and analysis, and the multiwavelength
identification of X-ray sources are described in three papers (Elvis et
al. 2009, Puccetti et al. 2009, Civano et al. 2009), either published or
The total number of unique X-ray sources in the XMM and Chandra surveys is of the order of 3000, making COSMOS a unique database
for a wide variety of statistical studies. The combination of excellent
quality multiwavelength data allowed to address a large number of
forefront scientific issues.
X-ray spectra for all the sources in the COSMOS field with more
than 30 counts were extracted (∼ 200). An automatic script was
developed to rebin and shift to rest-frame the individual spectra. Each
spectrum is then fitted with a power law excluding the iron line region,
and residuals are summed up. There is clear evidence for iron line
emission (EW ∼ 160 eV) at 6.4 keV. The line profile is consistent
with an intrinsically narrow line, at variance with previous claims. A
paper describing the results, along with a comparison with previous
analysis, is close to being submitted (Iwasawa et al. 2009).
A new measurement of the space density of high redshift (z > 3)
X-ray selected QSOs was obtained by exploiting the deep and uniform multiwavelength coverage of the COSMOS survey. The comoving space density of luminous (> 1044 erg s−1 ) QSOs declines exponentially in the z ∼ 3.0–4.5 range, with a behaviour similar to that
observed in optically bright unobscured QSOs selected in large-area
A strong clustering signal of X-ray selected AGN in the XMMCOSMOS field is detected at about the 18σ level, which is the most significant measurement obtained to date for clustering of X-ray selected
AGN. An excess signal is observed in the range rp ∼ 5–15 Mpc/h,
which is due to a large scale structure at z ∼ 0.36 containing about
40 AGN. We investigate the clustering properties of obscured and unobscured AGN separately. Within the statistical uncertainties, we do
not find evidence that AGN with broad optical lines (BLAGN) cluster differently from AGN without broad optical lines (non-BLAGN).
The correlation length measured for XMM-COSMOS AGN at z ∼ 1 is
similar to that of massive galaxies (stellar mass M∗ > 3 × 1010 M ) at
the same redshift. This suggests that AGN at z ∼ 1 are preferentially
hosted by massive galaxies, as observed both in the local and in the
distant (z ∼ 2) universe.
The zCOSMOS survey
People involved at OAB: Bardelli, Bolzonella, Cappi, Ciliegi, Coppa,
Mignoli, Pozzetti, Vergani, Zamorani, Zucca.
The zCOSMOS project (600 hours with VIMOS, approved in 2004
and started on April 2005; PI: S. Lilly) is a major treasury redshift
survey in the COSMOS field. The zCOSMOS collaboration involves
a significant number of researchers of the Bologna Observatory and
other institutes in Zurich, Milano, Marseille, Toulouse and Garching.
This project consists of two parallel surveys: (1) the bright survey,
aiming at observing ∼ 20,000 magnitude-selected galaxies with IAB ≤
22.5 and 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.2 over 1.7 deg2 ; (2) the deep survey, with ∼
10,000 galaxies selected through colour-selection criteria to be at 1.4 <
z < 3.0, within the central 1 deg2 . The observations of zCOSMOSbright were completed in 2008 (20K sample) and we expect to complete
the observations of zCOSMOS-deep early in 2010.
The main goal of the spectroscopic survey zCOSMOS is to characterize galactic environments throughout the COSMOS volume out
to redshifts z ∼ 3. Some of the main topics that will be addressed
to understand the evolution of galactic systems are: (1) the study of
large-scale structures by means of the measure of the density field,
the evolution of correlation functions, the selection of a catalogue of
groups, (2) the study of diagnostics derived from spectra to determine
star-formation rates of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGN) classification, reddening by dust, stellar population ages, and metallicities,
(3) the description of the galaxy population by means of various distribution functions, such as the Luminosity and Galaxy Stellar Mass
Functions, as a function of different galaxy types and environments.
The analysis of the first half of the bright sample (10K sample)
is already producing a significant number of papers. We were mainly
involved in the classification of galaxy types from the spectral analysis,
the study of the evolution of stellar mass and luminosity functions,
for different photometric and spectroscopic types, morphology and
environment, as well as the study of the physical properties of galaxies
in their post-starburst phase.
The Bologna node has led the work on the definition and first
application of a galaxy classification cube which makes use of Cos55
mos data (ACS morphology and Subaru photometry) and zCOSMOS
spectra obtained in P75, the 1K bright spectroscopic sample. Applying three straightforward classification schemes (spectral, photometric, and morphological), we identify two main galaxy types, which are
linked to the bimodality of the galaxy population (Mignoli et al. 2009)
The three parametric classifications constitute the axes of a classification cube. A very good agreement exists between the classification
from spectral data (quiescent/star-forming galaxies) and that based
on colours (red/blue galaxies). The third parameter (morphology)
is not as well correlated with the first two; a good correlation with
the spectral classification is achieved only after partially complementing the morphological classification with additional colour information. Analysing the 3D-distribution, we find that about 85% of the
galaxies show a fully concordant classification, being either quiescent,
red, bulge-dominated galaxies (∼ 20%) or star-forming, blue, diskdominated galaxies (∼ 65%). These results imply that the galaxy
bimodality is a consistent behaviour both in morphology, colour, and
dominant stellar population, at least out to z ∼ 1. We are currently
exploring more sophisticated techniques (Principal Component Analysis, Grouping methods) to analyse the twenty times larger 20K sample
and to investigate the nature of the galaxies that violate the optical
Using the spectroscopic 10k sample, we have estimated the stellar
mass content of each galaxy, through the SED fitting of the extensive
and deep available multi-band photometry from the U to the MidIR bands. We have also performed a comparison among the different
methods to estimate stellar masses inside the zCOSMOS collaboration.
We have derived the galaxy stellar Mass Function (MF) up to
z ∼ 1, for the global population and for 2 broad classes, corresponding qualitatively to early and late type galaxies respectively, defined by
their photometric multiband spectral energy distribution (SED), morphological and/or spectral classification, or by their SSFR, and in different environments (Pozzetti et al. 2009, Bolzonella et al. 2009, submitted). We found a galaxy bimodality in the global MF in the range
0.1 < z < 0.5, explained by the different populations of late/early
type galaxies at different masses. We find an increase with cosmic
time of the number densities of early-type galaxies with log M < 11
and a negligible evolution for the most massive ETGs. The median
“building redshift” of ETGs increases with mass, in contrast with hi56
Figure 12: Left panel: Galaxy Stellar Mass Function (MF) by galaxy
types (red galaxies in red, blue galaxies in blue, total population in black).
Points and error bars: 1/Vmax method; solid lines: Schechter fits. Dotted
lines: Schechter fits of the first redshift bin reported as reference. Dashed
vertical lines represent the mass limit in the corresponding redshift bin.
Note the increase with cosmic time of intermediate-mass red galaxies, while
blue galaxies remain almost constant in number density (from Pozzetti et
al. 2009). Right panel: Mcross (mass at which the MFs of blue and red
galaxies cross) in the extreme quartiles of galaxy enviroments (blue: lowdensity environments, red: high-density). Note the faster evolution with
cosmic time in high-density enviroments (from Bolzonella et al. 2009).
erarchical model predictions. The number density of blue late type
galaxies remains almost constant from z ∼ 1, while the most extreme population of active star-forming galaxies is rapidly decreasing
in number density. This behaviour can be interpreted as the combination of a transformation with cosmic time from blue active spiral
galaxies of intermediate mass into red passive early ones, followed by
a transformation on longer time scales into spheroidal galaxies, and
a continuous replacement by blue active low-mass spirals growing in
stellar mass. The environmental effect in the MF is visible both in
its shape, with the afore mentioned bimodality more evident in denser
regions, and in the population of galaxies inhabiting the extreme environments: the transformation of intermediate-mass late-type galaxies,
contributing most of the MFs in low-density regions, into early-type
galaxies, which dominate the MF in dense environments, seems to act
more rapidly in dense regions from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0.1 (see Fig. 12, taken
from Pozzetti et al. 2009 and Bolzonella et al. 2009).
A similar approach has been adopted to compute Luminosity Functions (LF) and to study their evolution as a function of the spectrophotometric and morphological types and of the environment. At low z,
late types dominate at faint magnitudes, while the bright end is populated mainly by early types. At higher z, late-type galaxies evolve
significantly and, at z ∼ 1, the contribution from the various types to
the bright end of the LF is comparable. The evolution for early types
is in both luminosity and normalization. A similar behaviour is exhibited by late types, but with an opposite trend for the normalization.
Studying the role of the environment, we find that in low-density environments, the main contribution to the LF is from blue galaxies, while
for high density environments there is an important contribution from
red galaxies to the bright end. The “specular” evolution of late- and
early-type galaxies is consistent with a scenario where a part of the
blue galaxies is transformed into red galaxies with increasing cosmic
time, without significant changes in the fraction of intermediate-type
galaxies. The bulk of this tranformation in overdense regions probably happened before z ∼ 1, while it is still ongoing at lower z in
In collaboration with a PhD student of Bologna University (Michele
Moresco), we have estimated the ages of the stellar populations of
ETGs using the SEDs. The aim is to attempt to place constraints on
the equation of state parameter for Dark Energy (w). We have also
explored the mass and environment dependence in photometric and
spectral properties of ETGs. We confirm the low-redshift results in
the SDSS, finding that the colour distribution of ETGs is not strongly
dependent on the environment for all the mass bins. On the other
hand, the dependence on the mass is much more significant, in both
high- and low-redshift environments. The spectral analysis we have
performed (using the D4000 and Hδ features) is in agreement with our
photometric results (Moresco et al. 2009, in preparation).
In addition, we have started a multiwavelength study of galaxies
with k+a spectral features in the COSMOS field at z = 0.48–1.2.
K+a galaxies occupy the brightest tail of the luminosity distribution
and are as massive as quiescent galaxies, populating the green valley in the colour versus luminosity (or stellar mass) distribution. A
small percentage (< 8%) of these galaxies have radio and/or X-ray
counterparts. Morphologically, the class of k+a galaxies is a heterogeneous population with a similar incidence of bulge-dominated and
disky galaxies. This distribution varies with stellar mass in a way
reminiscent of the well-known mass-morphology relation. They appear to reside typically in rich environments as quiescent galaxies on
a physical scale of ∼ 2–8 Mpc. We do not find evidence of a statistically significant evolution in either the number/mass density of k+a
galaxies at intermediate redshift with respect to the local values, or
the spectral properties. These galaxies, which are affected by a sudden
quenching of their star-formation activity, may contribute by ∼ 10%
to the increase with time of the stellar mass of the red-sequence galaxies (Vergani et al. 2009).
The VLA-COSMOS survey
People involved at OAB: Ciliegi, Bardelli, Zamorani.
This work is carried out in collaboration with M. Bondi (INAF-IRA
Bologna), E. Schinnerer, V. Smolcic, K. Jahnke (Max Plank Institute,
Heidelberg, Germany), and C. Carilli (NRAO, Socorro, USA).
The VLA-COSMOS survey (Schinnerer et al. 2007) is a deep radio
survey performed at the VLA on a 2 deg2 field centred on the COSMOS area, which permitted the extraction of 3600 sources down to a
radio flux of 45 µJy. Using radio and optical data for the COSMOS
field, we have constructed a sample of 601 AGN galaxies with z < 1.3.
This sample allowed to explore the evolution of the low radio power
(L1.4GHz < 5 × 1025 W Hz−1 ) AGN: these objects showed a relatively
modest evolution, at variance with the strong decline with cosmic time
for more powerful AGN.
Studying the stellar masses of the host galaxies of these AGN and
comparing them with those of galaxies with the same red colours taken
as a control sample, we found that the probability for a galaxy to be
a radio source increases strongly with mass. Moreover, the redshift
evolution of the mass function of the parent galaxies and radio AGN
is reversed: while for a given mass the number density of red galaxies
decreases with redshift, the number of AGN increases.
We conclude that radio AGN are divided in two distinct classes,
weak and powerful AGN, that correspond to weak and vigorous growth
of the central black hole. This is likely to be related to different triggering mechanisms for radio emission, i.e. low-efficiency accretion and
major merging, respectively. As the volume density of low-power AGN
remains approximately constant, they can contribute to the heating of
the host galaxy medium and thus inhibit gas accretion, maintaining
the host galaxy “red and dead”.
The results of this work appeared in Smolcic et al. (2009, ApJ 696,
The VLA VIRMOS survey
People involved at OAB: Bardelli, Ciliegi, Zamorani.
This work is carried out in collaboration with M. Bondi (INAF-IRA
Bologna), A. Iovino (INAF - Milano) and S. Temporin (Institut für
Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universität Innsbruck).
In 2008 we started to use the VLA VIRMOS radio data (fully described in the Annual Report 2007, see also Bondi et al. 2003) to study
the radio properties of a particular class of objects: the Extremely Red
Objects (EROs). To derive the sample of EROs we started from the
K-band selected final photometric sample obtained in the VVDS 022604 field. The sample contains 8856 objects down to K(Vega) < 20.25,
found in an area of about 600 arcmin2 covered by the radio mosaic
(Temporin et al. 2008). We selected 898 EROs with K(Vega) < 20.25
and (R - K)(Vega) > 5.3.
In order to discriminate between EROs associated with dusty star60
burst galaxies and those hosted by evolved passive ellipticals, we used
the colour-colour plot introduced by Pozzetti and Mannucci (2000) using R, J and K magnitudes. We were thus able to classify 63% of the
EROs; the remaining objects cannot be classified because they do not
have J-band photometry available. We classified 359 EROs as “old”
and 208 as “dusty”.
The VLA VIRMOS data were used to search for radio counterparts
of EROs down to the 3σ level (∼ 50 µJy). We found 58 radio-detected
EROs: half are identified with optical galaxies classified as old ellipticals, while the remaining half are split roughly evenly between dusty
star-forming and unclassified.
Moreover, in order to derive the mean properties of the EROs
which are not radio-detected, we performed a stacking analysis of the
radio data, which allows the investigation of large galaxy samples that
are individually undetected in the radio band. This technique has
already been used in a number of radio studies (Carilli et al. 2007,
2008; Dunne et al. 2009; Garn and Alexander 2009).
Starting from the radio mosaic, we extracted postage-stamp images
centred at the optical position of each ERO. Subsequently, all images
were stacked together, and a final median image was obtained. The
two stacked images (one for the “old” and one for the “dusty” EROs)
were analysed, deriving the peak flux in the central position, and the
total flux obtained by fitting a bidimensional Gaussian component.
For the old EROs we derive a mean flux of about 5 µJy (5σlevel detection), while the mean flux of the dusty sample is about
10 µJy (7σ-level detection). The weak radio emission detected in the
old systems may be associated with low-luminosity AGNs (∼ 5 ×
1022 W/Hz, using the median photometric redshift) and is at least a
factor 10 weaker than that found in the radio detected EROs, while the
dusty EROs are radio-brighter than the evolved ones, and the origin
of the radio emission is likely to be associated to intense starburst
The data analysis is still in progress and these results are very preliminary. New radio stacking analysis based on dividing the sample in
redshift bins, and on considering the entire galaxy population (divided
in early- and late-type galaxies) as ERO parent sample, are in progress.
The ATESP Survey
People involved at OAB: de Ruiter.
The ATESP catalogue contains about 3000 radio sources down to a
20cm flux limit of ∼ 0.4 mJy. The radio data (including new data at
5 GHz) are being used for various purposes:
1. determining the radio properties of ESP galaxies (e.g. the radio
luminosity function of various types of galaxies);
2. deep radio source counts and optical identification of ATESP
3. detailed optical studies of smaller selected areas: at present a
sample of about 70 objects, complete to I = 19.0, has been
observed at ESO, and spectroscopic data are available for all
objects. Spectroscopy of part of the fainter objects has recently
been carried out with the VLT and the analysis of the spectra
is in progress;
4. obtain more insight in the accretion processes responsible for
the production of radio sources (in particular the FR I type
sources associated with early type galaxies). New ATCA (Australia Telescope Compact Array) data at high radio frequencies
(5, 8.4 and 20 GHz), carried out in July 2007 and 2008, allow
us to study the spectral index behaviour at low (< 10 GHz) and
high (> 10 GHz) frequencies. We find that spectra with an upturn at high frequencies are very rare or even absent among the
sources associated with early type galaxies, and thus appear to
be almost exclusively found in quasar-like AGN.
A paper describing the high frequency observations has been accepted by A&A (Prandoni et al. 2009, in press). Further radio observations are planned.
This work is done in collaboration with I. Prandoni and P. Parma
(INAF-IRA), L. Gregorini (University of Bologna), and R.D. Ekers
(ATNF - Australia).
Bright galaxies from WENSS
People involved at OAB: de Ruiter, Stirpe.
The Westerbork Northern Sky Survey has mapped the sky (above
declination +30o ) at 325 MHz (and is complementary to the NVSS
survey at 20 cm made by the VLA). The overall catalogue contains
about 200000 radio sources with flux density above 15 mJy. Work is
in progress at the Bologna Observatory to extract from the WENSS
catalogue all radio sources associated with “bright” (i.e. mr < 16.5)
galaxies. An almost final list of about 3500 WENSS bright galaxies
is now available; a last check of this list is being done. Several spinoff programmes are in progress: a number of possible “dying” radio
sources (characterized by a steep radio spectral index) were selected
for further study with the VLA at different frequencies. The new
information on the radio structure and spectral index confirms that
two of the three sources are indeed fossile sources, while the third is a
fossile source in which the radio activity has restarted.
This work is done in collaboration with P. Parma and K.-H. Mack
(INAF-IRA), R. Fanti (University of Bologna), and M. Murgia and F.
The EUCLID project
People involved at OAB: Zamorani, Bardelli, Buzzoni, Ettori, Gruppioni, Meneghetti, Mignoli, Pozzetti, Vergani, Zucca.
In 2008, our Observatory was extremely active in the preparatory
work for the EUCLID mission. This is a space observatory which is
meant to provide both high quality imaging and spectroscopy, surveying 20,000 square degrees of the sky. The EUCLID project was born
from the merging of two distinct projects, namely the DUNE (Dark
UNiverse Explorer) and the SPACE (SPectroscopic All-sky Cosmic
Explorer) projects. The first was an imaging-dedicated instrument
which was proposed to carry out observations in the optical and in
the near-IR bands from space, with the primary task of investigating dark energy and dark matter via weak lensing. The second was a
spectroscopy- dedicated space telescope, which was designed to obtain
high resolution galaxy spectra in the near-IR to produce accurate redshift measurements in order to observe Baryonic-Acoustic-Oscillations
and constrain dark energy. Both missions were submitted to ESA in
response to the call for the first planning cycle of the Cosmic Vision
2015–2025 programme, and were pre-selected by ESA in 2007. As
stated above, the DUNE and SPACE concepts are now inspiring the
EUCLID mission, which has been designed to accomplish the objectives of both projects.
The resulting payload is a space telescope with a primary mirror
of diameter 1.2m, equipped with 1) an optical imaging channel, which
will be used to measure the shapes of galaxies and extract the lensing
signal by the large-scale structures in the universe. The PSF will be
∼ 0.18”, and the observations will be carried out in a single wide-band
covering the wavelength range of 550–920 nm; 2) a near-IR imaging
channel which will perform photometry in the Y, J, and H bands
for photometric redshift determinations; 3) a near-IR spectroscopic
channel which will operate in the wavelength range 1–2 µm at spectral
resolution R = 400, achieving redshift measurements with accuracy
dz < 0.001. The mission is currently being evaluated by ESA for
entering the phase-B study.
We have been deeply involved in the preparation of the EUCLID
proposal, on both the imaging and the spectroscopic aspects of the
For the imaging channels, we were responsible for the image simulations. Our primary goal was to assess whether the new design of
EUCLID will match the scientific requirements of the mission. This
includes evaluating whether the spatial resolution (PSF) is compatible
with precise galaxy shape measurements, and the sensitivity is high
enough to detect a sufficient number of sources with high signal-tonoise ratio at the planned exposure time. With this aim, simulated
EUCLID observations were created with SkyLens (Meneghetti et al.
2008), a locally developed software which allows to simulate patches
of sky including the instrumental response, realistic source morphologies, and all relevant observational noises. The simulations allowed to
estimate that EUCLID will observe about 35–50 galaxies/sq. arcmin
at the signal-to-noise required for precise shape measurements. The
median redshift of these galaxies will be z ∼ 1. Under these conditions, EUCLID will be able to constrain the equation of state of dark
energy at the sub-percent level of accuracy through cosmic shear and
lensing tomography. Additional simulations were targeted to evaluate smearing and data compression, both in the optical and in the
near-IR. Such images are currently used by industry to optimize the
For the spectroscopic channel, we have contributed to the construction of the science cases of the mission, analysing in detail the
differences expected as a function of the final choice for the spectroscopic channel (slitless spectroscopy or slit spectroscopy with DMD).
In particular, we have studied the expected redshift distribution for Hband selected galaxies (DMD) and for Hα selected galaxies (slitless),
based on a model for the Hα luminosity function and evolution (Geach
et al. 2009). These redshift distributions, together with the associated
efficiency in measuring redshift and sampling rate, have been used
by the EUCLID Cosmology Working Group to estimate the accuracy
with which the cosmological parameters will be measured.
The SAFARI instrument for the ESA/JAXA joint
People involved at OAB: Gruppioni
SPICA is a proposed next-generation infrared satellite for cosmology
and astrophysics, and a candidate mission for the ESA Cosmic Vision.
A Japanese-led, joint JAXA-ESA mission, SPICA will have a singleelement, high surface accuracy 3.5m mirror, cooled to ∼ 4.5 K. The
combination of large collecting area, low self-emission and diffractionlimited performance over a core wavelength range of 5–210 µm will
provide the basis for a sensitive and versatile suite of focal plane instruments. These include: a large-format MIR camera (5–38 µm) and
MIR spectrometer (R ∼ 30,000 at 4–18 µm; R ∼ 3,000 at 16-38 µm),
a high-contrast (10–6) MIR coronograph (5–27 µm) with photometric
and spectroscopic capability, a FIR imaging spectrometer and camera (35–210 µm), and a single-pixel high sensitivity, low-resolution
FIR/submm grating spectrometer (40–350 µm). The FIR imaging
spectrometer and camera (SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument – SAFARI)
is a European-led instrument (PI: Bruce Swinyard, UK), which covers the 30-210 µm waveband with a spectral resolution of R ∼ 10 to
10000, and a field of view of 20 × 20 . The baseline optical configuration
of SAFARI is a Mach-Zehnder imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The principal advantages of this type of spectrometer for SAFARI
are the high mapping speed of the FTS due to spatial multiplexing, the
ability to incorporate straightforwardly a photometric imaging mode,
and the operational flexibility to tailor the spectral resolution to the
SPICA is ideally suited to study star formation hidden by dust
absorption, by tracing the solid-state features of dust further into the
past than ever before. The combination of mid infrared and far infrared spectroscopy on SPICA will provide, for the first time, the
capability to detect the cooling lines out to the peak of star formation activity in the history of the universe (z ∼ 1–2) for a wide range
of galaxy types. SPICA will enable the study of interstellar medium
conditions in central outbursts, circumnuclear rings, disks, winds and
halos in galaxies of the local universe, as well as comprehensively in
sources in the distant universe. SPICA spectroscopic observations will
be unique to address the AGN-Starburst connection at high redshifts
(z > 3). The field of view of the SPICA instruments will provide a
considerable spatial multiplexing advantage both for mapping local,
resolved, galaxies and to perform cosmological surveys. Photometrically, SPICA has the sensitivity to detect high-luminosity objects out
to z > 4 and Milky Way-type populations out to z ∼ 1.
C. Gruppioni is a member of the SAFARI-SPICA Consortium and
is actively involved in the Science Working Groups planning “Deep
Extragalactic Photometric Surveys” and “Spectro-Photometric Observations of High-z AGNs” with SAFARI.
Future X-ray missions: WFXT and IXO
People involved at OAB: Comastri, Ettori, Gilli, Iwasawa
In 2008 an intense activity was devoted to the preparation of two
proposals, submitted to the Astro2010 NASA Decadal Survey Panel
for the prioritisation of future space missions.
The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is a medium-class mission proposed to NASA, designed to be 2 orders of magnitude more
sensitive than any previous or planned X-ray mission for large area
surveys, and to match in sensitivity the next generation of wide-area
optical, IR and radio surveys. The WFXT mission is scientifically
broad, as the survey data will 1) provide a description of the cosmic
evolution and cycle of baryons; 2) map the large scale structure of the
universe; 3) constrain and test cosmological models and fundamental
physics (e.g. the nature of Dark Matter, Dark Energy and gravity); 4)
determine the black hole accretion history to early epochs and its intimate link with galaxy formation; 5) provide an unprecedented view
of nearby galaxies, including our own.
The International X-ray Observatory is a joint NASA-ESA-JAXA
effort, merging, since July 2008, the previous ESA/JAXA XEUS and
NASA Con-X missions. The key astrophysical questions which will
be answered are: What happens close to a black hole? How do supermassive black hole grow? How does large scale structure form?
What is the connection between these processes? A large collecting
area (about 3 m2 at 1 keV) and a large suite of new instruments (microcalorimeter, polarimeter, gratings, etc.) are required to address
Italy is providing a strong contribution to both mission concepts,
both from a technological (mirrors development for WFXT, polarimeter and microcalorimeter detectors for IXO) and from a scientific point
of view. The OAB researchers are leading the WFXT and IXO science work packages on AGN physics, demography and evolution at
high redshift (z > 6), and are also involved in the definition of the
science case for the study of Cluster of Galaxies.
The work is done in collaboration with P. Ranalli and C. Vignali
(Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna)
Galaxy clusters and large-scale structure
Mass Reconstruction in Galaxy Clusters
People involved at OAB: Meneghetti, Ettori, Donnarumma
An intense activity was dedicated to studying the mass distribution in
galaxy clusters. In the framework of the hierarchical model of structure formation, galaxy clusters represent the youngest objects in the
universe. The shape and evolution of their mass function is strongly
sensitive to the cosmological parameters. The dark matter distribution
is less affected by the interaction with baryons compared to galaxies.
Thus, they are fundamental test sites for cosmology and for the prediction of the Cold-Dark-Matter paradigm for structure formation. Our
effort was in the direction of modelling the distribution of both dark
matter and baryons within clusters, in order to measure the masses,
density profiles, and baryonic fractions. We did that using two methods. The first consists of using observations of the hot, X-ray emitting
intra-cluster medium. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry, the mass can be estimated from the cluster tempera67
ture and surface-brightness profiles. The second consists of using the
gravitational lensing effect produced by the total mass distribution
of the cluster on the images of background galaxies. The shape and
multiplicity of the lensed galaxies can be used to trace the projected
gravitational potential, and thus to derive the mass distribution.
In Donnarumma et al. (2009) we presented a detailed mass reconstruction of the cluster MS2137. For this study, we have used archival
Chandra and HST data to reconstruct the cluster mass profile, using
both the X-ray and lensing methods. For the lensing part, we used
parametric methods to fit two sets of multiple images originated by
two strongly lensed galaxies. The cluster is among the most interesting study-cases, because the comparison between lensing and X-ray
masses has always been controversial. Understanding the origin of the
mismatch between different mass estimates is crucial to be able to use
clusters as cosmological tools. Our lensing and X-ray mass estimates
for MS2137 are in agreement within errors under the assumption of
the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass profile. However, our analysis highlights that the strong lensing mass estimate is affected by the
details of the brightest cluster galaxy mass modelling.
We had access to observations of the cluster A611 taken during
the science demonstration time at the LBT in 2007. In collaboration
with scientists from Rome (Monteporzio Observatory and Università
La Sapienza) and Naples (Capodimonte Observatory), we carried out
the first weak lensing analysis of a cluster observed with LBT (Romano
et al. A&A, submitted). The results are currently being compared to
those derived from the strong lensing and from the X-ray analysis of
archival HST and Chandra data.
A large effort has been dedicated to developing new methods of improving the quality of the mass reconstructions. The lensing and X-ray
techniques have been tested with numerical simulations to assess their
reliability (Meneghetti et al. 2009, A&A submitted). In collaboration
with scientists from the University of Heidelberg, we have developed
a new algorithm which allows to reconstruct the mass distribution in
galaxy clusters with an accuracy of order 10%, combining strong and
weak lensing constraints (Merten et al. 2009).
The internal dynamics of a dark matter structure may have the remarkable property that the local temperature in the structure depends
on direction. This is parameterized by the velocity anisotropy, which
must be zero for relaxed collisional structures, but has been shown
to be non-zero in numerical simulations of dark matter structures. In
Host et al. (2008), we present a method to infer the radial profile of the
velocity anisotropy of the dark matter halo in a galaxy cluster, from
X-ray observables of the intracluster gas. This non-parametric method
is based on a universal relation between the dark matter temperature
and the gas temperature, which is confirmed through numerical simulations. We apply this method to observational data and find that the
velocity anisotropy is significantly different from zero at intermediate
radii. Thus we find a strong indication that dark matter is effectively
collisionless on the dynamical time-scale of clusters, which implies an
upper limit on the self-interaction cross-section per unit mass.
Strong lensing by galaxy clusters and arc statistics
People involved at OAB: Meneghetti, Fedeli
Strong lensing by galaxy clusters can be used as a cosmological tool
in the so called “arc statistics approach”. This is based on the fact
that, as demonstrated through numerical simulations, the abundance
of gravitational arcs with large length-to-width ratio (L/W) is strongly
dependent on cosmology. Different cosmological models predict differences of orders of magnitude in the expected number of giant arcs
(L/W > 10) on the whole sky.
At the Observatory of Bologna, we studied arc statistics using semianalytical and fully numerical methods. Apart from studying the impact of several cluster properties on the cluster ability to produce giant
arcs, we focussed our attention on the impact that the normalization
of the power spectrum of the primordial density fluctuations have on
the lensing efficiency. In Fedeli et al. (2008) we showed that the optical
depth for long and thin arcs increases by approximately one order of
magnitude when σ8 increases from 0.7 to 0.9, owing to a constructive
combination of several effects. Models with high σ8 are also several
orders of magnitude more efficient in producing arcs at intermediate
and high redshifts. Finally, we used realistic source number counts to
quantitatively predict the total number of arcs brighter than several
magnitude limits in the R and I bands.
The MUSIC project
People involved at OAB: Cappi.
A. Cappi is involved in the MUSIC project (MUlti-wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), in collaboration with S. Maurogordato
(PI), C. Benoist, A. Bijaoui, C. Ferrari, E. Slezak (Observatoire de la
Côte d’Azur), Hervé Bourdin (Università di Roma), M. Arnaud and
J-L. Sauvageot (CEA/CEN, Saclay). This project is based on optical
observations (ESO 3.6m and VLT, CFHT) and on X-ray observations
with XMM-Newton and Chandra, while complementary radio observations are carried out in collaboration with Luigina Feretti (INAF–
IRA Bologna). Now we dispose of a database of clusters in different
evolutionary phases, suited for a systematic statistical study and a
quantitative comparison with theoretical predictions.
Among the past published results we can mention A521, a complex,
relatively rich cluster at z ∼ 0.25, in the middle of two filamentary
structures (Maurogordato et al. 2000; Ferrari et al. 2003), and A3921,
for which we have shown that it is in the central phase of the merging
process, and that its population of star forming and post-starburst
galaxies appears to confirm the downsizing scenario (Ferrari et al.
Particularly remarkable is another Abell cluster, A2163, at a redshift z ∼ 0.2, which we observed with VIMOS at the VLT, obtaining
∼ 512 high-resolution spectra with excellent signal to noise ratio; 357
of them are associated with the cluster. Photometric observations
in 5 passbands with the [email protected] 2.2m telescope, have also been
reduced. A2163 is the hottest X-ray Abell cluster, with many gravitational arcs and with one of the largest radio halos ever detected. In
this work we have identified the main components and merger directions and estimated its dynamical mass, which is in good agreement
with the X-ray estimate (Maurogordato, Cappi, Ferrari et al. 2008).
A comparison of the optical results with X-ray data has also been
done in collaboration with H. Bourdin (Università di Roma), M. Arnaud and J.-L. Sauvageot (Saclay) (Bourdin et al. 2009).
In our most recent work (Sauvageot et al. 2009), we reconstruct the
merging history of three bimodal clusters (A2933, A2440 and A2384),
using optical and X-ray data and merger simulations.
An important aspect of the merging process on which we are focussing is how it can affect star formation in galaxies. Combining pho70
tometric and spectroscopic information, we are carrying out a more
detailed analysis, and we are investigating the star formation history
of A2163 in collaboration with Jarle Brinchman (Leiden).
Galaxy clusters in the CFHTLS
People involved at OAB: Cappi.
A. Cappi is also involved in an ongoing study of galaxy clusters detected in the Canada French Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS),
in collaboration with C. Benoist, C. Ferrari, S. Maurogordato, F. Martel, E. Slezak (Observatoire de Nice), Lisbeth Olsen (Dark Cosmology
Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark), C. Adami and A. Mazure (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France). The CFHTLS is a project
of the French community based on a large photometric survey carried
out with the wide field camera Megaprime. In particular, the Wide
Synoptic Survey consists of a photometric catalogue in five passbands
(u∗ g 0 r0 i0 z 0 ), complete to the magnitudine r0 = 25.7 on 172 deg2 . As
a first step of this project, at the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur a
database has been implemented: this database includes the cluster catalogue obtained through the matched filter technique (Olsen, Benoist,
Cappi et al. 2007, 2008). From the analysis of these clusters, photometric redshifts for member galaxies, profiles and luminosity functions
have been obtained. In another work (Adami et al. 2009, in press) we
have searched for clusters in deep and wide fields of the CFHTLS using photometric redshifts. This work has allowed us to build a large
catalogue of 1200 cluster candidates. In the end, these catalogues will
provide cluster samples with a completeness limit in mass, in order to
study cluster evolution and to constrain the cosmological parameters.
A search for Relics and Halos in the redshift range
z = 0.2–0.4
People involved at OAB: Bardelli, Zucca
This work is carried out in collaboration with T. Venturi, G. Brunetti
(INAF-IRA Bologna), D. Dallacasa, R. Cassano (Astronomy Dept.,
Univ. of Bologna), P. Mazzotta (Rome University), P. Rao (Pune, India), S. Giacintucci (CfA).
Figure 13: Left panel: X-ray hardness ratio image of the cluster RXCJ
2003.5−2323, with superimposed isophotes of the Chandra image. The
main subclumps are indicated. Right panel: X-ray hardness ratio image
with superimposed 610MHz-emission isophotes of the radio halo.
This year, we performed a multifrequency study of the cluster RXCJ
2003.5−2323, which hosts one of the largest, most powerful and distant radio halos known to date. This radio halo was discovered during
our survey at 610 MHz performed at the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and yielded a linear size of 1.4 Mpc and a total power
of log P610MHz (WHz−1 ) = 25.53. At radio wavelengths, this halo is
characterized by a very irregular surface brightness distribution, with
clumps and filaments, and by a synchrotron radio spectrum with a
= 1.27. We analysed also a 50 ks observaspectral index of α610MHz
tion performed by the Chandra X-ray satellite, and optical R band
images obtained with the ESO-NTT telescope.
From the combined multifrequency analysis, it resulted that the
hot gas temperature is 9.1 keV, and the surface brightness and hardness ratio X-ray images show substructures found also in the optical
galaxy density distribution. In particular, the central temperature is
10.2 keV, while that of the two greater clumps is 2.2 and 5.1 keV.
This supports the fact that RXCJ 2003.5−2323 is an unrelaxed cluster, experiencing a major, multiple merging. The irregular surface
brightness distribution of the radio halo could be explained both by
the clumpy distribution of the magnetic field and emitting particles
due to the turbulence of an early merging event, and by strong energy
losses due to the inverse Compton effect (efficient at the cluster redshift of ∼ 0.3). The work is described in Giacintucci et al. 2009, A&A
Properties of cooling cores in X-ray galaxy clusters
People involved at OAB: Ettori, Gitti.
In Ettori (2009), we present the estimate of the cosmic fraction of the
cooling cores (CC) in X-ray galaxy clusters, using three flux-limited
samples in the redshift ranges 0–1.3. We compute the cooling times
at the same radii of reference for the 105 objects in the 3 samples,
and compute the rate of objects with a cooling time lower than the
age of the universe by a fixed amount (also allowing for a period of
formation). We quantify the clear increment of Cool Core clusters
between z = 1 and the present. Under the less restrictive condition
tc /tage < 1, the fraction of CC is higher than 0.6 locally and up to
z ≈ 0.2, and then decreases down to zero at z ≈ 1. These rates
represent a stringent benchmark for the models of the formation and
evolution of unperturbed cooling cores in X-ray galaxy clusters.
In Kirkpatrick et al. (2009) we analysed a Chandra observation of
the galaxy cluster Abell 1664 (z = 0.128), finding that the star formation is consistent with fuelling by the cooling flow. The brightest
cluster galaxy (BCG) is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate
of ∼ 23 solar masses per year, suggesting that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low state of an AGN
feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and star formation.
In Kirkpatrick, Gitti, Cavagnolo, et al. (2009), we examined the
metallicity structure near the central galaxy of the Hydra A cluster
(z = 0.055) and along its powerful radio source by means of a deep
(∼ 200 ks) Chandra observation. We showed that the metallicity
of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the
radio jets and lobes compared to the metallicity of the undisturbed
gas. Evidently, Hydra A’s powerful radio source is able to redistribute
metal-enriched, low entropy gas throughout the core of the galaxy
cluster. The short re-enrichment timescale (< 109 yr) implies that the
metals lost from the central galaxy will be quickly replenished.
In Gitti et al. (2009) we jointly analysed Chandra, XMM-Newton
and new GMRT data of the X-ray bright compact group of galaxies
HCG 62, which is one of the few groups known to possess very clear,
small X-ray cavities in the inner regions. At higher frequency (1.4
GHz) the HCG 62 cavity system shows minimal if any radio emission,
but the new GMRT observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz clearly detect extended low-frequency emission from radio lobes corresponding
to the cavities. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of the Chandra
surface brightness and temperature profiles, we also identified a shock
front located around 35 kpc to the south-west of the group centre, with
a Mach number ∼ 1.45 and a total power which is about one order
of magnitude higher than the cavity power. Such a shock may have
significantly heated the gas close to the southern cavity, as indicated
by the temperature map.
This work is carried out in collaboration with F. Brighenti (University of Bologna), S. Borgani (Univ. of Trieste), P. Rosati (ESO),
J. Santos (INAF–Trieste Obs.), P. Tozzi (INAF–Trieste Obs.).
Metal abundance of the Intracluster Medium
People involved at OAB: Ettori.
The baryonic content of galaxy clusters is about 15 per cent of the
total mass and is distributed among a hot X-ray emitting phase and
a cold component mostly traced by stars. Such a cold component
is only 10 per cent of the total baryons, and is responsible for the
metal enrichment through star-forming activity. The ICM is a hightemperature, optically thin plasma in hydrostatic equilibrium. Its
emission is well modelled by a thermal bremsstrahlung continuum,
plus characteristic emission lines that depend directly upon the ion
abundances, i.e., assuming a collisional ionization equilibrium, on the
absolute element abundance and the plasma temperature. Due to
these simple properties, the X-ray determination of metal abundances
in the ICM is physically robust and reliable. As reference, the cluster
plasma with solar abundance contains 74 per cent of hydrogen in mass,
25 per cent of helium and about 1.2 per cent of heavier elements.
Baldi, Ettori et al. (2009) will present the analysis of the spatial
distribution of the iron in high-redshift systems as resolved with XMMNewton.
Recent work based on a global measurement of the ICM properties finds evidence for an increase of the iron abundance in galaxy
clusters with temperatures around 2–4 keV. We have undertaken a
study of the metal distribution in nearby clusters in this temperature
Figure 14: Upper panel: EPIC image of A2028 in the 0.5–2 keV energy
band (Gastaldello et al. 2009). Lower panel: iron and oxygen distribution
maps in four simulated clusters (Rasia et al. 2008).
range, aiming at spatially resolving the metal content of the ICM. In
Gastaldello, Ettori et al. (2009), we present the XMM-Newton observation of the first cluster of the sample, A2028, that reveals a complex
structure on a scale of ∼ 300 kpc and shows an interaction between
two sub-clusters in a cometary configuration (Fig. 14). A naive onecomponent fit for the core of A2028 returns a biased high metallicity.
This is due to the inverse iron-bias, which is not related to the presence in the spectrum of both Fe-L and Fe-K emission lines but to the
behaviour of the fitting code in shaping the Fe-L complex of a singletemperature component to adjust to the multi-temperature structure
of the projected spectrum.
In Rasia et al. (2008), we study the systematics affecting the
intra-cluster medium metallicity measurements through the analysis
of the faked X-ray observations of numerically simulated galaxy clusters (Fig. 14), finding that i) the iron is recovered with high accuracy
for both hot (T > 3 keV) and cold (T < 2 keV) systems; at intermediate temperatures, however, we find a systematic overestimate which
depends on the number counts; ii) oxygen is well recovered in cold
clusters, while in hot systems the X-ray measurement may overestimate the true value by a factor up to 2–3; iii) being a weak line,
the measurement of magnesium is always difficult; despite this, for
cold systems (i.e. with T < 2 keV) we do not find any systematic
behaviour, while for very hot systems (i.e. with T > 5 keV) the spectroscopic measurement may strongly overestimate the true value up to
a factor of 4; iv) silicon is well recovered for all clusters in our sample.
This work is carried out in collaboration with A. Baldi (CfA, INAFBologna Obs.), I. Balestra (MPE Garching), F. Gastaldello (INAFIASF Milano), P. Tozzi (INAF-Trieste Obs.), P. Mazzotta (Univ. of
Tor Vergata, Roma), S. Borgani (Univ. of Trieste), E. Rasia (Univ. of
Michigan), P. Rosati (ESO).
X-ray properties of high-redshift galaxy clusters
People involved at OAB: Ettori.
The study of the physical properties of galaxy clusters up to redshift
1.3 aims at investigating how the hierarchical formation of these structures occurs and evolves.
We have already collected and analysed the Chandra exposures of
about 70 objects with gas temperature larger than 3 keV and z > 0.3.
We are carrying on the analysis of their integrated X-ray properties to
update and extend the work on the gas mass fraction and the scaling
relations presented in Ettori et al. 2003, 2004a, 2004b. In Ettori et al.
(2009), we discuss the distribution of the gas mass fraction in X-ray
luminous galaxy clusters and its use as a cosmological tool. By using
only the cluster baryon fraction as a proxy for the cosmological parameters, we obtain that Ωm is very well constrained at the value of 0.35
with a relative statistical uncertainty of 11% (1σ level; w = −1) and
a further systematic error of about (−6, +7)%. On the other hand,
constraints on ΩΛ (without the prior assumption of flat geometry) and
w (using the assumption of flat geometry) are definitely weaker due
to the presence of greater statistical and systematic uncertainties (of
the order of 40 per cent on ΩΛ and greater than 50 per cent on w).
We discuss how our constraints are affected by several systematics,
namely the assumed baryon fraction in stars, the depletion parameter
and the sample selection.
This work is carried out in collaboration with A. Morandi (DARK
Univ. of Copenhagen), P. Tozzi (INAF-Trieste Obs.), S. Borgani (Univ.
of Trieste), L. Moscardini (Univ. of Bologna), P. Rosati (ESO).
Type II SN form 100 years into a decreasing density medium at 350000
yrs, when the SN shock reaches the cooling regime and the instabilities
inside the remnants clearly move out of the external shock. The case
includes the interaction with a spherical cloud of contrast density equal
10 with respect to the ambient medium, just in front of the main shock
at 100 yr
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: R. Bedogni, A. D’Ercole, P. Londrillo.
D’Ercole, in collaboration with F. D’Antona (INAF-OAR), E. Vesperini and S. McMillan (Drexel University-USA) worked out a model
of self-pollution of the globular clusters (GC) in order to explain the
chemical anomalies obseved in these clusters such as the O-Na and NgAl anticorrelations. In this model a second generation (SG) of stars
forms in the cooling flow within the GC originated by the ejecta of a
stellar first generation (FG) assumed already in place. This study focused on the hydrodynamics of the gas and the dynamics of the stars.
It is shown that that a FG ten times more massive than the today
GCs is needed in order to get enough eject to form the observed SG
population which forms mostly in the center. The successive dynamical relaxation produce a huge loss of FG stars and an homogeneization
of the radial SG stellar distribution. The chemical implications of this
model are currently studied.
D’Ercole, in collaboration with F. Brighenti and C. Melioli (Bologna University), is studying the feedback of a black hole on the
Bedogni studied of the evolution of the instabilities for Type II
SNe starting from the self-similar solutions at very early times. The
computations are extended for very late times when Type II Sne are
in the regime of cooling also in the case of absence of cloud. The
computations include the effects of cooling for the case of optically
thin medium until very late evolution times.
Londrillo carried out analytical and numerical research: (a) developing and publishing the MOND N-body code to study the stellar
dynamics of galaxies; (b) extending the ECHO MHD code to resistive
phenomena, taking into account cooling and external gravity, with applications to studies of the solar wind and of the interaction between
galactic fountains and warm haloes in disk-shaped galaxies.
Instruments and Technology
Infrared Test Camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Above: camera ‘flying’ to the telescope dome. Below: instrument installed on the
telescope focal station.
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, P.
Ciliegi, G. Clementini, E. Diolaiti, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci,
P. Montegriffo, L. Origlia, E. Pancino, V. Zitelli
• Technical staff: G. Bregoli, C. Ciattaglia, G. Innocenti, M. Lolli
• Contracts: G. Altavilla, E. Bellocchi, G. Cocozza, G. Lombardi,
M. Lombini, S. Ragaini, E. Rossetti
The GAIA project
People involved at OAB: G. Altavilla, M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C.
Cacciari, G. Clementini, G. Cocozza, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci, P.
Montegriffo, E. Pancino, S. Ragaini, E. Rossetti
The technical activity for Gaia, within the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), develops in the task of the absolute calibration of the Gaia photometric system and in the characterisation and
treatment of the variable sources with Gaia.
The absolute calibration of the Gaia photometric system requires:
i) the use of a large grid of Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS)
with accurate flux-calibrated SEDs, that are presently being obtained
from a dedicated ground-based observing campaign under the responsibility of E. Pancino, and ii) a calibration model and Java application
classes, presently being derived under the coordination of C. Cacciari.
Nearly half of the planned number of SPSS have been observed successfully and the data reduction is in progress, as well as the observations
of the remaining SPSS candidates. The calibration model definition
and test is proceeding well, with continuous refining and updating as
more detailed information is being provided by the other development
units of the project.
Members of the OAB are actively contributing to the Coordination Unit 7 (CU7), which is dedicated to the study of variable sources
with GAIA. In particular, G. Clementini manages the task Supplementary Observations for CU7 and the workpackage Cepheids/RRLyrae,
within the task Specific Object Studies. In 2008, G. Clementini also
became CU7 representative in the Ground Based Observation for Gaia
(GBOG) Working Group, which has the task of coordinating supplementary observations being collected by the different Gaia CUs. During 2008 the network of ground-based small/medium size telescopes
put in place to carry out supplementary observations for CU7 was
extended to include a few robotic telescopes. A letter of intent was issued to use the CU7 telescope’s network for the verification of the Gaia
alert system being put in place within CU5. A new fellow, Silvia Leccia, appointed at Napoli Observatory at the beginning of 2009, started
Java-coding the algorithms to validate and refine the classification of
Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. A revised version of the Cepheids and
RR Lyrae stars Software Requirement Specification document (GAIAC7-TN-OABO-GC-001-03) was posted on GAIA Livelink at the beginning of 2009.
This large and extensive work is documented in several technical
notes available in the Gaia Livelink (GAIA-C5-TN-OABO-SR-001,
GAIA-CD-PL-OABO-EP-002, GAIA-C5-TN-OABO-EP-003, the CU5
monthly Internal Reports, GAIA-C7-TN-OABO-GC-001-03) as well
as in numerous internal reports in the Wiki-BO.
This activity is in collaboration with Italian scientists in Napoli,
Padova, Roma, Teramo, and with the Gaia European nodes in Barcelona, Cambridge, Geneva, Leiden and Groningen.
On the CU5 photometric calibration, contributions have been provided also by the following students:
• Silvia Marinoni, PhD student, thesis title ‘Calibration plan, Quality Control and optimisation of data analysis for red and infrared
spectroscopic observations from TNG and other ground based
telescopes’, tutors B. Marano (Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna) and E. Pancino (OAB), expected completion beginning of
• Carmela Lardo, Master student, thesis title ‘Definition of strategy and procedures for ground-based data reduction and Gaia
absolute flux calibration’, tutors F.R. Ferraro (Astronomy Dept.,
Univ. of Bologna) and E. Pancino (OAB), completed in March
GIANO: an ultra-stable IR spectrometer for
People involved at OAB: P. Montegriffo, L. Origlia, E. Rossetti, M.
The recent development of high sensitivity infrared (IR) spectrometers
has opened a new window in astrophysics. The investigation of the 1 to
2.5 µm band has yielded the discovery of a wealth of diagnostic tools,
both in terms of absorption features and emission lines, which are
crucial for a thorough understanding of several hot topics of modern
astrophysics, from faint solar system objects and extra-solar planets
to stellar clusters and galaxies, up to the highest redshift quasars.
The much reduced extinction at these wavelengths allows IR spectrometers to pierce the dust embedding several Galactic and extragalactic objects, which are heavily obscured in the optical. At high
redshift several emission and absorption spectral features, commonly
exploited when studying local galaxies, are shifted into the IR. These
and several other advantages of IR spectroscopy have led to a rapid
growth of the community of astronomers, from essentially any scientific field, making use of these facilities. GIANO is an optimized near
IR spectrograph which can yield, in one shot, complete 0.9–2.5 µm
spectra at high resolution (up to R = 46000 with a 0.5” slit) maintaining a very high stability and throughput throughout the whole
This project is part of the Second Generation Instrumentation Plan
of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) located at Roque de Los
Muchachos Observatory (ORM), La Palma, Spain.
The core of GIANO is the spectrometer unit which uses, in double
pass, the same optical elements (3 aspheric mirrors) as collimator and
camera. These feed, through cross-disperser prisms, a commercial
23.2 ll/mm R2 echelle grating acting as high resolution disperser. All
these elements and the 20482 Hawaii-2 array are fixed to an optical
bench which will operate in vacuum at cryogenic and thermostated
temperatures. Measurements of circular and linear polarization can be
obtained using a combination of beam splitters and super-achromatic
retarders which can be inserted/rotated in the pre-slit optical system.
The GIANO team includes several Italian researchers and technicians from INAF (Bologna, Firenze, Catania Observatories, Fundacion
Galileo Galilei) and has collaborations with the Istituto Nazionale di
Figure 15: The GIANO cryostat.
Ottica Applicata (Firenze) and a few engineering companies. The
project management is undertaken in a coordinate way by L. Origlia
(Bologna) - Principal Investigator - and E. Oliva (Arcetri-FGG) Project Manager.
OAB is providing the high-level software of the instrument, to
fulfill all astronomy-related tasks and to act as an interface between
the low-level software and the astronomer/operator. It also provides
the scientific software, by including the observing block preparation
tools and the off-line data reduction pipeline.
During 2008 the assembly of the spectrometer optics was completed, and the process of alignment and test at both room and cryogenic temperatures started. The decision to let the GIANO cryogenic
system be controlled by an industrial PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) required additional software modules under the responsibility
of OAB. These modules were implemented and tested in the laboratory system.
Progress was also made with the data reduction software. During
2008 the main modules for the automatic spectrum extraction and
calibration were tested on simulated echellograms.
More details about the project can be found on the web page:
People involved at OAB: V. Zitelli, G. Lombardi
The site testing activity at OAB includes the analysis of instantaneous and long term records of meteorological data of astronomical
sites, with the aim of selecting the best site for the future large optical
telescopes. This activity is carried out in collaboration with several important teams such as University of Padova, Fundacion Galileo Galilei
and Instituto de Astrofı́sica de Canarias. It is also the subject of a
PhD thesis. This activity was funded in 2008–2009 by the European
Community Framework Programme 7 (FP7), in the framework of the
Work Package 5000 of the project ‘Preparing for the construction of
the European Extremely Large Telescope’.
At the time of writing, the sites of Paranal, ORM, and Mt.Graham
(Arizona, USA) have been analysed. The temperature gradient is an
important parameter because it is strongly correlated with the astronomical seeing and with the final quality of the astronomical observations. We found that temperatures at both Paranal and ORM
have an increasing trend, about 0.4◦ C/10year for Paranal and about
1◦ C/10years for ORM, a clear evidence of a climate change even in
sites located far from urban areas and above the temperature inversion layer. Taking into account a short time scale of hours, it is well
known that the image quality is strongly linked to the temperature
gradients between the main mirror and the external air. An improvement of the image quality can be reached by maintaining the mirror
temperature at the external air temperature taken at the same level
(horizontal gradient). We found also that vertical temperature gradients just outside the dome may affect the image quality: the TNG
images clearly deteriorate when differences in temperature between
the main mirror and ground level exceed 0.6◦ C. In addition to temperature, other important properties characterizing astronomical sites
are relative humidity, wind and air pressure. Regarding air pressure
in particular we found that the mean monthly value of this parameter
measured at 2 meter above the ground at Paranal shows a decreasing
dispersion throughout the years, with a reduction of about 70% from
1989 to 2006. The same analysis at ORM does not show the same effect. These different behaviours might be linked to wide scale climatic
episodes. In fact the mean annual temperature at Paranal is correlated with the so-called Southern Oscillation, a periodic change in the
atmosphere and ocean of the tropical Pacific region; the warm phase
of this oscillation is usually known as El Niño, the cold phase as La
Niña. A correlation was also found between the hourly mean values
of pressure and temperature; in both sites we found a clear seasonal
effect, although the correlation was found to be stronger at ORM than
at Paranal. A more detailed analysis is needed to conclusively confirm
this property, which could be of great benefit for adaptive optics and
mirror maintenance. These results were published in MNRAS 119,
Lombardi performed a detailed study of the Paranal Surface Layer
in situ, using several new generation instruments such as DIMM,
MASS, LuSci, SLODAR and Generalized-SCIDAR. The results were
published as internal reports of the Site Selection Committee of the
European Extremely Large Telescope, and were presented at the SPIE
meeting Astronomical Telescope and Instrumentation 2008.
People involved at OAB: E. Bellocchi, G. Bregoli, C. Ciattaglia, P.
Ciliegi, E. Diolaiti, G. Innocenti, M. Lombini
LINC-NIRVANA is a near infrared imaging interferometer for the
Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), a double 8.4m diameter telescope
located in Arizona, USA. It is built by a Consortium of German and
The beams collected by the two LBT apertures are corrected for the
effects of the atmospheric turbulence by two multi conjugate adaptive
optics systems, then co-phased in real time and combined inside a
cryogenic camera, where they interfere in the focal plane, following
an optical scheme known as Fizeau interferometry. LINC-NIRVANA
is expected to have unprecedented imaging performance in the near
infrared, both in terms of angular resolution and limiting magnitude,
thanks to the interferometric mode and to the large collecting area of
the two LBT apertures combined together.
The full resolution of LINC-NIRVANA will be recovered by multi90
Figure 16: Mid-High layer Wavefront Sensor of Linc-Nirvana, after the
integration and testing phase in the optical laboratory of OAB.
ple exposures of the same object, observed at different baseline orientations of the interferometer. The algorithms for the image combination
and reconstruction play a fundamental role. OAB is involved in the
definition of the science case and in the analysis of the observational
strategies, including the data reduction step.
In 2008, we continued our simulation and analysis of the expected
emission from galaxies at redshift z = 1–2. In particular, the main
parameters of the LINC-NIRVANA simulated galaxies (surface brightness, radial profile, galaxy sub-structure) have been analyzed using
standard software packages (IRAF and IDL). The results are reported
in Ciliegi et al. 2008. Moreover, in order to test the reconstruction
software in conditions of very high dinamical range, we started the
simulation and analysis of LINC-NIRVANA images with a bright star
in the centre (mag 6–8) and very faint objects (mag 20–24) in the
field. All the LN simulation work and analysis are still in progress,
in order to be ready when LINC-NIRVANA will start to produce real
scientific data in a few years from now.
Also in 2008, in the framework of the project ‘Science with LINCNIRVANA’ funded by INAF PRIN 2006, we granted a research contract to Dr. Enrica Bellocchi. She worked on the simulation of LINCNIRVANA images of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei described
OAB is also involved in the design, procurement and integration of
the wavefront sensors for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system
of LINC-NIRVANA. The first Mid-High layer Wavefront Sensor unit
(Figure 16), previously integrated in the optical laboratory of OAB,
was delivered to the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie – Heidelberg
in early 2008; our team supported the test phase in Heidelberg. The
second Mid-High layer Wavefront Sensor unit was integrated in 2009
and, at the moment of writing, is ready to be shipped to the MaxPlanck Institut für Astronomie.
This work is in collaboration with G. Cosentino, I. Foppiani, B.
Marano, L. Schreiber at the Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna.
A detailed description of the project can be found on the web page:
LBT Infrared Test Camera
People involved at OAB: G. Bregoli, C. Ciattaglia, E. Diolaiti, G. Innocenti, M. Lombini
The Infrared Test Cameras (IRTC) are two near infrared technical
imagers, designed for the commissioning of the Gregorian foci of the
Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The IRTC design is characterized
by three optical configurations, allowing to change the field of view and
the plate scale of the imager by automated repositioning of the camera
optics. This feature makes the IRTC a flexible instrument, well suited
to different working conditions, ranging from the commissioning of
the telescope in seeing-limited mode to the testing of the performance
of the LBT adaptive optics system, that requires a smaller field of
view with a very fine plate scale on the focal plane. The optics, the
mechanics and the control electronics are based on a custom design;
a commercial infrared camera, using a InGaAs sensor, was chosen as
The project was led by OAB (project coordinator E. Diolaiti) and
was carried out in collaboration with the Astronomy Dept. – Univ. of
Bologna (G. Cosentino, I. Foppiani) and the Max-Planck Institut für
Astronomie – Heidelberg.
The construction of these two technical imagers was completed
in early 2008, when the two instrument units were delivered and installed in their final locations, respectively in the test tower of the
Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri and at the LBT. Two pictures
of the instrument are shown on the cover page of this chapter.
More details about the project can be found on the web page
MAORY: an adaptive optics module for EELT
People involved at OAB: M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, E. Diolaiti, P.
Ciliegi, M. Lombini
MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY) is an adaptive optics module for the future 42m European Extremely Large Telescope
(E-ELT). The module is based on the so-called multi-conjugate adaptive optics technique, i.e. on the use of multiple levels of correction of
the atmospheric turbulence, in order to extend the corrected field of
view with respect to single-conjugate adaptive optics. In addition to
the deformable mirror integrated in the telescope, MAORY uses two
additional deformable mirrors optically conjugated at 4km and 12.7km
in the atmosphere. The real-time measurement of the turbulence is
carried out by means of six laser guide stars, generated by excitation
of the Sodium layer in the upper atmosphere. Natural guide stars
are also used, to complement the wavefront measurement provided by
the laser guide stars, that do not allow to measure some basic perturbations, such as the wavefront tilt associated to the image motion.
MAORY is expected to provide a corrected field of view of up to 2
arcminutes over the near infrared wavelength range 0.8–2.4µm. With
a seeing of 0.8 arcsec in the visible, the expected Strehl Ratio averaged
over a 1 arcmin field is approximately 50% at 2.16 µm wavelength over
50% of the sky at the Galactic Pole. MAORY has two output ports:
a gravity invariant port with mechanical field derotation feeding the
high angular resolution camera MICADO, and a vertical port to feed a
detached instrument on the telescope Nasmyth platform (Figure 17).
Candidate instruments for the vertical port are a single field and a
Figure 17: View of the Multi conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY)
on the E-ELT Nasmyth platform. The high angular resolution camera
MICADO is shown underneath the bench.
A two-year conceptual design study of the module is being completed at the moment of writing, in the framework of the E-ELT instrumentation phase A studies sponsored by the European Southern
Observatory (ESO). This study was led by OAB (principal investigator E. Diolaiti) and was carried out in collaboration with the Astronomy Dept. – Univ. of Bologna (G. Cosentino, I. Foppiani – system
engineer, B. Marano, L. Schreiber), with the INAF Astronomical Observatories of Padova and Arcetri, and with Office National d’Études
et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA). The study was supported
and funded by ESO (Agreement N. 16669/ESO/INS/07/17243/LCO)
and was assigned to the consortium led by OAB through a singlesource procurement process. The project was also funded by the
European Community through the Framework Programme 6 (‘ELT
Design Study’, contract N. 011863) and the Framework Programme
7 (‘Preparing for the Construction of the European Extremely Large
Telescope’, contract N. INFRA-2007-220.127.116.11).
The European Community FP7 funds allowed to support the research grants of M. Lombini (OAB, scientific responsible E. Diolaiti),
I. Foppiani and L. Schreiber (Astronomy Dept. – Univ. of Bologna,
scientific responsible B. Marano).
More details about the project can be found on the web page:
SIMPLE: a high resolution IR spectrograph
People involved at OAB: L. Origlia, A. Bragaglia, P. Montegriffo, E.
SIMPLE is the Phase A study of a high resolution near IR spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The
International Consortium includes the following Institutes: INAF Bologna, Arcetri and Roma Observatory, Uppsala University (Sweden), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile), Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Germany). Within the Consortium INAF
is the leading partner, also providing the Principal Investigator (L.
Origlia - INAF Bologna), the Project Manager (E. Oliva - INAF Arcetri) and the Instrument Scientist (R. Maiolino - INAF - Roma).
In 2008 we answered the Call For Proposal CFP/ESO/08/20579, Advanced Study of a new Instrument Concept for the European Extremely
Large Telescope (E-ELT) issued by ESO, and late in the year our Consortium was selected to undertake the SIMPLE study.
SIMPLE will be fully complementary to JWST, providing the missing high spectral resolution, and to ALMA providing the near IR high
resolution spectral counterpart. It will also be fully complementary
(in terms of spectral resolution and/or spectral coverage) to the other
E-ELT instruments currently under study. The instrumental concept
of SIMPLE is relatively easy (hence its name) and follows from a detailed study of existing high resolution optical spectrographs. For the
technical issues specific to cryogenic IR instruments we took advantage
of the information available for CRIRES and of the direct experience
we recently gained with the GIANO IR spectrograph for the TNG
(described in this report).
As current baseline, the spectrograph is vacuum cooled and thermostated at cryogenic temperatures, and it has a fixed position at the
telescope. It achieves a resolving power R = 105 with a spatial sampling of 9 milli-arcsec per pixel along the slit. It is assisted by adaptive
optics both to concentrate the light in the slit and to achieve spatial
resolution along the slit at the diffraction limit of the telescope. It
has two observing modes: single object, with complete 0.85–2.5 µm
spectral coverage in a single exposure, or long (4 arcsec) slit with partial spectral coverage. Spectral dispersion is obtained by a commercial
echelle grating with cross-dispersing prisms. The complete spectrum
fits on a 3 × 4k2 array mosaic.
The core of the spectrometer consists of a three-mirror anastigmat
which works in double pass and acts both as collimator and camera.
Cross dispersion is performed by means of 3 prisms in double pass,
which provide a minimum inter-order distance of 60 pixels (0.5”). The
detector is a mosaic of three 4096 × 4096 Hawaii-II RG arrays with
15µm pixels. The instrument needs to be cooled to liquid nitrogen
temperatures (≈ 70 K) to maintain the internal thermal background
seen by the detector below the dark current of the detector itself.
Finally, we note that a wide spectral coverage in a single exposure
is highly desirable for a proper quantitative spectroscopy aimed, for
example, at obtaining a complete screening of chemical abundances
in cool stars or extremely accurate radial velocity measurements for
extra-solar planet search. A wide spectral coverage is also crucial to
unveil the nature and physical properties of poorly explored objects,
such as e.g. very low mass dwarfs or transient objects.
Among the unique (i.e. feasible only with an ELT) science that will
become possible with SIMPLE, we mention the early nucleosynthesis
and chemical enrichment history of the inner Galaxy, the chemical and
kinematic properties of the stellar populations in Centaurus and Virgo,
the metal and dust content of the highest redshift Lyman alpha absorption systems, and the physics of exo-planet atmospheres. A near
IR high resolution spectrograph is also the ideal tool in other hot topics
of modern astrophysics, such as the characterization of planet atmospheres in the solar system, the search for exo-planets with habitable
conditions, the spectro-astrometry of circumstellar disks, the study
of stellar magnetic fields, the detailed investigation of the chemistry
and kinematics of cool stellar populations in different galactic environments. Having such a spectroscopic facility at an ELT, rather than on
existing 8–10m class telescopes, allows us to pick up and/or resolve
objects 3–4 mag fainter and/or at least 5 times more distant, and/or
enlarging the search volume by at least two orders of magnitude.
More details about the project can be found on the SIMPLE wiki
Loiano Observing Site
An internal view of the dome of the G.D. Cassini telescope at the
Loiano observing site
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: V. Zitelli
• Technical staff: S. Bernabei, G. Bregoli, I. Bruni, A. De Blasi,
R. Gualandi, G. Innocenti (retired 1, September 2008), I. Muzi.
• Fellows and contracts: S. Galleti
Loiano, observing site of the INAF-Bologna Observatory, is located at
785 m of altitude above sea level, at a distance of 37 km from Bologna.
The site, 23 hectares of wood, hosts 3 buildings: the 152cm and 60cm
telescopes, and the guesthouse. The person in charge of the Loiano
observing site is Valentina Zitelli.
The 152 cm telescope, dedicated to G.D. Cassini, was built by
REOSC and has been operating since 1976. A general description of
the Cassini telescope is given in Table 1.
The main focal instruments presently available at the telescope
1. BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object, Spectrograph and Camera), a
spectrograph/focal reducer based on transmitting optics ranging
from 330 to 1100 nm, equipped with an EEV2 1340 × 1300 CCD
camera and the possibility to choose between two sets of filters:
a standard Johnson-Kron-Cousins system and a Gunn system.
An Hα filter has also been made available.
2. A two-channel Photoelectric Photometer (3 colors).
BFOSC, the multipurpose instrument for spectroscopy and imaging belonging to the xFOSC family of instruments, has been the most
scheduled instrument, with about 90% of the total allocated time,
well matching the seeing and the variable meteo conditions of the
Loiano site. The user manual of BFOSC is available at the web page:
Two autoguiding systems are available: one for the telescope and
one for the rotation of the dome. The technical reports with the description of these systems are available at the web page:
Table 1. Cassini telescope
Main mirror diameter
Focal ratio (main mirror) F/3
equivalent focal length: 1200 cm
equivalent focal ratio: F/8
scale: 16.8 arcsec/mm
FOV: 70 arcmin
The 60cm telescope was built in 1933 by Zeiss of Jena. It
was originally equipped with a photographic camera at the f/3 direct focus, and around 1960 it was modified to an f/20 Cassegrain
system. At present it is equipped with a 5-colour photometer. A
new Marconi CCD camera (series 4710, 13µm pixel size, 1055 × 1026
pxs) is mounted at the Cassegrain focus modified by a focal reducer
to f/5.6, and is now permanently used for training undergraduate
students. A user’s technical report can be found at the web page:
This telescope is mainly used for educational activities and, during
the summer, also for outreach activities (see section Outreach and
Educational activities for more details).
Operations and use of the 152 cm telescope
People involved at OAB: Bernabei, Bregoli, Bruni, De Blasi, Gualandi, Innocenti (retired 1, September 2008), Muzi, Zitelli.
Fellows and contracts: Galleti
The 152 cm telescope is regularly used for scientific observations, and
is available for about 350 nights/year. The statistics of useful nights
for the last years are given in Table 2, where it is shown that about 30%
of the nights are lost to poor weather. Figure 18 shows the distribution
of the seeing. The median value is ∼ 2 arcsec, with several nights at
Figure 18: Histogram of the measured seeing at the 152cm telescope.
∼ 1.5 arcsec.
Table 2. Cassini Telescope – Nights used per year
used for test
not used (weather)
not used (technical)
Time is allocated every 6 months, starting in February and August.
Four technicians in turn guarantee the night-time technical assistance.
Loiano computer station
People involved at OAB: Bruni, Di Luca, Gualandi, Innocenti (retired
1, September 2008), Lolli.
After the installation in 2002 of the 2Mbit connection between the
Loiano Observatory and Bologna, a fibre optic link was installed, connecting the 152cm Loiano telescope, the old 60cm telescope and the
Images produced during observation runs can now be immediately
downloaded and made available to the observers. It is also possible
to pre-reduce the observed data with a PC in a local network. IRAF
packages are available and it is possible to implement other software
Applications to the 152cm telescope
The main observing programmes of 2008 at the 152cm telescope can
be summarized as follows:
• optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts;
• variable stars;
• detection of microlensing events;
• monitoring of variable sources (SNe, Novae, X-ray sources, etc.);
• photometry and spectroscopy of extragalactic objects;
• open clusters and globular clusters in our Galaxy and in nearby
• scientific observations coordinated with other projects (satellites,
WET, etc.). An example can be seen on the web page of the
WET Project (Whole Earth Telescope Project), where the list
of used telescopes is at the link:
• testing of prototypes and instrumentation for other telescopes
(i.e. the GASP polarimeter designed by M. Redfern, Galway
• practical training and workshops for students (Italian and foreign);
• outreach activities during special events.
The pressure factor (nights requested/nights available) is ∼ 1.4. In
total, 324 nights were allocated for observations. Of these, 44 (14%)
were spent on didactic observations by several Universities. Service
observing is offered and is becoming increasingly popular, 40% of all
nights being requested in this mode. Service observations were conducted during 72 nights in 2008 (∼22% of the scheduled time; this is
made possible by the presence of a resident astronomer).
The approved observing programs are listed below and included
several long term programs.
1. Altavilla G. et al.: GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability.
2. Baran A. (Cracow Pedagogical University) et al.: Mode identification by means of multicolor photometry and spectroscopy.
3. Bartolini C. (Univ. of Bologna) et al.: Fast Photometry of exoplanets and X-ray binaries.
4. Bonfanti C. (Ist. R. Steiner di Milano) et al.: Esercitazioni di
fotometria e spettroscopia di oggetti celesti.
5. Calchi Novati S. (Univ. of Salerno) et al.: Probing MACHOs by
observation of M31 pixel lensing.
6. De Martino D. (INAF-OAC) et al.: X-ray counterparts of hard
X-ray Intermediate Polar candidates.
7. Dolci M. (INAF-OATeramo) et al.: A coordinated effort towards
a well-sampled photometric and spectroscopic database of supernovae.
8. Dotto E. (INAF-OARoma) et al.: Visible photometric and spectroscopic investigation of E-type asteroids
9. Focardi P. (Univ. of Bologna) et al.: The role of environmentactivity relationship on galaxies.
10. Galleti S. (INAF-OABologna) et al.: A survey of remote and
peculiar globular cluster in M31.
11. Gavazzi, G. (Univ. of Milano Bicocca) et al.: A complete survey
of LINERS in the Virgo and Coma clusters.
12. Giovannelli, F. (INAF-IASF, Roma) et al.: Spectrophotometric
and photometric observations of X-ray binaries and interactions
13. Greco G. (Univ. of Bologna) et al.: Target of Opportunity of
Afterglows of GRBs.
14. Guarnieri A. (Univ. of Bologna) et al.: Target of Opportunity of
Afterglows of GRBs.
15. Maiorano E. (INAF-IASF, Bologna) et al.: Peering at the redshift of one GRB afterglow in Loiano.
16. Marano B. (Univ. of Bologna): Corso di strumentazione per
astrofisica, Modulo ottico.
17. Masetti N. (INAF-IASF, Bologna) et al.: Testing the extragalactic origin of INTEGRAL sources.
18. Meurs Evert J.A. (Dunsink Observatory) et al.: New runaway
objects among OB stars.
19. Meurs Evert J.A. (Dunsink Observatory) et al.: Nuclear magnitudes for active galaxies.
20. Norci L. (Dunsink Observatory) et al.: Spectroscopic Monitoring
of B[e] stars (FS CMa stars).
21. Palazzi E. (INAF-IASF, Bologna) et al.: Peering at the redshift
of one GRB afterglow in Loiano.
22. Poggiani, R. (Univ. of Pisa) et al.: Intranight variability of
gamma-ray loud blazars.
23. Poggiani, R. (Univ. of Pisa) et al.: Photometry and spectroscopy
of normal galaxies, active galaxies and nebulae.
24. Poggiani, R. (Univ. of Pisa) et al.: Post-outburst spectroscopy of
25. Polcaro, V.F. (INAF-IASF, Roma) et al.: Spectrophotometric
study of Very High Mass Stars.
26. Redfern M. (NUI Galway, Ir) et al.: Undergraduate Astronomy
27. Redfern M. (NUI Galway, Ir) et al.: Pulsar tests with NUIGalway GASP photopolarimeter.
28. Ripepi V. (INAF-OAC) et al.: Hα survey of the Kepler satellite
field of view.
29. Ripepi V. (INAF-OAC) et al.: A multisite photometric campaign
of the Pre-Main-Sequence δ Scuti pulsator V588 and V589 Mon
in the open cluster NGC 2264.
30. Romoli M. (Univ. of Firenze) et al.: Attività didattica per i Corsi
di Laurea in Fisica e Astrofisica.
31. Rossi C. (Univ. of Roma La Sapienza) et al.: Absolute luminosities and distances of late M and AGB stars in the galactic
32. Sakamoto T. (Japan Spaceguard Association) et al.: Short-period
Mira variable stars diagnostics for Galactic dymanics.
33. Scelsi L. (INAF-OAPalermo) et al.: Observations of candidate
members of the Taurus Molecular Cloud.
34. Shore S.N. (Univ. of Pisa) et al.: Monitoring of AG Dra and
Especially Active Symbiotic Stars.
35. Silvotti R. (INAF-OAC) et al.: Planets around evolved compact
The Bologna Observatory provides also the support necessary for their
degrees to students in Physics and Astronomy of National and European Universities. Both Loiano telescopes are used in a full immersion
stage, as described on the web page of the presentation of the courses
for Physics and Astronomy of the University of Galway in Ireland:
• List of applications for undergradate students of both Italian
and European degrees in Astrophysics:
1. Bonfanti C. (Milano Steiner): 2 nights
2. Gavazzi G. (Milano Bicocca): 10 nights
3. Marano B. (Bologna Univ.): 10 nights
4. Norci L. (Dunsink Observatory): 7 nights
5. Poggiani R. (Pisa Univ.): 2 nights
6. Redfern M. (NUI-Galway-IE): 8 nights.
7. Romoli M. (Firenze Univ.): 4 nights
8. Vianello G. (Bologna Univ.): 1 night Summer School
Loiano hosts equipment of the Solid Earth Physics group used to study
the Earth’s crust deformation and mean sea level. This research group
is interested in monitoring and measuring with high accuracy the longterm vertical crustal motions. Starting with the analysis of the Adriatic coast and of the Po valley, during the last eight years the group
have developed a permanent GPS network consisting of five stations
(Medicina, Bologna, Porto Corsini, Trieste and Loiano). The fibre link
connection provides continous information from GPS to the physics
group. This makes it possible to correlate and model the observed
seasonal fluctuations with environmental parameters.
Scientific production involving
the 152 cm Telescope
International refereed publications
1. Baran, A., Pigulski, A., O’Toole, S.J.: Mode identification for
Balloon 090100001 using combined multicolour photometry and
spectroscopy, 2008, MNRAS, 385, 255
2. Cortese, L., Minchin, R.F., Auld, R.R., Davies, J.I., et al.: The
Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey: II. A HI view of the Abell
cluster 1367 and its outskirts, 2008, MNRAS, 383, 1519
3. Costa, J.E.S., Kepler, S.O., Winget, D.E. , et al.: The pulsation
modes of the pre-white dwarf PG 1159−035, 2008, A&A, 477,
4. Focardi, P., Zitelli, V., Marinoni S.: Nuclear activity in galaxy
pairs: a spectroscopic analysis of 48 UZC-BGPs, 2008, A&A,
5. Gonzalez-Riestra, R., Viotti, R.F., Iijima, T., Rossi, C., et al.:
AG Draconis observed with XMM-Newton, 2008, A&A, 481, 725
6. Landi, R., Stephen, J.B., Masetti, N., Grupe, D., Capitanio,
F., Bird, A.J., Dean, A.J., Fiocchi, M., Gehrels, N.: The AGN
nature of three INTEGRAL sources: IGR J18249−3243, IGR
J19443+2117, and IGR J22292+6647, 2009, A&A, 493, 893
7. Malizia, A., Bassani, L., Bird, A. J., Landi, R., Masetti, N., de
Rosa, A., Panessa, F., Molina, M., Dean, A.J., Perri, M., Tueller,
J.: First high-energy observations of narrow-line Seyfert 1s with
INTEGRAL/IBIS, 2008, MNRAS, 389, 1360
8. Masetti, N., Mason, E., Morelli, L., Cellone, S.A., McBride, V.
A., Palazzi, E., Bassani, L., Bazzano, A., Bird, A.J., Charles,
P.A., Dean, A.J., Galaz, G., Gehrels, N., Landi, R., Malizia, A.,
Minniti, D., Panessa, F., Romero, G.E., Stephen, J.B., Ubertini, P., Walter, R.: Unveiling the nature of INTEGRAL objects
through optical spectroscopy. VI. A multi-observatory identification campaign, 2008, A&A, 482, 113
9. Muratorio, G., Rossi, C., Friedjung, M.: Analysis of the variability of the luminous emission line star MWC 314, 2008, A&A,
10. Negueruela, I., Marco, A., Herrero, A., Clark, J.S.: New very
massive stars in Cygnus OB2, 2008, A&A, 487, 575
11. Poggiani, R.: The early spectroscopic evolution of nova V458 Vul
(Nova Vulpeculae 2007), 2008, Astrophysics and Space Science,
12. Poggiani R.: Spectral evolution of nova V5558 Sgr (nova Sgr
2007): Pre-maximum and early decline stages, 2008, New Astronomy, 13, 557
13. Thoene, C.C., Kann, D.A., Johannesson, G., Selj, J.H., Jaunsen,
A., Fynbo, J.P.U., Baliyan, K.S., Bartolini, C., Bikmaev, I.F.,
Bloom, J.S., and 34 co-authors: Photometry and Spectroscopy
of GRB 060526: A detailed study of the afterglow and host of a
high-redshift gamma-ray burst, 2008, arXiv0806.1182T, submitted to A&A
14. Taubenberger, S., Hachinger, S., Pignata, G., Mazzali, P.A., et
al.: The underluminous Type Ia Supernova 2005bl and the class
of objects similar to SN 1991bg, 2008, MNRAS, 385, 75
15. Updike, A.C., Haislip, J.B., Nysewander, M.C., Fruchter, A.S.,
Kann, D.A., Klose, S., Milne, P.A., Williams, G.G., Zheng, W.,
Hergenrother, C.W., and 45 co-authors: The Rapidly Flaring
Afterglow of the Very Bright and Energetic GRB 070125, 2008,
ApJ, 685, 361
16. Viotti, R.F., Polcaro, V.F., Rossi, C., Montagni, F., Norci, L.,
Gualandi, R.: The Luminous Variable Stars in M 33, 2008, Society of the Pacific, 227
Published conference proceeding and circulars
17. Bragaglia, A.: The Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution
project (in short: BOCCE), 2008, MmSAI, 79, 365
18. Dall’Ora, M., Clementini, G., Ripepi, V., Kinemuchi, K., Greco,
C., Kuehn, C., Musella, I., Rodgers, C.T., Di Fabrizio, L., Beers,
T.C., and 4 co-authors: Stellar populations of the newly discovered satellites of the Milky Way, 2008, MmSAI, 79, 701
19. Greco, G., Terra, F., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A., Piccioni, A.,
Munz, F., Pizzichini, G., Nanni, D., Bruni, I.: GRB 080702A:
optical upper limit, 2008, GCN, 7977
20. Greco, G., Terra, F., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A., Piccioni, A.,
Munz, F., Pizzichini, G., Nanni, D., Shearer, A., Gualandi, R.:
GRB 080319B: optical upper limit, 2008, GCN, 7501
21. Greco, G., Terra, F., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A., Piccioni, A.,
Munz, F., Pizzichini, G., Nanni, D., Shearer, A., Gualandi, R.:
GRB 080319D: optical upper limit, 2008, GCN, 7500
22. Landi, R., Stephen, J.B., Masetti, N., Sguera, V., Grupe, D.,
Capitanio, F., Bird, A.J.: Multi-band properties of three unidentified INTEGRAL sources, Proceedings of the 7th INTEGRAL
Workshop, 8–11 September 2008 Copenhagen, Denmark. Online
23. Lutz, R., Schuh, S., Silvotti, R., Dreizler, S., Green, E.M.,
Fontaine, G., Stahn, T., Hügelmeyer, S.D., Husser, T.O.: Light
Curve Analysis of the Hybrid SdB PulsatorsHS 0702+6043 and
HS 2201+2610, 2008, ASPC, 392, 339
24. Lutz, R., Schuh, S., Silvotti, R., Kruspe, R., Dreizler, S.: Longterm photometric monitoring of the hybrid subdwarf B pulsator HS 0702+6043, 2008, Communications in Asteroseismology, Vol.157, p. 185–189
25. Maselli, A., Massaro, E., Nesci, R., Giommi, P., Sclavi, S.: Multifrequency observation of VLBL objects, 2008, Proceedings of
the Workshop on Blazar Variability across the Electromagnetic
Spectrum. April 22–25, 2008 Palaiseau, France. Published online at http://pos.sissa.it, p.77
26. Munz, F., Terra, F., Greco, G., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A.,
Piccioni, A., Pizzichini, G., Nanni, D., Galleti, S., Gualandi, R.:
GRB 080723A: optical upper limit, 2008, GCN, 8018
27. Munz, F., Terra, F., Greco, G., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A.,
Piccioni, A., Pizzichini, G., Nanni, D., Redfern, M., de Blasi,
A.: GRB 080325: optical upper limit, 2008, GCN, 7563
28. Parisi, P., Masetti, N., Landi, R., Bassani, L., Bird, A.J., Bazzano, A., Morelli, L., Galaz, G., Minniti, D.: Optical spectroscopic followup of soft X-ray sources within the error boxes of
two INTEGRAL objects, 2008, ATel, 1540
29. Polcaro, V.F., Viotti, R F., Norci, L., Maoileidigh, C.O., Meurs,
E.J.A.: Some Considerations on the HMXRB LSI +61 303, 2008,
ASPC, 388, 217
30. Terra, F., Munz, F., Greco, G., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A.,
Piccioni, A., Nanni, D., Pizzichini, G., Galleti, S., Bernabei, S.:
GRB 080430: optical observations, 2008, GCN, 8368
31. Terra, F., Munz, F., Greco, G., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A.,
Piccioni, A., Nanni, D., Pizzichini, G., Galleti, S., Bernabei, S.:
GRB 080430: optical observations, 2008, GCN, 7809
32. Terra, F., Greco, G., Bartolini, C., Guarnieri, A., Piccioni, A.,
Nanni, D., Pizzichini, G., Gavazzi, G., de Blasi, A.: GRB 080205:
optical observation, 2008, GCN, 7260
33. Sheehan, B.J., Butler, R.F.: Development and use of an L3CCD
high-cadence imaging system for Optical Astronomy, HIGH TIME
RESOLUTION ASTROPHYSICS: The Universe at Sub-Second
Timescales, 2008, AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 984, pp.
34. Silvotti, R.: The Subdwarf B + Giant Planet System V391 Peg:
Different Scenarios for its Previous Evolution, 2008, ASPC, 392,
35. Soubiran, C., Allende Prieto, C., Altmann, M., Bragaglia, A.,
Clementini, G., Frémat, Y., Heiter, U., Joliet, E., Pancino, E.,
Sartoretti, P., and 2 co-authors: Ground-Based Observations for
Gaia (GBOG), SF2A-2008, Proceedings of the Annual meeting
of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics Eds.: C.
Charbonnel, F. Combes and R. Samadi. Available online at
36. Viotti, R.F., Polcaro, V. F., Rossi, C., Montagni, F., Norci,
L., Gualandi, R.: The Luminous Variable Stars in M 33, 2008,
ASPC, 388, 227
Computer Centre and Computer
The XServe 2.8 GHz QuadCore Intel Xeon running the Observatory
mail service (top), and the Fujitsu-Siemens Primergy RX300 for the
GAIA project database (bottom)
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: R. Merighi;
• Technical staff: R. Di Luca, M. Gatti, M. Lolli, R. Policastro.
The Bologna Astronomical Observatory, hereafter OAB, is hosted in
two buildings belonging to the University of Bologna and shares these
spaces with The Department of Astronomy of the Bologna University.
The main network infrastructures belong to the University of Bologna
and are managed by CeS.I.A (Centro per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione
dei Servizi Informatici di Ateneo).
The computer network is constituted by two class C subnets, with
IP addresses belonging to the Bologna University domain. Network
lines in each of the two building previously mentioned are cabled on
two HP ProCurve 4208 vl network-switches owned by CeS.I.A. These
switches are fiber-connected (gigabit) with a HP Procurve 2824 routerswitch, interfaced with a Fortigate 400 firewall. The output line from
the firewall goes to the frontier-router. Both the firewall and the
frontier-router are owned and managed by CeS.I.A.
A third partitioned class C subnet, connects the Loiano Observatory and few offices still remaining in the former Observatory location,
in the old Observatory Tower.
In recent years, due to a lack of space in the buildings in use,
the OAB rented some external offices, hosting post-doc students and
laboratories. CeS.I.A. offered a laser bridge and micro-wave bridge to
connect these spaces to the internal network.
The computer centre hardware is composed by several Linux servers,
hosting the general services (dns, print server, IDL license manager,
web server) and intensive-computing facilities (two HP DS-20 and one
HP DS-25), by a HPC Beowulf Linux cluster for parallel computing
and about 200 personal workstations. OAB owns about 65% of these
About 40 PCs are dedicated to academic activity (informatics lab
and pre-graduate students) and 15 other PCs belong to the administrations of the two institutions.
Workstations are mainly dual boot Linux/Windows PCs. In the
last two years, old HP Alpha workstations have been progressively
substituted by Apple PowerMacs (dual-processor IBM PowerPC or
quad-processor Intel Xeon). Also several obsolete PC-Linux workstations have been replaced by Apple iMac (Intel Core 2 Duo). At
present the number of Apple Macs is about 50 units, servers, laptops
Printing facilities, managed by a Linux print server, are constituted
by 14 B/w laser printers, two color laser printers and one large format
The HPC Beowulf cluster, a joint venture between the OAB and
Department of Astronomy, is composed by 16 dual-processor Linux
computers, connected in a local gigabit network.
Computer centre improvements
People involved at OAB: Di Luca, Gatti, Lolli, Merighi, Policastro.
At the beginning of 2008 the decision was taken to locally host the
e-mail service, which was previously outsourced to Ces.I.A, to better
control the anti-spam service and users administration policies. For
this purpose, an Apple XServe, 2.8GHz Quad-Core Intel Xeon server
equipped with 4 GB RAM and 2TB disk space ( 3 x 2 TB Raid5 SATA)
was bought. The system hosts all Observatory users plus long-term
visitors and contractors. Several istitutional mailing lists are managed
and a mail web service has also been implemented. The system is daily
backupped on an external 1 TB disk, FireWire connected.
Two new HP Procurve 4208 vl switches with 6x24 10-100 MB ports
each plus 20x10-100-1000 MB ports replaced the old Cabletron 6000.
Also some Apple iMac, biprocessor 2.6 GHz Intel Core-Duo CPU,
350 GB SATA disk, and 1-2GB RAM have been chosen to replace Unix
computers. The performances and the integration of these devices
have been quite good. These all-in-one devices were also very much
appreciated from the noise and temperature dissipation point of view.
Five new Lexmark E450 DN laser printers were bought to replace
older HP 4050 Laserjet. A new Fujitsu-Siemens Primergy RX300 S4
server devoted to host a GAIA project database was added to the
People involved at OAB: Gatti, Lolli.
During 2008 the GIANO web pages (http://www.bo.astro.it/giano/)
were continuously updated.
Lolli updated the Loiano time request form.
Gatti is maintaining and improving the Administration’s web site.
Useful information has been made available, including a staff database,
different sets of forms for internal use and legislative references.
People involved at OAB: Di Luca, Gatti, Lolli, Policastro.
Besides all the activities described above, a large part of the work
of the computer centre staff has been, as usual, devoted to routine
activities such as hardware and software maintenance, failure management and user assistance.
Routine operations include:
• backup and user management on computers dedicated to datareduction
• supply of consumables (toners, paper for printers, magnetic supports for backup etc.)
• printer maintenance
• local network management
• administrative management of the computer centre (software
and hardware licenses, guarantees, purchases, maintenance contracts)
• updates and new installations of application software for astronomical reduction (MIDAS, IRAF etc.)
• management of the Observatory’s WWW server
A view of the library
People involved at OAB:
• Library staff: M. Marra.
During 2008 the Director of the library (Prof. G. Palumbo, Astronomy Dept., Univ. of Bologna) promoted a manifold activity aimed at
reaching new goals for the library, through the improvement of the
The main goals were defined as
• The practice of a first training activity for the local astronomy
students in the basics of astronomy documentation techniques
(after giving users a questionnaire, which showed that this activity was considered useful);
• Moving most of the library’s bibliographic collections in the reading room and stores, in order to rationalize some incoherences
which had occurred during previous years;
• The renewal – jointly agreed between Astronomical Observatory
and University Astronomy Department – of the outdated library
The first two goals were obtained, while the third one was started,
but then underwent a pause.
With regard to the training activity, Monica Marra has summarized the results of the questionnaire and proposed some organization,
through a report to the library director in January, and following talks.
Then, on 23 and 24 April, she and the librarian of the University Department, Raffaella Stasi, carried out two short training sessions on
how to use the NASA ADS and the national library catalogues respectively. Thirteen students attended the session about the ADS and the
following short practice session in the pc room, appearing to be actively involved, and answering questions correctly during the exercise
session. The moving of books and journals (grey literature excluded)
was made in the early Summer with the support of a professional unit
of moving personnel. Monica Marra contributed with a report dated
9 June on the monographs (detailing the amount of space needed, and
a possible distribution).
The everyday activity once again sees a leading place for the book
loan service, mainly aimed at the University students both of Astronomy, and of Physics and other scientific University departments.
About 40 document deliveries and a few inter-library loans confirm
the trends from previous years in this kind of services.
The library expenses made by INAF-OABO were stable as well,
and no cuts were made to the library budget on the INAF side.
Some university students have continuously helped the internal
personnel - which has not changed – with the library loan service.
Outreach and Educational Activities
Tunguska 1908: un asteroide colpisce la Terra..., 100th Anniversary
of the Tunguska event.
People involved at OAB:
• Scientific staff: S. Bardelli, R. Bedogni, A. Buzzoni, M. Bellazzini, A. Cappi, A. D’Ercole, E. Diolaiti, F. Fusi Pecci, S. Galleti,
R. Merighi, G. Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, V. Zitelli, E. Zucca.
• Technical staff: S. Bernabei, I. Bruni, A. De Blasi, R. Di Luca,
O. Diodato, R. Gualandi, G. Innocenti, M. Orlandi, R. Policastro, M. Ravaglia.
Popularization of astronomy and science is very important for every
society. Through outreach activities, public science education is improved, and interested citizens become able to follow the achievements
in science, which are not easy to follow these days. Therefore, the popularization of astronomy is not just a whim for astronomers, but to
some extent a duty. This is especially true for Bologna, where the
study of astronomy has a very long history, and where there are four
Institutes strongly involved in international projects in many cuttingedge fields of modern astronomy.
The Bologna Astronomical Observatory spends a large effort to
provide bridges between astronomy and the public, especially primary
and secondary level students, interested individuals, and also with
those who are unfamiliar with astronomy. The outreach activities
range from hands-on labs, to work done directly with students, public
astronomical observations, exhibitions, and public lectures.
In this programme, the long-term and stable partnership between
the Bologna Astronomical Observatory and the Astronomy Department of the University of Bologna is important, as are the collaborations with the Institute of Radio Astronomy, and with the amateur
astronomers of Bologna (Associazione Astrofili Bolognesi) and of San
Giovanni in Persiceto (Astrofili Persicetani) outside Bologna. Particularly notable is the intense collaboration started four years ago with
the Marino Golinelli Foundation, that organizes La Scienza in Piazza,
or A Town Square for Science, a format to bring Science to the people
in the places where the people are, the city squares.
The outreach activities during 2008 were:
• Col Favore del Buio;
• Il giorno del Sole, 8 June;
• BoSky 2008 ;
• Guida al cielo con il laser nella Città dello Zecchino;
• La Scienza in Piazza;
• Tunguska 1908: un asteroide colpisce la Terra, 23–24 October;
• Federico Delpino. Astronomo, Informatico, Amico, 27 November;
• Occultation of Venus, 1 December.
The educational activities in the same period were:
• Il Big Bang e la Cosmologia della Divina Commedia, XVIII Science Week, 6 March;
• Il destino dell’Universo, IX Astronomy Week, 13 May;
• Giampietro Puppi Prize;
• The Planetarium;
• Parco delle Stelle;
• Conferenze alla Specola.
Col Favore del Buio
People involved at OAB: I. Bruni, A. De Blasi, S. Galleti, R. Gualandi, G. Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, V. Zitelli.
Twelve years ago the collaboration between the OAB and the Council for Culture of the Province of Bologna led to the creation of the
Col Favore del Buio event. This is a programme to visit the telescopes, radio telescopes, planetariums and astronomical museums of
The event is organized by the OAB and proposes guided tours to
the Loiano Observatory, the Radio Astronomy Observatory of Medicina, the Museum of the Specola, the amateur observatories of San
Giovanni in Persiceto and Monte San Pietro, the Planetarium and the
Meteorite Collection of San Giovanni Persiceto, and the Educational
Laboratory of the Planetarium Didactic Classroom of the Bologna
City Council. The visitors, in 2008, were over 20,000.
The event gives people the opportunity to observe through the 60
cm telescope of the Loiano Observatory. These sessions are mainly
for visual viewing, and an astronomer introduces celestial tourists to
stars, planets and other heavenly bodies. For the year 2008, 55 nights
were scheduled and over 2500 people observed and speculated about
Il giorno del Sole — 8 June
People involved at OAB: S. Bardelli, I. Bruni, R. Bedogni, A. De Blasi,
R. Di Luca, O. Diodato, F. Fusi Pecci, R. Gualandi, G. Parmeggiani,
F. Poppi, V. Zitelli, E. Zucca.
After the first successful edition in 2007, OAB and the Council for
Culture of the Province of Bologna decided to organize, on 8 June
2008, the second edition of the “Sun-day” in the Villa Smeraldi Park, a
beautiful park near Bologna, with a Solar System exhibition, lectures,
projections, solar telescopes, an educational laboratory for primaryschool students, a musical show, and a laser tour of the sky in the
evening. Thanks also to the fine weather conditions on that Sunday,
more than 500 people and children attended the event.
People involved at OAB: S. Bardelli, R. Bedogni, I. Bruni, A. Cappi,
A. De Blasi, R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, R. Gualandi, G. Parmeggiani,
OAB has organized, with the support of the Bologna City Council and
of the Sofos association, in the framework of the summer event Bé –
Bologna estate, three events to promote public awareness of astronomy:
Con il laser tra le stelle. On 22 July a night-sky observation was organized at the Giardini Margherita park of Bologna. A laser beam
was used to identify and describe major stars or naked-eye objects
in each constellation (i.e. “Betelgeuse is a red super-giant star”, or,
“that fuzzy patch is the Andromeda galaxy”), to draw the constellation patterns, and to find the North Star and deep-space objects.
Interesting astronomical images were projected on a screen to support
the explanation. Those event were led by F. Fusi Pecci. More than
600 people attended the event.
E lassù che c’è? In viaggio tra le stelle con il planetario-mobile. In
July, the new Digital Planetarium with inflatable dome of the OABo
was used for six days in two different locations in Bologna, the Baraccano and the Casalone. With constellation and planet identifications,
the shows also addressed seasonal events and visible phenomena. All
sessions were fully booked.
Stasera recita l’Universo. During the summer, five public lectures were
held in Piazza Verdi, the centre of the University area, within walking distance of the city centre. The multidisciplinary lectures aimed
to focus in a non-technical way on some of the foremost astronomical questions of our day, and to investigate the connections between
astronomy and other disciplines such as mathematics, geophysics and
poetry. The lectures, delivered by talented speakers, were highly stimulating. Over 100 people attended every lecture.
Guida al cielo con il laser nella Città dello Zecchino
People involved at OAB: R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, F. Poppi.
On 12 September, observations of the night sky with the laser were
held from the Osservanza Hill, above Bologna city centre, during the
Zecchino event. The event was attended by about a hundred children
with their families, and was led by F. Fusi Pecci.
La Scienza in Piazza
People involved at OAB: S. Bardelli, R. Bedogni, I. Bruni, C. Ciattaglia,
A. De Blasi, R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, S. Galleti, R. Gualandi, G.
Innocenti, G. Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, M. Ravaglia, V. Zitelli.
During 2008 OAB has continued its collaboration with the Marino
Golinelli Foundation, that organizes La Scienza in Piazza, A Town
Square for Science. This is an activity addressed to schools, in order
to promote a responsible approach amongst the young generations,
with a format whose goal is to carry Science through cities, towns, and
villages, transforming them in open air Science Centres. La Scienza
in Piazza wishes to promote a general critical awareness of scientific
developments, and a positive perception of science.
The 2008 edition involved several towns located in Emilia-Romagna;
each location was dedicated to a specific subject. In particular, there
was the second edition of La Scienza in Piazza in Loiano. The planetarium, astronomical exhibits (Origine e Evoluzione del Sistema solare
and What is your weight on the planets? ), observations of the night
sky with the 152cm Telescope, hands-on activities (Build a scale model
of the Solar system) and public lectures were the main activities of the
Several thousands of visitors actively participated in the activities
Tunguska 1908: un asteroide colpisce la Terra
— 23–24 October
People involved at OAB: R. Bedogni, A. De Blasi, R. Di Luca, M.
Orlandi, F. Fusi Pecci, G. Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, V. Zitelli.
On 30 June 1908 a huge blast over the remote Siberian area of Tunguska flattened trees over an area of 2000 square kilometres and produced booming sounds, seismic effects and bright night skies through
much of Europe and central Asia. Most researchers think it was
caused by an incoming stony asteroid exploding about 5 to 10 kilometres above the ground as it careened through the atmosphere. It was
the largest impact of extraterrestrial origin recorded in historic times.
OABo, in collaboration with ISMAR-CNR researchers who have found
what may be an impact crater made by the extraterrestrial object, organized a two-day public conference at the S. Lucia apse hall with
international guests, including cosmonaut Georgi Grecko who investigated the phenomenon himself in the Sixties. The topics were the
Tunguska event and also the NEO studies. A meteorite exhibition
and lectures for secondary students were organized at the same time
at the Bologna CNR-Area. Over 400 people attended the conference,
and 200 students visited the exhibition.
Federico Delpino. Astronomo, Informatico, Amico —
People involved at OAB: R. Bedogni, O. Diodato, F. Fusi Pecci, G.
Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, V. Zitelli.
A conference about Information Technology in Astronomy to commemorate Federico Delpino, who passed away suddenly in 2007. The
Specola main hall was full of people remembering their friend and
Venus occultation — 1 December
People involved at OAB: R. Bedogni, R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, G.
Parmeggiani, F. Poppi.
On 1 December, 50 people observed the Venus occultation by the Moon
at the amateur astronomer site in Bologna (AAB). The weather was
rather cloudy and it was very cold, but the images of the occultation
were also captured with a digital camera and projected on a large
monitor. Additional AAB telescopes were available for direct observation of the phenomenon. The observation was led by R. Bedogni,
P. Battistini and F. Fusi Pecci.
Il Big Bang e la Cosmologia della Divina Commedia
— XVIII Science Week, 6 March
People involved at OAB: R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, G. Parmeggiani,
OAB participated in the National Science Week promoted by MIUR
with a public lecture on a new interpretation of Dante’s cosmology by
Roberto Buonanno. The conference was hosted in the Specola main
hall and was attended by 90 people.
Il destino dell’Universo — IX Astronomy Week, 13
People involved at OAB: R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, G. Parmeggiani,
OAB participated in the National Astronomical Week promoted by
MIUR with a public lecture on the cosmological aspects of our Universe. The speaker was Roberto Buonanno, and the beautiful Baraccano hall saw over 100 people in attendance.
Giampietro Puppi Prize
People involved at OAB: R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, G. Parmeggiani,
In 2007, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the launch of
the first satellite, the Marino Golinelli Foundation issued a call for
candidates to the Giampietro Puppi Prize for the best annual PhD
Thesis on a topic in Physics or AstroPhysics. One year later, on 25
October, the prize-giving ceremony was held in the beautiful location
of the great Baraccano hall. The winner of the cash prize of 3000
euros was Dr. Fabrizio Baroni from Florence University. The thesis
title is “Entanglement bipartito nella catena XY in campo trasverso”.
Amongst the over thirty theses received, the committee decided that
three were eligible for an honourable mention; the authors are: Simona
Gallerani, Oriana Mansutti, and Laura Valore. There will be also a
second and a third edition of the Prize in 2009 and 2010.
People involved at OAB: A. De Blasi, R. Di Luca, F. Fusi Pecci, G.
Parmeggiani, F. Poppi.
Thanks to a financial grant from MIUR, OAB bought a Digital Planetarium with inflatable dome, where 25 students can attend a show on
the sky, and also a voyage across the planets and stars and galaxies,
thanks to new digital technology. The Planetarium was brought to
schools on several occasions, and every time all of the shows were full.
Parco delle Stelle
People involved at OAB: S. Bernabei, I. Bruni, A. De Blasi, S. Galleti,
R. Gualandi, G. Parmeggiani, V. Zitelli.
The Parco delle Stelle is an educational park developed by the OAB
for students and the general public. It was built with a grant from
the MIUR in the park surrounding the telescopes at Loiano. Exhibits
• Solar system model. In order to understand the dimensions of
our planetary system and the distances to the various planets,
the OAB, in collaboration with the AD, has built a scale model
of the Solar System. It starts from the 152cm telescope building
and follows a path in the forest, reaching the dome that hosts
the 60cm telescope. One metre along this path corresponds to 15
million kilometres. To give a better idea of the dimensions of the
planets and of the Sun, there is a second unit of measure with
one centimetre corresponding to 7000 kilometres. The model is
very useful to give people a better understanding of the locations
and sizes of objects in the Solar system.
• Solar telescope. A Coronado solar telescope allows people to see
the Sun in Hα light and understand its physical characteristics.
• Sundial. A modern sundial has been built to show how the Sun
moves in the sky.
• Cosmic Calendar. In The Dragons of Eden, Carl Sagan proposed to put the history of the universe, all 13 billion years of it,
into just one year, with the Big Bang occurring in the first few
seconds of New Year’s Day, and all our known history occurring
in the final seconds before midnight on 31 December. Using this
scale of time, each month would equal a little over a billion years.
In the Cosmic Calendar exhibit we have used the suggestion of
Sagan and created a path with a panel for each month of the
year along the path that leads to the 60cm dome. This activity
helps students to understand how human activities fit into the
grand scale of cosmic time.
The Parco delle Stelle is always open and, upon reservation, it is
possible to arrange guided tours for schools.
The 60cm telescope can be visited throughout the Col Favore del
Buio, and the 1.52 m telescope (G.D. Cassini) is open to the general
public only the first Saturday of each month and to schools at any
time of the year, upon reservation.
Conferenze alla Specola
People involved at OAB: S. Bardelli, R. Bedogni, A. Buzzoni, A.
Cappi, R. Di Luca, O. Diodato, M. Orlandi, F. Fusi Pecci, G. Parmeggiani, F. Poppi, E. Zucca.
On the first Thursday of every month, at the Specola, the old Observatory of Bologna in the town centre, there is a lecture on an astronomical subject. The audience is mainly formed by high-school
students. On average 80/90 people attend each lecture. The texts of
the lectures are available on the web page of the Observatory.
Educational and Public Outreach
Bardelli held public lectures at the UPAD in Bolzano and at the
Castello di Serravalle for the Calici di stelle event.
Bedogni held lectures for the astronomical summer school in Saltara,
21–25 July; lectures for the Primo Levi course at the University of
Bologna; public lectures at the Modena Council, in San Giovanni in
Persiceto and in Riccione.
Buzzoni held lectures at the Planetarium U. Hoepli in Milan and at the
Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisica National University in
La Plata (Argentina)
Zucca held lectures for a high school in Ovada.
D’Ercole is the editor of the Spigolature astronomiche column that
appears in Giornale di Astronomia.
Parmeggiani is the books page editor of Giornale di Astronomia.
Cappi, D’Ercole, Bedogni, De Blasi, Lolli, Orlandi, Parmeggiani, and
Poppi reviewed books for Giornale di Astronomia during 2008.
A. De Blasi, Dal caso Tunguska a 99942 Apophis. Quando il pericolo
arriva dal cielo, Bologna 2008
e-articles and web pages
AA.VV., Eventi & Divulgazione all’Osservatorio,
List of Publications
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INVITED PAPERS & REVIEWS IN 2008
1. Bellazzini M., 2008, The Tip of the Red Giant Branch, in XXI
Century Challenges for Stellar Evolution, S. Cassisi & M. Salaris
Eds., Mem. SAIt. 79, 440
2. Carretta E., 2008, Surface abundances and constraints on extramixing in RGB field/GC stars, Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana, v.79, p.508
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7. Ettori S., 2008, ”The evolution of the cooling cores in X-ray
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Cold gas accretion in galaxies, Astron. Astrophys. Review 15,
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1. Altavilla G., 2008, “Instrument Absolute Response Characterisation: Ground-Based Preparation”, in Gaia Data Processing
& Analysis Consortia, CU5M05 meeting
2. Bellazzini M., Ciliegi P., 2008, MCAO scientific performance
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performance, MAORY Technical Report E-TRE-INA-528-0007
4. Foppiani I., 2008, Cost assessment, MAORY Technical Report
E-TRE-INA-528-0003 Issue 1
5. Greco G., Terra F., Bartolini C., Guarnieri A., Piccioni A., Munz
F., Pizzichini G., Nanni D., Bruni I., 2008, GRB 080702A: optical upper limit., GRB Coordinates Network 7977, 1
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F., Pizzichini G., Nanni D., Shearer A., Gualandi R., 2008,
GRB 080319D: optical upper limit., GRB Coordinates Network
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F., Pizzichini G., Nanni D., Shearer A., Gualandi R., 2008,
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C. et al., 2008, GAIA-PR-OATo-0001: Progress Report for PM2
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laser guide star wavefront sensor prototype, FP7 E-ELT PREP
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2008, GAIA-C5-TN-OABO-SR-001: Absolute calibration of G
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12. Munz F., Terra F., Greco G., Bartolini C., Guarnieri A., Piccioni
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GRB 080723A: optical upper limit., GRB Coordinates Network
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A., Nanni D., Pizzichini G., Galetti S., Bernabei S., 2008, GRB
080430: optical observations., GRB Coordinates Network 8368,
14. Terra F., Munz F., Greco G., Bartolini C., Guarnieri A., Piccioni
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NON REFEREED PAPERS 2008
1. Aloisi A., Clementini G., Tosi M., Annibali F., Contreras R.,
Fiorentino G., Mack J., Marconi M., Musella I., Saha A., Sirianni
M., van der Marel R. P., 2008, A New Age and Distance for I
Zw 18, the Most Metal-Poor Galaxy in the Nearby Universe, IAU
Symposium 255, 387
2. Andreuzzi G., Bragaglia A., Tosi M., 2008, TNG photometry
of the old open clusters Berkeley 20 and Berkeley 66, Memorie
della Società Astronomica Italiana 79, 657
3. Annibali F., Aloisi A., Mack J., Tosi M., van der Marel R. P.,
Angeretti L., Leitherer C., Sirianni M., 2008, New HST/ACS
Data of the Starburst Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449, Galaxies in
the Local Volume, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings,
Volume . ISBN 978-1-4020-6932-1. Springer Netherlands, 2008,
p. 269 269
4. Arcidiacono C., Lombini M., Ragazzoni R., Farinato J., Diolaiti
E., Baruffolo A., Bagnara P., Gentile G., Schreiber L., Marchetti
E., Kolb J., Tordo S., Donaldson R., Soenke C., Oberti S.,
Fedrigo E., Vernet E., Hubin N., 2008, Layer oriented wavefront
sensor for MAD on sky operations, SPIE Conference Proceedings 7015,
5. Ballero S. K., Matteucci F., Origlia L., 2008, Formation and
evolution of the Galactic bulge: constraints from stellar abundances, The Metal-Rich Universe 460
6. Beccari G., Pulone L., Ferraro F. R., Lanzoni B., Fusi Pecci F.,
Rood R. T., Giallongo E., Ragazzoni R., Grazian A., Baruffolo
A., De Santis C., Diolaiti E., Di Paola A., Farinato J., Fontana
A., Gallozzi S., Gasparo F., Gentile G., Green R., Hill J., Kuhn
O., Menci N., Pasian F., Pedichini F., Smareglia R., Speziali
R., Testa V., Thompson D., Vernet E., Wagner R. M., 2008,
The BSS and binary content of NGC 5024 (M53): a combined
LBT/HST study., Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana
7. Bellazzini M., Perina S., Galleti S., Federici L., Buzzoni A.,
Fusi Pecci F., 2008, Open clusters in the log Age vs. M V plane,
Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana 79, 663
8. Bellocchi E., Pozzi F., Fritz J., Comastri A., Vignali C., Mignoli
M., 2008, SPITZER observations of luminous obscured Quasars,
8th National Conference on AGN
9. Bettarini L., Landi S., Lapenta G., Londrillo P., Velli M., 2008,
Competing nonlinear mechanisms in the dynamics of current
sheet-stream interactions in the solar environment: 3D fluid and
kinetic simulations, 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 37, 270
10. Bongiorno A., Mignoli M., Zamorani G., Lamareille F., Contini T., and the zCOSMOS team, 2008, Optically selected type-2
AGN: preliminary results from the COSMOS survey., Memorie
della Società Astronomica Italiana 79, 1267
11. Bongiorno A., Mignoli M., Zamorani G., and the zCOSMOS
Team, 2008, Type-II AGN population from the zCOSMOS survey, 8th National Conference on AGN
12. Botticella M. T., Cappellaro E., Riello M., Greggio L., Benetti
S., Patat F., Turatto M., Altavilla G., Pastorello A., Valenti
S., Zampieri L., Harutyunyan A., Pignata G., Taubenberger S.,
2008, STRESS Counting Supernovae, The Messenger 134, 25
13. Bragaglia A., 2008, The Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution project (in short: BOCCE), Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana 79, 365
14. Bragaglia A., Carretta E., Gratton R., Tosi M., 2008, Old
and very-metal-rich open clusters in the BOCCE project, The
Metal-Rich Universe 88
15. Carlson L. R., Sabbi E., Sirianni M., Hora J. L., Nota A.,
Meixner M., Gallagher J. S., Oey M. S., Pasquali A., Smith L. J.,
Tosi M., Walterbos R., 2008, Star Formation in the SMC Young
Cluster NGC 602: Spatial and Temporal Distribution, Galaxies
in the Local Volume, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, Volume . ISBN 978-1-4020-6932-1. Springer Netherlands,
16. Carretta E., 2008, Surface abundances and constraints on extramixing in RGB field/GC stars, Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana 79, 508
17. Cassisi S., Bragaglia A., Gratton R., Milone A., Piotto G.,
Renzini A., 2008, Evidence for Sub-Populations in Globular Clusters: Their Properties and Relationship with Cluster Properties,
The Messenger 134, 13
18. Cignoni M., Tosi M., Bragaglia A., Kalirai J. S., 2008,
Color-magnitude diagrams at low Galactic latitudes ., Memorie
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zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: the role of environment and stellar
mass in shaping the rise of the morphology-density relation from
z ∼ 1, 2009, A&A 503, 379
135. Tosi M., 2009, Chemical composition and evolution of irregular
and blue compact galaxies. The dawn of a thirty year journey.
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136. Trump J. R., Impey C. D., Elvis M., McCarthy P. J., Huchra
J. P., Brusa M., Salvato M., Capak P., Cappelluti N., Civano
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Kelly B. C., Lilly S. J., Schinnerer E., Scoville N. Z., Smolčić
V., 2009, The COSMOS Active Galactic Nucleus Spectroscopic
Survey. I. XMM-Newton Counterparts, ApJ 696, 1195
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Survey: Physical properties of systems in their post-starburst
phase, A&A, in press (arXiv:0909.1968)
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Bellocchi E., Fiore F., Brusa M., Maiolino R., Mignoli M., La
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HELLAS2XMM survey - XII. The infrared/submillimetre view
of an X-ray selected type 2 quasar at z 2, MNRAS 395, 189
139. Zoccali M., Pancino E., Catelan M., Hempel M., Rejkuba M.,
Carrera R., 2009, The Radial Extent of the Double Subgiant
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Pozzetti L., Mignoli M., [...], Vergani D., [...], Coppa G.,
[...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, The zCOSMOS survey: the role of
the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of
different galaxy types, A&A, in press (arXiv:0909.4674)
INVITED PAPERS & REVIEWS IN 2009
1. Bellazzini M., 2009, The Red Giant branches and Asymptotic Giant Branches of Simple Stellar Population, The Giant
Branches Workshop, Leiden, The Netherlands, May 11-15, 2009
2. Bragaglia A., 2009, The quite complex Simple Stellar Populations of Globular Clusters IAU Symp. 268, Light elements in the
Universe, eds C.Charbonnel, M.Tosi, F.Primas, C.Chiappini, in
3. Bragaglia A., 2009, Open Clusters as Tracers of the Galactic
Disk Review talk at ”The Milky way and the Local Group Now
and in the Gaia Era”, Heidelberg 31 Aug-4 Sep. 2009, text at:
4. Cacciari C., 2009, GAIA: the mission and (some of ) its scientific applications, Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana,
5. Cacciari C., 2009, The promise of Gaia and how it will influence stellar ages. The Ages of Stars, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, Volume 258, p.
6. Carretta E., 2009, Observations of chemical evolution along the
RGB, Workshop ”The giant branches”, Lorentz Center, Leiden,
11-15 May 2009, http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2009/324/Tuesday/Carretta.pdf
7. Cignoni M., Tosi M., 2009, Star formation histories of dwarf
galaxies from the Colour-Magnitude diagrams of their resolved
stellar populations, in “Dwarf Galaxies and Cosmology”, eds.
R.Schulte-Ladbeck, U.Hopp, Special Issue of Advances in Astronomy (Hindawi), in press
8. Clementini, G., 2009, Pulsating variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, in “The Magellanic System: Stars, Gas, and Galaxies”, eds. J. van Loon & J. Oliveira, Cambridge University Press
9. Smith, H.A., Catelan, M., Clementini, G., 2009, RR Lyrae
variables in stellar systems, in “Stellar Pulsation: Challenges
for Theory and Observation”, eds. J.A. Guzik & P/A. Bradley,
American Institute of Physics, in press
10. Clementini, G., 2009, RR Lyrae stars in dwarf spheroidal
galaxies, in “Variable Stars, the Galactic Halo and Galaxy formation”, eds. N. Samus, C. Sterken, L. Szabados, Sternberg
Institute, in press
11. Ettori S., 2009, ”Cluster outskirts, mass profiles and concentrations”, Sesto (It), WFXT Collaboration Meeting
12. Ettori S., ”The ICM metallicity from z=0 to z=1.3: observations & a model”, Leiden (Nl) The Chemical Enrichment of the
IGM/ICM, 28 May 2009,
13. Ettori S., 2009, ”Masses and outskirts in X-ray galaxy clusters”, Marseille (Fr), CosmoClusters
14. Romano D., 2009, in Light Elements in the Universe, Proceedings of IAU Symp. 268, C. Charbonnel, M. Tosi, F. Primas, C.
Chiappini, eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, in press
15. Tolstoy E., Hill V., Tosi M., 2009, Star formation histories,
abundances and kinematics of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group,
Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47, 371
16. Tosi M., 2009, Star formation histories of resolved galaxies.
The Ages of Stars, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, Volume 258, p. 61-72
TECHNICAL NOTES IN 2009
1. Clementini, G., Ripepi, V., Marconi, M. et al., 2009, GAIAC7-TN-OABO-GC-001-03: Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars - Software Requirement Specification, in “GAIA Project”, GAIA Livelink,
2. Diolaiti E., Ciliegi P., 2009, Multi-conjugate adaptive optics
performance analysis, FP6 ELT-DS Technical Report ELT-TREESO-09200-0010 Issue 1
3. Lattanzi M.G., Drimmel R., Sarasso M., Busonero D., Cacciari
C. et al., 2009, GAIA-PR-OATo-0002: Progress Report for PM3
for the Italian participation in Gaia DPAC , in “Gaia Project”,
4. Maiorano E., Pizzichini G., Bartolini C., Greco G., Guarnieri
A., Mantegna A., Piccioni A., Nanni D., Terra F., Gualandi
R., 2009, GRB 090313: optical observations., GRB Coordinates
Network 9606, 1
NON REFEREED PAPERS 2009 AND IN PRESS
1. Arcidiacono C., Ragazzoni R., Farinato J., Gentile G., Baruffolo A., Dima M., Metti C., Viotto V., Diolaiti E., 2009, Retrieving High Layer Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics on E-ELT
Scales, OPTICAL TURBULENCE: Astronomy Meets Meteorology, Proceedings of the Optical Turbulence Characterization
for Astronomical Applications Sardinia, Italy, 15 - 18 September 2008, edited by Elena Masciadri, Marc Sarazin, Germany),
2. Beccari G., Ferraro L. P. F. R., Lanzoni B., Fusi Pecci F.,
Rood R. T., Giallongo E., Ragazzoni R., Grazian A., Baruffolo
A., De Santis C., Diolaiti E., Di Paola A., Farinato J., Fontana
A., Gallozzi S., Gasparo F., Gentile G., Green R., Hill J., Kuhn
O., Menci N., Pasian F., Pedichini F., Smareglia R., Speziali R.,
Testa V., Thompson D., Vernet E., Wagner R. M., 2009, First
results on resolved stellar population in three Galactic globular
cluster from [email protected] imaging., Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana 80, 107
3. Bragaglia A., 2009, The Bologna Open Cluster Chemical Evolution project: a large, homogeneous sample of Galactic open
clusters, IAU Symposium 258, 153
4. Bragaglia A., Carretta E., Gratton R., Tosi M., 2009, Open
Clusters as tracers of the Galactic disk: the Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution project, IAU Symposium 254, 227
5. Bragaglia A., 2009, He-poor and He-rich stars in Globular
Clusters: a study of RGB stars in 19 Galactic GCs with FLAMES
The Giant Branches, Leiden, 11-15 May 2009.
6. Buson L. M., Bettoni D., Bianchi L., Buzzoni A., Marino A.,
Rampazzo R., 2009, The Impact of Encounters on the Members
of Local Group Analogs. A View from GALEX, New Quests in
Stellar Astrophysics. II. Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar
7. Buzzoni A., Bertone E., Chávez M., Rodrı́guez-Merino L. H.,
2009, Population Synthesis at Short Wavelengths and Spectrophotometric Diagnostic Tools for Galaxy Evolution, New Quests in
Stellar Astrophysics. II. Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar
8. Cacciari C., 2009, GAIA: the mission and (some of ) its scientific applications ., Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana
9. Cacciari C., 2009, The promise of Gaia and how it will influence stellar ages, IAU Symposium 258, 409
10. Cacciari C., Kinman T.D., Bragaglia A., Spagna A., Smart
R., 2009, A provisional discussion of halo kinematics in the Anticenter direction using BHB and RR Lyrae stars, in “The Milky
Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era”,
11. Campisi M. A., Vignali C., Brusa M., Daddi E., Comastri A.,
Pozzetti L., Alexander D. M., Renzini A., Arimoto N., Kong
X., 2009, X-ray properties of Chandra red galaxies (Campisi+,
2009), VizieR Online Data Catalog 350, 10485
12. Cappelluti N., Brusa M., Hasinger G., Comastri A., Zamorani G., Finoguenov A., Gilli R., Puccetti S., Miyaji T., Salvato M., Vignali C., Aldcroft T., Boehringer H., Brunner H.,
Civano F., Elvis M., Fiore F., Fruscione A., Griffiths R. E.,
Guzzo L., Iovino A., Koekemoer A. M., Mainieri V., Scoville
N. Z., Shopbell P., Silverman J., Urry C. M., 2009, XMMNewton wide-field survey in COSMOS field (Cappelluti+, 2009),
VizieR Online Data Catalog 349, 70635
13. Cappi A., 2009, The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe, The rôle of
Astronomy in Society and Culture, IAU–UNESCO Symposium
260, 19-23 January 2009, Paris, in press
14. Carlson L. R., Romita K. A., Sabbi E., Meixner M., Babler
B., Block M., Engelbracht C., Gallagher J. S., III, Gordon K.,
Hora J. L., Indebetouw R., Kato D., Leitherer C., Meade M.,
Misselt K., Nota A., Oey M. S., Robitaille T., Sewilo M., Sirianni
M., Smith L. J., Tosi M., Vijh U., Walterbos R., Whitney B.,
2009, A Panchromatic View of Clustered Star Formation in the
Magellanic Clouds: Spatial and Temporal Resolution as Revealed
through Optical and Infrared Imaging, Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society 41, 222
15. Clementini G., 2009, Pulsating variable stars in the Magellanic
Clouds, IAU Symposium 256, 373
16. Comastri A., Gilli R., Vignali C., Iwasawa K., Ranalli P.,
2009, The Quest for Very High Redshift Black Holes, Bulletin of
the American Astronomical Society 41, 350
17. Comastri A., Iwasawa K., Gilli R., Vignali C., Ranalli P.,
2009, AGN unified scheme and evolution: a Suzaku view, in
“The Energetic Cosmos: from Suzaku to Astro-H, July 2009,
Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan”, (arXiv:0910.1025)
18. Dalessandro E., Lanzoni B., Ferraro F. R., Vespe F., Bellazzini
M., Rood R. T., 2009, Another non-segregated Blue Straggler
population in a globular cluster: the case of NGC 2419., Memorie
della Società Astronomica Italiana 80, 121
19. de Gouveia Dal Pino E. M., Melioli C., D’Ercole A., Brighenti
F., Raga A. C., 2009, Supernova Explosions and the Triggering of Galactic Fountains and Outflows, Revista Mexicana de
Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference Series 36, 17
20. Diolaiti E., Conan J.-M., Foppiani I., Lombini M., [...], Bellazzini M., Bregoli G., Ciliegi P., Cosentino G. et al., 2009,
Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate
adaptive optics module for the E-ELT, ”Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes”, EDP Sciences, in press
21. Eyer, L., [...], Clementini, G., 2009, The Gaia mission and
variable stars, The Gaia mission and variable stars, SF2A-2009:
Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of
Astronomy and Astrophysics, held 29 June - 4 July 2009 in
Besançon, France. Eds.: M. Heydari-Malayeri, C. Reylé and
R. Samadi, p.45 45
22. Fiore F., Arnaud M., Briel U., Cavazzuti E., Cledassou R.,
Counil J. L., Comastri A., Ferrando P., Giommi P., Goldwurm
A., Lamarle O., Lanzuisi G., Laurent P., Lebrun F., Malaguti
G., Mereghetti S., Micela G., Pareschi G., Piconcelli E., Piermaria M., Puccetti S., Roques J.-P., Tagliaferri G., Vignali C.,
2009, Simbol-X Core Science in a Context, American Institute
of Physics Conference Series 1126, 9
23. Foppiani I., Diolaiti E., Lombini M., Baruffolo A., Biliotti
V., Bregoli G., Cosentino G. et al., MCAO for the E-ELT:
preliminary design overview of the MAORY module, ”Adaptive
optics for Extremely Large Telescopes”, EDP Sciences, in press
24. Giacconi R., Borgani S., Rosati P., Tozzi P., Gilli R., Murray S.,
Paolillo M., Pareschi G., Tagliaferri G., Ptak A., Vikhlinin A.,
Flanagan K., Weisskopf M., Bignamini A., Donahue M., Evrard
A., Forman W., Jones C., Molendi S., Santos J., Voit G., 2009,
Galaxy clusters and the cosmic cycle of baryons across cosmic
times, AGB Stars and Related Phenomenastro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010, 90
25. Gitti M., O’Sullivan E., Giacintucci S., David L., Vrtilek J.,
Raychaudhury S., Jones C., Forman W., 2009, AGN feedback in
galaxy groups: The case of HCG 62, Chandra’s First Decade of
Discovery, Proceedings of the conference held 22-25 September,
2009 in Boston, MA. Edited by Scott Wolk, Antonella Fruscione,
and Douglas Swartz, abstract 30
26. González-Lópezlira R. A., Buzzoni A., 2009, UV Excess and
AGB Evolution in Elliptical-Galaxy Stellar Populations, New
Quests in Stellar Astrophysics. II. Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved
Stellar Populations 51
27. Greco C., [...], Clementini G. et al., 2009, Variable stars in the
globular clusters and in the field of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal
galaxy, in “Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies”, eds. , ESO
Astrophysics Symposia , p.163
28. Greco C., Clementini G. et al., 2009, Variable stars in the
field and the globular clusters of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal
galaxy, in “Resolved Stellar Populations”, eds. D. Valls-Gabaud,
M. Chavez, ASP Conference Series, in press (astro-ph/0507244)
29. Greco C., Clementini G. et al., 2009, Looking for the building
blocks of the Galactic halo: variable stars in the Fornax, Bootes
I, Canes Venatici II dwarfs and in NGC2419, in “Stellar Pulsation: Challenges for Theory and Observation”, eds. J. A. Guzik,
P. A. Bradley, American Institute of Physics, in press
30. Gastaldello F., Ettori S., Balestra I., Brighenti F., Buote D., De
Grandi S., Gitti M., Tozzi P., 2009, The inverse iron-bias in action in Abell 2028, in ““The Energetic Cosmos: from Suzaku to
Astro-H”, July 2009, Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan (arXiv:0909.4679)”,
31. Gastaldello F., Buote D.A., Temi P., Brighenti F., Mathews
W.G., Ettori S., 2009, AGN Feedback in Galaxy Groups: the
two interesting cases of AWM 4 and NGC 5044, in ““The Monster’s Fiery Breath: Feedback in Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters””, June 2009, Madison Wisconsin (arXiv:0909.0600)
32. Gruppioni C., Pozzi F., Spinoglio L., Magliocchetti M., Isaak
K., De Zotti G., 2009, Model Predictions for Deep Cosmological
Surveys with SPICA-SAFARI, in “A joint European/Japanese
Workshop on the SPICA mission”, eds. A.M. Heras, B. Swinyard, K. Isaak, and J.R Goicoechea, EDP Sciences
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Chiaberge M., Gilli R., Giovannini G., Grandi P., Macchetto
F. D., O’Dea C. P., Risaliti G., Sparks W., 2009, The Chandra 3C Snapshot Survey for Sources with z < 0.3, Chandra’s
First Decade of Discovery, Proceedings of the conference held
22-25 September, 2009 in Boston, MA. Edited by Scott Wolk,
Antonella Fruscione, and Douglas Swartz, abstract 116
34. Hartmann D., et al., 2009, Reading the Metal Diaries of the
Universe: Tracing Cosmic Chemical Evolution, AGB Stars and
Related Phenomenastro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics
Decadal Survey 2010, 114
35. Koopmans L. V. E., Barnabe M., Bolton A., Bradac M., Ciotti
L., Congdon A., Czoske O., Dye S., Dutton A., Elliasdottir A.,
Evans E., Fassnacht C. D., Jackson N., Keeton C., Lasio J.,
Moustakas L., Meneghetti M., Myers S., Nipoti C., Suyu S.,
van de Ven G., Vegetti S., Wucknitz O., Zhao H.-S., 2009, Strong
Gravitational Lensing as a Probe of Gravity, Dark-Matter and
Super-Massive Black Holes, AGB Stars and Related Phenomenastro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey
36. Kovac K., Lilly S., Porciani C., Cucciati O., Tasca L., Bolzonella M., Knobel C., Iovino A., 2009, Environments of the
zCOSMOS galaxies, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 41, 378
37. Kurk, J., [...], Mignoli M., Bolzonella M., Pozzetti L., [...],
Zamorani G., et al., A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z 2: GMASS - the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep
Spectroscopic Survey, 2009, The Messenger, vol. 135, p. 40-44
38. Lombardi G., Zitelli V., Ortolani S., 2009, Astroclimatological Analysis of Ground Based Observatories, OPTICAL TURBULENCE: Astronomy Meets Meteorology, Proceedings of the
Optical Turbulence Characterization for Astronomical Applications Sardinia, Italy, 15 - 18 September 2008, edited by Elena
Masciadri, Marc Sarazin, Germany), pp.232-239 232
39. Lombini M., Schreiber L., Foppiani I., Bregoli G., Cosentino
G., Diolaiti E., Conan, J.-M., Marchetti E., A prototype of
the Laser Guide Stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multiconjugate adaptive optics module, ”Adaptive optics for Extremely
Large Telescopes”, EDP Sciences, in press
40. Morales-Hernández J., Chávez M., Bertone E., Buzzoni A.,
Bressan A., 2009, UV Spectroscopic Indices of Galactic Globular Clusters, New Quests in Stellar Astrophysics. II. Ultraviolet
Properties of Evolved Stellar Populations 163
41. Moretti A., Arcidiacono C., Lombini M., Piotto G., Falomo
R., Farinato J., Ragazzoni R., Baruffolo A., Marchetti E., 2009,
[email protected] observations in Layer Oriented mode: first results.,
Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana 80, 139
42. Murgia M., Guidetti D., Govoni F., Parma P., Gregorini L., De
Ruiter H.R., Cameron R. A., Fanti R., 2009, The intra-cluster
magnetic field power spectrum in Abell 2382, Revista Mexicana
de Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference Series 36, 342
43. Murray S., Gilli R., Tozzi P., Paolillo M., Brandt N., Tagliaferri G., Vikhlinin A., Bautz M., Allen S., Donahue M., Flanagan K., Rosati P., Borgani S., Giacconi R., Weisskopf M., Ptak
A., Gezari S., Alexander D., Pareschi G., Forman W., Jones
C., Hickox R., 2009, The growth and evolution of super massive
black holes, AGB Stars and Related Phenomenastro2010: The
Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010, 217
44. Musella, I., Clementini, G., et al., 2009, Stellar archeaology
in the Milky Way halo: variable stars and stellar populations in
the new Milky Way satellites discovered by the SDSS, in “SAIT
2009”, eds. S. Degl’Innocenti, P. Paolicchi, U. Penco, P. Prada
Moroni, S. Shore, G. Valle, On-line publication, in press
45. Oliva E., Origlia L., 2009, High Resolution Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Prospects for 10 and 40 m Class Telescopes, Science
with the VLT in the ELT Era 461
46. Perina S., Federici L., Bellazzini M., Cacciari C., Fusi
Pecci F., Galleti S., 2009, HST/ACS VI data of M31 globular clusters (Perina+, 2009), VizieR Online Data Catalog 350,
47. Pozzi F., Gruppioni C., Vignali C., Comastri A., Spinoglio
L., Magliocchetti M., 2009, Searching for heavily obscured AGNs
at high redshift with the SAFARI-SPICA Spectro-Photometer, in
“A joint European/Japanese Workshop on the SPICA mission”,
eds. A.M. Heras, B. Swinyard, K. Isaak, and J.R Goicoechea,
48. Provencal J. L., et al., 2009, Preliminary XCOV26 results for
EC14012-1446, Journal of Physics Conference Series 172, 012061
49. Ptak A., Feigelson E., Chu Y.-H., Kuntz K., Zezas A., Snowden S., de Martino D., Trinchieri G., Gabbiano G., Forman W.,
Tagliaferri G., Giacconi R., Murray S., Allen S., Bautz M., Borgani S., Brandt N., Campana S., Donahue M., Flannagan K.,
Gilli R., Jones C., Miller N., Pareschi G., Rosati P., Schneider D., Tozzi P., Vikhlinin A., 2009, The Very Local Universe
in X-rays, AGB Stars and Related Phenomenastro2010: The
Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010, 240
50. Ragazzoni R., Momany Y., Arcidiacono C., Falomo R., Farinato
J., Gullieuszik M., Moretti A., Diolaiti E., Lombini M., Piotto
G., Turolla R., Marchetti E., Donaldson R., 2009, Dealing with
Turbulence: MCAO Experience and Beyond, OPTICAL TURBULENCE: Astronomy Meets Meteorology, Proceedings of the
Optical Turbulence Characterization for Astronomical Applications Sardinia, Italy, 15 - 18 September 2008, edited by Elena
Masciadri, Marc Sarazin, pp.299-306 299
51. Ragazzoni R., Farinato J., Diolaiti E., Gentile G., Arcidiacono
C., Falomo R., Giallongo E., 2009, A Few Degrees Very Wide
Field of View Camera for VLT as a Finder for ELT, Science
with the VLT in the ELT Era 385
52. Randich S., Pace G., Pastori L., Bragaglia A., 2009, Radial
velocities of Berkeley 32 stars (Randich+, 2009), VizieR Online
Data Catalog 349, 60441
53. Ripepi, V., Clementini, G., et al., 2009, Stellar archeaology
in the Milky Way halo: variable stars and stellar populations in
the new Milky Way satellites discovered by the SDSS, in “Stellar
Pulsation: Challenges for Theory and Observation”, eds. J. A.
Guzik, P. A. Bradley, American Institute of Physics, in press
54. Rodrı́guez-Merino L. H., Cardona O., Bertone E., Chávez M.,
Buzzoni A., 2009, New Model Atmospheres: Testing the Solar
Spectrum in the UV, New Quests in Stellar Astrophysics. II. Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar Populations 239
55. Romano D., Tosi M., Cignoni M., Matteucci F., Pancino
E., Bellazzini M., 2009, in Light Elements in the Universe,
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56. Rosati P., Kuemmel M., Walsh J., Franzetti P., Cimatti A.,
Garilli B., Zamorani G., Scodeggio M., Rivera H., 2009, Slitless Spectroscopic Simulations for Euclid with aXeSIM, Space
Telescope European Coordinating Facility Newsletter 46, 12
57. Sabbi E., Smith L. J., Carlson L. R., Nota A., Tosi M., Cignoni
M., Gallagher J. S., Sirianni M., Meixner M., 2009, Time resolved star formation in the SMC: the youngest star clusters,
IAU Symposium 256, 244
58. Smolčić V., Zamorani G., Schinnerer E., The Vla-Cosmos,
Cosmos Collaborations, 2009, A Radio View of the Sky: the Cos191
mic History of Star-Forming and AGN Galaxies, Astronomical
Society of the Pacific Conference Series 408, 116
59. Sollima A., Bellazzini M., Smart R. L., Correnti M., Pancino E., Ferraro F. R., Romano D., 2009, Radial velocities of
red giants in omega Cen (Sollima+ 2009), VizieR Online Data
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60. Spanò P., Zamkotsian F., Content R., [...], Zamorani G., Cimatti
A., 2009, DMD multi-object spectroscopy in space: the EUCLID
study, UV/Optical/IR Space Telescopes: Innovative Technologies and Concepts IV. Edited by MacEwen, Howard A., Breckinridge, James B. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7436, pp.
61. Spinoglio L., Magliocchetti M., Tommasin S., Di Giorgio A.M.,
Gruppioni C., De Zotti G., Franceschini A., Vaccari M., Isaak
K., 2009, Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys in the Far-IR, in
“A joint European/Japanese Workshop on the SPICA mission”,
eds. A.M. Heras, B. Swinyard, K. Isaak, and J.R Goicoechea,
EDP Sciences (arxiv.org/abs/0909.5044v1)
62. Stanghellini L., 2009, The population of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae, IAU Symposium 256, 421
63. Sulentic J., Marziani P., Stirpe G., Zamfir S., Dultzin D., Calvani M., Repetto P., Zamanov R., 2009, Constraining Quasar
Structural Evolution with VLT/ISAAC, The Messenger 137, 30
64. Tosi M., 2009, Star formation histories of resolved galaxies,
IAU Symposium 258, 61
65. Venturi T., Giacintucci S., Cassano R., Brunetti G., Dallacasa
D., Macario G., Setti G., Bardelli S., Athreya R., 2009, The
GMRT Radio Halo Survey and Low Frequency Follow–up, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series 407, 232
66. Vesperini E., D’Ercole A., D’Antona F., McMillan S. L. W.,
Recchi S., 2009, Formation and Dynamical Evolution of Multiple Stellar Generations in Globular Clusters, Bulletin of the
American Astronomical Society 41, 391
67. Vignali C., Fiore F., Comastri A., Brusa M., Gilli R., Cappelluti N., Civano F., Zamorani G., 2009, Multi-wavelength
data handling in current and future surveys: the possible role of
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SUBMITTED PAPERS 2009
1. Abbas U., [...], Zamorani G., [...], Bardelli S., Bolzonella
M., Cappi A., [...], Merighi R., [...], Pozzetti L., [...], Vergani D., Zucca E., et al., 2009, The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey:
Evolution of the Halo Occupation Distribution since z ∼ 1, A&A
2. Bolzonella M., [...], Pozzetti L., Zucca E., [...], Zamorani G., Vergani D., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Coppa G., [...],
Mignoli M., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, Tracking the impact
of environment on the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function up to z ∼ 1
in the 10k zCOSMOS sample, A&A submitted, arXiv:0907.0013
Carretta E., Bragaglia A., R.Gratton, A. Recio-Blanco, S.
Lucatello,V. D’Orazi, S. Cassisi Properties of stellar generations
in Globular Clusters and relations with global parameters A&A,
3. Cignoni M., Tosi M., Sabbi, E., Nota, A., Degl’Innocenti,
S., Prada Moroni, P., Gallagher, J., 2009, Pre-Main sequence
Turn-on as a chronometer for young clusters: NGC346 as a
benchmark, ApJ, submitted
4. Cucciati O., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Zucca E., [...], Zamorani
G., [...], Cappi A., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Merighi R., [...],
Pozzetti L., Vergani D., et al., 2009, The VIMOS VLT Deep
Survey: the group catalogue, A&A submitted, arXiv:0911.3740
5. Cucciati O., [...], Bolzonella M., Bardelli S., Vergani D.,
[...], Zucca E., Zamorani G., Pozzetti L., [...], Coppa G.,
[...], Mignoli M., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, The zCOSMOS
10k-sample: the role of galaxy stellar mass in the colour-density
relation up to z ∼ 1, A&A submitted,
6. Dall’Ora, M., [...], Clementini, G., [...], et al., 2009, Stellar
populations in the Ursa Major II dSph galaxy, ApJ, submitted
7. de la Torre S., [...], Zamorani G., Bardelli S., Bolzonella M.,
[...], Coppa G., [...], Mignoli M., [...], Vergani D., Zucca E.,
[...], Cappi A., [...], Pozzetti L., et al., 2009, The zCOSMOSBright survey: the clustering of galaxy morphological types since
z ∼ 1, MNRAS submitted, arXiv:0911.2252
8. Donnarumma A., Ettori S., Meneghetti M., et al., 2009,
Abell 611: II. X-ray and strong lensing analysis, A&A, submitted
9. Ettori S., 2009, The cosmic fraction of the cooling-cores in Xray galaxy clusters, MNRAS, submitted
10. Fiorentino G., Contreras R., Clementini G., Marconi M.,
Musella I., Aloisi A., Annibali F., Saha A., Tosi M., van der
Marel R.P., 2009, Multi-epoch HST observations of IZw18: characterization of variable stars at ultra-low metallicities, ApJ, submitted
11. Giodini, S., Smolcic, V., [...], Zamorani G., et al., Radio galaxy
feedback in X-ray selected groups from COSMOS: The effect on
the ICM, 2009, Apj, submitted
12. Gitti M., O’Sullivan E., Giacintucci S., David L., Vrtilek J.,
Raychaudhury S., Nulsen P., 2009, New Insights into the Cavity System of the Compact Group of Galaxies HCG 62: Shock
Front and Hadronic Jets Revealed by Chandra, XMM-Newton
and GMRT data,, Gitti M. ApJ, submitted
13. Gratton R., Carretta E., Bragaglia A., S. Luatello, V. D’Orazi,
The second and third parameters of the Horizontal Branch in
Globular Clusters A&A, submitted
14. Ilbert O., [...], Zamorani G., Zucca E., 2009, Galaxy Stellar Mass Assembly between 0.2 < z < 2 from the S-COSMOS
survey, ApJ submitted, arXiv:0903.0102
15. Iovino A., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Zamorani G., Zucca E.,
[...], Pozzetti L., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Vergani D., [...],
Coppa G., [...], Mignoli M., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009,
The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: How group environment alters
global downsizing trends, A&A submitted, arXiv:0909.1951
16. Kovač K., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Zamorani G., Pozzetti
L., [...], Zucca E., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Coppa G., [...],
Mignoli M., [...], Vergani D., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, The
10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the
group environment since z ∼ 1, ApJ submitted, arXiv:0909.2032
17. Kovač K., [...], Zamorani G., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Zucca
E., Bardelli S., [...], Coppa G., [...], Mignoli M., [...], Pozzetti L., [...], Vergani D., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, The
nonlinear biasing of the 10k zCOSMOS galaxies up to z ∼ 1,
ApJ submitted, arXiv:0910.0004
18. Le Brun V., [...], Zucca E., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Bardelli
S., Cappi A., [...], Ciliegi P., [...], Merighi R., [...], Pozzetti L., [...], Zamorani G., 2009, The VVDS Organization
and Information System: Public Data and Tools release in the
CENCOS framework, A&A submitted,
19. Lusso E., Comastri A., [...], Zamorani G., [...], Gilli R., Iwasawa K., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Mignoli M., [...], Vergani
D., The X-ray to optical-UV luminosity ratio of X-ray selected
Type 1 AGN in XMM-COSMOS, 2009, A&A submitted,
20. Mainieri V., [...], Gilli R., Bolzonella M., Comastri A., Zamorani G., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Coppa G., [...], Mignoli
M., [...], Vergani D., Zucca E., et al., 2009, Ultraluminous
X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field, A&A submitted,
21. Marconi, M., [...], Clementini, G., [...], Contreras, R., [...],
Tosi, M., et al., 2009, Pulsation models for ultra-low (Z+0.0004)
metallicity classical Cepheids, ApJ, submitted
22. Marconi M., Musella I., Fiorentino G., Clementini G., Aloisi
A., Annibali F., Contreras R., Saha A, Tosi M., van der Marel
R.P., 2009, Pulsation models for Ultra-low metallicity Classical
Cepheids, ApJ, submitted
23. Meneghetti M., Rasia E., Merten J., Bellagamba F., Ettori
S., Mazzotta P., Dolag K., 2009, Weighing simulated galaxy clusters using lensing and X-ray, A&A, submitted
24. Oesch P.A., [...], Bolzonella M., [...], Pozzetti L., et al., 2009,
The Build-Up of the Hubble Sequence in the COSMOS Field,
ApJ submitted, LarXiv:0911.1126
25. Oklopcic, A., Smolcic, V., Giodini, S., Zamorani G., et al., A
wide-angle tail radio galaxy at z = .5 in the Cosmos field, 2009,
26. Pipino A., D’Ercole A., Chiappini C., Matteucci F., 2009,
Abundance gradient slopes versus mass in spheroids: predictions
by monolithic models, MNRAS, in press
27. Pozzetti L., Bolzonella M., Zucca E., Zamorani G., [...],
Mignoli M., [...], Vergani D., [...], Bardelli S., [...], Coppa
G., [...], Cappi A., et al., 2009, zCOSMOS - 10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the Galaxy Stellar Mass
Function: exploring its evolution with redshift, A&A submitted, arXiv:0907.5416
28. Pozzi F., Vignali C., Comastri A., Bellocchi E., Fritz J., Gruppioni C., Mignoli M., Maiolino R., Pozzetti L., Brusa M.,
Fiore F., Zamorani G., 2009, The HELLAS2XMM survey XIII.
Multi-component analysis of the spectral energy distribution of
obscured AGN, A&A, submitted
29. Romano A., [...], Ettori S., Meneghetti M., 2009, Abell 611:
I. Weak lensing analysis with LBC, A&A, submitted
30. Sargent, M.T., Schinnerer, E., [...], Zamorani G., et al., The
VLA-COSMOS perspective on the IR-radio relation. I. New constraints on selection biases and the non-evolution of the IR/Radio
properties of star-formin g and AGN galaxies at intermediate
and high redshift, 2009, Apj, submitted
31. Sauvageot J.L., Maurogordato S., Bourdin H., Cappi A., Benoist
C., Ferrari C., Mars G., Houairi K., 2009, Merging history of
three bimodal clusters, A&A, submitted
32. Vesperini E., McMillan S., D’Ercole A., D’Antona F., 2009,
Intermediate-mass black holes in young globular clusters, Nature
OBSERVATIONS IN 2008
1. ESO VLT+CRIRES, Probing the origin of the Na-O anticorrelation in Globular Clusters throughmmassive Galactic star clusters, PI: S. Lucatello, Co–I: R. Gratton, C. Sneden, E. Carretta, A. Bragaglia, F. D’Antona, B. Plez, C. Charbonnel,
10.3 hours, Period 83, service mode
2. ESO VLT+CRIRES, The nature of dust-enshrouded AGB stars
in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, PI: I. Saviane, Co–I: E.
Held, L. Origlia et al., 30 hrs, 2008, service mode
3. ESO VLT+FLAMES, Formation and evolution of Galactic Globular Clusters: the first billion years and how they shaped morphology, chemistry and current properties of these old systems.,
PI: E. Carretta, Co–I: M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, et al.,
41 hours, Period 82, service mode
4. ESO VLT+FLAMES, The Na-O anticorrelation in M 54, the
closest, high mass extragalactic Globular Cluster, PI: E. Carretta, Co–I: M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia et al., 36 hours,
Period 81, service mode
5. ESO VLT+FORS1), Testing the merging paradigm for the formation of Radio Halos: the case of RXCJ2003-2323, PI: S.
Bardelli, Co–I: S. Giacintucci, T. Venturi, E. Zucca et al.,
0.4 hrs, March 2008, visitor mode
6. ESO VLT+SINFONI, Following the mass assembly of galaxies
at the key epoch 1.0 < z < 1.8 from a complete sample observed
with SINFONI., PI: T. Contini, Co–I: ..., S. Bardelli, D. Vergani, E. Zucca et al, 50 hours, year 2008, service mode
7. ESO VLT+SINFONI, Caught in the act: the assembly and makeup
of the COSMOS most massive galaxies at redshift 2 with SINFONI+AO+LGS, PI: A. Renzini, Co–I: ..., M. Mignoli, L.
Pozzetti, D. Vergani, G, Zamorani, ..., 38 hours, year 2008,
8. ESO VLT+SINFONI, High-resolution SINFONI+AO tomography of z = 2 star-forming galaxies: witnessing the growth of
disks and bulges., PI: A. Renzini, Co–I: ..., M. Mignoli, L.
Pozzetti, D. Vergani, G, Zamorani et al., 75 hours, year 2008,
9. ESO VLT+VIMOS, The large-scale structure and growth rate of
the Universe at z ∼ 1 from a survey of 100,000 galaxy redshifts,
PI: L. Guzzo, Co–I: S. Blaizot, M. Bolzonella et al., 282.5h,
2008-2009, service mode
10. ESO VLT+VIMOS, zCOSMOS: The evolutionary links between
galaxies, their nuclei, their morphologies and their environments.,
PI: S. Lilly, Co–I: [...], S. Bardelli, M. Bolzonella, A. Cappi,
M. Mignoli, L. Pozzetti, D. Vergani, G, Zamorani, E. Zucca and
the zCOSMOS team, 65 hours, 2008, service mode
11. VISTA+VIRCAM, Ultra-VISTA: an Ultra Deep Survey with VISTA,
PI: J. Dunlop, Co–I: [...], M. Bolzonella, A. Cimatti et al.,
100h, 2009, service mode
12. ESO NTT+EFOSC2, Ground based observations for Gaia’s calibrations: spectrophotometric standard stars. (182.D-0287(A)(B)(C)),
PI: E. Pancino (INAF-OA Bologna), Co–I: A. Bragaglia, Altavilla G., M. Bellazzini, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo et al., 5+5+7 nights, Nov-Dic. 2008, Apr., Aug. 2009,
13. NTT+SARG, Searching for ex-Omega Centauri members among
solar neighbourhood stars, PI: D. Romano, Co–I: E. Pancino,
M. Bellazzini, M. Tosi, F.R. Ferraro, E. Rossetti, 2 nights,
March 2009, visitor mode
14. ESO NTT+SOFI, The complete screening of the bulge cluster
stellar populations, PI: E. Valenti, Co–I: F.Ferraro, L. Origlia,
Fabbri, 3 nights, June 2008, visitor mode
15. APEX+LABOCA, Large-Scale Structure and Submillimeter Galaxies: A LABOCA Survey of the COSMOS Field, Co–I: Bertoldi
F. Menten F., Schinnere E., [...], G, Zamorani et al., 68 hours,
16. REM 0.6m+ROSS, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability (16012 AOT16/07B), PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: C. Cacciari, G. Altavilla, A. Bragaglia, M. Bellazzini, L. Federici, J.M. Carrasco, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, S. Trager, 60 hours,
from July 2007 to January 2008, service mode
17. REM 0.6m+ROSS, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability (17012 AOT17/08A), PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: C. Cacciari, G. Altavilla, A. Bragaglia, M. Bellazzini, L. Federici, J.M. Carrasco, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, S. Trager, 60 hours,
February–July 2008, service mode
18. REM 0.6m+ROSS, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability (18002 AOT18), PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: G. Altavilla,
M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, S.
Marinoni, R. Silvotti, J.M. Carrasco, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, S.
Trager, 76 hours, Aug. 2008–Jan. 2009, service mode
ITALIAN TELESCOPES AND OTHER TELESCOPES WITH ITALIAN PARTICIPATION
19. LBT+LBC, Three anticenter Open clusters, PI: Bragaglia A.,
Co–I: G. Beccari, Carretta E., M. Cignoni, R. Gratton, D.
Romano, Tosi M., 0.7 hr, Sep. 2008, service mode
20. LBT 2x8.4m+Blue+Red, Pulsating variable stars in the giant
stream of Andromeda: hints on the galaxy star formation history and assembling, PI: G. Clementini, Co–I: G. Beccari,
M. Bellazzini, C. Cacciari, L. Ciotti, R. Contreras, E.
Diolaiti, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci, B. Marano, M. Tosi,
M. Marconi, I. Musella, V. Ripepi, E. Poretti, 14 hours, September 2008, service mode
21. LBT+LBC, A deep insight into the most isolated galaxy of the
Local Group: the dwarf elliptical VV124 = UGC4879, PI: Bellazzini M., Co–I: G. Beccari, M. Cignoni, M. Correnti, Clementini G., Federici L., F.R. Ferraro, Fusi Pecci F., Galleti S.,
Montegriffo P., Origlia L., Pancino E., et al., 2 hours, Dec
2008, service mode
22. TNG+DOLORES, Investigating the nature of low luminosity
Active Galactic Nuclei (AOT17/08A TAC 36), PI: D. Trevese,
Co–I: V. Zitelli, G.M. Stirpe, 32h, service mode
23. TNG+DOLORES, Spectrophotometric standard stars observations for GAIA’s absolute flux calibration. (TAC 37 AOT16/07B),
PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: C. Cacciari, G. Altavilla, M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, E. Diolaiti, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E. Rossetti, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, J.M. Carrasco, B.
Lopez-Marti, C. Fabricius, S. Trager, 5 nights, Jan. 2008, visitor mode
24. TNG+DOLORES, Spectrophotometric standard stars observations for GAIA’s absolute flux calibration. (TAC 07 AOT17/08A),
PI: E. Pancino (INAF-OA Bologna), Co–I: C. Cacciari, G. Altavilla, M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, E. Diolaiti, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E. Rossetti, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, J.M.
Carrasco, B. Lopez-Marti, C. Fabricius, S. Trager, 7 nights, May.
2008, visitor mode
25. TNG+DOLORES, Spectrophotometric standard stars observations for GAIA’s absolute flux calibration. (TAC 14 AOT18),
PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: G. Altavilla, M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E. Rossetti, S. Marinoni, J.M. Carrasco, C. Fabricius, F. Figueras, C.
Jordi, S. Trager, 6 nights, Oct. 2008, visitor mode
26. TNG+DOLORES, A survey of kinematically peculiar globular
clusters in M31, PI: S. Galleti, Co–I: M. Bellazzini, A. Buzzoni, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci, S. Perina, 4 nights, Septem202
ber 2008, visitor mode
27. TNG+LRS, A survey of remote globular clusters and blue luminous compact clusters in M31, PI: S. Galleti, Co–I: M. Bellazzini, A. Buzzoni, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, F. Fusi Pecci, S.
Perina, 5 nights, September 2008, visitor mode
28. TNG+SARG, Open Clusters as tracers of the Galactic disk chemical evolution (the BOCCE project), PI: Bragaglia A., Co–I:
Carretta E., Tosi M., R. Gratton, G. Andreuzzi, L. Di Fabrizio, 23hr, Feb-Jul 2008 (assigned in 2007), service mode
29. TNG+SARG, Open Clusters as tracers of the Galactic disk chemical evolution (the BOCCE project), PI: Bragaglia A., Co–I:
Carretta E., Tosi M., R. Gratton, G. Andreuzzi, L. Di Fabrizio , 29hr, 31 Dec 2008-4 Jan 2009, visitor mode
30. Cassini 1.5m+BFOSC, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability, PI: G. Altavilla, Co–I: E. Pancino, M. Bellazzini,
A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo,
E. Rossetti, 2+2+2+2 nights, August, September, October
2007,January 2008, visitor mode
31. Cassini 1.5m+BFOSC, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability, PI: G. Altavilla, Co–I: E. Pancino, M. Bellazzini,
A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E.
Rossetti, 2+3 nights, Mar.-Jun. 2008, visitor mode
32. Cassini 1.5m+BFOSC, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability, PI: G. Altavilla, Co–I: E. Pancino, M. Bellazzini,
A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E.
Rossetti, S. Marinoni, R. Silvotti, 2+2 nights, Sept.-Dec. 2008,
33. KECK+NIRSPEC, The Chemical Composition of Old Red Giants in the Galactic Nucleus, PI: R.M. Rich, Co–I: L. Origlia,
E. Valenti, 1.5 nights, April 2008, visitor mode
34. KECK+OSIRIS, Using Adaptive Optics to probe The Stellar
Populations and Kinematics of Local Group Nuclei and Star
Clusters, PI: R.M. Rich, Co–I: J. Lu, L. Origlia, 1 night, October 2008, visitor mode
35. SUBARU+HDS, Chemical abundances in the remote globular
cluster NGC2419, PI: L. Monaco, Co–I: Bellazzini M., Ibata,
R.A., Chiba, M., Correnti, M., Bonifacio, P., 1 nights, Feb 2008,
36. Subaru+MOICS/MOS, Deep NIR spectroscopy of record breaking cluster candidates at z 1.8, PI: M. Tanaka, Co–I: K. Iwasawa et al. , 3 nights, approved in 2008, service mode
SOUTHERN ASTROPHYSICAL RESEARCH
37. SOAR 4.1m+Optical Imager, Variable stars in the Foornax dSph
globular clusters: Fornax 2, PI: H. Smith, Co–I: K. Kinemuchi,
M. Catelan, G. Clementini, et al., 2 half nights, December
2008, visitor mode
38. CAHA 2.2m+CAFOS, Ground based observations for Gaia’s calibrations: spectrophotometric standard stars. (F08-2.2-043), PI:
C. Jordi, Co–I: F. Figueras, J.M. Carrasco, M. Manteiga, A.
Ulla, J.M. Apellaniz, C. Cacciari, E. Pancino, A. Bragaglia,
G. Altavilla, S.C. Trager, C. Soubiran, 5 nights, April 2008,
39. CAHA 2.2m+CAFOS, Ground based observations for Gaia’s calibrations: spectrophotometric standard stars. (H08-2.2-041), PI:
C. Jordi, Co–I: F. Figueras, J.M. Carrasco, M. Manteiga, A.
Ulla, J.M. Apellaniz, E. Pancino, C. Cacciari, G. Altavilla,
A. Bragaglia, M. Bellazzini et al., 9 nights, Sept. 2008, visitor mode
40. SPM 1.5m+La Ruca, Ground-based photometry for the absolute flux calibration of Gaia, PI: William J. Schuster B., Barbara Pichardo, Co–I: F. Figueras, E. Pancino, S. Trager, 8+10
nights, Aug.-Oct/Nov. 2008 , visitor mode
41. SPM 1.5m+La Ruca, Ground-based photometry for the absolute
flux calibration of Gaia, PI: William J. Schuster B., Barbara
Pichardo (Instituto de Astronomia UNAM), Co–I: F. Figueras,
E. Pancino, S. Trager, 10+11 nights, Jan.-Febr., Apr-May 2008
, visitor mode
42. HST+ACS, Hunting for optical companions to binary millisecond pulsars in Terzan 5 and NGC6266, PI: F.R. Ferraro, Co–I:
[...], B. Lanzoni, L. Origlia et al., 16 orbits, 2008, service mode
43. SPITZER+IRAC, PI: F. Mannucci, Co–I: G. Cresci, A. Marconi, L. Pozzetti et al., The LSD project: dynamics, merging
and stellar populations of a sample of well-studied LBGs at z∼ 3,
17 hrs, 2008, service mode
44. XMM-Newton+PN+MOS, The case of high metallicity in lowtemperature nearby galaxy clusters, PI: S. Ettori, Co–I: F. Gastaldello,
P. Tozzi, I. Balestra, F. Brighenti, S. De Grandi, M. Gitti, D.
Buote, 53 ksec, August 2008, service mode
45. Chandra+ACIS–I, Luminous Compton Thick AGN at z ∼ 1,
PI: R. Gilli, Co–I: A. Comastri, C. Vignali, G, Zamorani, 80
ksec, approved in July 2008, service mode
46. Suzaku+XIS/pin, Black hole spin constraint through relativistic
iron line spectroscopy, PI: C. Reynolds, Co–I: L. Brenneman,
A.C. Fabian, J. Miller, K. Nandra, R. Mushotzky, K. Iwasawa,
M. Nowak, J.C. Lee, M. Volonteri, 460 ksec, approved in March
2008, service mode
47. Suzaku+XIS/pin, Another Compton Thick AGN just around the
corner, PI: R. Gilli, Co–I: A. Comastri, K. Iwasawa, C. Vignali, 90 ksec, approved in March 2008, service mode
OBSERVATIONS IN 2009
1. ESO VLT+UVES, The Lyman alpha forest and the galaxy density field at z = 2.5, PI: S. Lilly, Co–I: Seljak, Kovac, Barollo,
Silverman, Le Brun, Renzini, Bardelli S., Zucca E., 31 hors,
april 09, service mode
2. ESO VLT+UVES, Chemical abundances as tracers of Galactic substructures: Searching for ex-Omega Centauri members
among solar neighbourhood stars. (083.B-0281), PI: D. Romano, Co–I: E. Pancino, M. Bellazzini, M. Tosi, F.R. Ferraro, E. Rossetti, 27 hours, June 2009, service mode
3. ESO VLT+UVES, Chemical abundances as tracers of Galactic substructures: Searching for ex-Omega Centauri members
among solar neighbourhood stars, PI: D. Romano, Co–I: E.
Pancino, M. Bellazzini, M. Tosi, F.R. Ferraro, E. Rossetti,
27 hours, June 2009, service mode
4. ESO VLT+VIMOS, Exploring the Universe with a high REsolution Kinematical Approach, PI: L. Tresse, Co–I: [...], L. Pozzetti et al., 25.5 hrs, 2009, service mode
5. NTT+SOFI, Halpha imaging of a forming cluster at z=1.6 in the
GMASS field, PI: J. Kurk, Co–I: A. Cimatti, G, Zamorani, M.
Mignoli, L. Pozzetti et al., 3 nights, Sept 2009, visitor mode
6. REM 0.6m+ROSS, GAIA Calibration Working Group: Monitoring candidate Spectrophotometric Standard Stars against variability (19010 AOT19), PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: G. Altavilla,
M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, S.
Marinoni, R. Silvotti, J.M. Carrasco, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, S.
Trager, 94 hours, from Feb. to Jul. 2009. Submitted in Oct
2008 , service mode
7. TNG+DOLORES, Spectrophotometric standard stars observations for GAIA’s absolute flux calibration. (TAC 14 AOT19),
PI: E. Pancino, Co–I: G. Altavilla, M. Bellazzini, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, L. Federici, P. Montegriffo, E. Rossetti, S. Marinoni, C. Lardo, J.M. Carrasco, C. Fabricius, F.
Figueras, C. Jordi, S. Trager, 5+5 nights +3 compensatory nights,
Mar., Jun. 2009, Jul. 2009. Submitted in Oct 2008, visitor mode
8. TNG+SARG, Searching for ex-Omega Centauri members among
solar neighbourhood stars, PI: D. Romano, Co–I: E. Pancino,
M. Bellazzini, M. Tosi, F.R. Ferraro, E. Rossetti, 2 nights,
March 2009, visitor mode
9. TNG+DOLORES, Unveiling obscured activity at high redshift,
PI: C. Vignali, Co–I: C. Gruppioni, F. Pozzi, G, Zamorani,
R. Gilli, A. Comastri, P. Ciliegi et al., 2 nights, January 2008,
10. WIYN 3.5m+Hydra, Searching for Abundance Anomalies in the
Old, Metal-rich Open Cluster NGC 6791, PI: C. Sneden, Co–I:
Bragaglia A., Carretta E., R. gratton, S. Lucatello, 2, 6-7
June 2009 (assigned in 2008), visitor mode
11. SPM 1.5m+La Ruca, Ground-based photometry for the absolute
flux calibration of Gaia, PI: F. Figueras (Univ. Barcelona), Co–
I: William J. Schuster B., Barbara Pichardo, E. Pancino, S.
Trager (Kapteyn Astr. Inst.), 10 nights, Jan.-Feb. 2009. Submitted in Oct 2008, visitor mode
12. HST+WFC3, ACS, PI: F. Mannucci, F., Co–I: G. Cresci, A.
Marconi, [...], L. Pozzetti et al., The LSD project: dynamics,
merging and stellar populations of a sample of well-studied LBGs
at z ∼ 3, 18 orbits, Nov. 2009, service mode
13. HST+ACS+WFC3, The extremely metal-poor BCD galaxy DDO268:
a young galaxy in the local Universe ?, PI: A. Aloisi, Co–I: M.
Tosi et al, 7 orbits, April 2010 due to ACS failure and SM4
delay, service mode
14. HST+ACS+COS, The difference between neutral and ionized
gas metal abundances in local star forming galaxies, PI: A. Aloisi,
Co–I: M. Tosi et al, 17 orbits, January 2009 - May 2010 due to
SM4 delay, service mode
15. Herschel+PACS/SPIRE, The Great Observatories Origin Deep
Survey - far-infrared imaging with Herschel, PI: D. Elbaz, Co–I:
R. Gilli et al., 362.6 hours, May-Aug 2009,
16. XMM+pn/MOS, The ultradeep survey in the CDFS: an XMMNewton legacy, PI: A. Comastri, Co–I: R. Gilli, G, Zamorani, C. Vignali, K. Iwasawa et al., 1563 ksec, approved in
December 2008, service mode
17. Chandra+ACIS, Investigating AGN feedback in cool cores detected in Hα, PI: M. Gitti, Co–I: F. Gastaldello, S. Ettori,
L. Feretti, F. Brighenti, 44 ksec, approved in June 2009, service
18. Chandra+ACIS, What are those clusters that do not have a radio halo?, PI: S. Giacintucci, Co–I: R. Cassano, G. Brunetti,
T. Venturi, M. Markevitch, M. Gitti, S. Ettori, Archival, approved in June 2009, service mode
National and International
memberships & policy committees
• Altavilla G.
- Coexaminer of C. Lardo’s master thesis: Definition of strategy
and procedures for ground-based data reduction and Gaia absolute flux calibration, 2009, University of Bologna
• Bragaglia A.
- Time Allocation Committee for TNG: member
- SIMPLE Science Team: member
- Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur: Visiting Astronomer (Nov-Dec
• Buzzoni A.
- Comisión Dictaminadora Externa dell’Instituto Nacional de
Astrofı́sica, Optica y Electrónica (Mexico): member
- RCEA (Registro Evaluadores Acreditados) del CONACyT (Mexico): member
- Visiting Scientist presso l’European Astronomical Observatory
(ESO), Chile Headquarter, Santiago de Chile (Cile)
- Membro nominato della Commissione di Concorso per un posto
di Primo Ricercatore presso INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di
- Professore a contratto con incarico presso l’Università di Bologna per il corso di “Evoluzione spettrale nelle galassie” (Laurea
Specialistica in Astrofisica e Cosmologia).
- Profesor Visitante presso la Faculdad de Ciencias Astronomicas
y Geofisicas, su invito della Universidad Nacional de La Plata
- Docente invitato alla Scuola Nazionale di Dottorato in Astrofisica “Francesco Lucchin” su “Galaxy formation and evolution: the stellar perspective” (X Ciclo del Dottorato di Ricerca
in Astronomia) (Asiago, Vc - 21/27 Settembre 2008)
- Universitá di Bologna, corso di “Evoluzione delle popolazioni
stellari nelle galassie” (Laurea Specialistica in Astrofisica e Cosmologia): Professore a contratto
- CONICET (Buenos Aires, Argentina): Investigador Correspondiente
• Cacciari C.
- Science Committee for the Fondazione Osservatorio Astrofisico
di Castelgrande: member
- Management Team for the GAIA Coordination Unit 5 (CU5):
- GAIA CU5/DU14 (Instrument absolute response characterisation: definition and application): manager
- Selection board for a Research grant to work on Gaia absolute
photometric calibration at the OA Bologna: member
- Contract (AR) to G. Altavilla, to work in Gaia CU5/DU13;
ASI funds for Gaia (continuation)
- Contract (AR) to S. Ragaini, to work in Gaia CU5/DU14, from
1 January 2008; INAF funds for 2008, ASI funds for 2009
- Contract (AR) to G. Cocozza, to work in Gaia CU5/DU13,
from 1 February 2009; ASI funds for Gaia
• Cappi A.
- Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur: astronome associé
- Advisory Committee per il database delle pubblicazioni INAF:
• Ciliegi P.
- PRIN-INAF project “Science with NIRVANA - the interferometer for LBT”: national coordinator
- NIRVANA/LBT Science Team: member
- MAORY/ELT Science Team: member
-WFI/ELT Science Team: member
• Clementini G.
- Supplementary Observations workpackage and Cepheids/RR
Lyrae of the Specific Object Studies workpackage, within GAIA
Coordination Unit 7 (CU7): manager
- Ground Based Observation for Gaia (GBOG) working group:
representative for CU7
- PRIN-INAF project “From Local to Cosmological Distances”:
• Comastri A.
- ESA IXO (International X-ray Observatory) Science Definition
Team (ISDT): member
- COSMOS AGN Working Group: chair
- INAF Macroarea 1 “Galassie e Cosmologia”: Elected member
and coordinator (till April 2008)
- INAF Unità operativa di programmazione: member (till April
- Università di Ferrara: Professore a contratto
• de Ruiter H.R.
- Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) (FP7 of the European Union): Expert Evaluator
• Diolaiti E.
- LBT Near Infrared Adaptive Optics Test Cameras: Coordinator
- INAF, OABo & Bologna University, Phase A study of a multi–
conjugate adaptive optics module for the European ELT: PI
- Rapporteur della tesi di dottorato Etude des galaxies lointaines et optiques adaptatives tomographiques pour les ELTs di
B.Neichel, Université Paris VII - Denis Diderot, 11 December
- Responsible of post-laurea contract: ”Progetto di un modulo
di ottica adattiva multi-coniugata per il telescopio E-ELT”
- Member of the board of test for the contract INAF/Tomelleri
S.r.l. in the framework of the VST project. Period: 2008-2009
• Ettori S.
- Chandra Cycle 10 TAC panel: member
- ESA XMM-Newton Cycle 9 TAC: member
- Contract ASI I/088/06/0: national PI
- PRIN-INAF 2006 and contract ASI I/023/05/0: local PI
- Observatory “Thursday Seminars”: organizer
• Fusi Pecci F.
- Director of the Bologna Observatory
- INAF Dip.1: member of the Board
- INAF Dip.3: member of the TS Committee
- Cagliari Astronomical Observatory: member of the Board
- Sardinia Radio Telescope: member of the Board
- Consiglio Fondazione TT1 (Telescopio Toppo): member
- Comitato Scientifico Fondazione Marino Golinelli : member
- Consiglio Direttivo Società Astronomica Italiana: member
- Université de Provence: rapporteur
• Gilli R.
- Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) mission proposed to the
NASA Astro2010 Decadal Survey: core team member
- XMM-Newton OTAC, panel G1 (Cosmology, Extragalactic
Deep Fields and Area Surveys) for the 8th Announcement of
Opport unity (AO8): member
- Chandra OTAC, panel 13 (AGN) for observing Cycle 10: member
• Gruppioni C.
- Extragalactic Herschel Open Time Surveys (“PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP)”) Consortium: member
- Consorzio per la missione ESA/JAXA SPICA-SAFARI: member
- Programma Finanziato ASI-INAF I/057/08/0
- Partecipazione italiana allo studio di fattibilità dello strumento
SPICA SAFARI: co-PI
- Partecipazione alla scrittura dello YELLOW BOOK ESA per la
missione SPICA-SAFARI, con particolare riferimento alla sezione
• Iwasawa K.
- ESA: XMM-Newton Time Allocation Committee AO8: AGN
• Meneghetti M.
- EUCLID/DUNE mission: responsible of the italian pipeline for
image simulations used for preparing the DUNE proposal
• Origlia L.
- GIANO–TNG project: Principal Investigator
- SIMPLE-E-ELT project: Principal Investigator
- ESO Instrument Science Team of X-shooter: member
- LBT Scientific and Technical Committee: member
- Collegio dei Docenti di Dottorato del Dipartimento di Astronomia dell’Università di Bologna, XXIII Ciclo: member
• Pancino E.
- GAIA DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) CU5/DU15
(Instrument absolute response characterisation: ground based
- GAIA DPAC GBOG (Ground Based Observations for Gaia)
Working Group: deputy
• Tosi M.
- Deputy Director of the Bologna Observatory
- ESO Observing Program Committee: chair
- INAF Scientific Council: member
- ESO ELT Standing Review Committee: member
- Institute Visiting Committee of the Space Telescope Science
Institute (Baltimore USA): ESA member
- International Space Science Institute (Bern) Science Committee: member
- ASI: member of the Guppo di Lavoro per Cosmologia e Fisica
- IAU Commission 37 Organizing Committee (Open Clusters):
• Zamorani G.
- zCOSMOS management team : member
- ESA Time Allocation Committee for Herschel : member
- ESA Concept Advisory Team for a European Dark Energy
- EUCLID-NIS WP3000 (Science): coordinator
• Zitelli V.
- SUCOSIP (Site Properties Sub-Committee) per i telescopi presenti alle Canarie
- Loiano telescopes: coordinator
- Contract FP7 Science Access: member
Organization of Workshops
• Cacciari C.
- Gaia CU5 Review Meeting M07, held in Bologna on 17–19
- Gaia CU5 PhotPipe Code Review, held in Bologna on 19–20
• Diolaiti E.
- Conference title: Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes Location: Paris, 22–26 June 2009 Member of Scientific
Organizing Committee: E. Diolaiti
• Gilli R.
- SOC member of the 8th National Congress on Active Galactic
Nuclei (Torino, 19–22 May 2008)
• Pancino E. and Altavilla G.
- Oct. 20–21, 2008, Bologna, Italy, GBOG meeting 04: organizers
Seminars and Visiting Astronomers
1. January 10 - Stefano Bianchi (University of Roma Tre)
The nature of the soft X-ray emission in obscured AGN
2. January 24 - Luca Zappacosta (INAF-OA Trieste)
The X-ray “view” of the dominant mass components in the local
3. February 1 - Michele Cirasuolo (Royal Observatory Edinburgh)
Exploring the cosmic history of galaxies
4. February 7 Giuseppe Altavilla (INAF-OA Bologna)
Type Ia SNe and SN 2004dt
5. February 14 - Roberto Silvotti (INAF-OA Capodimonte)
Late stage evolution of planetary systems: the case of V 391
6. February 21 - Renzo Sancisi (INAF-OA Bologna)
Review on cold gas accretion in galaxies
7. February 28 - Sonia Fornasier (Obs. Paris Meudon)
Characterization of TNOs’ and Centaurs surface properties: first
results of a Large Programme at ESO telescopes
8. March 6 - Giuseppe Murante (INAF-OA Torino)
Origin of a diffuse stellar component in cosmological Tree+SPH
9. March 13 - Paolo Molaro (INAF-OA Trieste)
Varying constants and the dark side of the Universe
10. March 27 - Martin Zwaan (ESO Garching)
Comparing cold gas in galaxies in QSO absorption lines
11. April 3 - Evanthia Hatziminaoglou (ESO Garching)
Properties of dusty tori in quasars
12. April 4 - Evanthia Hatziminaoglou (ESO Garching)
VO tools and applications - an overview
13. April 9 - Jonathan Braine (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux)
Gas and Star Formation in the Outskirts of Spiral Galaxies
14. April 17 - Etienne Pointecouteau (CESR, Toulouse)
Dust in galaxy clusters
15. April 24 - Kazushi Iwasawa (INAF-OA Bologna)
C-GOALS: a Chandra survey of luminous infrared galaxies
16. May 8 - Giancarlo Ghirlanda (INAF-OA Milano)
Gamma Ray Bursts: short versus long
17. May 15 - Cesare Chiosi (University of Padova)
Structure of the Local Group derived from the population of
18. May 22 - Leonardo Testi (INAF OA Arcetri)
Protoplanetary disks: setting the stage for the formation of planetary systems
19. May 28 - Paola Marigo (University of Padova)
Modelling stellar populations in the infrared
20. June 4 - Luigi Guzzo (INAF-OA Milano)
Testing the origin of cosmic acceleration using galaxy redshiftspace distortions
21. June 12 - Jeremy Sanders (IoA Cambridge, UK)
Examining cool gas in clusters with X-ray observations
22. June 19 - Dan Maoz (INAF-OA Firenze and Tel-Aviv University)
Supernova rates: cluster and field, near and far
23. June 26 - Elena D’Onghia (Institute for Theoretical Physics,
University of Zurich)
Little Dwarf Galaxies survive with bigger Dwarfs: Understanding the faintest Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group
24. July 8 - Martin Huarte-Espinosa (University of Cambridge, UK)
The dynamical, MHD and chemical effects of FR II radio sources
on the ICM and its magnetic fields
25. September 4 - Andrea Merloni (Excellence Cluster Universe and
A synthetic view of AGN evolution and supermassive black holes
26. September 16 - Vanessa Hill (Obs. de Meudon, Paris - Obs. de
la Côte d’Azur, Nice)
Chemistries of the Milky-Way satellites: the evolution of dwarf
galaxies and Magellanic Clouds
27. September 23 - Thomas Puzia (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria - Canada)
Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems: The Swiss-Army Knives
28. September 25 - Andreas Burkert (University of Munich)
The Puzzle of Star Formation
29. October 2 - Silvio Bonometto (University of Milano Bicocca)
Cosmologia e Cosmologie
30. October 7 - Yoel Rephaeli (School of Physics, Tel Aviv University - CASS, University of California, San Diego)
The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect as a Cosmological Probe
31. October 16 - Silvano Molendi (INAF-IASF Milano)
Entropy, metals and everything
32. October 23 - Alessandra Lamastra (University of Roma Tre)
X-ray absorption in Compton-thin AGN: dependence on luminosity and redshift
33. October 30 - Elena Rasia (University of Michigan)
Studying cluster mass via scaling relation of 10000+1 galaxy
clusters and X-ray-lensing comparison
34. November 6 - Piero Galeotti (University of Torino - INFN INAF-IFSI)
Neutrinos from Supernovae
35. November 13 - Rita Bernabei (University of Roma ”Tor Vergata”
Signals from the Universe: from DAMA/NaI to DAMA/LIBRA
36. November 20 - Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF-IASF Roma)
Near-Earth Object, our (sometimes inconvenient) celestial neighbours
37. November 27 - Filippo Mannucci (INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Firenze)
Mass, metallicity and dynamics of high-redshift galaxies
38. December 4 - Francesca Annibali (INAF-OA Padova)
Star formation histories of late-type dwarf galaxies from HST
39. December 11 - Daniele Galli (INAF-OA Arcetri)
The Importance of Being Dissipated
40. December 18 - Rene Fassbender (MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics,
New X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters at z > 1 and their Galaxy
1. Alessandra Aloisi (STScI, Baltimore, USA) January 2008 [Tosi]
2. Francesca Annibali (INAF - OAPd) December 2008 [Tosi]
3. Vanessa Hill (Observatoire de Nice, Fr) September 2008 [Tosi]
4. Antonella Nota (STScI, Baltimore, USA) January 2008 [Tosi]
5. Elena Sabbi (STScI, Baltimore, USA) December 2008 [Tosi]
6. Eline Tolstoy (Groningen, NL) September 2008 [Tosi]
1. Veronica Biffi, The spherical collapse in Dark Energy models:
application to Galaxy Clusters (L. Moscardini, S. Ettori) Luglio
2. Francesco Cristiano Pignatale, ”Procedure di automatizzazione
di sintesi spettrale: applicazione al caso di ω Centauri” (F.R.
Ferraro, Pancino E., E. Rossetti) Luglio 2008
3. Felicia Ziparo, Studio multi-banda di galassie estremamente
rosse ad alto redshift (A. Cimatti, C. Gruppioni), Marzo 2009
1. Emanuele Dalessandro, Multiwavelength observations of stellar populations in globular clusters, XXI cycle (advisors: F.R.
Ferraro, B. Lanzoni)
2. Francesco Paci, Spettri della polarizzazione della radiazione
cosmica di fondo, XXI cycle (advisors: L. Moscardini, F. Finelli)
3. Gianluca Lombardi, Valutazione sinottica dei parametri meteorologici e loro impatto sulle osservazioni astronomiche, XXI
cycle (advisors: V. Zitelli, B. Marano)
4. Rodrigo Contreras, Variable stars in the field and globular
clusters of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), XXII cycle (Advisors:
B. Marano, G. Clementini)
5. Graziano Coppa, The cosmic mass assembly history of galaxies: a multi-dimensional study bas ed on deep redshift surveys,
XXII cycle (advisors: B. Marano, M. Mignoli, G. Zamorani)
6. Matteo Correnti, Stellar relics of the hierarchical assembly of
the Galaxy, XXII cycle (advisors: F.R. Ferraro, M. Bellazzini)
7. Annamaria Donnarumma, Testing the consistency of lensing
and X-ray mass estimates in galaxy clusters, XXII cycle (advisors: L. Moscardini, S. Ettori, M. Meneghetti)
8. Sara Fabbri, Studio della perdita di massa nelle stelle giganti di
Popolazione II con osservazioni SPITZER, XXII cycle (advisors:
F.R. Ferraro, L. Origlia, F. Fusi Pecci)
9. Vincenzo Guido, Development and optimization of graphic
user interfaces for infrared spectr ometers at TNG, XXII cycle
(advisors: B. Marano, L. Origlia)
10. Silvia Marinoni, Calibration plan, quality control and optimization of data analysis for red and infrared spectroscopic observations from TNG and other ground-based telesco pes, XXII
cycle (advisors: B. Marano, E. Pancino)
11. John Morgan, The application of grid technology to radioastronomy data reduction and ana lysis, XXII cycle (advisors: D.
Dallacasa, H.R. de Ruiter)
12. Sibilla Perina, Peculiar star clusters in M31: an HST view,
XXII cycle (advisors: F.R. Ferraro, M. Bellazzini, L. Federici )
13. Cristiano De Boni X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in cosmologies with dynamical dark energy, XXIII cycle (advisors: L.
Moscardini, S. Ettori)
14. Metteo Lombini Progetto di un modulo di ottica adattiva multiconiugata per il telescopio E–ELT, XXIII cycle (advisors: B.
Marano, E. Diolaiti)
15. Elisabetta Lusso A panchromatic vew of the evolution of supermassive black holes, XXIII cycle (advisors: L. Ciotti, A. Comastri)
16. Giulia Macario Storia della formazione stellare in galassie
risolte, XXIII cycle (advisors: B. Marano, M. Tosi)
17. Michele Moresco Vincoli sull’energia oscura dalle età di galassie
ellittiche, XXIII cycle (advisors: A. Cimatti, L. Pozzetti)
18. Rashmi Verma Software development to carry out sky surveys
with a 20 GHz 7–horns multibeam, XXIII cycle (advisors: L.
Gregorini, I. Prandoni, H. de Ruiter)
19. Maria Ida Moretti Pulsating variable stars as tracers of galactic formation and interaction mechanisms, XXIV cycle (advisors: M. Marano, G. Clementini
Post-Doctoral, Post-Laurea fellowships
1. Altavilla, Giuseppe
2. Bellocchi, Enrica
3. Cignoni, Michele
4. Contreras, Rodrigo
5. Coppa, Graziano
6. Galleti, Silvia
7. Gitti, Myriam
8. Iwasawa, Kazushi
9. Lombardi, Gianluca
10. Lombini, Matteo
11. Lusso, Elisabetta
12. Macario, Giulia
13. Maruccia, Ylenia
14. Perina, Sibilla
15. Poppi, Francesco
16. Ragaini, Silvia
17. Ranalli, Piero
18. Romano, Donatella
19. Rossetti, Emanuel
20. Vergani, Daniela