project co men iu s - Istituto Comprensivo Sant`Elia a Pianisi

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project co men iu s - Istituto Comprensivo Sant`Elia a Pianisi
PROJECT COMENIUS
[email protected]
CULTURAL
MAGAZINE
This publication
was prepared for the Socrates Comenius
Project 2009 - 2011
by Zespół Szkół nr 70 in Warsaw, Poland
and Istituto Comprensivo di Saint’Elia
a Pianisi from Italy
IMPORTANT SUBJECTS
• MOLISE
• WARSAW
• THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC
• NATIONAL HOLIDAYS
• CUISINE
• CHRISTMAS
• EASTER
MOLISE
HISTORY
OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MOLISE
in Quadrelle. In Larino, in Piano San
Leonardo area, once there was the
ancient urban center. There we can
admire the remains of a great amphitheater recently discovered. It was
built between 80 and 150 A D under
the Flavian emperors. Thanks to the
generosity of the Senator
Quinto Capito, it became a place of
burial during the Middle Ages.
LARINO
Molise is certainly a region of historical and archaeological interest, there
are finds from the ancient Roman
Imperial period in the new towns inhabited by the soldiers colonies after the final defeat of the Samnites
in 293 a. C. The old town of Venafro,
called Colonia Julia Augusta Venafrum, maintains in its urban development which spreads around a
main road and seven decumani or
crosses, typical of Rome. Interesting
are also the remains of the aqueduct, built by Augustus, about 30
kilometers long and in the district
Verlascio, the imposing Amphitheater. Among the most valuable remains, there is the "Venus Venafrana", now preserved in the Civic Museum in Chieti town. In Isernia town
there are many more examples of
Roman art preserved in the Civic Museum or scattered in the urban buildings. Among them the walls, inside
which the aqueduct was carved into
the rock, the podium of the Temple
of Jupiter, four statues of the late
empire arranged under the arch of
St. Peter and remarkable tombstone
material. Other remains are located
Str. 2
The elliptical Amphitheater with its
four main gates, aimed for the gladiators fighting and the performances of
hunting, which took place in the
arena, are still well preserved in fact
there is also the square hole from
which the games and the animal
cages were risen. The amphitheater
could host up to eighteen thousand
spectators and was built in mixed
structures, partially elevated and partially carved
in tuff. The arena,
slightly rounded in the center, was
bounded by a drain for water. There
are also remains of baths, luxurious
villas with mosaic floors of rare skill,
fragments of columns, capitals, carvings and inscriptions.
PROJECT COMENIUS
ISERNIA
The long history of Molise dates back
to the time of the first human presence on earth. On June 5th , 1979
there was a great news: the paleontological discovery in La Pineta, in Isernia, of a prehistoric site with evidence
of human activity dating back about
730 thousand years ago. The camp
was attended by the Paleolithic homo
erectus, Homo Aeserniensis, the oldest
living human being throughout Europe
The importance of the find is given not
only by the distant date but also by the
number of exceptional specimens of
bones
and stone artifacts found
around the hut inhabited by our ancient ancestor.
The documentation of the precious
finds of Isernia, which are key elements in the study of the Quaternary
of Mediterranean Europe, is housed in
a permanent exhibition in the Paleolithic Museum
in Isernia, in a dismissed
monastery of Benedictine
monks.
The caves and caverns discovered
in the last century in the mountainous region of Matese go back to the
Paleolithic and confirm the presence
of the prehistoric man in our country.
Sepino, Ielsi,
Monteroduni,
Pietrabbondante and Salcito are villages where tombs and other ancient objects have been discovered.
In Tufara a plow belonging to the
Iron Age was found. Some of these
valuable findings are in Molise at the
Museum of Campobasso and the
Museum of Agnone.
The biggest part is, instead, in the
Museum of Ethnography Pigorini of
Rome and in the Anthropological
Museum in Naples. In Trivento, Isernia, Venafro,
Sepino, Mount
Vairano, and in other villages or
countryside javelins, helmets, daggers, spears, work tools, household
utensils, coins, statues and inscriptions in Oscan on plates have been
found. The most important piece of
bronze, known as Osca Table found
in Agnone, discovered in 1848 by
the great German historian T.
Mommsen in
Capracotta is preserved in the British Museum in London, while the stone table, found in
the countryside of Casacalenda, is
located in the National Museum of
Naples. Remains of Samnite walls
were found in Campochiaro, Duronia, Montefalcone, in Isernia, in
Sepino and Larino.
Str. 3
PIETRABBONDANTE
The Archaeological Park of Pietrabbondante, the most valuable archeological site in Molise is located near
the ancient cattle track Celano - Foggia, a few kilometers far from the
village. Here you can admire the remains of the ancient Pietrabbondante, an important civil and religious centre of Pentria, built by the
Samnite few decades before the fatal crash with Rome.
Str. 4
The remains show the massive polygonal walls, the necropolis of Troccola, with precious tombs and two
temples. The Great Temple which consists of two altars, a pronao and a
stairway and the small Temple.
Downstream, there are traces of
houses and shops. The real masterpiece of the archaeological park is the
remains of the theatre, an happy marriage between Italic structures and
Greek architecture. The theatre built
in the natural slope of the land consists of five steps and an auditorium.
Here, on the extraordinary sectional
anatomy stone seats, unique in the
worldwide - even today, in summer,
people can attend theatrical performances.
PROJECT COMENIUS
MOLISE
CLASSE TERZA
DI PIETRACATELLA
L'esempio più vivo e palpitante della
presenza romana nel Sannio è Altilia,
uno dei più importanti e suggestivi
parchi archeologici d'Italia, l'antica
Saepinum romana, costruita ai piedi
della collina di Terravecchia, sulle
rovine di un insediamento sannita del
VI - V secolo a. c., nel luogo in cui il
tratturo, che percorre la valle del
Tammaro, si incrocia con la strada di
collegamento della pianura al Matese.
Luogo di mercati e di scambi
commerciali, di sosta e di transito delle
greggi Saepinum, che nel I secolo d. C.
divenne Municipio, era una città di
forma quadrata, recintata da una
poderosa Cinta muraria, in cui si
aprivano le 29 torri (27 circolari e 2 a
pianta poligonale) e le quattro porte
monumentali situate al termine delle
principali strade - il cardo massimo ed
il cardo decumano - che prendevano il
nome dalla direzione verso cui si
aprivano (porta Boiano ad ovest, porta
Terravecchia a sud, porta Benevento
ad est, porta Tammaro a nord).
Il centro della città era costituito
dall'area forense con il macellum o
mercato di generi alimentari, la
basilica, la piazza del foro con i
monumenti onorari ed i principali
edifici pubblici della città; in diversi
punt i er ano ubi cat i , po i , i
monumenti, le fontane, tra cui
quella del Grifo, le terme con le
prodigiose acque ed il teatro.
Di grande interesse la zona delle
abitazioni - le domus e le tabernae dove sono visibili l'atrio, l'impluvium
ed i cubicula, degli edifici industriali,
con tracce di vita quotidiana (il
frantoio, la tintoria, il mulino, le
locande, gli scarichi idraulici delle
case, i canali di scolo) e, fuori dalle
mura, i resti dei monumenti funerari
delle due necropoli situate al di fuori
della cinta muraria, l'una al di là di
porta Boiano con il mausoleo dei
Numisi, l'altra fuori porta Benevento
con il monumento dedicato ad Ennio
Marso. Quando la città decadde, in
epoca longobarda, tra i templi, le
case, il teatro e le mura della
Saepinum si costituì un villaggio di
contadini e pastori, che diede vita al
borgo medioevale di Altilia, le cui
rustiche case si frappongono ai resti
monumentali dell'antica città
romana, testimonianza della mLA
emoria del luogo.
Str. 5
La lunga storia del Molise va ricercata
sicuramente nella notte dei tempi
delle prime presenze dell'uomo sulla
terra: il 5 giugno 1979 viene infatti
data la notizia della grande scoperta
paleontologica, è cioè del
ritrovamento in località La Pineta di
Isernia, di un sito preistorico con
testimonianze di attività umane
risalenti a circa 730 mila anni fa.
L'accampamento paleolitico era
frequentato dall'homo erectus, l'Homo
aeserniensis, addirittura il più antico
vissuto in tutta Europa.
L'importanza del ritrovamento è data,
oltre che dalla lontanissima datazione,
dal numero veramente eccezionale di
reperti ossei e di manufatti lapidei
rinvenuti attorno alla capanna abitata
da quel nostro antichissimo
progenitore.
La documentazione dei preziosi
ritrovamenti di Isernia che
rappresentano elementi fondamentali
per lo studio del Quaternario nell'area
dell'Europa Mediterranea, è ospitata
stabilmente nella Mostra - Museo del
Paleolitico a Isernia, in un ex
monastero di monaci benedettini.
Str. 6
Risalgono al Paleolitico le grotte e le
caverne rinvenute nel secolo scorso
nella zona montuosa del Matese, che
confermano la presenza dell'uomo
preistorico sul nostro territorio: a
Sepino una capanna-sepolcro dell'età
della pietra; a Ielsi, alcune tombe a
doppia camera con resti umani e
frammenti di terracotta; altre tombe,
contenenti frammenti di oggetti
primitivi, sono state rinvenute in agro
di Monteroduni,
Pietrabbondante e
Salcito.
L'aratro rinvenuto in agro di Tufara, è
dell'età del ferro. Di questi preziosi
ritrovamenti, alcuni si trovano nel
Molise presso il Museo Sannitico di
Campobasso e presso il Museo
Emidiano di Agnone; la parte più
cospicua si trova, invece, nel Museo
Etnografico Pigorini di Roma ed in
quello Antropologico di Napoli.
PROJECT COMENIUS
A Trivento (Terventum), Isernia
(Aesernia), Venafro (Venafrum) e nei
centri fortificati di Terravecchia di
Sepino, di Monte Vairano, tra Busso e
Campobasso, di Monte Ferrante a
Carovilli, della Civitella, in agro di
Frosolone, sono stati rinvenuti
giavellotti, elmi, pugnali, lance, attrezzi
da lavoro, utensili domestici, monete,
statuette ed iscrizioni in lingua osca, su
lastra. I reperti più importanti sono la
lastra di bronzo, nota come Tavola
Osca o di Agnone, rinvenuta nel 1848
dal grande sto rico tedesco T.
Mommsen nell'agro di Capracotta e
conservata nel Museo Britannico di
Londra, e la lastra calcarea, rinvenuta
in agro di Casacalenda, che si trova nel
Museo Nazionale di Napoli. Resti di
mura sannitiche sono stati rinvenuti a
Campochiaro, a Duronia, a
Montefalcone del Sannio, a Isernia, a
Sepino e a Larino, dove è l'Ara
Frentana, testimonianza di
quest'epoca.
Il
P a r co
a r c he o l o g i co
di
Pietrabbondante, la gemma più
preziosa
dell'archeologia
molisana, si trova nei pressi
dell'antico tratturo Celano Foggia, a pochi chilometri
dall'abitato, tra giganteschi
macigni:. le morge. Qui è
possibile ammirare i resti
dell'antica Pietrabbondante,
importante centro civile e
religioso della Pentria, costruito
dai Sanniti pochi decenni prima
dell'urto fatale con Roma. I resti
mostrano le possenti mura
poligonali; la necropoli della
Troccola, con preziosi corredi
tombali; due templi, il Grande
Tempio costituito da due altari,
un pronao ed una gradinata, il
Piccolo Tempio della metà del II
secolo a. C. Più a valle, vi sono
tracce di unità abitative e
botteghe. Il vero capolavoro del
Parco archeologico è costituito
dai resti del Teatro, felice
connubio tra strutture italiche ed
architettura greca. Il Teatro,
ricavato nel pendio naturale del
terreno, è formato da una cavea
e da cinque gradinate. Qui, sugli
straordinari sedili in pietra a
sezione anatomica - e, per
questo, unici al mondo - ancora
oggi, in estate, è possibile
assistere alle rappresentazioni
teatrali.
Str. 7
WARSAW
such objects as Zygmunt’s Column
and the Royal Castle.
You should also note beautiful tenement houses. You must visit De Gaul’s
Roundabout too, were there is the
only palm tree ! Of course it’s artificial! Near the De Gaul’s roundabout
there is Nowy Świat street which is
one of the most expensive streets in
Warsaw and it leads to the old city.
Warsaw the capital of Poland is the
largest city. It is located on the Vistula River and her history goes back
to IX century. Warsaw was totally
destroyed several times especially in
the Second World War. Because of
that
Warsaw
is
known
as
the“Phoenix city”.
There are 18 districts in Warsaw:
Mokotów, Praga Południe, Praga Północ, Ursynów, Wola, Bielany, Śródmieście,
Targówek,
Bemowo,
Ochota, Białołęka, Wawer, Żoliborz,
Ursus, Włochy, Rembertów, Wesoła
and Wilanów. Warsaw's palaces,
churches and mansions display a
richness of color and architectural
details. Buildings are representatives
of nearly every European architectural style and historical period.
If you like shopping you can go to
Golden Terraces. It’s the biggest
shopping centre in Poland and it has
got a very interesting architecture.
Next to it there is the Palace of Culture and Science in the style of socialist realism. It was build by communists between 1952 and 1955.
There are many things like cinema,
museum and even a swimming pool!
You can also go to the top of it and
see Warsaw aerial. In Śródmieście
district, the central part of Warsaw,
there is Krakowskie Przedmieście
street, with Holy Cross Church, where
is Fryderyk Chopin’s heart. You can
see the Presidential Palace too.
The city has wonderful examples of
architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within
easy walking distance of the town
centre. When you are in Warsaw,
you should go to the old city and see
Str. 8
PROJECT COMENIUS
It survived the time of Poland's partitions and both World Wars and has
preserved its authentic historical
qualities. It is also one of the most
important monuments of Polish cul-
ture. It was built between 1677 and
1696 for the King Jan III Sobieski.
If you’re interested in the history of
Warsaw, you can go to Warsaw Uprising Museum. There you can get information about Warsaw Uprising which
was in 1944. For those which are interested in architecture I propose to visit
the main TVP headquarters at
Woronicza street or Warsaw University
Library with its very pretty garden on
the roof. The Royal Baths Park with the
Palace on the Water are also worth
seeing. In the Royal Baths Park, there
are peacocks. There is another palace
at Wilanów district, called Wilanów Palace.
Although this capital of Poland was
destroyed so many times, it still has
its unique atmosphere. It looks
great, but only because its residents
love the city and could devote their
time to its renewal. When you look
around, you will see how beautiful
and original is the city.
Str. 9
WARSZAWA
Warszawa, stolica Polski jest największym miastem. Leży na Wiśle, a
jej historia sięga IX w. Warszawa była całkowicie zniszczona kilka razy,
zwłaszcza podczas II Wojny Światowej. Przez to jest też nazywania Miastem Feniks.
W Warszawie jest 18 dzielnic: Mokotów, Praga Południe, Praga Północ,
Ursynów, Wola, Bielany, Śródmieście, Targówek, Bemowo, Ochota,
Białołęka, Wawer, Żoliborz, Ursus,
Włochy, Rembertów, Wesoła i Wilanów. Tutejsze pałace, kościoły i
dworki dysponują bogactwem kolorów i architektonicznymi detalami.
Budynki reprezentują prawie każdy
europejski styl architektoniczny i historyczny okres. Miasto posiada
wspaniałe przykłady architektury gotyku, renesansu, baroku i neokla-
Str. 10
sycznych czasów, wszystkie są zaś położone niedaleko centrum miasta. Kiedy jesteś w Warszawie, powinieneś iść
na Stare Miasto i zobaczyć takie
obiekty jak Kolumna Zygmunta i Zamek Królewski. Powinieneś także
zwrócić uwagę na piękne kamienice.
Musisz zobaczyć Rondo De Gualla,
gdzie jest jedyna palma! Oczywiście
jest sztuczna! Niedaleko Ronda De
Gaulla znajduje się ulica Nowy Świat,
która jest jedną z najzamożniejszych
ulic w Warszawie i prowadzi na Stare
Miasto. Jeśli lubisz chodzić na zakupy,
powinieneś odwiedzić Złote Tarasy. Są
one największym centrum handlowym
w Polsce i są bardzo ciekawie zbudo-
wane. Niedaleko nich leży Pałac Kultury i Nauki, zbudowany w stylu socrealizmu. Postawili go komuniści w latach 1952-1955. Jest tu wiele rzeczy
takich jak kino, muzeum, a nawet basen! Możesz także wejść na szczyt budynku i zobaczyć całą panoramę Warszawy.
PROJECT COMENIUS
W dzielnicy Śródmieście, w centralnej
części Warszawy leży ulica Krakowskie
Przedmieściem gdzie znajduje się Kościół Św. Krzyża, gdzie spoczywa serce
Fryderyka Chopina. Możesz tu też zobaczyć Pałac Prezydencki. Jeśli interesuje cię historia Warszawy, możesz się
udać do muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego. Tam zdobędziesz informacje o
Powstaniu Warszawskim z 1944r
Chociaż stolica Polski była niszczona
tyle razy, ma ciągle unikalną atmosferę. Wygląda wspaniale ale tylko
dlatego, że jej mieszkańcy kochają
to miasto i potrafili poświęcić swój
czas odnowieniu jej. Kiedy spojrzysz
wokół zobaczysz jak piękne i oryginalne jest to miasto.
Dla tych, którzy interesują się architekturą, proponuję odwiedzić kwatery
główne TVP na ulicy Woronicza, albo
Warszawską Bibliotekę Uniwersytecką,
wraz z jej bardzo ładnym ogrodem na
dachu. Łazienki Królewskie z Pałacem
Na Wodzie są także warte zobaczenia.
Znajdują się tam pawie. Jest także inny
pałac w Wilanowie. Przetrwał on czasy
rozbiorów, a także II Wojnę Światową,
więc zachował swoje historyczne cechy. Jest on jednym z najważniejszych
zabytków Polskiej kultury. Był zbudowany pomiędzy rokiem 1677 a 1696
dla króla Jana III Sobieskiego.
Str. 11
THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC
A NATIONAL FEAST: THE ITALIAN
REPUBLIC
The emblem of the Italian Republic.
On 2 and 3June, 1946 took place,
in fact, the institutional referendum
held by universal suffrage in which
Italians were called to the polls to
express their views on what form of
government, monarchy or republic,
giving the country after the fall of
Fascism . After 85 years of reign,
with 12,718,641 votes against
10,718,502 Italy became a republic
and the monarchs of the Savoy family were exiled.
Throughout the world by the Italian
embassies is held a celebration to
which the Heads of State of the host
country are invited. From around the
world greetings of the other heads of
state arrive to the Italian President
the and special ceremonies are held in
Italy.
Before the foundation of the Republic,
the Italian national holiday was the
first Sunday in June, the anniversary
of the granting of the Albertine Statute.
The Law of 5 March 1977, n.54 because of the unfavourable economy,
the Republic Day was moved to the
first Sunday in June. Only in 2001
thanks to the President of the Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, with another
Law established again the celebration
on June 2 which became a holiday.
On June 2, the birth of the nation is
celebrated, similar to July 14 French
(anniversary of Bastille Day) and
July 4 U.S. (the day on which in
1776 was signed the Declaration of
Independence).
The emblem
of the Italian monarchy.
Str. 12
PROJECT COMENIUS
Italian President Giorgio Napolitano at
the parade of 2 June 2006.
In June of 1948 for the first time Via
dei Fori Imperiali Rome hosted a military parade in honor of the Republic.
The following year, with Italy's entry
into NATO, there were played ten simultaneous parades across the country
while in 1950 the parade was inserted
for the first time in the protocol of official celebrations.
Currently the ceremonial provides for
laying of a laurel crown at the Unknown Soldier by the Altare della Patria
in Massa and a military parade with the
presence of the highest authorities of
state.
To the military parade and the deposition of the laurel crown at the Unknown Soldier, all the Armed Forces,
all the Police Forces of the Republic
and the National Fire Departement and
the Italian Red Cross take part in it. In
2005, the President of the Republic
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi ordered the participation of the Municipal Police of
Rome and the civilian personnel of Civil
Defense.
Otherwise some military delegations of
the UN, NATO, EU and representatives
of departments that have a multinational Italian components also take
part in the parade.
Since its establishment until his temporary removal, the parade had much
more staff. After the re-introduction
the staff was considerably reduced and
in 2006 was virtually eliminated the
presence of land and air transport for
budgetary reasons.
The ceremony continues in the afternoon with the opening to the
public of the gardens of the Quirinale Palace, seat of the of the Italian
Republic President, with musical
performances by the bands of the
Italian Army, the Italian Navy, Italian Air Force, the Arma dei Carabinieri, the State Police, the Guardia di
Finanza, the Penitentiary Police
Corps and the Forest Service State.
The Italian flag is made up of three
vertical bands of equal size: the first
green, the second (central) in white,
the third (final) in red. The Constitution art. 12 put its kind, as a symbol
o f
I t a l i a n
c o u n t r y .
The Italian flag, like other flags was
inspired by the French flag introduced by the revolution of 1789.
The first Italian tricolor - with bands
arranged horizontally (similar to the
Hungarian flag) - appears January
7, 1797 in Reggio Emilia as the flag
of the Republic Cispadana. After the
Congress of Vienna and the Restoration the Italian flag was a symbol of
freedom and was used in the revolutionary upheavals of 1831 and
1848. That same year, with the announcement of the first war of independence.
Str. 13
DELLA REPUBLICCA ITALIANA
La Festa della Repubblica italiana è
la principale festa nazionale italiana.
Viene celebrata il 2 giugno a ricordo
della nascita della Repubblica.
Capi di Stato del Paese ospitante. Da
tutto il mondo arrivano al Presidente
della Repubblica italiana gli auguri
degli altri capi di Stato e speciali
cerimonie ufficiali si tengono in Italia.
Prima
della
fondazione
della
Repubblica, la festa nazionale italiana
era festeggiata la prima domenica di
giugno, anniversario della concessione
dello Statuto Albertino.
Con la legge 5 marzo 1977, n. 54,
soprattutto a causa della congiuntura
economica particolare divenne giorno
festivo.
Il 2 e il 3 giugno 1946 si tenne,
infatti, il referendum istituzionale
indetto a suffragio universale con il
quale gli italiani venivano chiamati
alle urne per esprimersi su quale
forma di governo, monarchia o
repubblica, dare al Paese, in seguito
alla caduta del fascismo. Dopo 85
anni di regno, con 12.718.641 voti
contro 10.718.502 l'Italia diventava
repubblica e i monarchi di casa
Savoia venivano esiliati.
Il 2 giugno celebra la nascita della
nazione, in maniera simile al 14
luglio francese (anniversario della
Presa della Bastiglia) e al 4 luglio
statunitense (giorno in cui nel 1776
venne
firmata
la
dichiarazione
d'indipendenza). In tutto il mondo le
ambasciate italiane tengono un
festeggiamento cui sono invitati i
Il
Str. 14
Presidente della Repubblica Giorgio
Napolitano alla parata del 2 giugno
2006.
Nel giugno del 1948 per la prima volta
Via dei Fori Imperiali a Roma ospitava
la parata militare in onore della
Repubblica. L'anno seguente, con
l'ingresso dell'Italia nella NATO, se ne
svolsero dieci in contemporanea in
tutto il Paese mentre nel 1950 la
parata fu inserita per la prima volta
nel
protocollo
delle
celebrazioni
ufficiali.
PROJECT COMENIUS
Alla parata militare e durante la
deposizione
della
corona
d'alloro
presso il Milite Ignoto, prendono parte
tutte le Forze Armate, tutte le Forze di
Polizia della Repubblica ed il Corpo
Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco e della
Croce Rossa Italiana. Nel 2005, l'allora
Presidente della Repubblica Carlo
Azeglio Ciampi ordinò che defilassero
anche il Corpo di Polizia Municipale di
Roma ed il personale civile della
Protezione Civile. Prendono inoltre
parte alla parata militare alcune
delegazioni militari dell'ONU, della
NATO,
dell'Unione
Europea
e
rappresentanze
di
reparti
multinazionali che presentano una
componente italiana.
Il primo tricolore italiano con le
strisce situate in orizzontale, simile
a quella ungherese appare in
gennaio nel 1797 a Reggio Emilia
come la bandiera della repubblica
Cispadana. Dopo il Congresso di
Vienna e la Restaurazione la
bandiera italiana è diventata il
simbolo della libertà e fu utilizzata
nei moti rivoluzionari del 1848. Lo
stesso anno della dichiarazione della
prima Guerra di Indipendenza.
La
bandiera italiana è fatta di tre strisce
verticali di uguale larghezza: verde,
bianca e rossa. A sancirlo è stata la
costituzione italiana con l’articolo 12,
stabilendo anche che costituisce un
simbolo del paese Italia. La bandiera
italiana come le altre è stata ispirata
dalla bandiera francese introdotta dalla
rivoluzione del 1789.
Str. 15
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS IN POLAND
Poland officially the Republic of
Poland is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the
west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus
and Lithuania to the east; and the
Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a
Russian exclave, to the north.
The total area of Poland is 312,679
square kilometres (120,726 sq mi),
[6]
making it the 69th largest country
in the world and the 9th largest in
Europe. Poland has a population of
over 38 million people,[6] which makes it the 34th most populous country in the world[9] and the sixth most
populous member of the European
Union, being its most populous postcommunist member. Poland is a unitary state made up of sixteen voivodeships. Poland is a member of the
European Union, NATO, the United
Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD).
Str. 16
THE CONSTITUTION
OF MAY 3, 1791
In the end of the XVIII century the
situation of the countries that overtook some lands belonging to Poland
had complicated. It was the outcome
of the wars led be those countries,
and a tightening international situation. The Republic of The Two Nations
used it to set up activities leading to
the restoration of the country and to
bring it back to its former powers.
Hiding it from the supporters of the
generals the constitution has been
prepared, the ultimate version of
which was authorized by the king
Stanislaw August, Ignacy Potocki and
Hugo Kołłątaj. The date of the election
was set to the 3rd of May, because it
was the Easter time and the majority
of the political opponents were out of
the Capital City. Surprised by this action the generals were seeking for,
failed though, possibilities to break
the Seym. The Seym that tried to
rescue Poland from vanishing out of
the world’s maps is called the FourYear Seym – the debates took place in
twice as long time, whereas normal
one should last for two years. In the
year 1791 the Seym of the Republic of
The Two Nations resolved the first
constitution in Europe and second in
the world. It changed Poland into constitutional monarchy, the division into
the Kingdom and Lithuania, making
the Republic a united country with its
one army, one government and finances.
PROJECT COMENIUS
The infamous liberum veto was
abandoned, together with free election and introduced new tax system.
Army was enlarged, making it capable to match the most powerful
ones. It didn’t guarantee the equality of the Polish society, though.
The nobility still maintained all the
rights and privileges, together with
authority to the peasants, personal
and financial immunity. The townsmen were given many rights of the
nobility, making the richer ones as
powerful as the aristocrats. The
peasants were taken into the care of
the State.
The Catholicism was now the official
religion, with full tolerance to the other
ones. Constitution introduced the three
elements of the authority: legislative
authority was represented by the
Seym, the executive one by the King
together with The Guards of Law – including the prime bishop and five ministers, nominated by the King.
The king was the leader of the Guards,
and had the authority to nominate the
ministers, bishops, officers and clerks,
during the war he was the Commander
of the Army. Constitution was postulating the necessity of creating the unified
system of Judgment, with the 2nd Instance Court, known as The Royal Tribunal, and Assessing Court. This had
made the country to function faster
and endurable.
The last part of the Constitution
concerned the need to defend
against the aggression from the
neighbors of the Republic. Unfortunately, the effort taken to reform
the Republic was buried down in
1792, when the Russian army entered the domains of Lithuania and
the treacherous confederation of
Targovica, which aimed at bringing
back the old order.
Celebrations
The celebrations begin with
the Holy Mass. Then, there are
marches of the
people, together
with the government representatives. It is all accompanied by the
army’s orchestra. In each house the
national flags and symbols are presented.
Str. 17
ŚWIĘTA NARODOWE
Polska, Rzeczpospolita Polska –
państwo położone w Europie Środkowej, między Bałtykiem na północy a
Karpatami i Sudetami na południu w
dorzeczu Wisły i Odry. Powierzchnia
całkowita Polski wynosi 322 575
km²[, co daje jej 69. miejsce na
świecie i dziewiąte w Europie. Zamieszkana przez ponad 38 milionów
ludzi[7], zajmuje pod względem zaludnienia 34. miejsce na świecie[8], a
szóste w Unii Europejskiej.
Rzeczpospolita jest szybko rozwijającym się państwem, członkiem wielu
organizacji międzynarodowych. Polska należy do Unii Europejskiej, NATO, ONZ, Światowej Organizacji
Handlu, Organizacji Współpracy Gospodarczej i Rozwoju, Europejskiego
Obszaru Gospodarczego, Międzynarodowej Agencji Energetycznej, Rady
Europy, Organizacji Bezpieczeństwa i
Współpracy w Europie, Międzynarodowej Agencji Energii Atomowej oraz
G6.
Str. 18
KONSTYTUCJA TRZECIEGO
MAJA 1791
Pod koniec lat osiemdziesiątych
XVIII w. sytuacja polityczna państw,
które dokonały rozbioru Rzeczypospolitej, skomplikowała się. Było to wynikiem prowadzonych wojen i sytuacji
międzynarodowej. Dzięki temu powstały warunki do podjęcia przez
Rzeczpospolitą działań na rzecz zreformowania i wzmocnienia państwa.
W tajemnicy przed stronnictwem hetmańskim przygotowywano Ustawę
rządową czyli konstytucję, której ostateczną wersję opracowali wspólnie
król, Ignacy Potocki i Hugo Kołłątaj.
Jako datę głosowania nad ustawą wyznaczono 3 maja, gdyż był to okres
świąt wielkanocnych i większość przeciwników politycznych przebywała w
swoich domach poza Warszawą. Zaskoczony w ten sposób obóz hetmański szukał jeszcze możliwości zerwania
obrad.
W latach 1788-1792 obradował
w Warszawie sejm, który podjął dzieło
reformy
ustroju
Rzeczypospolitej.
Trwał on przez dwie normalne kadencje i dlatego nazywany jest Sejmem
Czteroletnim. W 1791 roku Sejm
Rzeczpospolitej
Obojga
Narodów
uchwalił pierwszą na Starym Kontynencie a drugą na świecie ustawę zasadniczą, nazwaną później Konstytucją 3 Maja. Od tej pory Polska miała
być monarchią konstytucyjną. Zniesiono też podział na Koronę i Litwę, czyniąc z Rzeczpospolitej jednolite państwo ze wspólnym rządem, wojskiem i
skarbem. Za religię panująca uznano
katolicyzm przy zupełnej tolerancji innych uznanych przez państwo wyzwań.
PROJECT COMENIUS
Konstytucja wprowadzała trójpodział władzy: władzę ustawodawczą
miał sprawować dwuizbowy Sejm, składający się ze szlachty-posesjonatów
czyli 204 posłów i 24 pleinpotentów
miast. Władzę wykonawczą przyznano
królowi wraz z Radą, tzw. Strażą Praw,
złożoną z prymasa i 5 ministrów: policji, pieczęci, czyli spraw wewnętrznych,
interesów zagranicznych, wojny i skarbu, mianowanych przez króla. Ministrowi odpowiadali przed Sejmem za podpisane przez siebie akty. Król był przewodniczącym Straży, miał prawo nominacji biskupów, senatorów, ministrów,
urzędników i oficerów, w razie wojny
sprawował naczelne dowództwo nad
wojskiem. Konstytucja zapowiadała reorganizacje sądownictwa, postulując
konieczność stworzenia stale urzędujących sądów ziemskich i miejskich oraz
sprawujących nad nimi nadzór w drugiej instancji Trybunałem Koronnym i
asesorskim sądem. Poprzez podział
władzy usprawniono jednak rządy w
państwie. Sejm podjął szereg uchwał
służących wzmocnieniu i unowocześnieniu państwa: zniesiono liberum veto, wolną elekcję, zakazano tworzenia
konfederacji, wprowadzono odpowiedzialność rządu przed sejmem oraz
stałe podatki. Zwiększono liczebność
armii do 100 tysięcy żołnierzy. Ustawa
ta nie wprowadziła jednak wolności i
równości praw obywateli. Szlachta miała zagwarantowane wszelkie prawa,
wolności i "pierwszeństwo w życiu prywatnym
i
publicznym".
Szlachtaposesjonaci
posiadała
nietykalność
osobistą i majątkową, zapewnioną władzę nad chłopami. Mieszczanie otrzymali szerokie prawa, posiadający nieruchomości miejskie otrzymali niemalże takie same prawa, jak do tej pory
szlachta. Chłopi zostali wzięci "pod
opiekę prawa i rządu krajowego".
Ostatni rozdział konstytucji mówił o potrzebie zespolenia wszystkich sił dla
obrony ojczyzny w obliczu zagrożenia ze strony sąsiadów. Cały tekst
Konstytucji 3 Maja sporządzony został w znacznym pośpiechu, stąd
wynikły jej spore braki lub niejasności w wykładni prawa publicznego.
Ogółem Ustawa Rządowa składała
się z 11 rozdziałów o nierównej objętości. Próba przeprowadzenia reform została przekreślona już w połowie 1792 roku. Przyczyniła się do
tego Targowica i wkroczenie wojsk
rosyjskich do Rzeczpospolitej. Tron
po śmierci Stanisława Augusta
przejść miał w ręce dynastii Wettinów.
Obchody konstytucyjne rozpoczynają się od uroczystej Mszy
Świętej. Później ulicami miast następuje przemarsz ludności wraz z
przedstawicielami urzędów. Całej
uroczystości towarzyszy orkiestra
dęta straży pożarnej. Po dotarciu na
stanowisko apelacyjne, przedstawiciel władz wygłasza swoją wzniosłą
mowę. Składane są również kwiaty i
wojsko oddaje salwę honorową poprzez wystrzały z karabinów maszynowych w powietrze.
Str. 19
MOLISE CUISINE
Molise cuisine is very various. Among
the most important products are the
olives from which derive the extra
virgin oil which tastes sweet and
good eaten with
salads and croutons. The excellent product has
gained the in 2003, the DOP recognition. Many villages are part of the
"città dell’olio” (“Oil town"), set in
Larino.
Molise bread retains its old manufacturing and production so it is still
produced in some bakeries using potatoes.
The bread of Venafro is Famous, as
well as its production of olive oil
taralli.
Pasta is also very important. A typical fresh pasta is called Cavatelli and
is obtained with a dough without
eggs. It is produced everywhere in
the region adopting different kind of
shape and size.
Equally popular are the fusilli prepared with the same dough, but
made with a "wood stick" from which
the name derives.
Str. 20
Great importance is given to the production of dairy products and cheese:
the cheese of Frosolone, the Bojano
mozzarella and the buffalo mozzarella
produced only in the area of Venafro.
As to cold cuts or salami some of
them are produced in Molise, such as
sopressata, Capocollo, sausage, famous because it has as ingredient the
wild fennel, the Ventricina famous is
that of Montenero di Bisaccia.
A typical preparation of the lower
Molise, especially in San Martino in
Pensilis is the Pampanella, pork meat
cooked in the oven with some spices
and much sweet and spicy chili.
The truffles (black and white) is used
throughout the region, it is dug from
the earth, especially in upper Molise.
PROJECT COMENIUS
Among the desserts are typical the Piccillati, the ravioli stuffed with cherry
jam, and Pigna, similar to panettone
but, traditionally prepared for Easter.
Among the wines there is the Tintilia
DOC from Biferno, area.
TRADITIONAL DISHES IN PIETRACATELLA
We are among some typical dishes in
Pietracatella:
The "cavatelli": they are done with
flour, water and salt (even an
egg could be added). Cavatelli
are done at home using own
hands. They have a special form,
they are carved with the top of
the fore-finger and the middle
finger.
The "vuccùn": they are done with
minced pork meat, to give them
a particular taste we add olive
oil, fennel seeds and hot chili.
The "casciatelli": they are made of
ricotta cheese, cinnamon, flour,
eggs and sugar. When they are
ready to be cooked they are put
in the oven and they are baked
for 10/15 minutes. They are the
traditional cakes for Saint
Joseph feast.
The "jelatin": it is done with the
meat of the head of the pig
which is cooked with salt,
vinegar, bay leaves, fennel
seeds. And when it is ready it
must get cold and the jelly is
formed.
The "pulend":it is made with the
corn flour, chickpeas and
beans, salt, water and a little
of oil. It is served hot.
The “pizza with randrin": it is
made with water, corn flour
and salt.
The “pizza with cicul": it is done
with the flour, the salt, water
and cicul, ( they are pieces of
pork fried fat).
Str. 21
Ring-shaped cake
Ingredients : 1 kg of plain flour,
100g of butter, 50g of sugar, half
liter of milk , 4 eggs , 100g of yeast
of beer , skin lemon grated , a glass
of orange’s flowers water, a pinch of
salt.
Today it is cultivated in particular
southern parts of Italy and is well
known for its trade-mark IPG, Geographic Protected Indication. It is
used in soups and broths and to make
bread. It is excellent and contains fiber, vitamins and minerals.
The courgettes
Method : Put the flour on a wood table, break the eggs , melt butter ,
put butter and yeast in the milk, stir
all the ingredients,
stretch
the
dough in thin leaves, cut them in
small rings and fry.
It’s possible to define the courgette
queen of the garden and queen of the
table. The courgette glare in the garden with their big yellow-orange flowers, which are as tasty as the vegetable itself. They start the production in
summer and finish in autumn when
the weather become colder. They can
be eaten in so many ways and belong
to a vast variety, in every shape and
size with different colour according to
the variety.
Another antique cereal is the spelt
from which derives the word flour.
But what is spelt? It is a cereal that
after a long period of forgetfulness,
is coming back to use because of its
dietetic properties. It is mentioned
in the Bible and its origin is probably
from Palestine, then it passed to
Egypt and Syria. For centuries it has
been the basic food for Italian people, the army and religion. It had a
religious role in fact it was used on
the altar and symbolized the life the
couple would share after the marriage.
Str. 22
PROJECT COMENIUS
LOCAL PRODUCTS
The Cheese and the sausage of Pietracatella are considered "traditional products" referring to the Article 8 of the
Legislative Decree of 30 April 1998, n.
173 and are included in the 'Atlas of
the traditional products of the Molise
Region "edited by the Molisano Agricultural Resources Ente.
The sausage: Pietracatella’s sausage
has special ingredients which are
pork fat flash, salt, wild fennel and
sweet and spicy chili. Its peculiarity
is connected to the places where
traditionally it has been obtained.
The production methodology has its
historical origins in the medieval culture of the "ancient village". Within
the "neighborhood", over the centuries, a system of solidarity, organization and specialization of production was formed and it should be
preserved both for the culture and
gourmet.
The cultural tradition is passed down
orally through the generational transition. So skilled people learn to
cut, fill and mix the different ingredients and taste them to check the
savour.
The Cheese: " Pietracatella having excellent pastures, can produce exquisite
cheeses and very claimed by the
nearby people of the kingdom": so
Giustiniani wrote
in 1804.
Pietracatella cheese, produced with
cows, sheep and goats milk, presents
the particular imprint of the little baskets made of the local typical water
plant rush . These baskets are called in
dialect "Fruscella". The seasoning (at
least two months) is done in special
wood racks, "cascer", kept in fresh
and dry places.
Str. 23
IL MOLISE E LA CUCINA
Quella molisana è una cucina molto
varia.
Tra i prodotti più importanti vi sono
le olive da cui si estrae un olio
extravergine dal sapore soave
consumato anche crudo su insalate e
crostini. L'eccellente fattura del
prodotto ha fatto guadagnare all'olio
molisano, nel 2003, il riconoscimento
DOP. Sempre a proposito dell'olio
d'oliva, diversi paesi molisani fanno
par t e del l 'asso ci az i o ne "C i t t à
dell'olio", con sede a Larino.
Il pane molisano conserva la sua
antica manifattura produttiva e viene
preparato, ancora, in alcuni panifici
con le patate. La sua sofficità lo
contraddistingue. Famosa è la
produzione del pane e dei taralli
al l ' o l i o di o l i v a di V en af r o .
Anche la produzione della pasta ha
un’importante rilevanza economica e
sociale. Un tipo di pasta fresca tipica,
che prende il nome di Cavatelli, è
ottenuta con una sfoglia senza uova.
È prodotta in particolare nel paese di
Trivento. Il condimento preferito per
questa specialità è il ragù di carne
mista, il sugo di pomodoro oppure
con le verdure. Altrettanto conosciuti
sono i Fusilli preparati con lo stesso
impasto, ma realizzati con l’ausilio di
un "fuso" da cui il nome particolare e
anche la forma particolare.
Dall'impasto vengono staccati dei
dadini di pasta, avvolti intorno al
fuso e poi sfilati.
il caciocavallo di Frosolone, le
mozzarelle di Bojano e le mozzarelle
di bufala prodotte solo nella zona di
Venafro.
Per ciò che riguarda i salumi, nel
Molise vengono prodotti alcuni
insaccati, come la Soppressata, il
Capocollo o Capicollo, la Salsiccia,
famosa perché ha come ingrediente il
finocchietto selvatico, la Ventricina:
famosa è quella di Montenero di
Bisaccia.
Un preparato tipico del basso Molise,
specialmente a San Martino in
Pensilis, è la Pampanella, carne di
maiale cotta al forno con alcune
spezie e molto peperoncino rosso sia
dolce che piccante.
Il consumo del tartufo, nero e bianco,
viene fatto sempre più spesso in tutta
la regione, essendo ormai parecchio
tempo che viene scavato dalla terra,
specie nell'Alto Molise, grazie ai
numerosi cavatori ed ai loro cani .
Sempre più numerose sono le fiere
che hanno come tema il tartufo ed il
suo impiego in parecchie specialità
culinarie.
Grande importanza è data alla
produzione di latticini e di formaggi:
Str. 24
PROJECT COMENIUS
Fra i dolci tipici troviamo le Cancelle,
simili alle waffel tedesche ma con
l'aggiunta di semini di finocchio, i
Piccillati , panzerotti cotti al forno
ripieni di amarena, e la Pigna, simile al
panettone ma più soffice e leggera e
tradizionalmente preparata per la
Pasqua. Tra i vini, si segnala la Tintilia
(vino autoctono). Biferno, Pentro e
Molise hanno avuto il riconoscimento di
vini DOC.
RICETTE TIPICHE LOCALI DI
PIETRACATELLA
i "cavatelli" sono fatti con la farina,
l’acqua e il sale ( può essere
aggiunto anche un uovo). I
cavatelli sono fatti in casa a
mano, hanno una forma
particolare, infatti sono scavati
con le dita delle mani , in
particolare l’indice e il medio,
contemporaneamente
o
singolarmente.
i "vuccùn" sono fatti con carne di
maiale tritata e per dargli il
sapore tipico e particolare che li
caratterizza si utilizza per la
cottura olio di oliva e si
aggiungono semi di finocchio e
peperoncino piccante.
i "casciatelli" sono fatti con ricotta,
limone, farina, zucchero e uova.
La preparazione non è molto
difficile, appena pronti vanno
infornati e lasciati cuocere per
10/15 minuti. Sono dei dolci tipici
della festa di San Giuseppe del
19 marzo.
la "jelatin" è fatta con la carne della
testa del maiale e viene cucinata
con sale, aceto, aglio e foglie di
alloro. Una volta pronta si
distribuisce in varie formine e si
lascia raffreddare per assumere
l’aspetto di gelatina.
la "pulend" si realizza con la
farina di mais , ceci o fagioli,
sale, acqua e un po’ di olio. Si
serve calda e può essere
condita in vari modi.
"la
pizza d’ randrin"
si fa
impastando farina di mais con
acqua e sale.
Appena
pronto, l’impasto si mette a
cuocere in forno per un’ora,
un’ora e mezza.
"la pizza con i cicul" s’impasta la
farina di mais con l’acqua e il
sale e all’impasto pronto si
aggiungono i cicoli ( lardo di
maiale tagliato a pezzetti e
sciolto a fuoco vivo) finemente
macinati.
Str. 25
POLISH CUISINE
Chronicles describe the medieval Polish cuisine as very severe, characterized by frequent use of large quantities of meat and legumes. The contemporary Polish cuisine has applied
enormous in comparison with other
European countries, the quantity of
spices, mainly pepper, nutmeg and
juniper. This was due to close trade
relations with the Orient, which resulted in lower prices for spices. To
the present day preserved mention
of aromatics, thick sauces and very
sharp.
The development of Polish cuisine
has had a huge impact to arrive in
1518
Polish Queen Bona.
Italian woman brought to the Polish
"greens", interested in setting up of
orchards, warzywników, fish ponds.
Its fanatical supporters even claimed
that "the wild yet civilized Poles,
teaching them to eat vegetables and
drink wine instead of beer."
Culinary tastes Stanislaus Augustus
started the fashion for a relatively
refined cuisine combining French and
Polish culinary traditions. A student
of the famous royal chef Paul Tremona - Jan Szyttler was the author
of the first systematic cookbooks on
Polish soil.
Modern Polish cuisine is
from earlier that the staple
cereal, potatoes have been
by a delicious venison is
Str. 26
placed by pork and poultry breeding.
We gained great popularity and tomatoes. Polish cuisine is known worldwide for its magnificent sausage
meats.
Polish cuisine is known for different
types of dumplings. And they are actually different types of fillings to
them - so they are dumplings stuffed
with fruit (the best of the berries),
white cheese, meat, cabbage and
mushrooms or Ruthenian (stuffed with
potatoes, cheese and onions.) In my
opinion, are best fried in a pan (of
course except those with fruit). In addition, the Poles willingly eat pancakes
(fillings are also various types),
dumplings and bread dumplings.
different
food, or
replaced
now re-
PROJECT COMENIUS
unknown in northern Europe cherries,
gooseberries and currants - all the
fruit is used today in dishes, desserts,
pastries, Nalewki and made into a typical for the Polish cuisine and a plum
compote. The importance of Polish cuisine is typically Slavic apply cream
(both fresh and sour) anywhere in the
Balkan and Oriental cuisine is yogurt in Polish cuisine is based cream sauces,
marinades and soups.
Polish specialty dishes of flour and cereal
(cereal, noodles and dumplings), fruits of
the forest products (mushrooms, fruits,
herbs), pork (including sausages and sausage), freshwater fish, game, a large quantity of soup with any product (especially
vegetables ), pastries (bread, cakes), desserts, spirits and liqueurs. Typical spices
are horseradish, dill, juniper, black pepper,
sour cream, cottage cheese. The fruits
and vegetables is characterized by the
beet, cucumber, cabbage, apples, cherries,
blueberries, gooseberries, and others in
Central Europe.
The drinks are typical for traditional
Polish and Slavic are known herbal
broths acids, bread, fruit compotes,
vodka, liqueurs, fruit, honey sycony
and beer, with beer once also used
in dishes. To drink tea come with
time.
A traditional Polish dinner starts
with soup. Polish cuisine offers a
wide selection of soups, ranging
from soup served with dumplings,
cabbage soup, tomato, barley soup
and ending with the mushroom.
Soup is worth a separate opinion
broth, clear brew of chicken or beef
served with noodles.
Typical vegetables in Polish cuisine, as in
other Western Slavs, are beets, various
kinds of cabbage, cucumbers, and also formerly wild plants such as sorrel, botwinka,
nettles
and
dandelions.
Typical fruits in Polish cuisine are apples
and berries, and plums, pears, cherries,
Str. 27
TRADITIONAL POLISH dishes:
• Easter woman - known also for
other Slavs and Lithuanians
• beetroot soup - known in various
versions in other kitchens Slavic and
Lithuanian
• white borscht (also called zalewajką) and soup
• stew - Food Hunter, also known in
Lithuania
• cooler - soup with milk or cream
with vegetables, served cold summer, known for other Slavs
• Duck
• pea soup
• Vegetables in Polish - vegetables
cooked in water, served with bread
crumbs in butter blushing
• carp, pike-perch in Polish, eel and
other freshwater fish
• sauerkraut and pickled cucumber
• soup
• buckwheat cereal, and various
other
• pudding
• gnocchi - dumplings and the Meat
dumplings (for example, with sauerkraut, blueberries, cottage cheese or
bacon)
• compote - a cool fruit drink
• kutia - today mostly eaten on
Christmas Eve
• poppy
• Mazurkas - still eaten mainly at
Easter
• Tincture
• beaver tails - favorite food of the
Polish nobility, since eaten them in
the post, believing that they are covered with scales
• gingerbread
• dumplings
• pancakes
• broth with or without bone, cooked
Str. 28
meat or the brew from the same
vegetable
• mushroom soup
• Cucumber Soup
• Sorrel soup
PROJECT COMENIUS
PROVISION FOR TRADITIONAL
POLISH DINNER:
2) Main course
Bigos
INGREDIENTS:
• 40 dag sauerkraut
• 40 g of cabbage growers
• 20 g of boneless pork Sausage
• 10 dag smoked bacon
• 3 g of fat
• 1-2 g of dried mushrooms
• 5 g of tomato concentrate
• Salt and pepper
1) Soup:
WHITE BARSZCZ
* (Occasional dish served mainly during Easter)
INGREDIENTS:
•
•
•
•
•
1 white sausage (100g)
100g smoked bacon
2 tablespoons sour cream 18%
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Pepper
Ingredients:
Cook bacon and sausage in 1 liter of
water, remove and cut into slices.
Spread the soup in a glass of water
and added to the broth.
Boil 5 minutes.
Add cream, season with pepper.
Serve with hard boiled eggs.
Before serving sprinkle with parsley.
Ingredients:
Finely chopped sauerkraut, pour a
small amount of boiling water and
simmer 1 hour until tender. Peel the
fresh cabbage rotting leaves, rinse,
poszatkować, pour a little of boiling
water, cook it with chopped mushrooms.
Rinse the pork meat, squeeze out of
the water, salt and brown in hot fat
on all sides. Then put the bacon
along with the sauerkraut and simmer until tender.
Pork and bacon, remove from the
cabbage, then cut into cubes. Sausage, peel, cut into cubes well.
Combined with fresh cabbage sauerkraut. Add pork, bacon, sausage
and tomato. All mix thoroughly. At
the end of season to taste with salt
and pepper.
Str. 29
3) Dessert
Add to butter and poppy dissolved the
rest of ingredients.
MAKOWIEC:
Mix thoroughly and spend the dough.
INGREDIENTS:
We roll the dough rest on thin strips
and makes the grid.
• CAKE:
• 2 cups flour
• 2 tablespoons potato flour
• 1 cup sugar
• 250 g soft margarine
• 4 eggs
• 1 teaspoon baking powder
• WEIGHT MAKOV:
• ½ kg poppy
• 1 cup sugar
• ½ cup butter
• 2 tablespoons potato flour
• 4 eggs
• almond oil
Bake 40 minutes at a temperature of
170 degrees C.
Ingredients:
CAKE:
Of all the ingredients to form a uniform dough. Set the size of a hand
ball. Put the rest of the smeared
plate.
MAKOV WEIGHT:
Dried poppy scalded 2 glasses of
boiling water and then grind in food
processor 2 times.
Str. 30
PROJECT COMENIUS
KUCHNIA POLSKA
Kroniki średniowieczne opisują kuchnię
polską jako bardzo ostrą, charakteryzującą się częstym użyciem dużych ilości mięsa i kasz. Ówczesna kuchnia
polska stosowała olbrzymie, w porównaniu z innymi krajami Europy, ilości
przypraw, głównie pieprzu, gałki muszkatołowej i jałowca. Wynikało to z bliskich kontaktów handlowych z krajami
Orientu, które skutkowały niższymi cenami przypraw. Do czasów dzisiejszych
zachowały się wzmianki o aromatycznych, gęstych i bardzo ostrych sosach.
Współczesna kuchnia polska różni
się od dawniejszej tym, że podstawa
pożywienia, czyli kasze, zostały zastąpione przez ziemniaki, a potrawy
z dziczyzny zastępuje się dziś wieprzowiną i drobiem hodowlanym.
Na rozwój polskiej kuchni ogromny
wpływ wywarł przyjazd do Polski w roku 1518 królowej Bony.
Włoszka przywiozła do polski
„włoszczyznę”, interesowała się zakładaniem sadów, warzywników, stawów
rybnych. Jej zagorzali stronnicy twierdzili wręcz, że „ucywilizowała dzikich
dotąd Polaków, ucząc ich jeść jarzyny i
pić wino zamiast piwa”.
Upodobania kulinarne Stanisława Augusta zapoczątkowały modę na stosunkowo wyrafinowaną kuchnię, łączącą
francuskie i polskie tradycje kulinarne.
Uczeń sławnego królewskiego kuchmistrza Paula Tremona – Jan Szyttler był
autorem pierwszych systematycznych
książek kucharskich na ziemiach polskich.
Bardzo dużą popularność zdobyły
także pomidory. Polska kuchnia znana jest na całym świecie dzięki
wspaniałym kiełbasom.
Polska kuchnia jest również znana z
różnego rodzaju pierogów. A właściwie różnego rodzaju są nadzienia do
nich – są więc pierogi z owocami
(najlepsze z jagodami!), białym serem, z mięsem, kapustą i grzybami
albo ruskie (z nadzieniem z ziemniaków, sera i cebuli). Moim zdaniem
najlepsze są podsmażane na patelni
(oczywiście oprócz tych z owocami).
Ponadto Polacy bardzo chętnie jadają naleśniki (nadzienia też są różnego rodzaju), pyzy i knedle.
Str. 31
Specjalnością kuchni polskiej są potrawy mączne i zbożowe (kasze, kluski i pierogi), produkty runa leśnego
(grzyby, owoce, zioła), wieprzowina
(w tym wędliny i kiełbasy), ryby
słodkowodne, dziczyzna, spora ilość
z u p z do w o l n y ch p r o d u k t ó w
(zwłaszcza warzywne), wypieki
(pieczywo, ciasta), desery, wódki i
nalewki. Typowe przyprawy to
chrzan, koperek, jałowiec, pieprz,
kwaśna śmietana, twaróg. Z warzyw
i owoców typowe są buraki, ogórki,
kapusta, jabłka, czereśnie, jagody,
agrest i inne środkowoeuropejskie.
Typowymi warzywami w kuchni polskiej, jak u innych zachodnich Słowian, są buraki, różne rodzaje kapusty, ogórki, a dawniej także dzikie
rośliny jak szczaw, botwinka, mlecze
czy pokrzywy.
Innym ważnym i pożywnym nabiałem w kuchni polskiej, oprócz jajek,
jest łatwy w produkcji krowi twaróg.
Typowe owoce w kuchni polskiej to
jabłka i owoce leśne, a także śliwki,
gruszki, wiśnie, nieznane na północy
Europy czereśnie, agrest i porzeczki
– wszystkich tych owoców używa się
do dzisiaj w potrawach, deserach,
Str. 32
wypiekach, nalewkach oraz wytwarza
się z nich typowy dla polskiej kuchni
kompot oraz powidła. W kuchni polskiej ważne jest typowo słowiańskie
zastosowanie śmietany (zarówno kwaśnej jak i świeżej) wszędzie tam,
gdzie w bałkańskiej i orientalnej kuchni występuje jogurt – w kuchni polskiej śmietana jest podstawą sosów,
marynat i zup.
Z napojów typowych dla kuchni polskiej i słowiańskiej znane są wywary
ziołowe, kwasy chlebowe, kompoty
owocowe, wódki, nalewki owocowe,
miód sycony i piwo, z czego piwo używane kiedyś również w potrawach. Do
napojów doszła z czasem herbata.
Tradycyjny polski obiad rozpoczyna
się od zupy. Polska kuchnia oferuje
cały wybór zup, poczynając od barszczu podawanego z uszkami, kapuśniaku, pomidorowej, krupniku, a na grzybowej kończąc. Zupą wartą oddzielnego zdania jest rosół, czysty wywar z
kurczaka bądź wołowiny podawany z
makaronem.
PROJECT COMENIUS
Kiszone ogórki, kiszona kapusta, botwina obecne są na polskich stołach każdego dnia. Ale tradycja kiszenia nie
ogranicza się do warzyw. Wprawdzie
nie mówi się tu o kiszonych śledziach,
ale proces jest podobny. Śledzie z Morza Bałtyckiego przyrządzone w occie i
przyprawach są tradycyjną potrawą
świąteczną i postną. Jakkolwiek, nie
tylko. Stanowią równocześnie idealną
zakąskę podczas wszelkiego rodzaju
imprez i uczt.
Istnieje jeszcze jedna wyjątkowe zjawisko w polskiej kuchni. nigdzie indziej
nie da się spróbować wyrobów nabiałowych poddanych procesowi fermentacji. Śmietana, zsiadłe mleko i twaróg
stały się przysmakami kuchni polskiej.
SPOSÓB PRZYRZĄDZENIA:
Boczek z kiełbasą ugotować w 1 litrze wody, wyjąć i pokroić w plastry.
Zupę rozprowadzić w 1 szklance wody i dodać do wywaru.
Gotować 5 minut.
Dodać śmietanę, doprawić pieprzem.
Podawać z jajkami gotowanymi na
twardo.
Przed podaniem posypać natką pietruszki.
PRZEPIS
NA TRADYCYJNY POLSKI OBIAD:
Zupa:
BARSZCZ BIAŁY
SKLADNIKI:
1 biała kiełbasa (100g)
100g boczku wędzonego
2 łyżki kwaśnej śmietany 18%
1 łyżka posiekanej natki pietruszki pieprz
Str. 33
Danie główne
BIGOS
SKLADNIKI:
40 dag kapusty kiszonej
Mięso wieprzowe i boczek wyjąć z kapusty, po czym pokroić w kostkę. Kiełbasę obrać ze skórki, pokroić również
w kostkę. Kapustę świeżą połączyć z
kiszoną. Dodać wieprzowinę, boczek,
kiełbasę oraz koncentrat pomidorowy.
Wszystko dokładnie wymieszać. Na
koniec doprawić do smaku solą i pieprzem.
40 dag kapusty cukrowej
20 dag wieprzowiny bez kości
15 dag kiełbasy
10 dag boczku wędzonego
3 dag tłuszczu
1-2 dag suszonych grzybów
5 dag koncentratu pomidorowego sól i pieprz
SPOSÓB PRZYRZĄDZENIA:
Kapustę kiszoną drobno pokroić, zalać małą ilością wrzącej wody i gotować 1 godzinę do miękkości. Kapustę
świeżą obrać z zepsutych liści, opłukać, poszatkować, zalać małą ilością
wrzącej wody, ugotować razem z
rozdrobnionymi grzybami.
Mięso wieprzowe opłukać, odcisnąć z
wody, osolić, zrumienić na rozgrzanym tłuszczu ze wszystkich stron.
Następnie włożyć razem z boczkiem
do kapusty kiszonej i dusić do miękkości.
Str. 34
PROJECT COMENIUS
Deser
MASA MAKOWA:
MAKOWIEC
Suchy mak sparzyć w 2 szklankach
wrzątku i następnie zmielić 2 razy w
maszynce.
SKLADNIKI:
CIASTO:
2 szklanki mąki pszennej
Dodać do maku rozpuszczone masło
i resztę składników.
2 łyżki mąki ziemniaczanej
1 szklanka cukru
250 g margaryny miękkiej
Wymieszać dokładnie i wyłożyć na
ciasto.
4 jajka
1 łyżeczka proszku do pieczenia
MASA MAKOWA:
½ kg maku
Z reszty ciasta roluje się cienkie paseczki i robi z tego kratkę.
Piec 40 minut w temp. 170 stopni C.
1 szklanka cukru
½ kostki masła
2 łyżki mąki ziemniaczanej
4 jajka
olejek migdałowy
SPOSÓB PRZYRZĄDZENIA:
CIASTO:
Ze wszystkich składników wyrobić jednolite ciasto. Odłożyć kulkę wielkości
dłoni. Resztę wyłożyć na wysmarowaną
blaszkę.
Str. 35
CHRISTMAS IN SANT'ELIA
Christmas time in Italy and so also in
Sant'Elia a Pianisi begins on December 8, the day when we celebrate the
Immaculate Conception of our
Mother, which celebrates the Virgin
Mary's conception lacking of the
original sin. On this day Christmas
trees and Christmas crib are made
at homes, and along the streets
Christmas decorations, prepared the
previous days, light up.
The main streets of the villages, of
the towns, of the cities with their
balconies, windows, plants placed in
front of the houses, the windows of
the shops are all decorated with
lights, streamers, beads and bright
neon lights.
On the square “ Piazza Municipio”, the
square that marks the centre of the
village, in front of the monument that
commemorates the fallen of the First
and Second World War, a large and
big Christmas Crib is prepared with a
hut tall more than five feet high and
made of dried leaves, reeds and
straw. Large statues performing the
Holy Family, the shepherds, the ox
and the donkey are placed inside.
The day of the Immaculate Conception is a holiday for the whole national
territory and therefore the School, like
all public offices, remain closed with
great joy of all the students.
On this day in our village a statue of
our Mother, blessed by Pope Pius IX in
the second half of the nineteenth century, is carried in solemn procession.
The statue is very big and heavy and
has a wooden base, in Baroque style,
decorated on its sides with four magnificent angels. This statue is carried
in procession by eight men who are
part of the congregation consecrated
to the Immaculate Conception.
Along the main street and in the
most characteristic corners, in addition to the lights there are also music boxes that spread around Christmas melodies that carry pedestrians
in an enchanted and fairy world.
Wherever you are, you breathe an
air of festivity.
Str. 36
PROJECT COMENIUS
They are present at the various religious rites provided by the Catholic liturgy, and during this procession, and
other religious events which are particularly important, they wear a white
tunic, a rosary around their waists
and on their shoulders a short blue
cape on which there is a large brooch
with a picture of our Mother
“Madonna”. The colors white and blue
are the colors of the the Virgin clothes.
In Sant'Elia a Pianisi during the four
weeks preceding Christmas, churches
change their appearance because in
every church are set up beautiful
Christmas Cribs to remember the Nativity of the Infant Jesus. The cribs
which are prepared in the churches are
usually traditioinal, made of
moss,
stones, straw and ancient and fine
plaster shepherds of valuable workmanship. The changing of lights, simulating the alternation of night and day
and, as a result of particular mechanisms and engines, the flowing
streams, the gushing fountains and the
running mills attract the admiration of
people, especially children. In Sant'Elia
a Pianisi there are three churches: the
main Parish Church, the Convent and
the Church of San Rocco. At Christmas
they seem to take a different appearance from what they are all the year.
The main altar and the altars that are
in front of the niches where there are
the statues of various saints are
adorned with flowers and plants found
only in this period as: red and white
poinsettia, holly, and mistletoe. Priests
wear special vestments and during
these four weeks, near the main altar
four candles one red, one blue, one
gold and one silver are placed on the
candelabrum, they are lit by a child
during the celebration of Holy Mass on
every Sunday.
During the last nine days of Advent
time the Christmas novena is cele-
brated at different hours: at the
Capuchin monastery it is celebrated
in the morning at six, while in the
Parish Church it is celebrated at six
pm. During these celebrations traditional Christmas carols like "Silent
Night", "You come down from the
stars" are sung. This last is a traditional song whose text was written
by the saint De Liguori Alfonso. The
song is about the Child Jesus who
came to the cold and frost earth to
save and redeem mankind.
The novena ends with the Christmas
Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve.
During
this solemn Mass, the
Church is full of people and there
are many acolytes who help the
priest during the Eucharistic celebration. The most exciting feature is
the commemoration of the birth of
baby Jesus, at midnight the priest,
starting from the main altar, followed by a procession of acolytes,
walks across the whole Church to go
and place the Divine Child in the
cave between the statues of the Virgin Mary and St. Joseph.
Str. 37
This moment is made even more solemn by the sound of the bells, which
announce to the whole country, even
to those who have not gone to mass,
that the Redeemer was born. After
the Mass, outside the church all the
people kiss and wish each other
Happy Christmas. The whole village
seems like a wide family!
Eucharistic celebrations culminate on
January 6, Epiphany of the Lord. The
word Epiphany comes from a Greek
word and means "manifestation", on
this day Christians remember the
visit of the Three Magi to baby Jesus.
In Sant'Elia this important event for
Catholics, is commemorated by a
group of people, richly dressed in
eastern clothes and riding magnificent blacks horses, go through the
village streets to get the lively Crib
set in the historic centre of the village, called "Casale".
The borough dating back to the fifteenth century, preserves
houses
that have the original appearance
with rooms carved into the rock.
Once they were used as stables and
cellars. In this place on December
24, 25 and on January 6 is performed this living Crib with over one
hundred actors of all age. The actors
wearing period costumes, play the
daily activities that were carried out
at the time of the birth of Jesus, the
Bible's most famous episodes related
to the birth of Jesus and of course
the most important scene which is
the Nativity. The Child is played
every year by a child a few months.
Until a few years ago, on this day in
the convent, a lady called
The
“delegata”, whose name derived
Str. 38
from the role she played in the Franciscan Third Order, organized a representation of the nativity involving children, teenagers and adults. This representation has been made for about
40 years, until the death of all the
"delegates". Today the performing is
carried out by a group called Araldini.
They organize a concert too on this
day whose actors are the so many
boys and girls of the village. They sing
Italian and English songs including
"Jingle Bells," "White Christmas"
"Happy Christmas" and "Let it snow”.
The concert is made in collaboration
with the Youth musicians group of the
Convent and it is very appreciated by
parents and grandparents. Epiphany
also has a religious and laic meaning,
in fact on this day children believe
that an old "witch" flying on a broom,
falls down chimneys and brings gifts
and candies to children who have
been good students and respectful of
people.
Around Christmas time among families and friends there is the custom of
exchanging visits, presents and
wishes for a Merry Christmas. People
give presents of various kinds such as
panettoni, pandori, sparkling wine,
traditional sweets, household items
and candles about Christmas.
PROJECT COMENIUS
make sweets of various kind and
shape and put them on their counters to sell. On Christmas Eve in
Sant'Elia a Pianisi, there is a particular tradition. At lunch people eat
very little, because particular attention is devoted to the dinner that
must be based on fish.
Christmas time is also a game time. At
home people play tombola, bingo or
with cards, or go to bingo clubs especially young people. Tombola is similar
to "Bingo". There is folder to complete
with called numbers. The winner is the
one who complete first all the folder.
Christmas for our community is a traditionally holiday spent at home. An ancient proverb says, "Christmas must be
spent with own relatives while Easter
can be spent with whoever you are or
whenever you are". During this time,
those who lives far from their families
turn back home: students, attending
university studies in large cities such
as Rome, Naples and Milan, migrants
living in Germany, Switzerland, France,
other parts of Italy and even from
America.
During the Christmas time the tables
are dressed in red, silver or blue tablecloths and napkins all commonly with
golden decorations. people prepare
sweets and special dishes such as the
"Mostaccioli" which are covered of dark
or white chocolate, the "pepatelli",
which are roasted almonds mixed with
honey and "canestrelli, cakes made
with a puff pastry rolled up in rings and
are fried in hot oil. Our three bakers
People cook spaghetti with tomato
sauce flavored with salt cod and eels
cooked in it. The cod is cooked in
different ways in the oven, with potatoes and bread, boiled and
dressed with garlic, parsley and
olive oil and fried. There are other
seafood such as mussels, prawns,
squid and cuttlefish cooked in various ways and eaten in the evening.
Dinner ends eating seasonal fruits
such as mandarins, apples, oranges,
pears, nuts like walnuts, almonds,
peanuts, dried figs. Finally there are
the sweets: panettoni, nougat and
other Christmas cakes and champagne. At midnight, in many families, there is also the tradition of
opening the presents that have been
put under the Christmas Tree and
brought by Santa Claus, in most
cases, however, these presents are
opened on Christmas morning to
give children the sensation they
have been brought by Santa Claus.
The magical atmosphere of Christmas, is also felt at school. Students
read passages about Christmas and
its symbols, religious or not, study
poems about the Child Jesus, solidarity, peace and love, learn Italian,
Str. 39
English and French carols, make
posters and Christmas cards. Christmas cards are given to all the people
who works at school. Once children
put a Christmas card under the father’s plate so when he discovered it
they received a nice gift but only after said a Christmas poem. At school
in almost all classes students and
teachers make a crib. They are made
of different materials: plexiglass,
transparent paper, cans, the loaves
of bread, branches of trees, powdered glass and pieces of mirror.
Two years ago a group of students of
our school won the first prize on an
exhibition made in Campobasso. It
represented the Nativity made of
transparent plastic boxes within
there were a lot of coloured lights. At
school every year we make a Christmas concert singing famous traditional Christmas songs. Our school
orchestra is called “Selia Band”. This
year's concert will be performed at
the Parish Church, dedicated to Saint
Elijah the prophet, our patron saint.
During the concert there will be the
performance of melodies, but also
the acting of poems related to
Christmas. In Sant'Elia a Pianisi people wait for Christmas holiday even
to enjoy and have the time to kill the
pig. It is used to make the salumi for
which our village is famous, they are
sausages, sopressata, capocolli and
hams. Almost every family does it
which preserve in oil, fat and vacuum. But Christmas also brings
something that is particularly pleasant for students: the Christmas holidays. They are usually from December 24 to January 6. It is a period of
rest from school activities, although
we have some homework to do.
Young people have great fun be-
Str. 40
cause they can go out for a walk, visit
far friends, organize dance parties, organize games like tombola or bingo or
p l a y i n g
c a r d s .
Christmas is a period that can be considered a metaphor for life: it is a
time of deep spirituality and recreation mind. Besides, and that's more
beautiful because God became a man
to teach our hearts to recognize and
experience the true love among each
other.
PROJECT COMENIUS
IL NATALE A SANT’ELIA A PIANISI
Il periodo natalizio in Italia e quindi
anche a Sant’Elia a Pianisi prende
l’avvio l’8 dicembre, giorno in cui si
festeggia l’Immacolata Concezione che
celebra il concepimento della Vergine
Maria priva del peccato originale. In
questo giorno nelle case
vengono
realizzati gli alberi di Natale e i presepi,
e nelle strade si accendono gli addobbi
natalizi
preparati
nelle
giornate
precedenti.
Le vie principali del paese, i balconi, le
finestre, le piante poste davanti alle
case, i negozi, sono tutte addobbati
con luminarie, stelle filanti, palline
luminose e luci fosforescenti.
Per il corso principale e negli angoli più
caratteristici, oltre alle luminarie vi
sono anche dei carillon che diffondono
nell’area circostante melodie natalizie
che trasportano i passanti in un mondo
incantato e fiabesco.
Ovunque si
respira un’aria di festa. In piazza
Municipio, la piazza che segna il centro
del paese, davanti al monumento che
ricorda i caduti della prima e della
seconda
guerra
mondiale,
viene
allestito un grande presepe con una
capanna alta oltre un metro e mezzo
fatta con frasche, canne e paglia. Nel
suo interno sono collocate
grandi
statue raffiguranti la Sacra famiglia, i
pastori, il bue e l’asinello.
Il
giorno
dell’Immacolata
Concezione è considerato festivo per
tutto il territorio nazionale e quindi
anche la Scuola, come tutte le
pubbliche amministrazioni, rimane
chiuse con grande gioia di noi
studenti. In questo giorno nel nostro
paese viene portata in solenne
processione
una
statua
della
madonna che è stata benedetta dal
papa Pio IX nella seconda metà
dell’ottocento. La statua è molto
grande e pesante ed ha una base in
legno, in stile barocco, decorata ai
lati da
quattro magnifici angeli.
Questa
statua
è
portata
in
processione da otto uomini che
fanno parte
della congregazione
consacrata
all’IMMACOLATA
CONCEZIONE”.
Essi presenziano ai vari riti previsti
dalla liturgia cattolica e durante
questa processione e per altri eventi
religiosi particolarmente importanti,
indossano una tunica bianca cinta
alla vita da un rosario e sulle spalle
portano una corta mantella celeste
su cui vi è una grande spilla con
l’immagine della madonna. I colori
bianco
e
celeste
del
loro
abbigliamento sono i colori della
Madonna.
Str. 41
A Sant’Elia a Pianisi, nelle quattro
settimane che precedono il Natale,
le chiese cambiano aspetto; in ogni
chiesa vengono allestiti bellissimi
presepi che ricordano la Natività del
Bambino Gesù. I presepi che
vengono realizzati nelle chiese, sono
in genere classici, cioè fatti con il
muschio, le pietre, la paglia e i
pastori di gesso che sono antichi e di
pregevole
fattura.
Attirano
l’ammirazione
delle
persone,
soprattutto dei più piccoli, il variare
delle luci simulanti l’alternarsi della
notte e del dì e , per effetto di
meccanismi e motorini,
i corsi
d’acqua che scorrono, le fontane che
zampillano e i mulini che girano. A
Sant’Elia a Pianisi vi sono tre chiese:
la Chiesa Parrocchiale, il Convento e
la Chiesa di San Rocco, esse
a
Natale
sembrano
trasformarsi
assumendo un aspetto diverso da
quello che hanno tutto l’anno.
L’altare maggiore e gli altari che
sono davanti alle nicchie dove sono
custodite le statue dei vari santi sono
addobbati con fiori e piante che si
trovano solo in questo periodo come:
stelle di natale rosse e bianche,
pungitopo, vischio e agrifoglio. I
sacerdoti indossano paramenti sacri
particolari e nel corso di queste
quattro settimane, vicino all’altare
maggiore vengono messe quattro
candele di colore rosso, blu, oro e
argento che , una ogni domenica,
vengono accese da un bambino
durante la celebrazione della Santa
Messa. Negli ultimi nove giorni
dell’Avvento nel nostro paese viene
celebrata la novena di Natale: nella
chiesa del Convento dei frati
Str. 42
Cappuccini, essa viene celebrata la
mattina alle sei, mentre nella Chiesa
parrocchiale la messa della novena
viene celebrata alle 18.00 di sera.
Durante
queste
celebrazioni
si
eseguono
tradizionali
canzoni
natalizie come “Astro del Ciel”, “Tu
scendi dalle stelle”, una classica
canzone il cui testo è stato scritto da
un santo: Alfonso de’Liguori, che
parla di Gesù Bambino venuto “Al
freddo e al gelo della terra per salvare
e redimere l’umanità”. La novena di
Natale si conclude con la messa di
mezzanotte della vigilia del Natale. In
questa messa solenne la Chiesa è
gremita di persone e vi sono molti
chierichetti che aiutano il sacerdote
durante la celebrazione eucaristica.
Il momento più emozionante della
funzione è quello della rievocazione
della nascita del bambino Gesù. A
mezzanotte in punto, il sacerdote,
partendo dall’altare maggiore, seguito
da
un
corteo
di
chierichetti,
attraversa tutta la Chiesa per andare
a deporre il divino bambinello nella
grotta tra le statue rappresentanti la
Vergine Maria e san Giuseppe.
PROJECT COMENIUS
Questo momento è reso ancora più
solenne dal suono delle campane che,
a distesa, annunciano a tutto il paese,
anche a coloro che non sono andati a
messa, che il redentore è nato. Finita
la messa, fuori dalla chiesa tutte le
persone si abbracciano e si baciano
augurandosi buon Natale. Tutto il
paese sembra una grande famiglia!
Le
celebrazioni
eucaristiche
si
concludono il 6 gennaio, giorno
dell’Epifania del Signore. La parola
Epifania deriva dal greco e significa
“manifestazione”, in questo giorno si
ricorda la manifestazione di Gesù
bambino a tre Re magi. A Sant’Elia
questo evento importante per noi
cattolici, viene rievocato da un gruppo
di persone che, riccamente vestite con
abiti di foggia orientale e cavalcando
magnifici cavalli neri, attraversano le
vie del paese per recarsi al presepe
vivente allestito nel centro storico del
paese chiamato “Casale”. Il borgo
risalente al XV secolo custodisce case
che
hanno
conservato
l’aspetto
originario con locali scavati nella roccia
che anticamente servivano da stalle e
da cantine. In questo luogo
il 24
dicembre, il 25 dicembre e il 6 gennaio
viene allestito il presente vivente con
oltre cento figuranti di ogni età. Essi in
abiti d’epoca, ripropongono le attività
quotidiane
che
presumibilmente
venivano svolte ai tempi della nascita
di Gesù, gli episodi biblici più famosi
legati
alla
nascita
di
Gesù
e
naturalmente la scena più importante
che è la Natività. Il bambinello è
impersonato ogni anno da un bambino
di pochi mesi.
Fino a pochi anni fa, in questo
giorno, nel convento, una signora
chiamata “ la Delegata, nome che le
derivava dal ruolo che svolgeva
nell’ambito
del
Terz’Ordine
Francescano,
organizzava una
rappresentazione
della
natività
coinvolgendo bambini, ragazzi ed
adulti . Questa rappresentazione è
stata fatta in modo continuativo per
circa 40 anni, fino alla morte della
“Delegata” avvenuta due anni fa.
Negli ultimi dieci anni in questa
rappresentazione
era
stata
introdotta
la
novità
di
far
impersonare
il bambinello Gesù
dall’ultimo bambino nato nel periodo
natalizio.
Oggi
l’opera
della
“Delegata” viene portata avanti
dalle
formatrici
del
gruppo
francescano degli Araldini. Esse non
fanno più la famosa recita che
contraddistingueva l’azione della
“Delegata”, ma
organizzano in
questo giorno un concerto avente
come protagonisti
noi ragazzi che
cantiamo tra i tanti canti italiani
anche
“Jingle
Bells”,
“White
Christmas” “Happy Christmas” e
“Let’it snow”. Questo concerto, reso
possibile dalla collaborazione con i
musicisti del gruppo della Gioventù
Francescana (GI.FRA), è molto
apprezzato soprattutto dai nostri
genitori e dai nostri nonni. Il giorno
dell’Epifania o della Befana ha anche
un significato non religioso, infatti in
questo giorno i bambini credono che
una vecchia “Befana” volando su
una scopa, si cala giù dai comignoli
per portare regali e dolciumi ai
bambini che sono stati buoni.
Str. 43
CHRISTMAS IN POLAND
The moment everyone waits for
is Christmas Eve. When the first star
appears in the sky, people take seats
at the Christmas table. They do not
forget about leaving an empty place
for an unexpected guest. The table is
covered with white tablecloth and hay
is spread on it.
Everyone loves Christmas. It is
the favorite and most eagerly
awaited holiday in the year. This is a
unique time when people try to be
kind, friendly and generous to one
another. They seem to forget all
their problems, quarrels and just enjoy being together. Christmas is preceded by many days of preparation.
Streets are lit by coloured lamps;
shops are full of people buying presents, choosing Christmas Cards;
Christmas trees are set up in a every
home and decorated with sparking
tinsel, candles chains, toys and trinkets. The atmosphere of excitement
and expectation can be felt almost
everywhere. Some people say that if
you ask for food on that day, you will
be hungry throughout the year.
Str. 44
Another custom is the number
of dishes. Traditionally there should
be twelve of them and they must all
be tasted. The most popular dishes
are red borsch, pies or sour cabbage
with mushrooms, fish (usually carp)
and poppy-seed cake. Before the family starts eating, all its members share
the holly wafer. There is also a custom
of giving presents and everyone may
find something nice under the Christmas tree. At midnight many people go
to church to attend a special mass
during which Christmas carols are
sung. This night is miraculous because
it is believed that animals can speak
with human voices. The first day of
Christmas, 25 December, is usually
spent at home. Work is forbidden. On
that day carol-singers dressed up an
angel, a devil, King Herod or Death
visit people`s houses. They sing carols and play various scenes from the
Bible. The second day of Christmas is
spend in a different way. People pay
and receive visits, spend much time at
the table talking or singing carols.
From that day the Carnival begins.
PROJECT COMENIUS
But how do I spend Christmas?
Of course the most important day of all
Christmas is the Christmas Eve. All of
my family meets in my house in the
evening of 24th December. Everyone
brings a present for everybody and
puts it under a Christmas tree. Later,
when everybody has assembled we
share the holly wafer. We wish all the
best to each other. After this solemn
moment we sit at the rich table. There
aren’t twelve dishes there, but they are
very tasty.
The person whose present it is
gets up and has to sing a carol or
say some short piece of poetry to
get it. When everybody has received
their presents, Santa Claus receives
a bar of chocolate. After that we
sing carols, such as “Silent Night”.
Very late in the evening we
attend the special mass called
"Pasterka".
There are for example: obligatory
carp, “pierogi” with cabbage and mushrooms (this is my favourite dish), very
sweet poppy with pasta, cabbage with
peas, mushroom soup, herrings, fish in
jelly and stewed fruit from dried fruit.
All the dishes are obviously meatless,
because at this time there is a lent.
When everybody has eaten what he
wanted, the time for the presents
comes. One of the family members disguises as Santa Claus. He rings at the
door. All the children are very excited.
Santa Claus sits near Christmas tree
and picks up one present.
The rest of Christmas we
spend at home or sometimes we go
to my grandparents for dinner.
Christmas for Polish people are not
only the yearly celebration of the
birth of Jesus Christ but also the
most family, traditional and joyful
time of happiness and reconciliation.
The birth of Jesus Christ is regarded
as a kind of symbol which heralds
the days of peace and love.
Str. 45
BOŻE NARODZENIE W POLSCE
Każdy kocha Boże Narodzenie. To
jest ulubione i najbardziej oczekiwane
święto w roku. To jest unikalny czas, kiedy
ludzie próbują być mili, przyjaźni i hojni dla
siebie. Wszyscy wydają się zapominać o
swoich problemach, kłótniach i tylko cieszyć się byciem razem. Boże Narodzenie
jest poprzedzone wieloma dniami przygotowań. Ulice są ozdabiane kolorowymi
lampami; sklepy są pełne ludzi kupujących
prezenty, wybierających kartki świąteczne;
choinki są w każdym domu ozdobione
przez błyskotki, łańcuchy, świece, zabawki. Atmosferę podekscytowania i oczekiwania można odczuć prawie wszędzie.
Jest przyjęte, że jeśli spytasz tego dnia o
jedzenie, będziesz głodny przez cały rok.
Momentem, na który każdy czeka jest wigilia. Kiedy pierwsza gwiazda ukazuje się
na niebie, ludzie siadają przy świątecznym
stole. Oczywiście nie zapominają o zostawianiu pustego miejsca dla nieoczekiwanego gościa. Stół jest przykryty białym obrusem, pod którym znajduje się siano.
Str. 46
Liczba dań na stole musi być zgodna
z tradycją. Tradycyjnie powinno ich być
dwanaście i każda z nich musi być skosztowana. Najpopularniejsze dania to: czerwony
barszcz, pierogi z kapustą i z grzybami, ryba (zwykle karp) i makiełki. Zanim rodzina
zaczynie jedzenie, wszyscy jej członkowie
dzielą się opłatkiem. Jest to też zwyczaj dawania prezentów, dlatego każdy może znaleźć coś miłego pod choinką. O północy
wielu ludzi idzie do kościoła, by wziąć udział
w specjalnej mszy (Pasterce), podczas której są śpiewane kolędy. Ta noc jest cudowna, ponieważ wierzy się, że zwierzęta mogą
przemawiać ludzkim głosem. Pierwszy
dzień Świąt, 25 grudnia, zwykle jest spędzany w domu. Praca jest wtedy zabroniona. Tego dnia kolędnicy przebrani za aniołów, diabłów, króla Heroda albo za Śmierć
odwiedzają nasze domy. Śpiewają oni kolędy i odgrywają różne sceny z Biblii. Drugi
dzień Świąt jest różnie spędzany. Ludzie
odwiedzają się wzajemnie, spędzają dużo
czasu przy stole rozmawiając albo śpiewając kolędy. Od tego dnia zaczyna się Karnawał.
PROJECT COMENIUS
A jak ja spędzam Święta? Oczywiście
najważniejszym dniem całego Bożego Narodzenia jest Wigilia. Cała moja rodzina spotyka się w moim domu w wieczór 24 grudnia.
Każdy dla każdego przynosi podpisany prezent i kładzie go pod pięknie ozdobioną choinką. Później, kiedy wszyscy się zbiorą dzielimy się opłatkiem. Życzymy sobie nawzajem
wszystkiego najlepszego. Po tym uroczystym
momencie siadamy do suto zastawionego
stołu. Nie ma na nim równo dwunastu dań,
ale są one równie smaczne. Są na przykład:
obowiązkowy karp, pierogi z kapustą i grzybami (to jest moje ulubione danie), bardzo
słodki mak z makaronem - makiełki, kapusta
z grochem, zupa grzybowa, śledzie, ryba w
galarecie i kompot z suszonych owoców.
Wszystkie dania są oczywiście bezmięsne,
ponieważ w tym czasie panuje ścisły post.
Kiedy każdy się już naje, przychodzi czas na
prezenty. Jeden z członków rodziny przebiera się w Świętego Mikołaja. Dzwoni on do
drzwi. Wszystkie dzieci są wtedy bardzo
przejęte. Święty Mikołaj siada blisko choinki i
wybiera jeden prezent. Osoba, dla której jest
ten prezent, wstaje i aby dostać upominek
musi zaśpiewać kolędę albo powiedzieć jakiś
krótki wierszyk.
Kiedy każdy z obecnych otrzyma
prezent, Święty Mikołaj dostaje w nagrodę czekoladę. Podczas uroczystości śpiewamy takie kolędy jak np. „Cicha noc”
Kiedy przychodzi bardzo późny
wieczór, o północy idziemy do kościoła,
ponieważ jest wtedy specjalna msza zwana Pasterką.
Kolejne dni świąt, spędzamy w domu albo czasami idziemy do dziadków na
obiad.
Boże Narodzenie dla Polaków jest
nie tylko corocznym świętowaniem narodzin Jezusa Chrystusa, ale też najbardziej znanym, tradycyjnym i radosnym
czasem szczęścia i pojednania. Narodziny Jezusa Chrystusa są pewnego rodzaju
symbolem, który ogłasza dni pokoju i miłości.
Str. 47
EASTER IN ITALY
prepare the feast getting a young
lamb, chocolate eggs and other
sweets in the shape of a dove.
The usage of giving eggs is related to
the fact that Easter coincides with the
beginning of spring, which formerly
was celebrated with rites for fertility
and renewal of nature.
The egg symbolizes, in fact, the life
that is renewed.
The Christian Easter, as it is celebrated in Italy, is preceded by a period of penance. This period called
Lent, lasts forty days, ranging from
the Ashes (Ash Wednesday is the
day when the priest places the ashes
on the heads of the churchgoers, in
memory of the blessed God) to Holy
Saturday (Easter Saturday), involves
food moderation. Penance is interrupted only in the middle of Lent,
which is the Thursday of the central
week of Lent, when the withdrawal
will be suspended and return, for a
day, a joyful atmosphere.
During
the last few days before
Easter Sunday, in Italy, as in many
Catholic countries, are held several
rites which recall the Passion of
Christ. On this occasion, many ceremonies take place among people.
Some of them are very folkloristic:
people represent some episodes of
the Passion, make long processions
along the town’s streets, priests
bless homes. People not only face
the religious aspect but also the
practical aspect of the feast so they
Str. 48
After the long preparation of Lent, the
evocative rites of the passion intensify
and reach the summit on Friday. With
Easter Lent the community lives forty
days of universal bereavement, expressed through various forms of
popular
participation.
In many Italian regions, at dawn on
Good Friday, the women go to church
and cross it on their bare knees on the
floor, reciting prayers. Many of today's
prayers are very old, some even date
back to the fifteenth century. In addition to the prayers, the reproduction
of events that accompanied the death
and resurrection of Christ, are the
most direct way that people have to
participate to the pain lived by Jesus.
Thus, in some Italian regions are
acted many performances in which,
since medieval times, is commemorated the death of Jesus.
PROJECT COMENIUS
CULINARY TRADITION
Easter celebrations are inevitably
linked to some culinary traditions,
many of which date back to ancient religious rituals or to symbolic representations. The lamb, represents for Christians the body of the innocent crucified
Jesus. The tradition to eat it almost
certainly, comes from Jewish culture,
where it is eaten for eight days after
his blood was sprinkled on the doorposts, in memory of the episode of the
Ancient Scriptures. At Easter on the table food is very diversified we can find
food coming from rural tradition for
example the corn ears turned into
bread (it has a votive meaning in the
memory of the miracle of germination
of wheat), herbs, almost all the rustic
cakes (the most famous is the cake
Pasqualina); eggs. This food has has
different origins, halfway between the
sacred and the profane. In Pietracatella
tradition establishes that on Easter Day
morning, people ate a salty pizza enriched with pieces of fresh sheep
cheese, grated sheep cheese, eggs and
olive oil. The pizza was also accompanied with salami and boiled eggs. What
about desserts by far the most traditional are the Easter doves. The dove
has already been a sign of peace, this
cake made of simple ingredients such
as eggs, flour and yeast, was enriched
with butter, sugar and candies and is
part the Easter tradition. Each food
represents a particular and strong
symbolic value. Ricotta, sweetened
with sugar, transforms the votive offerings of milk and honey, typical of the
early Christian ceremonies. The grain is
the omen of wealth and fertility. The
eggs symbolize the new life. The or-
ange flower water announces the
spring. The cake was traditionally
eaten on Easter Sunday morning but
the dough was prepared on Good
Friday. In fact it takes two days of
leavening so on Saturday it is
worked again and then baked in the
evening. Eventually and it is ready
in the morning.
Easter Monday is the day after
Easter. This day remembers the
meeting of the women with the angel at the sepulcher. The Gospel
tells that Mary Magdalene, Mary the
mother of James and Joseph, and
Salome went to the tomb where Jesus was buried, bringing with them
aromatic oils to embalm the body of
Jesus. An interpretation of this tradition could be related to the recalling of the biblical episode of the
apostles to whom on the road to
Emmaus met Jesus.
Str. 49
I RITI DELLA SETTIMANA SANTA
Alla Settimana Santa sono legate
alcune tradizioni secolari che, nel
rispetto della storia evangelica,
ancor oggi si perpetuano, in città,
con pochissime varianti rispetto a
quelle originarie.
La prima è quella degli Apostoli che
si svolge nella giornata del Giovedì
Santo. Nel 1470 l'abate Nicola Zita,
morendo, lasciò un legato alla
Confraternita di Sant'Antonio Abate
affinché fosse consentito perpetuarsi,
nel tempo, la cerimonia della lavanda
dei piedi. Tale pratica trasmigrò,
successivamente, nella chiesa di
Santa Maria della Croce.
Più tardi, con il favore del conte
Andrea de Capoa, che in quegli anni
esercitava i propri diritti feudali sulla
città (si era ai primi anni del
Cinquecento), la lavanda passò alla
chiesa della Trinità sorta a qualche
centinaio di metri di distanza dalla
chiesa dei Crociati, altro episodio non
marginale nella lotta fra le due
potenti confraternite campobassane
(crociati e trinitari).
La cerimonia consisteva nel vestire
con sacco, berretto di pelle o grossa
lana, bastone e sandali tredici vecchi
inabili e poveri i quali giravano in
tutto il territorio comunale.
Str. 50
La comitiva presenziava a tutte le
funzioni e, infine, si sottoponeva alla
lavanda dei piedi nella chiesa di San
Leonardo.
I figuranti hanno costumi d'epoca e
sono preceduti da una guida la quale,
nel rappresentare Simone il cireneo,
mostra avanti a se la croce.
L'apostolo Pietro si distingue per la
chiave d'oro del Paradiso e quella nera
dell'Inferno mentre Giuda Iscariota ha
alla cintura la borsa con i trenta
denari del tradimento.
Il Venerdì Santo, invece, vede
l'avvenimento religioso in cui i
campobassani si sentono più partecipi
anche emotivamente: la processione
del Cristo morto e della Madonna
Addolorata. Il lungo e mesto corteo
che, nel pomeriggio, muove dalla
chiesa di Santa Maria della Croce
comincia a snodarsi dapprima nel
centro storico e , successivamente,
nella parte moderna della città. La sua
particolare caratteristica è di avere,
all'interno, un coro di circa settecento
persone il quale, durante il percorso,
intona più volte lo struggente canto
"Teco vorrei o Signore" composizione,
di inizio Novecento, del maestro
campobassano Michele De Nigris su
versi di Pietro Metastasio.
Tale espressione musicale vuol essere,
in un certo qual modo, il prosieguo di
quella tradizione presente tra i
congregati Crociati e Trinitari del
Cinquecento i quali cantavano,
all’alba, durante la malinconica
processione mattutina del Venerdì
Santo, il "Lamento della Madonna
Santissima".
PROJECT COMENIUS
Tradizioni, cibi e ricette della Pasqua
La Settimana Santa è importante
anche nel nostro paese di Pietracatella
dove si svo l go no ri t i reli giosi
tradizionali. Il Giovedi Santo si
svolgeva una cerimonia caratteristica:
il suono del Giovedi. I bambini
mettevano dei sassolini in scatole di
latta e con rametti d'albero
producevano strani suoni durante la
cerimonia religiosa in chiesa. I
bambini, mentre il sacerdote stava
leggendo l'evento della Passione,
quando Gesù moriva, muovevano tutti
questi strumenti rudimentali per
ricreare il clima apocalittico riportato
dal Vangelo di Matteo. Oggi questa
tradizione è scomparsa.
Nella tradizione di Pietracatella si
incontra l’usanza che il giorno di
Pasqua mattina, la gente debba
mangiare una pizza salata arricchita
con pezzetti di formaggio pecorino
fresco, formaggio pecorino grattugiato,
uova e olio d'oliva. La pizza viene
anche accompagnata da salame e uova
sode. Tra i dolci consumati tra la gente
del paese prevalgono di gran lunga
quelli più tradizionali
colombe pasquali.
ovvero
le
La colomba è un segno di pace ed è
fatto di ingredienti semplici.
La pasquetta è il lunedi di Pasqua, il
giorno dopo la Pasqua. Questo
giorno ricorda l'incontro delle donne
con l'angelo al sepolcro. Il Vangelo
racconta che Maria Maddalena,
Maria madre di Giacomo e di
Giuseppe, e Salome sono andati al
sepolcro, dove Gesùera stato
sepolto, portando con sé gli oli
aromatici per imbalsamare il corpo
di Gesù. La festa del lunedi di
Pasqua è un giorno festivo,
introdotto dallo Stato italiano dopo
la guerra, al fine di consentire lo
svolgimento della festa in modo
gioioso e pacifico, senza l’assillo del
lavoro del giorno dopo esattamente
come accade con il 26 dicembre.
Lunedi di Pasqua in Italia di solito è
trascorso con la famiglia o gli amici
con una tradizionale gita o pic-nic
sull'erba e attività all'aperto.
L'interpretazione di questa
tradizione potrebbe essere correlata
al ricordo dell'episodio biblico degli
apostoli che sulla strada di Emmaus
incontrano Gesù.
Oggi Lunedi di Pasqua è per la
maggior parte delle persone una
festa secolare, una festa da godere
negli spazi aperti.
Str. 51
EASTER IN POLAND
Easter is a special holidays, in
which we unite in Christ resurrection.
All Christians gather in church every
year to celebrate the most important
dogma of our religion, while singing
the religious songs and praying.
This magic time we spend not
only on praying, but also we dedicate
it to the family. Among our relatives
we cultivate polish tradition, by eating festive breakfast, consecrating
food in little basket, which we bring
to church for blessing, by building
the grave of the Christ and by attending the most magnificent mass
of the year: Resurrection.
The second day of holidays, which always falls on Monday, is the most expected day, because people can sprinkle each other with water without consequences. It is call an Easter Monday.
This special time for Christians
is also a special time for all people
who have families and want to spend
some time with them, because it is a
good opportunity for it!
During the Easter breakfast
member of the family share eggs
with the others. They empty the consecrated basket and eat. They pull
out eggs, which are the most important sing of Easter (symbol of live
and fertility), because the people boil
and color them (the famous Easter
eggs). There are also fresh bread,
ham, salt, cheese, pepper, some
early vegetables and lamb made
from sugar or bread.
Str. 52
PROJECT COMENIUS
WIELKANOC W POLSCE
Wielkanoc to wyjątkowe święta,
w których jednoczymy się ze zmartwychwstałym Chrystusem. Każdego
roku wszyscy chrześcijanie gromadzą
się w kościele, aby świętować najważniejszym dogmatem naszej religii, podczas śpiewania religijnych pieśni oraz
modlenia się.
Wyjmują jajka, które są najważniejszym znakiem Wielkanocy (symbol
życia i płodności), ponieważ ludzie
gotują i malują je (słynne pisanki).
Jest tam także świeży chleb, szynka,
sól, ser, pieprz, nowalijki oraz baranek zrobiony z cukru lub chleba.
Drugi dzień świąt, który zawsze przypada w poniedziałek jest
najbardziej oczekiwanym dniem, ponieważ ludzie mogą spryskiwać siebie nawzajem wodą bez żadnych
konsekwencji. Nazywamy to Lanym
Poniedziałkiem.
Ten specjalny czas dla chrześcijan jest także wyjątkowym czasem dla wszystkich ludzi posiadających rodziny i chcących spędzić trochę czasu z nimi, ponieważ to jest
dobra okazja do tego!
Ten magiczny czas spędzamy nie tylko
modląc się, ale także poświęcamy go
rodzinie.
Pośród naszych krewnych polską tradycje utrzymujemy poprzez jedzenie
świątecznego śniadania, poświęconego
jedzenia w małym koszyku, który niesiemy do kościoła po błogosławieństwo,
poprzez budowanie grobu dla Chrystusa oraz przez chodzenie na najwspanialszą mszę roku: rezurekcję.
Podczas wielkanocnego śniadania
członkowie rodziny dzielą się jajkiem z
innymi. Opróżniają poświęcony koszyczek i jedzą.
Str. 53
ZESPÓŁ SZKÓŁ NR 70 W WARSZAWIE

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