2. health

Commenti

Transcript

2. health
2
FEMISE RESEARCH
PROGRAMME
2002-2004
The Mediterranean Limes.
The Social Variables of Development:
Health, Poverty and Crime
The Impact of the Euro-Med Partnership and
Globalization on Social Imbalances between The
North and the South of the Basin
Volume 2
Research n°FEM21-30
Directed By
Carla Collicelli, CENSIS, Italie
In collaboration with
Faculty of Economics and Political Science - Cairo University, Egypt
Royal Scientific Society, Jordan
KEPE, Greece
Bogazici University, Turkey
November 2003
Ce rapport a été réalisé avec le soutien financier de
la Commission des Communautés Européennes. Les
opinions exprimées dans ce texte n’engagent que les
auteurs et ne reflètent pas l’opinion officielle de la
Commission.
This report has been drafted with financial assistance
from the Commission of the European Communities.
The views expressed herein are those of the authors
and therefore in no way reflect the official opinions of
the Commission.
Femise Coordinators
Economic Research Forum
Institut de la Méditerranée
For the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey
C AISSE D EPARGN E
PROVENCE -ALPES - CORSE
Research in the FEMISE network
STUDY D2: POVERTY, INFORMAL SECTOR, HEALTH AND LABOUR
THE MEDITERRANEAN LIMES.
THE SOCIAL VARIABLES OF DEVELOPMENT:
HEALTH, POVERTY AND CRIME
THE IMPACT OF THE EURO-MED PARTNERSHIP AND
GLOBALIZATION ON SOCIAL IMBALANCES BETWEEN
THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH OF THE BASIN
Volume II
The case-studies in the 5 countries
Rome, november 2003
The study was carried out by a working party of the Censis Foundation with
the collaboration of Abaton-Ricerca, Progetti e Studi.
Working party:
Carla Collicelli (Leader); Rosario Sapienza, Massimiliano Valerii
(Coordinator); Matteo Scaramella, Marta Piccarozzi, Andrea Baglioni,
Gloria Pizzichemi, Giuseppe Lubrano, Elena Mariniello, Vittoria Coletta;
Maria Antonella Di Candia, Roberta Bernardi, Sabrina Pusceddu
(Secretariat).
INDICE
VOLUME I
Foreword
Statement of Research Issue and Literature Review
Research Methodology
Pag.
“
“
1
5
8
Part One - Comparative study of Poverty, Health and
Crime in the Mediterranean Countries
“
10
1. Poverty
1.1. Human development
1.2. Economic deprivation
1.3. Social exclusion
1.4. Millennium Goals directly linked to poverty
“
“
“
“
“
11
11
16
23
31
2. Health
2.1. General trends and figures
2.2. Healthy life expectancy
2.3. Access to health
2.4. Spending on health
2.5. Millennium Goals for health
“
“
“
“
“
“
37
37
45
48
54
72
3. Crime
3.1. A problem of approaches and definitions
3.2. Comparative analysis of crime statistics
3.3. Governance as the habitat of security
“
“
“
“
80
80
81
84
Part Two - Analysis of main factors, creation of new
indicators and study of correlations
“
100
1. Premises for analysis
“
101
“
“
102
103
“
104
2. Methodological approach to Principal Component
Analysis (PCA)
2.1. Defining the concepts
2.2. Definition of macro-phenomena and identification
of evaluation criteria
2.3. Aggregation of indicators: Principal Component
Analysis (PCA)
2.4. Rating
Pag.
“
105
107
3. Creation of Poverty and Access Index (PAI)
“
108
4. Construction of the Health System Index (HSI)
“
115
5. Construction of the Governance Security Index (GSI)
“
125
“
128
“
128
“
133
“
136
“
152
Egypt
“
1
Jordan
“
74
Greece
“
123
Italy
“
189
Turkey
“
291
6. Incidence of Poverty, Health and Governance in human
development in the Mediterranean region
6.1. The three indicators in relation to the Human
Development Index (HDI)
6.2. Crossing the three indicators Health, Poverty and
Governance with one another
6.3. Crossing the three indicators (PAI, HSI and GSI)
with a number of active variables present in each
of them
Research Synopsis
VOLUME II - THE COUNTRY-STUDIES
EGYPT
Alia El-Mahdi - Professor of Economics
Faculty of Economics and Political Science - Cairo University
Magued Osman
Suzanna Sobhy
Marwa Salem
Anwar Abdel Aal
11873_02
1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
COUNTRY PROFILE: ESSENTIAL FIGURES
Official
Name:
Republic of Egypt
Arab
Background:
Egypt
is
reputed worldwide for its
distinct
7,000-years-old
record of history and
civilization. This has made
Egypt a master and pioneer
of science, arts, culture,
architecture as well as
almost all fields of human
knowledge
(SIS,
Year
Book, 2002).
1.1. Population
- Population: In January 2002, the population of Egypt was estimated at
65.986 million (32.220 mill males and 33.766 mill females) excluding
Egyptians living abroad (CAPMAS, 2002).
- Age structure (CAPMAS):
- Populations below 14 years represent 34.5 % of population in 2000
compared to 39.5% in 1986.
- Population age category between 15 and 64 represents the majority of
population (62%) in 2000.
- Old age category, 65 years and over represent 3.6% of total population
in 2000
- Birth rate: Birth rate dropped from 40 per thousand in 1986 to 26.7 per
thousand in 2001 (CSD, 2002).
2
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Mortality rate: Mortality rate in 2001/02 is 6.2 per thousand compared to
6.3 per thousand in 2000/01 (SIS, 2002).
- Natural growth rate: Normal Population Growth in 2001 was estimated at
about 1.334 million i.e. one citizen / 23.6 seconds with a monthly growth
of about 111,186 child and a daily increase of about 3655 child (SIS,
2002). Thus, natural growth rate fell from 30.5 per thousand in 1996 to
20.4 per thousand in 2001 (CAPMAS, 2002).
- Population Growth Rate: 2.13 % in 2001 (CAPMAS, 2002)
- Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
- Sex Ratio: 0.95 male(s)/female (MOHP, 2002)
- Infant mortality rate: 60.46 deaths/1,000 live births (CAPMAS, 2002).
- Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.69 years, male: 67.1 years,
female: 71.5 years (CAPMAS, 2002).
- Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1997-2000) (DHS, 2000).
- Education rate: (HDR, various issues)
- Primary enrolment ratio (gross) %: 91.7 (2002/2001).
- Preparatory enrolment ratio (gross) %: 92.3 (2002/2001).
- Secondary enrolment ratio (gross) %: 71.1 (2002/2001).
- Tertiary enrolment ratio (gross) %: 30.2 (2002/2001).
- Population Density: Average population density mounted to 1096/km2 in
inhabited areas and only 61/km2 if the state’s total area is utilized (SIS,
2002).
- Labor Force : Labor force amounted to about 19.73 million in 2001/02
and about 20.26 million in 2002/03 (SIS, 2002).
3
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
1.2. Economy and Labor
Economic performance tops the government’s priorities, especially under
the current global conditions affecting world economy. The state’s
economic policy focuses on activating and affecting the role of the private
sector in development efforts, boosting domestic and foreign investments,
implementing national mega projects, promoting human development to
overcome the challenges of the new era, preparing youth to assume their
responsibilities in different fields of national action and bolstering women’s
role in community development.
- GDP growth rate: After several years of strong growth in the second half
of1990s, Egypt’s economic growth has slowed markedly over the last
three years. Real growth rate in the country’s gross domestic product
(GDP) was only 3.2% in 2002, compared to 3.4% in 2001, and to 6.0%
as recently as 2000.
- GDP per capita: GDP per capita has increased from US$ 1015 in 1995 to
US$ 1276 in 2002 (Ministry of Planning).
- GDP per Sector (2002) :
1. Commodity Sector: contributed by 49.8 percent of GDP) (HDR,
2002/2003).
- Agriculture: 16.5 percent of GDP.
- Industry: 33.3 percent of GDP.
2. Services sector: 50.2 percent of GDP.
- Unemployment Rate: There are different estimates of the UER that range
from 9.9% in 2002 (official estimate) to 17.5% (unpublished estimates)
during 1998- 2002.
- Inflation Rate: has declined sharply over the last 7 years. It was 2.4% in
2002 compared with 9.4% in 1996. However, the inflation rate rose again
to exceed 8% during the months of March to September 2003, due to the
new exchange rate policy, which moved towards a more liberalized
exchange rate. As a consequence, the value of the Egyptian Pound (LE)
4
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
versus the US$ fell from LE 4.62/ US$ to LE 6.2/US$ in September
2003. A 35% drop in the value of the LE resulted in an increase in the
CPI, which started to rise from 2% in April 2002 to 4.7% in April 20031.
- Investment: The government has taken various steps to ensure that the
investment climate is as favorable as possible. The most important step to
date is the Investment Law of 1997, which codifies and clarifies all
provisions pertaining to investment in the country. The investment law of
1997 allows foreign companies to have 100% ownership of Egyptian
companies and provides for the repatriation of dividends. Another
important feature of this law is the fact that it identifies 16 fields that
benefit from investment incentives outlined in the law.
- Trade: Historically, despite the volatility of the region in which Egypt is
situated, trade has continued successfully. Egypt’s main trading partners
are the US, Italy, France, Greece, Germany, Britain and Japan. Major
categories of goods imported are wheat, meat, flour, machinery and
automobiles. Major categories of goods exported are petroleum, oil, gas,
cotton and cotton textiles, metal products, chemicals (CBE, 2002). The
share of exports of goods & services to GDP in current prices has
declined from 29.5% in 1995 to 17.5% in 2001 (CBE, 2002). However,
exports represented 45 percent of imports in 2002 compared to 32.7
percent in 1996. Egypt is a member of several trade blocs (see
Appendix).
- Currency: Egyptian Pound (£E) consists of 100 piasters2.
1.3. Geography and territorial characteristics
- Location: Egypt, a country in northeastern Africa, is located at the heart
of the world, standing as a major trade and crossroads destination
between Europe, the Middle East, Africa and west and south Asia. It
occupies the north Eastern corner of Africa, bordered by Libya to the
west, Sudan to the south, Palestine and Israel to the northeast. Its north
1
2
CAPMAS, Monthly Bulletin for CPI, May 2003.
1US$ = £E6.2 in 2003 (CBE).
5
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
coast is on the Mediterranean Sea, while the eastern coast is bounded by
the Red Sea. The Suez canal links the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.
- Geographical Borders: Egypt is bounded as follows:
- To the north, by the Mediterranean with a 955-km-long coast.
- To the east by the Red Sea with a 1941-km-long coast.
- To the northeast, by 265-km-long borders with Palestine and Israel.
- To the west, by 1115-km-long borders with Libya.
- To the south, by 1280-km-long borders with Sudan.
- Area: Egypt has a total area of about 1,002,000 km2, 55367 km2 (5.5%)
are populated.
- Capital: Cairo
- Topography: The Arab Republic of Egypt is divided into four major
parts:
- Nile Valley and Delta: It has an area of about 33,000 km2, i.e. less
than 4% of the total area of the country, while the remaining area, i.e.
96% is desert.
- Western Desert: The Western Desert occupies an area of about
680,000 km2, i.e. 68% of Egypt’s total area.
- Eastern Desert: Its area is about 225,000 km2, i.e. 28% of Egypt’s
total area.
- Sinai Peninsula: With an area of about 6100 km2, i.e. 6.1% of Egypt’s
total area.
- Climate: Egypt lies within the dry tropical region, except for the northern
parts that lie within the warm moderate region, with a semi
Mediterranean climate characterized by hot dry summers and moderate
winters with little rain falls, potentially heavier along coastal areas.
- Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%
6
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes
- Natural Resources: Egypt possesses a wealth of major minerals,
including oil, phosphate, iron, and manganese. The major products of
stone quarries represented in granite, basalt, marble, limestone, sand, and
glass.
- Environmental Issues in Egypt:
Some environmental issues represent a priority to policy makers as well as
the concerned civil society organizations and they include:
- Industrial Pollution (industrial liquid Wastes and industrial solid Waste).
- Non- Industrial Pollution (Solid Wastes, Hospital Wastes, Sanitary
Drainage and Air Pollution Generated from Vehicles Exhausts).
- Archeological Environment Pollution.
- Energy Consumption
- Carbon and Energy-Related Emissions.
- Energy and Carbon Intensity
- Hydroelectric Power and the Nile River
1.4. Key Issues
- Economic constraints
1. Economic recession, particularly since 1997.
2. Exchange rate volatility
3. Modest Export performance
7
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4. Low productivity
5. Inflationary pressures
- Social constraints
1. Unemployment, low standards of living and levels of income
2. Low social and medical insurance coverage
3. High natural population growth rates
- Political constraints
1. Limited political participation
2. Modest role of the civil society organizations
8
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
2.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
HEALTH
2.1. Definitions
The government of Egypt is adopting the World Health Organization
definition of health “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
A recent survey3 indicates measured the perception of Egyptians about their
own health. The results indicated that 49% of the Egyptians feel that their
health is same as people in the same age, 40% feel that their health is better
or much better, 11% feel that their health is worse or much worse.
2.2. Policy and Legislation
The Egyptian constitution states that free health care should be available for
every individual.
Egypt started building health facilities in urban and rural areas to deliver
primary health (PHC) services early in the nineteen twenties. In urban areas,
it took the form of maternal and child health centers (MCH). In rural areas,
it took the form of an old type of rural health facilities, which was followed
by two types of wooden transferable health units, one to treat ophthalmic
diseases, and the other to treat schistosomiasis and intestinal parasites. The
national program for the rural health services started in 1942 by establishing
the rural health centers, each centre was to serve about 30,000 inhabitants in
one or more villages. Each centre was staffed by a health team headed by a
physician and consisting of nursing staff, assistant laboratory technician,
sanitarian, and other workers. The rural health centers were to offer all PHC
programs to the served community including: maternal and child health
3
Ministry of Health and Population 2002, Egypt Household and Health Care Utilization
and Expenditure Survey.
9
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
services, communicable diseases control, environmental sanitation, health
education, parasitic and endemic diseases control, school health services,
curative and emergency care (general practitioner level), family planning
and dental care.
Health care is delivered throughout public facilities, non-governmental
organizations and the private sector. Public health facilities include:
- Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) owned facilities, which are
mostly rural facilities, urban facilities, and secondary and tertiary
hospitals for curative care.
- Health insurance organization owned facilities, which provide services to
employees, students, widows, pensioners and new born (about 45% of
the Egypt population).
- Curative care organization which runs some big hospitals and offers care
for fixed fee.
- Teaching hospitals and Technical Institutes Organization.
- University Medical Teaching Hospitals, which have two systems, either
completely free of charge curative services or fixed fee for service for
those who can pay.
Many NGO’s have health clinics and hospitals which offer services for
reasonable prices to the public.
The private sector plays an important role. It includes both formal and
informal sectors. It manages private clinics or well-established specialized
hospitals where people pay relative high fees for what they consider better
services. This network also includes general practitioners, specialists,
dentists, laboratories, pharmacists etc.
During the nineties, the government was committed to the objective “health
for all by the year 2000”. The government placed priority on meeting
children’s health needs focusing on national programs to control diarrhea
and acute respiratory infections and expanded childhood immunization
program. Achievements were attained in the areas of high vaccination
coverage, better health indices, especially infant mortality and life
expectancy, and lower prevalence of intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis.
10
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
A policy reform agenda was developed to expand health insurance to a
larger portion of the population. Several attempts was made recently to
improve the quality of health care throughout changing the compensation
scheme of health workers and providing on job training for the health team.
Several initiatives are under consideration including improving health
planning on the district level to strengthen decentralization, cost recovery,
better referral system, support for deprived areas, and efficiency in using
available resources.
2.3. Sources
The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) is
the main provider of data in Egypt. Periodical data include a census every
decade and birth and death yearly report.
In addition, seven rounds of a national representative sample survey were
conducted during the last fifteen years under the umbrella of the
Demographic and Health Surveys with support from USAID. The surveys
provided detailed information on fertility, family planning, infant and child
mortality and maternal and child health and nutrition. A national survey was
recently conducted on health expenditure.
The Ministry of Health and Population4 publishes regular reports on
morbidity status. More data are provided through the Information Centre of
the Ministry and through local authorities.
4
www.mohp.gov.eg
11
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
2.4. Data
[in addition to standard health indicators that can be accessed throughout the
Human Development Report the following data are provided]
Adult morbidity
More than one third of individuals reported episodes of illness during the
last two weeks5. Twenty percent of the individuals reported chronic
illness/disability. Twenty two percent of adults Egyptians are at risk from
chronic diseases that can be attributed to smoking. Seventeen percent of
individuals reported chest sound wheezy/whistling and half of them
experienced short of breath.
Child morbidity
The 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey provided data on the
prevalence and treatment of two common childhood illnesses, diarrhea and
acute respiratory illness. Seven percent of children under five were reported
to have had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey . Medical advice
was sought in treating about around half of these cases. Use of ORS packets
( 34 percent ) or a homemade solution of sugar, salt and water (5%) to
combat the dehydration was common. Altogether some form of ORT or
increased fluids was used in treating around one in two of the children
suffering from diarrhea.
During the two weeks preceding the survey, 10% of children had a cough
accompanied by symptoms of acute respiratory illness. In the case of twothirds of the cases a health provider was consulted and three fourth of the
children were given antibiotics.
Child nutrition
Anthropometric data collected for children in the 2000 EDHS indicate that
19 percent of Egyptian children show evidence of chronic malnutrition or
stunting, and 3 percent are acutely malnourished . The trend in
5
Ministry of Health and Population 2002, Egypt Household and Health Care Utilization
and Expenditure Survey.
12
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
anthropometric indicators from EDHS surveys between 1992 and 2000
shows that the nutritional status of children under age five has improved
from the situation prevailing during the first half of the 1990s, when 25 – 30
percent of children were found to be stunted. Large differentials in
children’s nutritional status continue to be observed, however, particularly
by residence. For example, the percentage stunted among children in rural
Upper Egypt is 27 percent, three times the level found in the Urban
Governorates .
Macronutrient.
Recent figures indicate that the coverage of the program for vitamin A
supplementation for new mothers and for children is still limited. Around
one ninth of mothers and one fifth of children reported receiving a vitamin
A capsule. With respect to iodine, 44% of households were found not using
salt containing some iodine despite the program adopted by the government
to prevent iodine deficiency.
Maternal health
Maternal health indicators are still low. During pregnancy, only 37% saw a
health provider for the recommended minimum four antenatal care visits.
The pregnancy care that Egyptian mothers receive often does not include
routine screening or advice that is important in detecting and preventing
complications. For example, women reported that they had been weighed
and their blood pressure monitored in the case of only about 60 percent of
the births in which a medical provider was seen for pregnancy care. Urine
and blood samples were taken in two in five births, the mother’s height was
measured in about a third of births, and iron tablets/ syrup were received or
bought in around a quarter of the births. Mother were given advice about
potential pregnancy complications in 18 percent of the births and told by the
provider where to seek assistance if they experienced problems in the case
of 14 percent of the births.
Health care during delivery can usually prevent maternal mortality and
morbidity. In only 60% of the cases trained medical personnel assisted
during delivery. Traditional birth attendants assisted with most of the
remaining cases. Nearly one half of the deliveries took place in a health
facility. In rural Upper Egypt, less than two-fifths of deliveries are
13
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
medically assisted and only one fourth of deliveries took place in a health
facility.
Disparity in health indicators
Despite the improvement that has been achieved in most health indicators,
one of the main concern in maternal and child health is the geographical
disparity that continue to prevail especially between urban and rural areas
and between Lower (northern) and Upper (southern) Egypt. Child mortality
rate in rural Upper Egypt is twice the rate observed in Urban governorates.
Prevalence of child malnutrition in rural Upper Egypt is tree folds its level
in Urban governorates. With respect to maternal care during delivery, the
percent of pregnant women seen by a health provider during pregnancy at
least 4 times was 26% in rural area and 54% in urban areas.
Health expenditure
Annual per capita expenditure on health care is L.E. 205. This amount is
divided to L.E. 121 on outpatient services, L.E. 15 on inpatient services and
L.E. 69 on drugs6.
2.5. Phenomenology
Currently, there is a large gap between the very comprehensive set of
services that the actual primary care program intends to provide and the
resources available to do it. The imbalance results in low salaries, lack of
supplies and substandard facilities. Dissatisfaction is widespread. Already
scarce resources are spread too thin to have an impact. The poor suffer to
pay private doctors and make out of pocket payments to buy medicine.
Services are fragmented and referral mechanisms loose people through the
cracks in the system. The existing primary care system cannot provide a
family and community focus, which is necessary to achieve primary health
care goals.
6 Ministry of Health and Population 2002, Egypt Household and Health Care Utilization
and Expenditure Survey.
14
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The outcome of the large infrastructure of rural and urban health facilities
has been far less than expected. Due to:
- Lack of adequate training for the staff
- Low utilization of services
- Low investment in PHC, and in health in general
- Bad physical status of the health facilities
- Low salaries
- Weak managerial skills, including lack of supervision, follow up and
monitoring
- Lack of effective community participation and involvement in health
planning, monitoring, evaluation and utilization
There is a clear need for policy reform, advances in quality assurance,
human resource and systems development, decentralization, improved
resource allocation, and increased private sector and community
participation.
Several health challenges are facing Egypt including lack of accessibility to
adequate health care for poor and low insurance coverage among agriculture
workers and unemployed. Another challenge that is due to external factor is
the increasing cost for health care due to deteriorating exchange rate. If the
current population growth rate continues and the economy does not recover,
in the near future health problems will aggravate in the future.
15
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
3.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
POVERTY
3.1. Definition
Although poverty has many manifestations and causes, but its main driving
force is the process of exclusion from access to certain basic physical,
human and social assets. To define poverty it needs selection of a welfare
criterion in order to put a line that divides population into poor and nonpoor, this criterion could be income-based approach or non income-based
approach:
- Income-based approach is the commonly used measurement to define the
poor, by determining a level of income7 if not attained by a person or a
family, the later is classified poor. This critical level of income that
separates the poor from non poor is named poverty line which could be in
form of any of the following:
- Absolute poverty line.
- Relative poverty line.
- Subjective poverty line.
Most measurements in Egypt are based on some variant of the absolute
consumption-based poverty line8. According to this approach of
definition, three main features, which, characterize the poor people: low
standard of living; low income and high propensity to borrow.
In fact, this approach of defining poverty has two main limitations, as it
does not account for access to essential public goods and services for
instance clean water or environment, education and health, which affect
7
8
Owing to a number of well-known difficulties of collecting accurate data on income,
consumption expenditure is employed instead of income levels.
Although EHRD 1996 introduced estimation of subjective poverty based on people
perceptions and their neighbor's situation.
16
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
the standard of living, also this approach does not measure the quality of
life.
- Non income-based approach is a broader definition of poverty that
provides additional information, which reflects the actual experience of
the poor; their perceptions of poverty and their own self-determined
concepts and measures of poverty. This definition accounts also for
human development in terms of education; health and nutritional status
as well as other aspects like security and safety nets.
- The Capability Poverty Measurement (CPM)9 is an application of non
income-based definition of poverty, and it is used to complement rather
than to substitute the income-based definition of poverty. Although this
definition is used only by a minority of respondents, Egypt has
introduced, in its published EHDR 1996, the capability measurement of
poverty in order to complement the income-based measurement.
- The Deprivation Index is another composite index which consists of nine
indicators reflecting the standard of living and welfare, this Index was
constructed by (IEC 1996) based on the result of Priority Survey
conducted by CAPMAS for the Social Fund for Development (SFD), and
it was published in EHRD 1997/98.
- A Standard of Living Index was newly constructed as a broader measure
of living conditions, and it is ranged from 0 to 100. It is comprised of five
dimensions in order to capture different emphases in the definition of
poverty by various analysts: per-capita income, per-capita expenditures,
an index of economic security/vulnerability, an index of housing
conditions, and an index of affordability of basic needs.
9
This was recently introduced by UNDP in the HDR 1996.
17
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
3.2. Policies
As it was realized, ERSAP might have negative effects on low-income
groups; many recent policies have been designed and implemented to assist
the poor. Both the government and NGO’s are considered the major players
in poverty alleviation in Egypt.
Major Government Policies:
Poverty Alleviation policies are conducted through the following ministries
and agencies:
i. Social Fund for Development (SFD)
SFD was established in 1992 as a result of the Structural Adjustment
Program that was signed between the Egyptian Government and the
World Bank. The SFD has five major programs:
- The Enterprise Development Program, which aims on creating longterm employment opportunities through technical or credit assistance,
concentrating on new projects and newly unemployed graduates.
- The Public Works Program, supports labor-intensive public works
projects in the poor and high unemployment governorates
- The Community Development Program, aims to improve social
services and productive activities in low income areas.
- The Employment and Retraining Program, provides assistance to
public sector workers who are displaced, and offers training for new
graduates.
- The Institutional Development Program, which aims to enforce the
administrative and technical capacities of the SFD.
Both of the second and the third programs achieved good records in
reducing poverty.
18
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
ii. Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA)
MOSA works on alleviating poverty directly through social security and
welfare aid system. This system is divided into two types of assistance:
a) The Islamic system of zakat , which is compulsory religious duty
whereby each Muslim pay a percentage of his wealth to help the poor,
this system is organized by zakat committees registered in the Nasser
Social Bank under the supervision of MOSA. The zakat committees
use the funds to give grants or interest-free loans to the needy people.
b) Financial support to the poor through social insurance and social
security schemes, whereby the first scheme covers the permanent
workers in the public and government and private sectors, as well as
temporary workers in industry, commerce and services. The Social
Security Scheme includes temporary and casual workers who are not
covered by social insurance.
Sadat Pension Scheme is a direct contributory transfer of payment system
introduced by MOSA, it covers those who are eligible for a regular
pension and not temporary assistance, and no additional beneficiaries
were added since 1980. This pension is awarded to whoever reaches the
age of 65 years or who is completely handicapped, and it has a value that
ranges between LE 50 and LE 60 per month.
Finally, there s a special program for the destitute named by ma`ash eldaman, targets the poorest of the poor and those who are not covered by
any social insurance or security program, the amount of this pension
varies between LE 11 and LE 37 monthly according to the size of the
family.
iii. The Ministry of Local Development
Shuruk Program: The National Program for Integrated Rural
Development
The main objective of this program is to close the gap between rural and
urban areas in Egypt. The plan is to achieve this target during the period
1994-2017.
19
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The sum total of investment required for the program until 2017 is
estimated at LE 267 billion; one third of this amount will be financed
through the national budget.
According to Shuruk projected investment, about one third of total
investment will be directed to infrastructure projects and one quarter to
human resources and institutional development projects, while the rest
will be devoted to economic activity projects.
iv. The Ministry of Trade and Supply
Government programs for food subsidies
It is the most expensive and widespread governmental assistance
program in Egypt, administered by the Ministry of Trade and Supply.
Currently subsidies are limited to bread, wheat, flour, sugar and edible
oils.
Non-Governmental
Intermediaries:
Organizations
(NGO’s)
and
Development
There are several poverty alleviation programs offered by these actors; the
following are the most important:
- UNICEF Supported Family Development Fund (FDF), which funds
small and micro enterprise development, in order to provide
socioeconomic support to the poorest of the poor living in remote rural
areas in Upper Egypt. The Fund also aims to improve the standard of
living for low-income women and their families.
- CEOSS has an integrated program for literacy and general education,
addressed to women and focused in Minia governorate and few poor
communities in Cairo. Through this program, CEOSS tries to empower
women and increase female leadership, as well as reinforces family ties.
- The Upper Egypt Association (UEA), views the provision of affordable,
but high-quality basic education, with an integrated development
approach in poor villages. Despite being a Christian organization, UEA
serves Christians and Muslims equally.
20
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- The Association for the Protection of the Environment (APE), which
began its work with young women in the garbage collectors community
in Muqattam (Cairo), by organizing literacy classes. At a subsequent
stage the APE added health awareness, leadership training, sex education
and early childhood education to its services.
- The Center for Egyptian Women’s Legal Assistance (CEWLA), is one of
the few organizations in Egypt aims at enhancing poor women’s access
to the legal system. CEWLA is located in Bulak El-Dakrur (Cairo), and
offers help in issuing the identity card, obtaining of a birth or divorce
certificates, as well as easing access to state social assistance for destitute
women. The organization concerns with other legal issues includes
representation in courts, it also organizes literacy classes to raise
women’s awareness of their legal rights.
- The Association of the Lawful Religious for those who behave according
to the book and Muhammadan Sunna10, was established 12 years ago and
it’s the largest network of Islamic Organizations that are currently
working in Egypt. The association owns hospitals, health clinics and
libraries; it adopts strict discipline and a clear division of labor. The
Orphan Sponsorship Program is the association’s most important
program, whose main objective is to care for the orphaned Muslim child
from birth until adulthood in order to direct him to the right Islamic path
and values.
- CARITAS, El-Saeed Association and the Childhood and Development
Association (CDA). The first two associations have the same objectives
and follows similar procedures as well, as they aim at eradicating women
illiteracy, increasing health awareness and alleviating poverty through
provision of micro-loans to households. The CDA has wider activities
than the previous two NGO’s, as it is involved in implementing a MultiPurpose Development Program with SFD targeting poor rural women
aims at upgrading their status and enhancing their participation in
economic activities.
- Ford Project for Small Firms’ Loans, Ford has given two grants for two
Egyptian banks in order to offer bank loans for existing small firms in
urban areas, with concentration on women.
10
Al Jam`iyyah al-shar`iyyah lil`amilin bil-kitab wal-sunnah ai-Mohamadiyyah.
21
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- The project of American Agency for Small Firms International
Development, it offers loans for existing firms at market interest rates
with no guarantees.
- The project of the Association of Developing and Enhancing Women
(ADEW), which offers loans to families sponsored by women
3.3. Sources
The main source of data for measuring poverty in Egypt are the Household
Income, Expenditure and Consumption Survey (HIECS) which were carried
out in 1990/91 and 1995/96 and 1999/2000 by CAPMAS, these data were
used to calculate poverty indicators in the following publications:
- Institute of National Planning (INP), Egypt Human Development Report
1996.
- Institute of National Planning (INP), Egypt Human Development Report
1997/1998.
- Institute of National Planning (INP), Egypt Human Development Report
2003.
- The World Bank, ARE, Poverty Reduction in Egypt 2002.
- Subjective Poverty and Social Capital Survey (SPSC)11.
11 This Survey is designed specially for SPSC Report, its data were collected during
December 2002, the sample include 4000 households (1720 in urban and 2280 in rural
areas).
22
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
3.4. Phenomenology
According to poverty measures of El-Laithy presented in Table-1, poverty12
has increased on both national and regional level between 1981/82 and
1990/91, then stabilized in 1995/96 and then started to decline in 1999/00.
However, it is noticed also that the Gini coefficient increased during
1999/00 compared to 1995/96.
How could this contradiction of decline in poverty and increase in the Gini
coefficient be explained?
At the national level the growth was not pro-poor, thus the non-poor
benefited more than the poor did from the growth. Correspondingly, the
Gini coefficient increased from 34.5 to 37.813.
Table 1 - Regional Poverty Measures (1981/82-1999/00)
Region
Year
All Egypt
1981/82
1990/91
1995/96
1999/00
1981/82
1990/91
1995/96
1981/82
1990/91
1995/96
All Urban
All Rural
Lower Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
16.42
30.37
29.25
16.74
16.75
26.06
29.03
16.60
34.12
29.00
3.77
8.62
5.79
2.97
4.25
6.59
6.48
3.20
10.97
5.59
1.23
3.36
1.58
0.8
1.52
2.28
1.95
0.87
4.90
1.52
Upper Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
23.65
39.09
42.46
6.04
11.99
10.13
2.23
5.03
3.32
25.99
36.82
42.87
22.95
41.25
41.87
7.26
10.58
11.67
4.89
13.88
9.28
2.88
4.15
4.24
1.49
6.45
2.89
Gini
Index
34.5
37.8
34.8
34.8
33.7
25.8
36.6
24.9
Source: El-Laithy (1999, 2002)
12
13
Named P0.
WB, Op.cit., p.19
2
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The Period 1981/82-1995/96
Urban poverty has increased more rapidly than rural poverty, although the
rural poverty rate is still higher than urban rate. The observed increases in
national and urban poverty are mainly due to the decrease in average percapita expenditure (growth component), as the decline in average per-capita
expenditure neutralized improvements in distribution. However, the
observed change in rural poverty is fully accounted for the improvements in
expenditure distribution, at least for the poorest of the poor and this is
consistent with the declining Gini coefficient and stagnant increase in rural
areas.
As a matter of fact, there is no lack of poverty estimates in Egypt, but
debates about methods of poverty measurement are common because
poverty is an elusive concept and no single measure can properly or
adequately reflect its magnitude and features.
Most of poverty studies in Egypt used household surveys conducted by
CAPMAS, in 1974/75, 1981/82, 1990/91, 1995/96 and 1999/2000 and used
the same food energy requirement, these studies adopted also the same
indicator of welfare expenditure.
Table 2 Poverty Incidence in Various Studies in Egypt
1981/82
Urban
The World Bank (1991)
Korayem (1994)
El-Laithy & Osman(1997)
Cardiff (1997)
El-Laithy et al (1999): Lower
30.40
33.50
Rural
The World Bank (1991)
Korayem (1994)
El-Laithy & Osman(1997)
Cardiff (1997)
El-Laithy et al (1999): Lower
29.70
26.90
16.80
16.60
1990/91
1995/96
21.00
35.90
39.00
12.60
26.10
45.00
30.80
29.00
25.00
56.40
39.20
32.20
34.10
50.9
55.2
29.00
Source: Subjective Poverty & Social Capital (2003)
2
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
However, Table-2 shows clearly that estimates of poverty may be different
even when the same data are used. Korayem (1994) stated that poverty in
1990/91 reached 35.8% in urban areas, while it was 56.4% in rural areas,
more than 50% higher than urban areas. El-Laithy et al (1997) showed that
poverty levels in 1990/91 differed, between urban and rural areas, by not
more than 0.2%. Although Cardiff (1997) used the same poverty lines as
Korayem (1994), he estimated much lower poverty in 1990/91, he argued
that national poverty has increased dramatically from 20.69% in 1990/91 to
44.29% in 1995/96.
A study by El-Laithy and Osman (1997) indicated a decline in the incidence
of poverty in rural areas from 28% to 23%, during the period 1990/911995/96, using lower poverty lines. However, they noticed that both regions
(urban and rural) experienced increases in their poverty when using upper
poverty lines. These discrepancies reflect a number of limitations
concerning units for welfare measurement and estimation of poverty lines14.
The Period 1995/96-1999/2000
The World Bank Report on Poverty (2002) uses a methodology that
accounts for these limitations, and concludes that:
Table 3 Share of the Poor Population in 1995/96 and 1999/2000
1995/96
All Egypt
Upper Rural
Upper Urban
Lower Rural
Lower Urban
Metropolitan
19.4
29.3
10.8
21.5
8.3
13.1
1999/2000
16.7
34.2
19.3
11.8
6.2
5.1
Source: World Bank, ARE, Poverty Reduction in Egypt, 2002, Report No. 24234 EGT, p.vi.
14
For more details about these limitations refer to Subjective Poverty and Social Capital
(2003).
2
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
1. In 1999/2000 the poor in Egypt was 16.7% of the population, and this
poverty is shallow which is reflected by the low values of distributionsensitive measures P1 and P2.
2. The incidence of poverty is highest in Upper Egypt.
3. During the periods 1995/96 and 1999/2000 overall poverty declined by
2.7%, however, patterns of change were not homogenous across regions,
as Metropolitan and Lower Egypt has improved their poverty status,
while poverty levels increased in Upper Egypt.
4. Decomposing poverty changes into growth and redistribution
components, in the Metropolitan region the growth and redistribution
components work in opposite directions; as the reduction in poverty
resulting from increased real per-capita expenditure was lowered by
deterioration in inequality. On the other hand, in both Upper and Lower
Egypt the two components worked in the same direction.
In Lower Egypt there was a reduction in poverty levels resulted from
improvements in inequality and per-capita expenditure, while in Upper
Egypt both per-capita expenditure and inequality worsened resulting in
poverty increase.
2002:
- The latest statistics (2003) show that the largest concentration of poor
and ultra-poor individuals is found in Upper Egypt in both urban and
rural areas.
3
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 4: Regional Poverty Measures 2002 using different poverty lines
Region
Metropolitan
Lower
Urban
Lower Rural
Upper
Urban
Upper Rural
All Egypt
Lower Objective
Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
Lower Relative
Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
Subjective Poverty
Line
P0
P1
P2
% of
individuals
with
insufficient
income15
5.72
9.81
1.36
2.57
0.46
0.98
4.62
9.81
0.96
3.08
0.33
1.29
42.53
33.69
12.48
10.42
5.65
4.62
22.47
26.87
16.57
19.19
3.00
4.77
0.88
1.82
22.13
15.87
3.87
4.61
1.15
1.85
30.69
36.13
7.54
10.32
2.94
4.65
29.07
36.40
34.87
20.40
8.22
4.62
2.77
1.55
39.02
22.58
10.29
5.46
3.64
1.91
23.32
31.82
5.67
8.54
2.14
3.59
17.75
24.27
Source: Subjective Poverty & Social Capital (2003).
Rural areas in each governorate are more deprived than urban areas
especially when the objective poverty is used.
Metropolitan Region16 has the highest subjective poverty, which could be
explained by the fact that urban citizens are influenced by their surroundings
and by “the demonstration effect”. They feel their neediness more than the
rural citizens do. That is sometimes the reason why most of the government
programs are biased towards Urban in developing countries17.
- According to the newly measured (CPM)18, there is considerable chronic
under-nutrition among Egyptian children with higher proportion in rural
areas, and underweight children are common in rural Upper Egypt, on the
other hand, medically assisted delivery is more common for urban births
and to highly educated mothers.
15
16
17
18
This percentage reflects the perception of the individuals, whether they consider
themselves poor or not.
Which perceive higher basic needs requirements.
As they rely on subjective poverty.
Capability Poverty Measurement.
4
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- The education status plays a major role in determining poverty in Egypt19,
as poverty is inversely correlated with educational attained, it is noticed
that the great majority of the poor have attained only primary level
education or no education at all, and the lowest headcounts achieved by
those with university education. However, poverty measures in urban
areas are about 1.3 times those in rural areas in categories with low levels
of education, which means that education in urban areas plays a more
important role in determining poverty status.
- According to statistics, real per-capita expenditure on education has
increased by almost 75% for the poor, and 33% for the non-poor, this is
because most of the poor household heads see education as the main
escape gate out of poverty on one hand, and the reliance on “private
lessons” raises the poor Household’s spending on education. Still, the
distribution of the households` expenditure on education is severely
skewed towards rich families and this is a reflection of low university
enrolment ratios among poor households.
On the other side, the Egyptian government has increased its public
education expenditure in order to reduce the capability poverty, but the
benefits are biased in favor of the rich especially in the higher education.
- It is also evident that within each region, whether urban or rural, all
objective poverty measures are highest for the private sector workers
compared to other sectors of employment, the same thing is true if
subjective poverty notion is applied, with narrower gaps between the
poor and non poor, specially in rural areas.
- It was noticed that families with children are worse off than families
without children, and families with more children are worse off than
families with few children. Combining gender of the household head
with marital status and number of children shows that poverty is highest
in household headed by females that are widows and have more than
three children; this criterion may be a good characteristic for targeting the
poor.
19
According to the World Bank Report on Poverty (2002), education was considered the
strongest correlate of poverty, whit more than 45% of the poor are illiterate.
5
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Data show positive relationships between the housing conditions and percapita income levels, that’s why there is a correlation between the
housing conditions index and poverty status, however the housing index
for the non-poor represents 1.3 times that of the poor for objective
poverty and only 1.02 times for subjective poverty.
- The overall average Living Standard Index in 2002 has reached 28.55. As
with most social indicators, there are urban/rural biases in favor of urban
areas.
- Male headed households have higher living standards than female headed
households, and households with a head of lower education levels have
lower living standards, and the same applies if the household head is
unemployed or out of labor force.
- Poor households, whether objectively or subjectively, have lower living
standards than the non-poor do. However, households with unmet needs
or those who are unsatisfied with their lives have a lower index,
indicating that people rightly rank themselves as satisfied or not
according to their living conditions and not only on their income.
- Although both the non-traditional government programs and nongovernment sector’s role are expanding their poverty alleviation role in
Egypt, certain government policies continue to impede such efforts and
underpin the perpetuation of poverty across generations, such as
centralization, lack of coordination, spread of corruption and weak
institutional capacities.
6
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
4.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
CRIME
4.1. Definitions
In general, “crime” refers to committing an act that is prohibited by law.
The Egyptian penal code comprises many crimes, too many to be
exhaustively covered in this section and hence only the main crimes20 will
be presented.
1. Intentional homicide: is death deliberately inflicted on a person by
another person.
2. Non-intentional homicide is death not deliberately inflicted on a person
by another person and is the result of the latter person’s negligence,
recklessness or indifference towards rules and regulations. It could have
been avoided if the perpetrator had had the caution of a regular person.
That includes the crime of manslaughter, but unlike the definition
provided by the United Nations, it also includes traffic accidents that
result in the death of persons.
3. Assault: is the physical attack against the body of another person.
4. Rape: is forcing sexual intercourse on a female without valid consent.
Egyptian law makes a distinction between sexual assault and actual
penetration and the penalty for each differs.
5. Theft is the removal of property without the property owner’s consent.
“Theft” then comprises different crimes depending on the circumstances
of the crime:
20
The crimes mentioned here are those reported in the periodic United Nations Surveys of
Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems. The definitions provided
pertain to the Egyptian Judicial System. Whenever the definitions coincide in meaning,
the wording provided by the United Nations will be used. Other crimes are also added at
the end.
7
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Robbery is the theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance
by force or threat of force.
- Burglary is the unlawful entry into someone else’s premises with the
intention to commit a crime, or the lawful entry, but lingering with the
intention of committing a crime.
- Automobile theft is the removal of a motor vehicle without the consent
of the owner of the vehicle.
6. Fraud is the acquisition of another person’s property through deception
with the intention of owning that property.
7. Embezzlement is the wrongful appropriation of a public servant of public
property owned by the government where the property is already in the
possession of the person doing the appropriating because of his or her
job.
8. Drug-related crimes is intentional acts that involve the cultivation,
production, extraction, preparation, offering for sale, distribution,
purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch,
transport, importation, exportation, possession, use or facilitating the use
of internationally controlled drugs.
9. Bribery and/ or corruption is requesting and/ or accepting material or
personal benefits, or the promise thereof, in connection with the
performance of a public function for an action, that may or may not be a
violation of law and/ or promising as well as giving material or personal
benefits to a public officer in exchange for a requested favor.
10.
Arson is the deliberate starting of fire in a property that may or may
not be in the possession of the arsonist.
11.
Terrorism is the use of force, violence or threats in the execution of a
criminal act with the intention of disrupting order and/ or jeopardizing
public safety if the result was endangering people’s lives and/ or public
or private property or impeding the application of the constitution or
other laws and regulations.
Note that there is a general agreement regarding the aforementioned
definitions among law enforcement agencies and other relevant
8
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
stakeholders. As far as the general population is concerned, there is also an
agreement concerning these definitions. However, there are certain acts that
the society frowns upon, but are permissible by law, such as drinking and
premarital sex for people above 18 years of age. Also, as will be mentioned
in section 4.5, there are some practices that are prohibited by law, but
condoned by society, such as marriage below the age of 16 and female
circumcision.
4.2. Policy and Legislation
Various measures and policies are being implemented in order to combat
crime by dealing with different factors that lead to violence and criminal
behavior.
1.
Social, economic and cultural programs and policies:
As will be mentioned in section 4.5, different social and economic factors
such as unemployment, unjust income distribution, poverty and poor levels
of education, are some of the primary reasons for the rise in the tendency
towards violence and crime. Accordingly, different measures are being
implemented such as:
- The government is striving towards alleviating poverty (see section 3.2).
- Public policies are being carried out in order to combat unemployment.
Each year, new job vacancies in government offices and public
enterprises and economic authorities are being provided in an attempt to
absorb the increasing new entrants to the labor market as well as the
already existing pool of the unemployed.
Financial and non-financial incentives are being offered to youths wishing
to own their own small businesses or buy land and cultivate it as a means of
securing income through the various special designed programs.
- The media has played a role in fighting crime through several measures.
There are television programs that deal with real- life crimes and their
consequences by meeting with criminals and exposing the consequences
9
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
of crime. In addition, fictional programs and movies tackle the issues and
ramifications of various types of crime. Newspapers and magazines
publish and report the criminal events that take place and the penalties
that the perpetrators face.
2.
Policies implemented by law enforcement agencies
The legislation concerning fighting crime is already defined. However, the
problem lies in enforcing the law and ensuring that citizens abide by the
rules and regulations. Accordingly, several measures have been
implemented:
- Because of globalization and technological development, crimes have
become more technologically advanced in nature. Due to this, the law
enforcement process has been developed and provided with the
technology necessary to combat crime in its new forms such as more
advanced computers.
- Police officers are receiving advanced training programs in combating
crime. More sophisticated crime- fighting techniques and training courses
and workshops that are held both locally and abroad.
- Due to the fact that crime is expanding in nature and involves various
aspects, departments different from the traditional criminal and political
departments have been added to law enforcement agencies such as
economic departments and social departments.
- The Ministry of Internal Affairs provides various services and incentives
to police officers in order to encourage them to carry out their jobs
efficiently. For example, medical and social services are provided to
officers and their families.
- The Ministry of Internal Affairs has also implemented programs aimed at
providing job opportunities to ex- convicts in order to discourage them
from re-pursuing a life of crime and to encourage them to lead an honest
living by offering them work opportunities after their release .
10
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.3. Sources
Due to the scarcity of data on the crime issues, limited sources are used in
this context:
- Encyclopedia of the explanation of the crimes of the penal code and
special criminal statutes
- Annual Reports of the Agency of Public Security
- The National Center for Social and Criminal Research, 4th Annual
Conference, “The Social and Criminal Aspects of Violence in the
Egyptian Society”
4.4. Data
The tables containing the data relevant to this chapter are displayed in the
Statistical Annex in order to enable the adequate coverage of the issue of
“Crime in Egypt”.
4.5. Phenomenology
Different factors have contributed to elevating the tendency towards crime
and violence in Egypt. Social, economic and political aspects as well as
factors relating to the police force and the judicial system have all played a
vital role in motivating violent behavior.
Social, economic and political factors:
Unjust income distribution has generated a wide gap between the highincome group, a small portion of society, and the low-income group, which
represents a large part of the population, leading to feelings of repression
and inferiority. This situation is aggravated by poor economic conditions
(inflated cost of living and high levels of unemployment), poverty, poor
quality of education and the population explosion.
11
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Furthermore, a lack of democracy and the distrust directed towards the
government lead to overall feelings of uncertainty and anxiety, which are
translated into aggressive conduct.
In addition, the unequal income distribution and the low incomes among the
public officials lead to a growing tendency to accept bribery or unofficial
commissions. The Corruption Perception Index21 –issued by Transparency
International – ranked Egypt as having a CPI of 3.4 and as being country
number 62 out of 102 countries in 2001. The value of the CPI is considered
relatively significant, as it relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption
as seen by business people and risk analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly
clean) and 0 (highly corrupt)22.
Another disturbing phenomena noticed in Egypt is the discrimination and
violence directed towards women. Society condones this type of behavior
for different reasons such as the misguided perception of the dictates of both
religion and moral behavior. Sexual harassment, marital violence, the
marriage of underage females and female circumcision are all examples of
acts prohibited by Egyptian law but exercised by society, which disregards
judicial regulations in favor of customs and traditions.
Furthermore, sexual abuse and rape, though not yet widespread phenomena,
exist due to several factors. Because of deteriorating economic conditions,
marriage is becoming increasingly difficult. Therefore, the age at which
males and females marry is getting higher. Accompanied by the general
tendency of media agencies towards less censorship and more provocative
programs, these circumstances are leading to pent-up frustration among the
male portion of the population. In addition to this, there is a lack of
awareness, a decline in the moral standards taught to children, and a poor
quality of education received in schools, which reinforces the tendency
towards violence and aggression.
Factors related to the police force and the judicial system:
21
22
The TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) this year ranks 102 countries in terms of the
degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.
It is a composite index, drawing on 15 different polls and surveys from nine
independent institutions carried out among business people and country analysts,
including surveys of residents, both local and expatriate.
Transparency International Corruption Perception Index 2002, p.5.
12
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
One of the main problems facing law enforcement in Egypt is that people do
not regard or treat it with due respect. This could be due to several factors.
First, the law is not penalizing enough since perpetrators of crimes are not
always punished for their deeds and loopholes in the legislature are
exploited to the advantage of criminals. In addition, the legal process is
extremely slow so that cases are procrastinated, and take a very long time to
be settled in courts. The legal system is also characterized by the existence
of some corruption, whereby several judges have been found guilty of
accepting bribes, were forced to resign, and in some cases were imprisoned.
In addition to this, there is a general impression that law enforcement
officers take advantage of their positions and are above the law in certain
areas, which gives rise to public resentment directed at the police force.
Furthermore, the Ministry of Internal Affairs itself suffers from several
shortcomings that impede law enforcement in Egypt such as:
1. Salaries granted to the majority of the police force are very low.
2. Law enforcement officers are constantly racked with feelings of
occupational instability and insecurity because at any time and through
no fault of their own, they could be used as scapegoats and are either
demoted or fired.
3. There exists occupational stagnation. An officer has to spend a
considerable amount of time in the same position before he could be
promoted to the following rank. In addition, promotions take place
according to seniority and date of graduation and not according to
efficiency or merit.
4. As already mentioned, society tends to view some of the police officers
as corrupt, immoral members who abuse their authority in circumventing
the law. Due to this, in addition to points (1), (2), and (3), we find that:
- police officers lack the incentive to improve their performance and
efficiently carry out their jobs.
- A significant part of the force is corrupt (bribery and immoral
behavior) or misuses its power so that society’s labeling of police
officers has become self-fulfilling.
13
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
5. Volunteers and a large number of those carrying out their military service
suffer from illiteracy. This prohibits them from adequately grasping and
executing the orders, they are given. Even if they are literate, they have
not had sufficient education and hence they lack the proper sense and
logic necessary to carry out their jobs efficiently.
Due to these factors, the public tends to disregard the police as an effective
means of obtaining their rights, which in itself impedes the police force in
carrying out its job of establishing law and order.
In addition to this, in the 1990s, political crime (terrorist attacks) rose
disturbingly so that the police force directed most of its budget and
instruments towards fighting terrorism and political crimes. Consequently
new forms of crime of social and economic nature erupted during the last
decade. The new types of crime require vigorous efforts to combat them.
14
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
5.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
TRENDS AND CORRELATION
5.1. The evolution from the structural adjustment of the 80s
After a period of unprecedented economic growth in Egypt during 19751985, the situation changed dramatically since 1984/85. The Egyptian
economy enjoyed a decade of boom, mainly, due to large foreign exchange
inflows because of the increased petroleum prices, export proceeds, higher
Suez Canal revenues, accelerating worker’s remittances, and enhanced
tourism earnings.
The drop in foreign inflows was the result of unfavorable external
developments, principally the decline in petroleum prices as well as in other
related sources of foreign exchange, recession in the world economy, and
the sharp decline in the flow of aid. Unable to respond to these external
shocks due to structural weakness, Egypt experienced a dramatic fall in its
growth rate and severe macroeconomic imbalances (Kheir –El-Din & ElShawarby, 2003).
It became obvious that the Egyptian economy could not meet the needs of the
society without external aids. In the meantime, Egypt faced a problem with
its creditors, as it was not able to maintain debt service payments. The
following key indicators show the extent of the crisis in the beginning of
1990, which the Egyptian economy was confronted with (CBE, 1992-1998):
a) Total external debt around US $ 49 billion,
b) Total external debt to GDP 150%,
c) Budget deficit around 20% of GDP,
d) Inflation rate higher than 20%,
e) Negative real interest rate around 6%, and,
f) Reserves were just over three weeks of imports.
15
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
This situation provided the background to the stabilization package in the
end of the 1980s with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), formally
concluded in May 1987 (Stand–by Agreement), after a long period of
protracted negotiations.
The main objectives of Stand-by agreement were: (1) preparing the ground
for sustained economic growth, (2) reducing the rate of inflation, and (3)
stabilizing the current account deficit of the balance of payment. To achieve
theses objectives, various measures were stipulated, covering exchange rate,
monetary and fiscal policy (Abdel-Khalek, 2001, p 25).
The first Stand–by Agreement with IMF was cancelled after only three
months because of the failure of the Egyptian government to meet the IMF’s
requirements. According to the Fund’s officials, the Egyptian government
adopted a lukewarm attitude and failed to meet performance criteria (IMF,
1991).
However, Egypt was obliged to turn once again to the IMF for help, and go
for another round of negotiations, which concluded in an economic reform
program by the end of 1990. In April 1991, the Government of Egypt
(GOE) launched a comprehensive stabilization and reform program
(Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program ERSAP) with both
the IMF and World Bank. The basic goal of the economic reform program
was two-fold : to generate sufficient growth rates that would help buoy
employment opportunities for the growing population - twin strands of a
virtuous economic circle that will reduce income disparity and alleviate
poverty.
The program consisted of four overlapping phases (MOFT, 2003):
1. The first phase of the stabilization program, involved fiscal and
monetary tightening, exchange rate liberalization, and price deregulation.
2. Phase two of the program has also seen further deregulation of prices,
opening of markets, promoting investment, boosting and structuring of
the financial sector, and granting a greater role to the private sector.
3. The third phase of the economic reform program, which has been
commended by the IMF “as an achievement that has few parallels”. A
fundamental policy challenge that was facing Egypt was to consolidate
and extend the ongoing recovery, particularly in view of increased global
16
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
challenges. This required continued strong macroeconomic policies,
accelerated structural reforms, and the promotion and diversification of
exports.
4. The goals of phase four included continued fiscal reform, enhancing the
instruments of monetary policy available to the CBE, increasing the pace
of structural reform and enhancing transparency in the regulatory and
institutional frameworks. The Government also intended to foster exportled economic growth and development. Other goals included promoting
human development, improving living conditions for low-income groups
and developing high skill-based industries.
The key elements of this program were to (Ash, 1993; Youssef, 1996; and
Road, 1997):
a) Reduce the size of the public sector through privatization.
b) End controls over investment and eliminate most tariffs on imports.
c) Liberalize the prices of the manufactured products.
d) Raise energy and transport prices to realistic levels.
e) Reduce consumer subsidies and target them towards the poorest groups.
f) Deregulate and simplify laws and regulations; and
g) Encourage private sector activity in all sectors including financial
services.
In the meantime, the new agreement with the World Bank and the IMF
expected the GOE to introduce several measures immediately, including
(Middle East Executive Report, 1992):
(1)Removing ceilings on interest rates,
(2)Liberalizing exchange rates, and,
(3)Introducing new sales tax.
Egypt’s stand on the Gulf War did have some positive results; since it led to
an increase in the international financial support (bilateral as well as
17
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
multilateral). Aid from The Gulf States flowed in for the first time since
1979 combined with writing off long-term debt to Gulf States (US $ 7
billion).
In the same time, the United States wrote off a substantial amount of its
military debt (US$ 6.7 billion). The Paris Club Agreement, reached with the
other major official creditors (17 main creditor governments), provided that
50 per cent of their outstanding commercial debt would be written off in
stages over the succeeding three years, depending on Egypt carrying out its
agreement with the IMF’s economic reform program (CBE, 1992, and
Road, 1997).
The second IMF agreement was concluded in 1993. At the end of the fiscal
year 1996/1997, the third agreement triggered the final stake of commercial
debt reduction and was supported by a further 24 months financial standby
arrangement.
Egypt implemented its economic reform program gradually.
The success achieved by Egypt’s economic reform program can be
summarized in the following points:
- the Egyptian external debt has been decreased significantly from US $ 49
billion in 90/91 to only US $ 26.6 billion in 97/98.
- The debt ratio as a percentage of GDP has decreased significantly from
151 per cent in 90/91 to only 37.7 per cent in 97/98.
- The real interest rates became positive at 5 per cent in 97/98 compared
with a negative rate of interest at 6 per cent in 90/91.
- The rate of inflation has declined sharply from 23.6 per cent in 90/91 to
only 4.1 per cent in 97/98.
- With regard to the exchange rate, Egypt, like many other developing
countries, had a multiple exchange rate system (MER). After the
adoption of the economic reform program, the former multiple exchange
rate system was replaced by a single-rate, market-oriented system with a
managed floating of the Egyptian Pound for all public and private
transactions. Although the Egyptian Pound depreciated during 1991, the
18
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
exchange rate stabilized in the range between L.E. 3.35 -3.41 to US $1
from the third quarter of 1991 until the fourth quarter of 1998).
- The foreign reserves increased significantly from only 3.6 billion of US $
in 90/91 to 21.8 billion of US $ in 97/98, which meant a rate of increase
more than 500 per cent was achieved.
- The real GDP growth rate declined sharply in the first two years of the
economic reform program period to 1.9 per cent and 2.5 per cent,
respectively. However, starting 1993, the real GDP growth rate has
grown steadily, reaching 5.7 per cent in 97/98 (CBE, 1998).
- In terms of the budget deficit, there has been a significant decrease through
the period from 1990/91-1997/98, the overall deficit as a percentage of
GDP has declined sharply from about 18.2 per cent in 90/91 to only 0.06
per cent in 97/98. In fact, the reduction in the overall deficit was obtained
through both increasing the revenues and reduction in the expenditure.
(CBE, 1998).
- With regard to the privatization program, the first stage in the
privatization process, which started in May 1991, was to cut off subsidies
to the state-owned enterprises, followed by the removal of public
enterprises from direct ministerial control (Field, 1995). The three
hundred and fourteen public sector companies, were grouped (1991) under
twenty-seven holding companies (now reduced to sixteen), that became
responsible for all the affiliates in a particular sector (Road, 1997, and
Timewell, 1991). A wide-scale privatization program started eventually.
The process came almost to a halt in 1997.
However, the Egyptian economy has suffered, since 1997 three well-known
shocks.
- The first shock was Luxor massacre in November 1997, which negatively
affected tourism,
- the second shock was the Far East crises June 1997, which encouraged
imports from the far eastern countries and led to a massive outflow of
portfolio investments,
- the third shock was the sharp decline in the oil prices.
19
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The Egyptian economy endured several additional problems (since the end
of the nineties) such as the decrease in the level of savings, the decline in the
level of foreign direct and indirect investment, the balance of payment
deficit, the inequitable income distribution, and the increase in the public
debt and accelerating budget deficit. These repercussions were coupled with
a continuous lack of confidence that was associated with the serious twin
crises, namely recession and foreign exchange (El-Said, Mustapha, 2003).
The economic growth (5-6%) that was experienced during 1994-1997, was
reduced to 3% or less in the years 2000 and afterwards.
5.2. Correlation between poverty, health, crime and other
development indicators in the last decade
The national and the international social and economic indicators reveal
contradicting results.
The Human Development Index has showed significant improvement
during the nineties, as it rose from 0.572 in 1990 to 0.648 in 2001.
Nevertheless, this improvement in the HDI was associated with
deterioration in the ranking of Egypt from 108 in the end of the nineties to
120 in 2001.
Data also show that the GDP per capita increased steadily from US$ 1015 in
1995 to US$ 1276 in 2002 at an average growth rate of 3.2%. Despite the
evident progress in the previous two indicators or variables, other variables
or indicators seem to give an opposite perspective:
The previous analysis on poverty, crime and health indicated:
- Although income poverty has decreased, the incidence of poverty
increased in the beginning of the millennium.
- Urban poverty is rising at a higher rate than rural poverty, though the
incidence of poverty in rural areas is still higher.
- Poverty is higher in Upper Egypt, whether in rural or urban areas.
- Poverty is higher among the workers in the private sector.
20
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Female-headed households are significantly poorer than male-headed
households are.
- Crimes have continued to increase at a steady rate, however, new crimes
related to corruption, rape, car thefts, fraud and pick-pocketing showed
significant rise in their incidence during the nineties.
- Despite the fact that some improvements have been achieved in the heath
sector, there is a dire need for improving the health sector’s performance
and providing better primary health care services.
The answer to these conflicting results could be explained by two factors:
Firstly, the inaccuracy of some data concerning GDP per capita, poverty,
and income distribution.
Secondly, the exclusion of other relevant variables such as the
unemployment rates and the inflation rates.
As to the first factor, it is difficult to verify the accurate data regarding GDP
per capita (see the WDR, where it is estimated by US$ 1511 in 2001 and by
the Ministry of Planning US$ 1276 in 2002. This contradiction in estimates
could be either due to inaccuracy or due to a drastic decrease in the GDP per
capita’s growth rate {15.5%} between the two mentioned years!!!).
It is also as difficult to estimate the Gini coefficient, where the exact income
levels (whether for the poor or rich income households) is unknown.
Although recent empirical research indicate a decline in Gini coefficient at
the turn of the century.
In addition, two important variables should be included in the analysis, as
they act as explanatory factors to the existing contradiction in data. These
two variables are the unemployment and inflation rates.
The Unemployment Rates
Official data reveal a steady increase in the unemployment rates. The UER
declined from 9.2% in 1996 (the Population Census) to 7.7% in 2000 and
then picked-up again to reach a high level of 9.9% in 2002 (Annual Labor
Force Sample Surveys 1997-2002).
21
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The main essence of this kind of information is the apparent trend towards
growing unemployment. This phenomenon of increasing UER started to
become chronic at the end of the eighties, for three reasons:
1. The decreasing work opportunities for the Egyptians in the rich Gulf
countries: This development came because of the saturation in the
construction sectors –as well as others- in these countries. In addition, the
growing trend to employ Asian labor (Pakistani, Afghan, Indian, Bengal,
Philippine..) and to engage more of the educated natives in occupations
that were usually filled by the Egyptian employment (teaching, medical
services, accountants, lawyers) reduced the chances of Egyptians in the
Gulf countries.
2. The decreasing work opportunities for the growing workforce in the
government ranks, which came as a repercussion of the accelerating
budget deficit during the end of the eighties, and the implementation of
the ERSAP in 1991. These two factors led to a decrease in the
employment growth rate in the Public Sector -3% during 1988-1998- as
compared to 8% during 1976-1986.
3. The slow growth rate of employment in the large private sector and the
FDI companies (1.5% during 1988-1998), because of their tendency to
use advanced capital intensive techniques on one hand, and due the slow
growth in investment spending since 1997 on the other hand. In fact the
FDI showed a drastic decline in their inflows from US$1.656 Bill in 2000
to US$ .428 Bill in 200223.The only sector that revealed a continuous
capacity to employ was the non-agricultural micro and small enterprise
sector, which achieved an average employment growth rate equal to
4.8% annually during 1988-1998.
Consequently, The stock of unemployment grew –according to official
sources- from a modest 1.4 mill unemployed in 1996 to rise up to 2 mill
unemployed in 2000. This situation was aggravated by the increase in the
number of new entrants to the labor market from 600,000 in 1992/1993 to
900,000 in 200024.
23
24
MOFT, Economic Bulletin, 2002.
Fawzy, S., “Investment Policies and Unemployment in Egypt”, The Egyptian Center for
Economic Studies, Cairo, WP No.68, Sept. 2002, p.10
22
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
In addition, the unofficial estimates of unemployment rates- which are
derived from special rounds of national surveys25- seem to indicate that it the
UER could be significantly higher than the official figures. According to
some of these estimates, the UER range between 12.0%-17.5% through the
end of the nineties and until 2003.
The Inflation Rates
The inflation rates showed a steady decline since the beginning of the
nineties from a high 20% in 1990 to a low 2.4% in the first quarter of 2002.
The austerity stabilization program, which was successfully implemented in
1991 -1996/1997 helped in realizing this decrease.
However, since mid 2002 the prices started to witness a steady increase,
which were triggered by the shortage in foreign exchange that caused a
steady depreciation of the Egyptian Pound, which was directly reflected on
the prices of all imported goods, or products that had imported components.
The inflationary spiral was further instigated by the decision to liberalize the
Egyptian Pound (January 2003). Consequently, the value of the LE declined
from 1US$=LE4.62 in January 2003 to LE6.2 in September 2003 or by
34.8% in 7 months.
The devaluation is causing an escalating increase in the price levels and is
significantly raising the CPI and WPI. It has an especially negative impact
on the prices of the basic consumer goods.
How do these developments in the UER and inflation rates relate to the
previous analysis?
It is obvious that despite the government’s efforts on the human
development side, and despite the apparent increases in the average per
capita income, both the rising UER and inflation rates had an adverse effect
on the population. The combination of the high UER and the accelerating
25
See Fergany, N. (1999), “An Assessment of the Unemployment Situation in Egypt”, Al
Mishkat Center for Research and Training, Research Notes, No. 13.
Assaad, R. (2002), Labor Market in an Era of Transition, Cairo, AUC University Press.
23
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
inflation rates has a direct impact on both the changes that are identified in
the poverty results, the deterioration in income distribution(as measured by
the Gini coefficient) and the high tendency towards crimes as well as the
low quality of the health services.
The high poverty incidence and its rapid increase in the urban areas and all
other aspects that are related to it are affected by the high UER, the decline
in investment and GDP growth rates, and rapid decline in the real-mostly
fixed- incomes of the poor households are basically due to the price rise and
unemployment.
The apparent increase in certain crimes such as thefts, pick pocketing, rape
and corruption, is connected with unemployment, poverty and inability to
afford a decent living.
5.3. Key issues, political agenda and perspectives
Health and poverty are issues that are high on the priority list of the
government’s and the National Democratic Party’s (NDP) agenda.
The decentralization of service provision, the improvement of the health
insurance system, the improvement and wider coverage of primary health
care services, and better training of the medical service providers
(physicians, nurses and administrative staff) are among the main concerns of
the government and NDP.
In addition, the birth control issue acquires a special attention, as the
previous six years did not witness a steady reduction in the natural growth
rates. The main emphasis is currently on the means to reduce the population
growth rate, and thus to improve the outlook on the number of expected
population in 2017, and thus to reduce the pressure on the different social
services and on the budget in the near future.
As to the poverty issues, they are being dealt with through the different
programs, which are adopted by the various ministries, the Social Fund for
Development and the NGOs working in this area of support.
24
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
As to how the Euro-Partnership Agreement could and will affect the
Egyptian economy, there are both positive and negative repercussions.
Positive effects of the Euro-Partnership Agreement include the wider market
scope for Egyptian exports, the access to modern machinery and equipments
at relatively lower costs, the possible benefit of the Industry Modernization
Program on the domestic factories, possible inflow of European investments
to Egypt.
As to the negative effects of the EPA are numerous, but the most important
of which is the fear of the inflow of manufactured products to Egypt, which
could threaten the domestic production and employment.
Finally, the Egyptian economy is now in a state of change, more emphasis
is being directed towards strengthening the private sector, promotion of
exports, augmenting the participation of the civil society, deregulation and
simplification of the laws and rules that govern transactions, improving the
investment climate and raising the quality of social services and their
regional coverage.
However, more serious and comprehensive policies should be designed to
deal with the questions of unemployment, inflation, the slow movement
towards more inequality of income distribution. In fact solving gradually the
problem of unemployment could be a way to reduce income inequality
between rural and urban areas, between the different regions of Egypt, and
between the different income/expenditure strata.
Improving the investment climate for both the large and the small
companies, the domestic and the foreign companies, could be a contributing
factor to help raise the share of investments to GDP to more acceptable
levels. Investment policies should also take into consideration the
reallocation of investments towards highly populated and poor regions that
suffer from neglect.
Another policy goal should be the concern with raising the efficiency and
competitiveness of the production (industry and agriculture) sectors and
with improving the quality of the service and trade activities. The
globalization process could cause a substantial damage especially to the
small and medium–scale industries, which operated for a long time in a
protected environment. Therefore, special efficiency-raising programs
25
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
should be designed and implemented to support the small and medium
enterprises.
In addition, more concern should be directed towards the provision of high
quality social services, as the results of empirical research indicate that
better education and health services improve the chances of the individual in
the labor market and raise his/her earning power.
26
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
6.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
REFERENCES
1.
Abdel-Khalek, Gouda, (2001), Stabilization and Adjustment in Egypt:
Reform or De-Industrialization?, Edward Elgar, UK & USA.
2.
Ash, N., (1993), Egypt Exploits its Gulf War Bonus, Euromoney, April,
PP. 138-141.
3.
Assaad, R. & M. Rouchdy (1999), Poverty and Poverty Alleviation
Strategies in Egypt, Cairo Papers in Social Sciences, Vol.22,
Monograph 1, Spring.
4.
Bishay, A. (1997), Sustainable Development & Poverty Eradication, in
Kishk, M. “Poverty of Environment & Environment of Poverty”,
Proceeding of the National Symposium on Poverty & Environment
Deterioration in Rural Egypt.
5.
CAPMAS, Central Authority for Public Mobility and Statistics, 2002.
6.
CBE, Central Bank of Egypt, Annual Report, various Issues.
7.
CBE, Central Bank of Egypt, Economic Bulletin, various Issues.
8.
Central Bank of Egypt (CBE), Annual Economic Review, Various
issues, 1992- 1998, Cairo, Egypt.
9.
CSD, Civil Status Department, 2002.
10. DHS, Demographic and Health Survey, 2000.
11. Egypt: Human Development Report (EHDR), 1996, Institute of
National Planning (INP).
12. Egypt: Human Development Report (EHDR), 1997/98, Institute of
National Planning (INP).
13. Egypt: Human Development Report (EHDR), 2003, Institute of
National Planning (INP).
27
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
14. El-Laithy, H. (1999)Poverty Reduction Policies in Egypt: An overview,
Eradicating Poverty Studies Series No.11.
15. El-Laithy, H. (2001), Evaluating the Social Fund for Development
Programs to Alleviate Poverty, in Nassar, Heba & Heba El-Laithy
“Socioeconomic Policies & Alleviation Programs in Egypt”.
16. El-Said Mustafa, (2003), The Twin Crises: Recession and Foreign
Exchange, Presented at the Conference “Rising to the Challenge:
International Crises and Economic Management in Egypt” Organized
by CEFRS and USAID, Cairo, Egypt.
17. Field, M., (1995), The Slow Road to Privatization, Euromoney, Middle
EastMiddle East Executive Reports (1992), (Forecasts-Part One:
Current Situation), Vol. 15, No. 2, February, pp. 8-12.
18. Kheir –El-Din, Hanaa and El-Shawarby, Shierine, (2003), Trade and
Foreign Exchange Regime in Egypt: A Policy Reform in Egypt,
Proceedings of the Conference on “Institutional and Policy Challenges
Facing The Egyptian Economy”, Organized by CEFRS and USAID,
Cairo, Egypt.
19. Metwalli, M. (2001), Poverty Alleviation Programs in Egypt: Current
situation and future steps, in Nassar, Heba & Heba El-Laithy
“Socioeconomic Policies & Alleviation Programs in Egypt”.
20. Ministry of Foreign Trade, (2003), Egypt 2003, Cairo, Egypt.
21. Ministry of Planning
22. Nagi, S. Z. (2001), Poverty in Egypt: Human Needs and Institutional
Capacities, Lexington Book.
23. Nassar, H. (2001), Social Protection for the Poor, in Nassar, Heba & ElLaithy, H. “Socioeconomic Policies & Alleviation Programs in Egypt”.
24. National Council for Negro Women (NCNW), 2000, Final Report,
Egypt PVO Development Report.
28
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
25. Osman, M. Osman (1999), Combating Poverty in Egypt: The Role of
Economic Growth and Social Spending, Arab Economic Journal, No.
17, Vol. 8.
26. Roads, S., (1997), Investing in Egypt, (London: Committee for Middle
East Trade, June).
27. SIS, State Information Service, Atlas of Egypt, 2003.
28. SIS, State Information Service, Fact book, Egypt, 2002.
29. Subjective Poverty and Social Capital: Towards a Comprehensive
strategy to reduce poverty (2003), Ministry of Planning in cooperation
with the United Nations Development program.
30. The Egyptian Cabinet Information and Decision Support Center (ECI &
DSC), Monthly Economic Bulletin, Cairo, Egypt.
31. The Egyptian Ministry of Public Enterprise Sector (MPES), (1998),
Privatization Program performance from the start to 24-5-1998, Cairo,
Egypt.
32. Timewell, S., Egypt: It is Time to Start Letting Go, (1991), Banker,
Vol. 141, No. 758, July, PP. 47-48.
33. Youssef, S., M., (1996), Structural Reform Program of Egyptian StateOwned Enterprises: Current Impact and Future Prospects, Journal of
Management Development, Vol. 15, No. 5, May, PP. 88-100.
29
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_02
7.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
MAIN AFFILIATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS
Arab Bank for Economic Development of Africa (ABEDA), African
Development Bank (ADB), Arab Fund for Economic and Social
Development (AFESD), League of Arab States, Arab Monetary Fund
(AMF), Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), Common Market for
Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United-Nations (FAO), G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Monetary
Fund (IMF), International Maritime Organization (IMO), Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Organization of
Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), Organization of the Islamic
Conference (OIC), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) (partner), United-Nations (UN), United-Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United-Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO), Universal Postal Union (UPU),
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), World Health Organization
(WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Trade
Organization (WTO).
30
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
APPENDIX
Table 1 - Population
Year
No of
Population
*
(000)
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
47751
48816
49826
50858
51911
52985
54082
55201
56344
57510
58755
60080
61341
62652
63976
65336
Growth
Rate
2.23
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.16
2.26
2.10
2.14
2.11
2.13
Rate of
Births
(%)**
40
39
38.4
33.9
32.5
30.9
27.7
29
28.6
27.9
28.3
27.5
27.5
27
27.1
26.7
Rate of
Deaths
(%)**
Rate of
Natural
increase
(%)**
9.5
9.5
8.6
8.1
7.6
7.4
7.1
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.3
30.5
29.5
29.8
25.8
24.9
23.5
20.6
22.1
21.8
21.2
21.8
21
21
20.6
20.8
20.4
* Central Authority for Public Mobility and Statistics, Statistical Year Book,
2002.
** Civil Status Department
Table 2 - Population Distribution by Sex (000)
Year
r
1986*
1996*
2002**
Male
Number
24709
30352
28068
Female
Number
%
%
0.51
0.51
0.43
23545
28961
37351
0.49
0.41
0.57
Total
48254
59313
65419
* Central Authority for Public Mobility and Statistics, Statistical Year Book, 2002
** Ministry of Health and Population
Table 3 - Population by Broad Age Groups (in percent)
Item
1986
1996
2000
Less than 5
5-14
14-24
25-64
65-
15.3
24.4
16.3
36.9
3.9
11.6
26.2
20.2
38.7
3.4
12
22.5
20.6
41.4
3.6
Source: CAPMAS, Statistical Yearbook, several years
Table 4 - Educational Profile
Item
Primary enrolment Ratio (gross)%
Preparatory enrolment Ratio (gross)%
Secondary enrolment Ratio (gross)%
Tertiary enrolment Ratio (gross)%
1996/1997
1998/1999
2000/2001
105
83.3
46.9
26.2
93.7
85.9
47.5
29.1
91.7
92.3
71.1
30.2
Source: Human Development Report, Institute of National Planning, 1997/1998 &
2002/2004
Table - 5 Selected Macroeconomic Variables
year
Real GDP Rate
Inflation Rate
Unemployment rate
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
5
7.3
9.2
5.3
6.2
8.8
4.1
3.8
8.8
5.4
3.8
8.1
5.9
2.8
7.7
3.4
2.4
8.3
3.2
2.4
9.7
Source: Ministry of Planning and Central Bank of Egypt
Table 6 - Distribution of GDP By Economic Activity
year
Total GDP at current price (L. E. billions)
Agriculture Product (as % of GDP)
Industrial Product (as % of GDP)
Service Product (as % of GDP)
1991/1992
1996/1997
2000/2001
139.1
16.5
33.3
50.2
256.3
15.7
33.6
50.7
361.8
16.5
33.3
50.2
Source: Human Development Report, Institute of National Planning, 1997/1998 &
2002/2003
Table 7 Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost 1/ Current prices- Annual Profile (In Millions Egyptian Pounds)
GDP
Total Commodity Sector
Agriculture
Industry & Mining
Petroleum & Products
Electricity
Construction
Total Production Services
Transportation 2/
Trade, Finance, and Insurance
Hotels and Restaurants
Total Social Services
Housing and Real Estate
Utilities
Other services
1990/91
108740
55260
19110
10999
18020
1506
5625
33962
921
11319
21722
10416
2141
8275
9102
1991/92
131056
65373
21680
13008
21730
2220
6735
43606
2420
14835
26351
11695
2350
9345
10383
1992/93
146160
72767
24427
13899
24420
2921
7100
48067
2675
15926
29466
13470
2585
10885
11856
1993/94
191010
80880
27500
28030
13399
3451
8500
52710
17560
32870
2280
3420
2850
570
25957
1994/95
162967
93750
32050
33330
15120
3750
9500
62250
19700
39700
2850
4140
3450
690
30870
1995/96
214,185
104,684
36,968
37,936
14,760
3,980
11,040
69,850
21,500
45,109
3,241
39,651
3,816
843
34992
Source: Ministry of Planning. 1/ Does not include net indirect taxes. 2/ Includes Suez Canal
1996/97
247,028
118,992
41,882
43,383
17,461
4,172
12,094
82,889
22,695
56,364
3,830
45,147
4,375
915
39757
1997/98
266,758
127,978
45,652
48,798
15,534
4,264
13,730
89,072
24,049
61,690
3,332
49,708
4,860
1,038
43810
1998/99
282,578
136,296
48,935
55,225
12,995
4,586
14,555
95,573
25,916
63,975
3,682
52,709
5,412
1,179
46116
1999/00
315,667
157,432
52,845
61,211
23,300
4,936
15,140
101,794
27,909
68,960
4,925
56,441
6,003
1,305
49133
2000/01
332,544
165,899
55,065
63,483
26,300
5,291
15,760
106,858
30,112
71,389
5,357
59,787
6,879
1,445
51463
2001/02
354,564
176,084
58,369
68,086
27,280
5,789
16,560
112,911
32,694
75,110
5,107
65,268
7,575
1,601
56493
Table 8a Exports and Imports 1990-2002
Year
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
1993/94
1994/95
1995/96
1996/97
1997/98
1998/99
1999/00
2000/01
2001/02
Export (US$ millions)
Import (US$ millions)
Trade Balance*
Export/Import*
Exports/GDP
Imports/GDP
3886.8
11425
-7538
32.67
3.6
10.5
3636.4
10054
-6418
32.67
2.8
7.7
3416.7
10728
-7312
32.67
2.3
7.3
3337
10647
-7310
32.67
6.5
20.6
4957
12811
-7854
32.67
8.20
21.30
4609
14107
-9498
32.67
6.80
20.90
5345
15565
-10220
34.34
7.10
20.60
5128
16899
-11771
30.34
6.20
20.50
4445
17008
-12563
26.13
4.90
18.80
6388
17860
-11472
35.77
6.50
18.10
7078
16441
-9363
43.05
7.60
17.60
6643
14644
-8001
45.36
7.60
16.60
Source: Ministry of Foreign Trade, Economic Bulletin, several issues.
Table 8 b Foreign Investment
Year
1994/95
Foreign Direct Invest (US$ millions)
Portfolio Investment (US$ millions)
Source: Central Bank of Egypt, CBE’s Bulletin, 2002
783
4
1995/96
627
258
1996/97
770
1463
1997/98
1104
-248
1998/99
711
174
1999/00
1656
473
2000/01
509
261
2001/02
428
45
Table 9 Investment and Saving during 1993-2002
Year
1993/94
1994/95
1995/96
1996/97
1997/98
1998/99
1999/00
2000/01
2001/02
15.1
16.6
15
16.2
12.7
16.1
16.9
17.6
16.7
19.5
17.2
20.8
16.3
18.9
16.3
17.7
14.9
17.6
National Saving/GDP(%)
National Investment/GDP(%)
Source: Ministry of Planning and CAPMAS
Table 10: Income Poverty vs. Capability Poverty (1996)
Income Poverty
% of All Egypt Population
% in Rural Egypt
% in Urban Egypt
23
23
22.5
Capability Poverty
34
43
21
Source: EHDR (1996)
Table 11: Deprivation Index and Poverty Index by Governorates
Deprivation Index
Urban
Rural
Cairo
Alexandria
Port Said
Suez
Damietta
Dakhlia
Sharkia
Qalubia
Kafr Elsheikh
Garbia
Menofia
Behera
Ismailia
Giza
Beni Suef
Fayoum
Menia
Assuit
Sohag
Qena
Aswan
17.18
20.17
11.84
9.20
18.43
19.06
17.24
20.62
17.34
10.73
25.42
25.29
13.24
19.76
45.96
26.23
40.88
47.07
30.07
29.41
7.613
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
25.34
43.35
71.68
52.39
56.44
52.25
60.39
74.87
59.35
65.25
99.18
100
98.19
95.88
85.66
87.34
36.02
Poverty Index
Urban
Rural
28.27
51.13
10.85
9.71
18.45
38.92
49.14
65.74
37.25
38.53
53.12
64.87
26.12
37.01
62.01
60.70
78.98
78.56
88.71
68.41
69.62
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
4.65
34.17
42.55
50.61
29.88
26.66
47.78
54.49
19.81
26.35
64.27
68.41
66.84
81.72
68.09
69.01
52.53
Rank of deprivationpoverty26
Urban
Rural
3
8
-1
0
-5
5
11
15
5
11
6
13
3
1
2
7
15
11
19
13
33
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
-14
-11
-15
-7
-17
-18
-12
-9
-23
-24
-11
-6
-7
2
-3
-1
1
Source: El-Laity, Heba (2001)
26
The rank is according to the Headcount Index P0 and the Deprivation Index, such that lower rank indicates more
poverty or deprivation.
Table 12: Income, Distribution and Poverty
GDP per capita (LE)
Income share of lowest 40%:
Total
Rural
1996/97
1995/1996
1995/96
Ratio of highest 20% to lowest 20%:
Total
Rural
1995/96
1995/96
4.4
3.1
Gini coefficient %
Total
Rural
1995/96
1995/96
1995/96
1995/96
1995/96
1995/96
31.6
24.0
22.9
7.4
45.2
12.9
Poor households (as % of total)
Ultra poor (as % of total households)
Wages of poor households: - As % of their income
- As % of total wages
Source: EHDR (1997/98)
Table 13: Profile of Human Deprivation (thousands)
Population without access to:
- Health services
- Piped water
- Sanitation
1996
1996
1996
n.a.
11006.9
34463.4
Children dying before age five
1996
2001
64.8
105.929
Malnourished children under five
1997
2001
798.8
161.096
Children not in basic or secondary school
1996/97
2000/01
Illiterates (10+)
1996
16378.2
Illiterates (15+): -Total
- Female
2001
2001
17914.971
11167.715
Unemployed people (15+): - Total
1996
2001
1996
2001
1538.0
1698.457
535.1
571.001
- Female
Source: EHDR (1996) & (1997/98)
3453.3
2383.526
4306.0
21.9
25.7
Table 14: Capability Poverty and Income Poverty in Egypt 1995(%)
EGYPT
All Urban
All Rural
Urban Gov.
Lower Egypt
-Urban
-Rural
Upper Egypt
-Urban
-Rural
UnderWeight
Unattended
Births
Female with
no education
People who
are capability
poor
People who
are income
poor
12.5
9.9
14.1
9.1
9.6
8.8
9.9
16.1
11.0
17.8
43.7
32.1
67.2
30.8
48.6
24.9
56.1
67.8
40.4
77.1
35.4
20.8
47.8
20.4
33.0
18.8
38.9
48.3
24.1
59.1
33.9
20.9
43.0
20.1
30.4
17.5
35.0
44.1
25.2
51.3
22.9
22.5
23.3
16.0
17.1
21.7
15.4
34.1
35.0
33.7
Source: EHDR (1996).
Table15-a: Poverty measures by educational status of household for urban areas in 2000
Using Upper Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
Illiterate
Read and Write
Below University
University
Higher than University
Total
63.50
46.70
40.90
19.90
5.17
45.16
24.91
14.06
11.15
4.91
0.79
14.71
Using Lower Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
12.83
5.85
4.31
1.69
0.16
6.66
41.59
23.83
18.25
8.16
0.88
24.52
14.50
6.13
4.42
1.60
0.07
7.22
6.76
2.29
1.49
0.44
0.01
3.01
Source: El-Laithy, Heba (2001)
Table 15-b: Poverty measures by educational status of household for rural areas
Illiterate
Read
and
Write
Below
University
University
Higher
than
University
Total
Using Upper Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
Using Lower Poverty Line
P0
P1
P2
% no. of
H.Hold
58.39
35.64
22.01
10.08
10.64
3.56
38.36
17.82
13.48
4.36
6.28
1.43
54.735
23.5000
40.19
11.30
3.82
21.64
4.79
1.36
18.062
22.08
0.00
5.82
0.00
1.86
0.00
10.10
0.00
2.21
0.00
0.61
0.00
3.642
0.061
48.40
16.67
7.42
29.46
9.35
4.04
100
Source: El-Laithy, Heba (2001)
% no. of
H.Hold
28.436
24.434
9.982
15.464
0.936
100
Table 15-c: Poverty measures by educational status of household (2002)
Objective Poverty
%Non%All
Poor
%Poor
Illiterate
Read & Write only
Basic Education
Intermediate
Above intermediate
University degree
Higher university
Total
41.04
15.79
26.63
14.34
0.79
1.41
0.00
100
27.92
13.82
23.20
22.37
3.34
9.23
0.14
100
30.51
14.21
23.87
20.78
2.84
7.68
0.11
100
Poverty
Rate
%Poor
26.55
21.93
22.01
13.62
5.50
3.62
0.00
20.40
32.39
14.55
26.10
19.16
2.58
5.14
0.00
100
Subjective Poverty
%Non%All
Poor
29.62
14.05
22.83
21.54
2.96
8.87
0.13
100
Source: SPSC (2003)
Table 16: Household's out of pocket expenditure on education 1997/98
Pre-University
As part of HH
% Share
expenditure
Poor
Middle
Rich
Total
0.336
1.225
1.329
2.890
University
As part of HH
% Share
expenditure
11.6
42.4
46.0
100
0.029
0.659
1.22
1.810
1.6
35.4
62.0
100
Source: Osman (1999)
Table 17: Share of income groups in Public Expenditure on Education 1997/98 (%)
Pre-university
Poor
Middle
Rich
Total
Government expenditure As % of GDP
Source: Osman (1999)
31.0
50.0
19.0
100
3.25
Higher
Education
10.0
36.3
53.7
100
1.75
Total
23.7
45.2
31.2
100
5.0
30.51
14.21
23.87
20.78
2.84
7.68
0.11
100
Poverty
Rate
33.78
32.58
34.77
29.33
28.95
21.29
18.75
31.82
Table 18 : Distribution of Individuals by Sector of Employment and Poverty groups(2002)
Government
Economic agencies
Public sector
Private sector
Cooperative
NGOs
Foreign/Joint venture
Total
Objective Poverty
Poverty
%Non%All
%Poor
Rate
Poor
Subjective Poverty
Poverty
%Non%All
%Poor
Rate
Poor
13.54
0.19
1.83
84.15
0.00
0.19
0.10
100
23.74
0.63
3.64
71.55
0.19
0.19
0.06
100
26.25
0.49
4.03
68.78
0.17
0.09
0.19
100
23.93
0.44
3.63
71.58
0.14
0.11
0.18
100
10.33
8.00
9.18
21.45
0.00
33.33
10.00
20.40
24.00
0.36
3.62
71.60
0.12
0.07
0.22
100
23.93
0.44
3.63
71.58
0.14
0.11
0.18
100
27.69
40.00
28.02
27.90
37.50
50.00
10.00
31.82
Source: SPSC (2003)
Table 19: Demographic Characteristics by Poverty Status
%Poor
Gender of household head
Male headed
1.53
Female headed
8.47
Total
100
Demographic characteristics
Household size
6.46
Share of children
38.64
Share of adult
31.66
males
Share of adult
27.40
females
Share of elderly
2.29
Source: SPSC (2003)
Objective Poverty
%Non%All
Poor
88.63
11.37
100
89.22
10.78
100
4.28
30.49
P0
20.93
16.03
20.4
%Poor
Subjective Poverty
%Non%All
Poor
86.19
13.81
100
9.64
9.36
100
89.22
10.78
100
4.60
32.16
4.65
33.15
4.55
31.69
4.60
32.16
32.91
32.66
31.47
33.21
32.66
32.21
31.23
31.15
31.27
31.23
4.38
3.96
4.23
3.83
3.96
P0
30.74
40.78
31.82
Table 20 : Housing conditions by poverty status (2002)
Objective Poverty
%Non%All
%Poor
Poor
% of individuals living in houses with
Floor covered with tiles/wood
55.53
Connected to water public
88.36
network
Connected to sewerage network
28.34
Private kitchen
61.12
Shared kitchen
2.26
No special place
36.62
Area of the house
96.34
Main means of transportation
On foot
Private car
Private transport
Public transport
55.29
0.00
18.56
7.09
Subjective Poverty
%Non%All
%Poor
Poor
81.81
76.45
61.58
80.14
76.45
93.65
92.57
92.25
92.72
92.57
58.59
83.34
1.37
15.29
93.22
52.42
78.80
1.55
19.64
93.85
57.80
73.46
1.86
24.68
78.95
49.90
81.30
1.41
17.29
100.81
52.42
78.80
1.55
19.64
93.85
39.64
5.61
21.95
15.79
42.83
4.47
21.26
14.02
43.15
0.96
20.36
20.00
42.68
6.10
21.68
11.23
42.83
4.47
21.26
14.02
Source: SPSC (2003)
Table 21 : Standard of Living Indices by Poverty Status (2002)
Poor
Objective poverty
Housing index
Basic needs index
Security index
Standard of living
index
Subjective poverty
Housing index
Basic needs index
Security index
Standard of living
index
Source: SPSC (2003)
Urban
Non
poor
All
Poor
Rural
Non
poor
All
Poor
Total
Non
poor
All
86.76
68.09
38.23
94.20
89.52
67.31
93.45
87.36
64.38
49.56
80.14
55.08
56.00
89.32
65.78
54.24
86.82
62.86
56.87
77.77
51.77
73.18
89.41
66.46
69.85
87.03
63.47
20.76
31.59
30.50
24.03
28.48
27.27
23.39
29.88
28.55
92.12
79.23
55.22
94.33
92.78
70.49
93.45
87.36
64.38
50.06
70.90
51.87
55.74
92.52
66.80
54.24
86.82
62.86
6926
75.07
53.55
71.12
92.61
68.09
69.85
87.03
63.47
26.32
33.29
30.50
22.05
29.14
27.27
24.19
30.59
28.55
Table 22: Projects that Assisted Women in Obtaining Legal Documents
Project
Suhag CDA for Children with Special Needs”Women’s
Civil rights in Maragha”
Jesuits and Brothers` Benevolence Association “Women
Development”
Social Fund in Beni Mazar “Civil Right Women in Markaz
Benimazar”
World Education Marketing Link Program
Suhag CDA for Children with Special Needs “Women Civil
Rights in Suhag”
Assiut Childhood and Development
Association NGOs Service Centre in Assiut
Total
Birth
Certificates
Identity
Cards
Voting
Cards
289
735
366
-
60
-
232
604
0
-
150
-
1597
2302
3136
300
18
2436
300
90
5141
450
300
4252
Table 23 The Number of Crimes Reported according to Type from 1990- 1995
1990
Intentional homicide
Battery leading to death
Battery leading to disfigurement
Kidnapping
Sexual harassment
Rape
Threats
Thefts:
Burglary
Robbery
Automobile thefts
Burglaries from shops
Stealing cattle
Pick pocketing
Other thefts
Total thefts
Arson
Cattle poisoning
Ruining crops
Fraud
Embezzlement
Bribery
Forging official documents and
seals
Counterfeiting currency
Endangering or obstructing
means of transportation
Other felonies
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
839
228
119
6
180
3
15
859
221
136
18
149
15
5
824
201
125
15
162
13
8
843
207
85
11
154
8
7
797
211
108
16
194
9
5
843
215
91
18
173
6
3
4206
370
1699
1676
390
1946
16066
26353
126
2
1954
83
55
4529
311
1612
1889
436
2078
17595
28450
115
1
2
2468
119
49
4904
312
1761
2166
376
2107
19204
30830
98
1
2552
92
40
5315
339
1503
2241
529
2672
20223
32822
109
1
2589
99
39
5772
375
1760
2432
482
2820
22353
35994
117
2776
80
60
5815
367
1808
2780
408
3166
24935
39279
160
3
2849
68
61
271
245
258
270
225
199
62
143
210
111
87
56
2
4
1
-
1
3
48
69
78
71
81
121
Table 24 The Number of Crimes Reported according to Type from 1996- 1998
1990
Automobile thefts
Car thefts
Robbery
Burglary
Sexual harassment
Rape
1699
3742
370
4206
180
3
1991
1612
4203
311
4529
149
15
1992
1761
2549
312
4904
162
13
1993
1503
4847
339
5315
154
8
1994
1760
5246
375
5772
194
9
1995
1808
6287
367
5815
173
6
1996
2407
7210
477
6133
n/a
n/a
1997
2567
6161
429
6352
n/a
n/a
1998
2828
7813
410
6368
176
21
Source: Meliguy, A., 2000 National Center for Social and Criminal Research, Crime Experiences around the World, CRIME Rates in Egypt: A Comparative Study, Part
2
Table 25 The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index
Rank
1
2
4
5
7
10
11
12
14
15
16
17
18
20
23
24
25
27
28
29
31
32
33
36
40
44
45
50
51
Country
Finland
Denmark
New Zealand
Iceland
Singapore
Sweden
Canada
Luxembourg
Netherlands
United Kingdom
Australia
Norway
Switzerland
Hong Kong
Austria
USA
Chile
Germany
Israel
Belgium
Japan
Spain
Ireland
Botswana
France
Portugal
Slovenia
Namibia
Estonia
Taiwan
Italy
Uruguay
Hungary
Malaysia
Trinidad & Tobago
Belarus
Lithuania
South Africa
Tunisia
Costa Rica
Jordan
Mauritius
South Korea
Greece
Brazil
Bulgaria
Jamaica
Peru
Poland
Ghana
Croatia
CPI 2002
score
Surveys
used
Standard
deviation
High-low
Range
9.7
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.0
9.0
9.0
8.7
8.6
8.5
8.5
8.2
7.8
7.7
7.5
7.3
7.3
7.1
7.1
7.1
6.9
6.4
6.3
6.3
6.0
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.1
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.2
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.8
8
8
8
6
13
10
10
5
9
11
11
8
9
11
8
12
10
10
9
8
12
10
8
5
10
9
9
5
8
12
11
5
11
11
4
3
7
11
5
6
5
6
12
8
10
7
3
7
11
4
4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.5
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.5
0.9
1.0
1.4
2.2
0.6
0.8
1.1
0.7
0.5
0.6
1.5
1.3
1.9
0.5
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.8
1.3
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.4
0.6
1.1
1.4
0.2
8.9 - 10.0
8.9 - 9.9
8.9 - 9.6
8.8 - 10.0
8.9 - 9.6
8.9 - 9.6
8.7 - 9.3
8.5 - 9.9
8.5 - 9.3
7.8 - 9.4
6.1 - 9.3
6.9 - 9.3
6.8 - 9.4
6.6 - 9.4
7.2 - 8.7
5.5 - 8.7
5.6 - 8.8
5.0 - 8.1
5.2 - 8.0
5.5 - 8.7
5.5 - 7.9
5.2 - 8.9
5.5 - 8.1
5.3 - 8.9
4.8 - 7.8
5.5 - 8.0
4.7 - 8.9
3.6 - 8.9
5.2 - 6.6
3.9 - 6.6
3.4 - 7.2
4.2 - 6.1
4.0 - 5.6
3.6 - 5.7
3.6 - 6.9
3.3 - 5.8
3.4 - 7.6
3.9 - 5.5
3.6 - 5.6
3.6 - 5.9
3.6 - 5.2
3.5 - 5.5
2.1 - 7.1
3.7 - 5.5
3.4 - 4.8
3.3 - 5.7
3.6 - 4.3
3.2 - 5.0
2.6 - 5.5
2.7 - 5.9
3.6 - 4.0
Rank
52
57
59
62
64
66
67
68
70
71
77
81
85
Country
Czech Republic
Latvia
Morocco
Slovak Republic
Sri Lanka
Colombia
Mexico
China
Dominican Rep.
Ethiopia
Egypt
El Salvador
Thailand
Turkey
Senegal
Panama
Malawi
Uzbekistan
Argentina
Cote d’Ivoire
Honduras
India
Russia
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Pakistan
Philippines
Romania
Zambia
Albania
Guatemala
Nicaragua
Venezuela
Georgia
Ukraine
Vietnam
CPI 2002
score
Surveys
used
Standard
deviation
High-low
Range
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
10
4
4
8
4
10
10
11
4
3
7
6
11
10
4
5
4
4
10
4
5
12
12
4
6
3
11
7
4
3
6
5
10
3
6
7
0.8
0.2
1.8
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.6
1.0
0.4
0.5
1.3
0.8
0.7
0.9
1.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.4
1.0
0.7
0.5
1.2
0.6
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
2.6 - 5.5
3.5 - 3.9
1.7 - 5.5
3.0 - 4.6
3.3 - 4.3
2.6 - 4.6
2.5 - 4.9
2.0 - 5.6
3.0 - 3.9
3.0 - 4.0
1.7 - 5.3
2.0 - 4.2
1.5 - 4.1
1.9 - 4.6
1.7 - 5.5
1.7 - 3.6
2.0 - 4.0
2.0 - 4.1
1.7 - 3.8
2.0 - 3.4
2.0 - 3.4
2.4 - 3.6
1.5 - 5.0
2.0 - 3.4
2.0 - 3.3
1.7 - 4.0
1.7 - 3.6
1.7 - 3.6
2.0 - 3.2
1.7 - 3.3
1.7 - 3.5
1.7 - 3.4
1.5 - 3.2
1.7 - 2.9
1.7 - 3.8
1.5 - 3.6
Rank
88
89
93
95
96
98
101
102
Country
Kazakhstan
Bolivia
Cameroon
Ecuador
Haiti
Moldova
Uganda
Azerbaijan
Indonesia
Kenya
Angola
Madagascar
Paraguay
Nigeria
Bangladesh
CPI 2002
score
Surveys
used
Standard
deviation
High-low
Range
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.2
4
6
4
7
3
4
4
4
12
5
3
3
3
6
5
1.1
0.4
0.7
0.3
1.7
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.2
0.7
0.2
0.6
0.7
1.7 - 3.9
1.7 - 2.9
1.7 - 3.2
1.7 - 2.6
0.8 - 4.0
1.7 - 3.0
1.9 - 2.6
1.7 - 2.4
0.8 - 3.0
1.7 - 2.5
1.6 - 2.0
1.3 - 2.5
1.5 - 2.0
0.9 - 2.5
0.3 - 2.0
Explanatory notes
A more detailed description of the CPI methodology is available at
http://www.transparency.org/cpi/index.html#cpi or at www.gwdg.de/~uwvw/2002.html
A CPI 2002 Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business
people and risk analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).
A Surveys Used refers to the number of surveys that assessed a country’s performance.
A total of 15 surveys were used from nine independent institutions, and at least three
surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.
Standard Deviation indicates differences in the values of the sources: the greater the
standard deviation, the greater the differences of perceptions of a country among the
sources.
High-Low Range provides the highest and lowest values of the different sources
Source: www.transparency.org
Table 26 Maternal Health Indicators, Egypt 2000
Indicator (% of ever married women 15 to 49)
Care during pregnancy
Anti Natal Care Any
Regular
One or more TT injection(s)
Other medical care
Any medical care
Pregnancy care indicator by background
characteristics
Weighed
Height measured
Blood pressure measured
Urine sample
Blood sample
Iron tablets/syrup
Told where to go for complications
Place of delivery
Public health facility
Private health facility
At home
Other
Assistance during delivery
Doctor
Trained
Birth attendant
Relative/other
No one
Postnatal care by background characteristics
Delivered in facility
Had any postnatal checkup
Had checkup within 2 days of birth
Urban
Rural
Total
71.2
56.2
75.3
9.9
87.6
47.2
32.8
80.4
13.2
80.7
52.9
36.7
72.5
11.4
85.3
75.6
43.3
76.1
63.6
64.1
39.4
22.6
48.5
24.9
46.2
33.4
34.3
20.7
14.6
59.6
32.4
58.4
45.7
46.5
28.3
17.9
33.4
36.4
30
0.1
15.2
19.4
65.3
0
22.2
26
51.7
0
73.3
8.1
17
1.1
0.4
41
7
47.1
3.3
1.5
53.5
7.4
35.5
2.5
1.1
69.8
2.5
0.6
34.6
5.4
1.5
48.2
4.3
1.1
Table 27 Child health indicator, Egypt 2000
Indicator (% of children below 5 years)
Vaccinations by background characteristics
All
Prevalence of diarrhea
Diarrhea in the preceding two weeks
Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection (ARI)
Percentage of children with cough and short, rapid breathing
Percentage of children ill with ARI symptoms receiving
“Medical care from” Any health provider
Percentage of children ill with ARI symptoms receiving
“Medical care from” Public sector provider
Percentage of children ill with ARI symptoms receiving
“Medical care from” Private sector provider
Antibiotics
Initial breastfeeding
Percentage ever breastfed
Percentage who started breastfeeding Within one hour of birth
Percentage who started breastfeeding Within one day of birth
Percentage who received pre-lacteal feeding
Median duration of breastfeeding
Among children under age three, median duration in months
Any breastfeeding
Among children under age three, median duration in months
Exclusive breastfeeding
Among children under age three, median duration in months
Full breastfeeding1
Percentage of children under age two bottle fed
Nutritional status by socioeconomic characteristics
Severe stunting
Severe or moderate stunting
Prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months
Sever anemia
Moderate anemia
Mild anemia
Not anemic
Missing
Urban
Rural
Total
92.8
91.8
92.2
6.1
7.8
7.1
7.8
10.6
9.5
77.4
60.6
66
23.3
25.1
24.5
56.1
81.6
36.7
72.5
42.9
75.4
94.8
53.5
87.6
52.2
95.9
59.1
88.5
54.4
95.5
57
88.1
53.6
17.2
19
18.4
2.2
3.6
3
2.8
18.8
4.4
13.9
3.8
15.8
4
13.8
7.7
21.8
6.2
18.7
0.1
8.7
14.8
74.6
1.8
0.3
12.8
20.9
64.5
1.6
0.2
11.2
18.5
68.4
1.7
JORDAN
Royal Scientific Society
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
METHODOLOGY
According to the terms of reference, this report was conducted using the
three required activities:
1. Study on national literature; a list of major references is attached in
annex 1.
2. Analysis of data from national sources.
3. Interviews with privileged witnesses and key-players (some of whom
having responsibility for public policy decisions). Annex 2 presents a list
of the interviewees.
75
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
COUNTRY PROFILE: ESSENTIAL FIGURES
Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of natural
resources. Since the early 1990s, Jordan has undertaken considerable
stabilization and adjustment efforts. The IMF, the World Bank Group, EU,
and several bilateral donors have supported these efforts. The economy’s
initial response to the Government’s reform program was strong. Economic
fundamentals in the first half of this decade were quite satisfactory: a high
average growth rate of 7.6 percent per annum (until 1996 when it began to
deteriorate). A reduction in the fiscal deficit, low inflation, and sound
monetary management, which helped in the build-up of foreign exchange
reserves to a healthy level (current balance of over 5 months of coverage of
imports). The current account during this period remained essentially
balanced. The economic situation began to deteriorate in 1996 with growth
falling below the population growth rate resulting in approximately a twopercent decline in per capita income per annum during 1996-98 period. The
decline occurred largely because the country faced several unfavorable
factors that were outside its control, including lack of progress in the peace
process, declining oil prices, thus reducing the market for Jordanian exports
in neighboring countries, and spillover from the general slowdown in the
Asian economies.
1.1 Population1:
5,29000
Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.6% (male 991,370; female 949,247)
15-64 years: 60% (male 1,698,568; female 1,485,261)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 90,186; female 92,838)
1
Data are for the year 2002 unless other wise mentioned.
76
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Population growth rate: 2.8%
Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population
Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate: 7.18 migrants/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female
Infant mortality rate: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: female: 72.4 years male: 70.6 years
Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman
Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1% (Armenians only
make 0.1% of the population. There are also Chechens, Turkmens, and
Kurds).
Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but
some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox,
Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several
small Shi’a Muslim and Druze communities) (2001 est.)
77
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Literacy:
definition:
age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.6%
male: 93.4%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)
1.2. Economy - overview
GDP: $9296 million, GDP - real growth rate: 4.9%
GDP- per capita: $1745
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 27.9%
services: 68.5%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2001)
Labor force: 1.27 million.
Note: in addition, at least 300,000 workers are employed abroad (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: Services 83%, industry 13%, agriculture 5%
(2001 est.)
Unemployment rate: 14-15%
Industries: Phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining,
cement, potash, light manufacturing, text tile, pharmaceuticals, and tourism.
Agriculture - products: Wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives;
sheep, goats, poultry.
78
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Exports: $21663million.
Exports - commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural
products, manufactured goods, pharmaceuticals, and textiles.
Exports - partners: Iraq 19.9%, US 18.8%, India 10.5%.
Imports: $4974.1 million. Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery,
transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured goods
Imports - partners: Iraq 15.5, Germany 9.2%, US 7.2%, China 6.6.
Debt - external: $7544.1 million.
1.3. Geography
Area: 89,300 sq km, Neighbors: Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, West
Bank.
Coastline: 26 km.
Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April).
Terrain: Mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift
Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River.
Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m.
Highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m.
Natural resources: Phosphates, potash, shale oil.
Land use: arable land: 2.87%; permanent crops: 1.52%; other: 95.61% (1998
est.)
Natural hazards: droughts; periodic earthquakes.
Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification.
79
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands. Signed, but not ratified: none of
the selected agreements
1.4. Key Issues
The main problems facing Jordan at present are:
- Regional instability
- External debts
- Oil supplies
- High unemployment
- Rising poverty
- High levels of migration into the cities
- Inadequate health and social services
- Low participation of women in the workforce
- Inadequate business and entrepreneurial skills
80
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
2.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
HEALTH
2.1. Definitions
There is no special definition of Health in Jordan; the official one is the
definition of the World Health Organization (WHO): “ Health is a state of
complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity.”
2.2. Policy and Legislation Orientation
Health care is an important component of an economy that involves the
provision of goods and services by both the private and public sectors. As
health care technologies have advanced rapidly in the past few decades and
the demand for health care continues to grow tremendously, the
Government has decide to improve and develop the health care system.
Jordan performs relatively well (in comparison to the other similar
countries) in terms of overall access to services, when measured by
indicators such as infant mortality and life expectancy. However, the health
care system in Jordan still suffers from some inefficiencies:
- Clustered distribution of health care centers.
- Cost-effectiveness.
- Efficiency.
- Quality of service delivery.
As a result, the Government aims to reduce health care inefficiencies and
contain growth in health expenditures, and increase the level of qualitative
investments in healthcare services through:
81
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Improving the quality of services.
- Improving the geographic distribution of resources and services.
- Increasing private sector participation in the health insurance system.
- Modernizing health facilities and equipment.
- Developing a health information and research center.
- Improving purchasing systems.
The Government of Jordan has decided against passive acceptance of the
status quo and instead is embarking upon a long-term reform program
which will bring in all major players in the sector (the Ministry of Health,
the Royal Medical Services, Jordan University Hospital, and the private
sector).
The first phase of this reform will focus on three key areas: (i) containing
growth in health expenditures; (ii) assuring the efficient utilization of
physical facilities; and (iii) improving delivery and quality of health care
services. Building upon this foundation, the second phase will likely be
expanded to address equity (universal health insurance), quality (medical
education, regulation of the private sector), management (in the context of
government-wide civil-service reform), and cost effectiveness (rationalizing
the public/private mix). The five components of the project to support the
first phase of the reform strategy are:
- Rationalizing Jordan’s Health Delivery System. Currently, most facility
rehabilitation/construction decisions are based on incomplete investment
strategies, which do not systematically consider the demographic and
epidemiological characteristics of the population and/or the existing
resources available. Similarly, there are no standards and norms applied
in the construction of facilities to ensure efficiency in the allocation of
space and relative proximity of services. Rationalizing the investment
strategy for health facilities in Jordan is a priority need and would lead to
improved economic efficiency, clinical effectiveness and quality of
health services.
As a tool for rationalizing investment decisions for public sector
hospitals, the Government is preparing a health facility master-plan that
82
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
incorporates norms and standards, overall needs, and existing public and
private sector capacity. The master-plan will identify and prioritize all
health facility investment needs.
- Developing and Implementing Health Information Systems. This
component will address two sets of needs: (i) for improved public health,
it will help develop a national health information system which will
provide the Government with relevant and timely epidemiological data;
and (ii) for improved service quality and efficiency at the health facility
level, help develop management information systems for patient records,
services, inventory, and personnel. Financing would be provided for
equipment, technical assistance, software development/purchase, and
training.
- Improving Hospital Financing and Management. This component will
include the development and implementation of a financing system for
paying hospitals and physicians, which supports the efficient use of
resources. Developing this new system will involve: (i) establishing clear
and consistent accounting standards that would apply to all public health
facilities; (ii) setting up hospital-based financial management systems;
and (iii) adopting modern approaches to pay hospitals such as case-mix
adjusted global budgets and various physician incentive arrangements.
The goal would be to provide hospital managers and employees’
incentives to be efficient by linking budgetary allocations to established
criteria and giving managers the tools to operate autonomously and to be
more responsive to current or emerging demands. The project will
finance the development of management tools (e.g., financial and
accounting systems), equipment, and training necessary to implement
these systems.
- Reforming the Pharmaceutical Sector. Pharmaceuticals account for over
one-fourth of all health spending. Such high expenditures reflect
inefficiency, waste, and improper use of drugs. To improve the quality
and efficiency of the pharmaceutical sector, a series of reforms would be
undertaken: (i) promoting generic substitution; (ii) implementing
treatment protocols and training in the rational use of drugs; (iii) adopting
essential drug lists; (iv) improving overall sector management and
pricing policies; and (iv) reforming the processes for drug procurement,
storage, distribution, and quality control. Specific inputs will include
upgrading the facilities and operations of the drug quality control lab,
83
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
providing technical assistance to develop joint procurement mechanisms
for the public health sector and to draft legislation which will serve as the
legal framework for the pharmaceutical reform program, and providing
training in the use of essential drug lists and treatment protocols.
Financing would be provided for rehabilitation of the quality control
laboratory, laboratory and computer equipment, technical assistance,
studies, workshops, and materials development (e.g., to support treatment
protocols).
- Continuing the Reform Process. This project is addressing some, but not
all, of the issues identified in the Health Sector Study. Sectoral reform is
not a static process; it is instead to be implemented incrementally in
response to evolving needs and demands. This component will support
the continued preparation, evaluation, and monitoring of the sector
reform program. The Project Management Unit (PMU) for health reform,
in collaboration with the Higher Health Council (HHC) will commission
studies and recruit technical expertise as needed to explore alternative
reform proposals. In addition, this component will support effective
implementation of the project activities by supporting the PMU and
project implementation units (PIUs) to carry out their project
management and monitoring functions.
2.3. Sources
Ministry of Health (www.moh.gov.jo)
National information system (www.nic.gov.jo)
Ministry of Social Development (www.mosd.gov.jo)
Higher Population Council
Department of Statistics (www.dos.gov.jo)
Ministry of planning (www.mop.gov.jo)
84
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
2.4. Phenomenology
Jordan is in the midst of an epidemiological transition with acute respiratory
infections and prenatal diseases still causing a large loss of productive life
while non-communicable diseases and illnesses are becoming increasingly
prevalent. Infant and child mortality indicators are favorable compared with
other countries in the region and with other countries at similar levels of
income, although they are still high by OECD standards. Despite significant
declines in fertility in recent years (from 5.6 children per woman in 1990),
Jordan’s total fertility rate (TFR) of 4.6 children per woman is still quite
high. Population growth is high largely as a result of high fertility, low
mortality, and migration.
- The Health Sector Study highlighted that while the health system
performs relatively well in terms of overall access and outcomes, it is
expensive and inefficient, and there are geographic maldistributions of
resources. Jordan spends about 8 percent of its GDP on health care, well
in excess of most middle income and even some western industrialized
countries. While Jordan provides coverage for its poor and disabled, an
estimated 20 percent of the population lacks formal coverage, and
Government financing for health care could be better structured to reflect
ability to pay. Lack of a coordinated policy apparatus and relevant data
for decision-making preclude effective policy-making across Jordan’s
multiple public and private financing arrangements and delivery systems.
- There are significant inefficiencies in the service delivery system. There
is excess overall capacity as evidenced by a hospital occupancy rate of 63
percent (69 percent in the public sector and 49 percent in the private
sector; 80 percent is the generally accepted benchmark). Inappropriate
hospital use results from lack of an effective referral system and a
hospital-based orientation for treatment. Inefficient case management
leads to costly inpatient treatment of conditions that could be treated on
an outpatient basis and excessive use of expensive drugs. The centralized
allocation process for supplying and equipping facilities and paying
personnel in the public sector provides few incentives for the efficient
delivery of services at the individual institution level. Finally, there are
inefficiencies in terms of overall management, procurement, storage,
distribution, pricing policies, and the rational use of pharmaceuticals,
85
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
which account for over one-fourth of health spending and two percent of
GDP.
- There is limited data to evaluate the quality of care and consumer
satisfaction. The rapid growth in the private sector suggests
dissatisfaction with the services provided through the public sector and is
leading towards a two-tiered system of care (those who can afford to pay
go to the private sector while those who cannot are relegated to the public
health facilities). The lack of management systems (e.g., for patient
records, inventory) in the public sector do not foster good case
management and follow-up. Indeed, there are few incentives in the public
sector for providers to be concerned about the quality of services
provided. Quality could also be jeopardized by the lack of standards and
norms for infrastructure.
86
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
3.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
POVERTY
3.1. Definitions
Poverty in Jordan was defined from the standard of living and satisfaction of
basic needs perspective. The Ministry of Social Development defines
poverty as a “state of physical deprivation characterized by low food
consumption (quantitatively and qualitatively), and the deterioration of
health and educational status, the lack of durable goods and other physical
assets, in addition to the loss of reserves to face difficult conditions, like
illness and disability”.
The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) defines
poverty as “the inability of the individual or the family to provide necessary
resources to meet its basic needs”. 2
Others defined poverty as “the inability to satisfy the minimum standards of
the basic needs; food, shelter, clothes, education, health, and transportation.3
Jordan River Foundation (one of the active NGOs in Jordan) defines the
poorest of the poor as those families that have nothing, where the family
members must take turns to eat breakfast.
3.2. Policy and Legislation Orientation
The Kingdom’s new comprehensive strategy, through the collaborative
efforts of specialized working groups from the private and public sectors,
donor parties and non-governmental organizations, adopts a multi-sectoral
approach to improving living conditions for the poor and near poor.
2
3
The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia ESCWA Poverty in Western Asia 1997
Poverty Assessment Report: The case of Jordan ,Moh’d M. Khasawneh june 2001.
87
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The strategy, proposes a variety of programs to upgrade health, education
and capacity-building opportunities for the less privileged, also builds upon
existing national initiatives for poverty reduction.
Investment in education, as described in the strategy, is “one of the most
powerful determinants of poverty,” and unequal access to educational
opportunity “a strong correlate of income equity.”
In terms of access to education and formal and non-formal attainment levels,
Jordan ranks high compared with other Arab countries, as government
efforts have remained steadfast since 1989 to reform its education sector and
improve school infrastructure, particularly in underprivileged areas.
However, while efforts to reducing illiteracy have produced positive results,
availability of schools remains relatively low in rural areas. This has denied
communities in these areas access to education that could improve their
socio-economic status.
The strategy reports that illiteracy levels are as high as 15 per cent in some
urban areas and 24 per cent in rural areas. The rate of illiteracy for rural
women is twice as high as those for urban men and women. Adult literacy
centers established by the Ministry of Education are providing sufficient
education to local communities. But the national strategy suggests that these
centers be used to provide other services for community development.
These would include training for better employment and courses on how to
run a business as well as vocational skills, especially for women.
“Adult literacy and other basic skills imparted to adults and out-of-school
youth through non-formal programs directly improve family income
generation and have strong impacts on family health status and children’s
educational attainment and other efforts for poverty alleviation.” Similar
investments are proposed to boost the vocational capacity of the near poor
segments of society and young citizens, as another component of Jordan’s
national strategy.
Vocational training costs the government three times as much as academic
education per student every year — JD600 as compared to JD200.
While the government is working to reform and boost vocational training,
the strategy points out, however, that this area has not been addressed in a
satisfactory manner.
88
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
“It [vocational training] attracts mainly those who cannot afford the
academic line or those seeking quick skills to get to work and generate
income for the family.”
To ensure sustainable development, the strategy stresses the necessity of
enhancing the capacities of fresh graduates by initiating specific training
programs to meet the competitive needs of the global market through closer
cooperation with the private sector.
In the same way, the strategy also suggests the use of school premises after
hours, to give graduates of vocational training an opportunity to train and
get more experience in the practical aspects of their work for better
employment opportunities in the future.
It suggests that the Higher Council for Vocational Training set criteria for
ranking vocational training graduates and provide advisory services to
companies as well as training centers as to what skills and professions are
needed for the influx of new graduates and young Jordanians seeking
employment every year in a tight private and public sector job market.
This, as envisaged by the strategy, would in the long run minimize the need
to bring in foreign workers.
The strategy’s objective is “to serve the poor, alleviate destitution and make
them productive individuals dependent only on themselves at the end of the
day.”
The government poverty alleviation policy
The main foci of the national poverty alleviation are:
- To understand, measure and evaluate poverty phenomena in order to
direct policies and services in a better way. This can be done via drawing
the poverty maps.
- To increase the assistant level to the beneficiaries of National Aid Fund
(NAF) and to expand the beneficiaries base through the restructuring of
NAF and establishing a database to connect all aid funds in Jordan.
89
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Moving from assistant oriented program to work oriented programs via
replacing cash assistance by the supplementary income program.
- Coordination with the Ministry of Labor to provide the poor with training
and employment opportunities.
- Support the micro-finance programs
- Increase the employment opportunities in rural areas through developing
the rural communities.
- To reduce the role of the public sector in generating jobs and establish a
public – private sector partnership to solve labor market problems.
- To make sure that the poor get a better health care and family planning
services.
- Increase cooperation with government and NGOs and international
organization to control population growth rate.
- To work with local communities to identify their problems and to
enhance their health conditions using several programs like the Health
Village Program.
- To ensure the educational system response to the needs of the poor
through: improving the school infrastructure, provide children feed
programs; provide the poor children with school requirements, etc.
- Widen awareness of the effort to alleviate poverty.
- Develop and activate the social development centers
3.3. Sources
Department of Statistics (www.dos.gov.jo)
National Information System (www.nic.gov.jo)
Ministry of Social Development (www.mosd.gov.jo)
90
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
(www.escwa.org.lb)
3.4. Phenomenology
In the struggle to fight poverty, several challenges will be facing Jordan in
the coming years. The first one is to reach a widely acceptable definition for
poverty, and to come up with solid poverty line or lines according to the
different geographical areas. The second challenge is to move from the
concept of poverty to the concept of deprivation. Many researchers tends to
believe that Jordan has reached a state of development that enables it to
make this move. Another aspect to be mentioned is the equality issue. There
is a wide belief that development in the last decade caused an increase in
inequality, and the fall of the middle class. The results of the income &
expenditures survey of 2002/2003 may answer most of these questions.
91
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
4.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
CRIME
4.1. Definitions
In Jordan, crime is every act that the law considers to be a crime. No
punishment can be imposed without a statement in the law.
Jordanian Criminal Code
The Criminal Code adopted in 1956, which had been amended many times,
contained the bulk of the country’s criminal law. In addition, certain
codified civil statutes also prescribed penalties for acts such as libel,
adultery, and publication of material endangering the security of the
kingdom. Individuals could not be punished except for acts made criminal
by virtue of penalties prescribed by law. Other than where specified, a
person could also not be punished for committing a criminal act in the
absence of criminal responsibility or intent, both of which were defined by
the code. As a safeguard of personal liberty, the government had the burden
of proving both the defendant’s commitment of the act and the admissible
intent of the defendant before guilt could be established.
The criminal code, in traditional French form, divided criminal offenses into
three categories according to the severity of the applicable punishments. In
English common law these categories are equated roughly to felonies,
misdemeanors, and minor violations. Punishments for felonies ranged from
death by hanging to imprisonment for periods ranging from three years to
life. Punishments for misdemeanors included imprisonment for periods
ranging from three weeks to three years and a variety of fines. Minor
violations could be punished by imprisonment for less than three weeks,
small fines, or reprimands by the court. In cases involving misdemeanors or
minor violations, a judge also could invoke preventive measures including
detention for psychiatric examination, forfeiture of material goods, or
closure of a place of business. The Criminal Code provided for minimum
penalties for all major infractions rather than relying on the discretion of the
courts.
92
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The death penalty was authorized for murder, arson of an inhabited
building, assassination of the king (or attempts on his life), and a broad
range of serious crimes defined as threats to the security of the state. These
latter offenses included acts such as treason, espionage on behalf of an
unfriendly foreign power, and armed insurrection.
Imprisonment for life was imposed for such felonies as lesser crimes against
national security, homicide during commission of a misdemeanor or that
resulted from torture, and the more serious forms of theft. Shorter
imprisonment was prescribed for these same offenses if mitigating
circumstances are warranted. Such punishment also was authorized for
terrorist activity, membership in subversive organizations, counterfeiting,
forgery of official documents, and abduction.
Misdemeanors included such offenses as gambling in public places, bribery,
perjury, simple forgery, slander, embezzlement, assault and battery, and
disturbing the peace. The influence of sharia was still evident in the
imposition of prison sentences for desertion of a child, abortion, marrying a
girl under the age of sixteen, openly ridiculing the Prophet Muhammad, and
breaking the fast of Ramadan. Sharia also was important in the criteria for
justifiable homicide. No penalty was imposed for the immediate killing of
someone who defiled a person’s or a family’s honor.
Minor violations covered by the code included traffic violations, seeking
redress for a crime without recourse to civil authorities, public drunkenness,
and violations of administrative regulations such as licensing and safe
housing requirements. These infractions were punishable with or without
proven intent. Most minor violations resulted in fines being assessed against
the offender.
4.2. Policy and Legislation Orientation
The government policy to face crime and to protect the Jordanian
community from its evils is divided into two tracks; the first is to adopt
preventive measures throughout the development of the justice authorities
and the continuous support to the security forces in Jordan and providing it
with its needs in terms of advanced weapons and equipments, and to
develop its manpower throughout the extensive training programs. In
93
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
addition to monitoring criminal statistics, which is the main way to
understand the crime phenomena and its relation with other socio-economic
indicators. The second track is the capture of criminals and the imposition of
legal punishments. In 1986, the concept of the prison system was
revolutionized with the establishment of modern and well-equipped
rehabilitation centers overseen by a specialized department – the
Department of Rehabilitation Centers, with the following duties and
objectives:
1. Overseeing the procedures of inmate admission and release.
2. Overseeing the legal and administrative procedures concerning the
treatment of inmates.
3. Administering aftercare for released inmates and their families.
4. Providing vocational training and literacy classes.
5. Preparing statistical reports relating to inmates.
Objectives:
- Reinforcing the positive aspects of an inmate’s character, with the aim to
transform him/her into a sociable, law-abiding citizen.
- Administering medical care to convicts.
- Narrowing down the chances of inmates becoming repeat offenders.
- Providing religious education to inmates.
Presently, there are 10 rehabilitation centers in Jordan.
94
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.3. Sources
Department of Statistics (www.dos.gov.jo)
National Information System (www.nic.gov.jo)
Ministry of Social Development (www.mosd.gov.jo)
Department of Public Security www.psd.gov.jo
Interpol: www.interpol.com
4.5. Phenomenology
The most critical issue regarding crime prevention in Jordan is the challenge
of facing the continuous growth in the crime phenomena and their
increasing cost. The incidence of crime has increased in Jordan from 626
crimes per 100,000 in 1988 to 1,016 in 1997, while the cost to the
governmental departments involved in crime prevention formed 6.5% of the
total governmental expenditures in 1997. Organized crime in Jordan is
growing, and it is no longer limited to smuggling or drugs, which is causing
strains in the judicial system, which needs more improvements.
One of the most critical and debatable issues in Jordan nowadays is the
phenomenon of the so-called crime of honor. The law in Jordan reduces the
punishment of the man who finds his wife or close relatives with another
man in an indecent situation and commits murder as a result, and many
times he would get off scot-free. The original intent of the law was to help
those who were forced to commit such a crime because they are very angry
and can’t control their acts. However, this right was misused, as several
women were killed by their husbands or relatives for reasons that had no
relation to ethics or honor. The Government amended the law in the absence
of the parliament, but the new parliament rejected it, and the issue is still
pending.
95
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
5.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
TRENDS AND CORRELATIONS
5.1. The evolution from the structural adjustment of the
1980s
Economic Developments
During the 1970s and early 1980s, Jordan enjoyed relatively high growth
rates in real GDP; as well as an expansion in the basic infrastructure and
welfare services. These achievements were assisted by external assistance,
mainly from oil-exporting Arab countries as a result of the increase of oil
prices, workers’ remittances, and the expansion of the Jordanian agricultural
and manufacturing exports to these markets. However, despite these
achievements, Jordan could not overcome the basic imbalances in its
economic structure, namely budget and balance of trade deficits. The
increase in GNP led to increase in total consumption to levels higher than
GDP levels, resulting in negative domestic savings and large imports.
Accordingly, dependency on external resources increased to bridge the
consumption gab and to finance the gross domestic capital formation. As a
result of the decline in oil prices in 1983, the region was hit with recession.
The economy of Jordan was affected negatively by the reduced demand for
its exports to these markets, lowering the demand for Jordanian workers,
and reducing regional assistance to Jordan due to the decline in revenues.
These factors produced a decline in real GDP growth rates from about 11
percent in the 1973-1980 period, to about 2.5 percent during 1983-1987, and
as a result per capita income decreased and unemployment increased to
about 9 percent in 1988. As the situation continued to deteriorate, and grants
and workers’ remittances continued to decline. In addition to the withdrawal
of foreign exchange reserves at the Central Bank, the government covered
its deficits (trade and budget deficits) by internal and external borrowing,
where total external debt constituted about 173 percent of the GDP, and 303
percent of the exports of goods and services in 1988. As a result, the foreign
reserves at the Central Bank declined considerably and the Jordanian Dinar
devalued by about 50 percent. In consequence, the cost of living increased
96
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
by 6.6 percent compared with zero percent in 1986 and 1987. As the
measures taken by the government to improve the foreign exchange position
and the budget deficit were not sufficient without debt rescheduling and
external resources, the costs of these measures would prove to be too high.
Accordingly, the government reached an agreement with IMF and the WB
for an economic adjustment program for the 1989-1993 period in order to
revitalize economic activity and overcome the economic crisis. This
program was amended in the 1992-1998 period, because of the Gulf Crisis
in 1990. These measures included rationing public expenditure, increasing
the tax base to include more items and increasing tax rates for certain items.
Due to a weak industrial base, the performance of the Jordanian economy on
average during the program period was below the targeted levels. Therefore,
the government adopted a privatization program in order to enhance the
efficiency of the economy by greater role of the private sector. This program
was extended on a yearly basis until this year 2003. The government stated
that next year a national reform program will replace the previous
arrangements with the IMF and WB.
Poverty in Jordan
Before mid-1980s, poverty in Jordan was not seen as a problem, where the
interest was to emphasize income distribution. Due to the economic and
social achievements during the 1970s and early 1980s, Gini (?) co-efficient
decreased from about 38 percent in 1973 to about 32 percent in 1982
(Haddad, 1990). However, since the mid-1980s poverty became one of the
challenges facing the Jordanian economy, due to certain policies and
procedures undertaken to tackle the economic deterioration. These policies,
which were a helpful ones from an economic perspective, were harmful
ones for low-income and vulnerable groups in society.
Combating Poverty
Within the national policy framework to alleviate poverty, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international agencies were
encouraged to participate to support governmental programs. The main
concern of the NGOs is to help certain groups to improve their quality of
life, by enhancing voluntary work and women’s participation, especially in
97
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
the rural and poor areas. This is done through soft loans for family projects
and training programs. However, due to weak performance of some current
programs, the government adopted in 1997 a Social Productivity Program. A
minimum wage Law was approved, where the minimum wage was set at JD 80 per
month4.
Health
Despite the fiscal constraints, strong Government commitments to health,
education, and other social programs, have resulted in impressive social
indicators. With a literacy rate of over 80 percent and well-developed
human resource base, Jordan has compensated for its poor natural resource
endowments by exporting its surplus labor to the neighboring oil-exporting
countries. This proposed project focuses on Jordan’s health sector, a sector
with critical human and economic implications that currently accounts for
almost 8 percent of Jordan’s economy.
The Health Sector Studies highlighted that while the health system performs
relatively well in terms of overall access and outcomes, it is expensive and
inefficient, and there are geographic maldistributions of resources. Jordan
spends about 8 percent of its GDP on health care, well in excess of most
middle income and even some western industrialized countries. While
Jordan provides coverage for its poor and disabled, an estimated 20 percent
of the population lacks formal coverage, and Government financing for
health care could be better structured to increase this coverage. Lack of a
coordinated policy apparatus and relevant data for decision-making preclude
effective policy-making across Jordan’s multiple public and private
financing arrangements and delivery systems.
As a result of the expansion of the health services provided all over the
country, as well as public awareness campaigns regarding family planning,
and the increasing number of doctors and technical assistant staff, the infant
mortality rate declined from about 7.8 percent in 1973 to about 2.8 percent
in 1999. The life expectancy at birth increased, for both male and female,
from about 57.4 years for males and 59.8 years for females in 1973, to about
4
Moh’d M. Khasawneh, ‘Poverty Assessment Report: The case of Jordan’, June 2001.
98
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
69 for males and 71 for females in 1999 (DOS, 1999). Due to the increase in
number of doctors and assistants staff, the number of inhabitants per doctor
decreased from about 2,480 in 1973 to about 506 in 1999, and that per nurse
from about 870 in 1973 to about 334 in 1999.
However, these services have been provided, in addition to the Ministry of
Health, by both the private sector and the military through 84 hospitals with
8,726 beds (population/bed ratio is 566 persons/bed), and comprehensive
health centers (46), primary health centers (335), peripheral health centers
(266), and maternity and childhood centers (337).
5.2. Correlations between poverty, health, crime and other
development indicators in the last decade
During the last decade, poverty became the major issue for policy-makers
and to society. Crime incidence witnessed some increase following the first
Gulf War and the return of 300,000 Jordanians, most of whom were born
and raised outside Jordan. In addition, health services started to face
increasing pressure.
These three phenomena are interrelated, but poverty remains the father of all
evil. Most of the studies that deal with poverty in Jordan reported a bad
health situation in the poor communities, and the relation between health
and poverty can go in both directions. Poverty produces poor health
condition, and bad health conditions (serious disease or bad injuries) can
drive semi- or near poor individuals and their families under the poverty
line.
Thanks to strong government commitment for socio-economic development
for protecting Jordan from the hazardous effects of such phenomena, Jordan
developed a social protection net, to protect the poor from the negative
impacts of such a program. Cash assistance to the poor, training and
retraining programs play a major role in this regard. Of course, these
reforms have strong impacts on the low-income groups in Jordanian society,
and many steps need to be taken in this regards.
As for crime, it is well known theoretically that poverty and unemployment
can be motives for committing crimes. In Jordan, criminal statistics show
99
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
that the unemployed formed about 36% of the total crime offenders in 1997.
In the last decade, when economic growth was relatively very slow in
Jordan, the crime rate increased from 626 crimes per 100,000 citizens in
1988 to 1,016 in 1997, and to 1,255 in 1999.
Maybe the question is this: how can we improve the current situation
regarding these themes? Are they heavily interrelated? Can we identify one
theme to focus on and make improvements? Or do we need a
comprehensive strategy to alleviate poverty and crime and to improve or
increase the health and welfare.
5.3. Key issues, political agenda and perspectives
Regarding the current situation of the three themes of this report, namely
health, poverty, and crime, it can be characterized as acceptable; of course
there are several difficulties and insufficiency here and there, but if we
compare Jordan to other countries with similar levels of income and
conditions, we find that Jordanian achievements were amazing.
Unfortunately, Jordanian figures lay behind those of the European countries,
especially in health and poverty. Therefore, one can expect in the near future
a sincere effort from our partners in Europe to help Jordan in improving the
socio-economic conditions in order to achieve a higher growth rates, which
in turn would enable Jordan to improve the health services provided to
Jordanian citizens, and to alleviate poverty. As for crime, it is true that the
Jordanian figures is below the international levels, but the rapid increase in
crime, helped by the incredible development in communication, which have
turned the world into a small village, requires international cooperation to
stop or fight the new types of crimes, such as money laundry, internet
crimes, and international terrorism. Therefore, Jordan is looking forward to
the partnership agreement with the EU countries to provide the necessary
financial and technical assistance to improve its performance in all the three
themes health, poverty, and crime.
100
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
ANNEX 1: REFERENCES
- The central Bank of Jordan, Annual Report, 2002.
- The Ministry of Health, Annual Report, 2002.
- Ministry of Planning, unpublished data (this is not accept acceptable as a
reference?).
- Ministry of Social Development, Poverty Alleviation for a Stronger
Jordan: A Comprehensive National Strategy, May 2002.
- Poverty in Western Asia The Economic and Social Commission for
Western Asia (ESCWA), 1997.
- Poverty Assessment Report: The case of Jordan, Moh’d M. Khasawneh,
the Royal scientific society, June 2001.
- The Cartographic Crime Science , Brakat al-Nemer, Dar Majdalawi Pub.
& Dis. 2000.
- Abdel Ellah Jae’fer, ‘The Cost of Crime and its Consequences on the
Development of Jordanian Society’, The Arab Magazine for Security &
Training, issue 30, November 2000.
- The General Security Department, unpublished data.
101
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
ANNEX 2: INTERVIEWS
In order to complete the report, the team has met with several Jordanian
experts in the three themes of the report: health, poverty, and crime.
For the poverty part the experts were:
- Dr. Mohammad el Saqour, a former minister of social development in
Jordan and the head of the team who conducted the first poverty
assessment study in Jordan in 1987.
- Mr. Mohammad Khasawneh from the Ministry of Planning, a wellknown expert on poverty in Jordan.
For the health section, the expert was Dr. Ayyob S. As-Sayaideh from the
Ministry of Health/the partnership restructuring program of the health sector
in Jordan.
As for the crime section, the expert was Dr. Barakat Al–Nemer from the
Ministry of Interior (researcher in the science of crime).
102
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
STATISTICAL ANNEX
Population Projection 2000 – 2005
Year
Estimated
Population in 000
Estimated Growth Rate
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
4756
4900
5039
5182
5323
5468
5617
5770
3.32
3.0
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
* DOS Home * DOS-NIS: Population and Housing * DOS-NIS: Population
Copyright 2001 by Department of Statistics, Amman (Jordan). All rights reserved.
Source: Department of Statistics (Jordan)
Department of Statistics (Jordan) - NIS Focal Point: Housing and Population
Population Changes
Population Density
51.5 Person / km 2
Source: (Technical Notes on Population Projections of Jordan 1995-2025 )
By: Dr. Arjoon Adlakha, Dr Timothey Flowler & DOS Staff
Crude Birth Rate (C.B.R)
Crude Death Rate (C.D.R)
Life Expectancy at Birth
Natural Increase
30 Per Thousand
5 Per Thousand
68 Years for Male
70 Years for Female
25 Per Thousand
Source: Jordan Population Family Health Survey (J.P.F.H.S.) 1997
Total Fertility Rate (T.F.R)
Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R)
4.4 Birth / Woman
29 Per Thousand
DOS Home * DOS-NIS: Population and Housing * DOS-NIS: Population
Copyright 2001 by Department of Statistics, Amman (Jordan). All rights reserved.
Source: Statistical Year Book 1997
Distribution of Population Living in Jordan by Age (in Single Years), Nationality and Sex
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Total
Total
Male
Female
Total
123,768
128,980
126,301
121,521
115,454
116,653
115,412
112,461
112,206
109,103
110,953
105,756
107,454
103,099
101,297
101,663
99,158
95,167
93,270
91,237
92,127
89,166
90,806
85,850
87,073
83,489
78,953
73,545
69,503
66,754
64,346
56,587
56,338
63,282
66,220
64,596
62,497
59,249
59,686
58,911
57,484
57,499
55,869
56,354
54,454
55,087
52,760
52,267
51,926
50,780
49,634
48,635
47,622
48,107
46,595
47,749
45,845
47,828
45,848
43,368
40,302
37,954
35,854
34,667
29,682
29,977
60,486
62,760
61,705
59,024
56,205
56,967
56,501
54,977
54,707
53,234
54,599
51,302
52,367
50,339
49,030
49,737
48,378
45,533
44,635
43,615
44,020
42,571
43,057
40,005
39,245
37,641
35,585
33,243
31,549
30,900
29,679
26,905
26,361
117,258
122,303
119,753
115,336
109,489
110,922
110,076
107,301
107,137
104,196
106,238
101,395
103,112
99,009
97,198
97,465
94,989
90,123
86,609
83,670
83,484
81,121
81,749
76,034
74,581
70,714
67,157
61,821
59,315
57,327
53,851
49,263
49,037
Jordanians
Male
Female
Total
59,947
62,751
61,237
59,316
56,218
56,746
56,227
54,938
54,897
53,352
53,930
52,222
52,799
50,606
50,080
49,724
48,460
46,610
44,190
42,438
42,070
41,093
41,322
38,500
37,848
35,603
33,866
30,952
29,955
28,544
26,582
24,218
24,528
57,311
59,552
58,516
56,020
53,271
54,176
53,849
52,363
52,240
50,844
52,308
49,173
50,313
48,403
47,118
47,741
46,529
43,513
42,419
41,232
41,414
40,028
40,427
37,534
36,733
35,111
33,291
30,869
29,360
28,783
27,269
25,045
24,509
6,510
6,677
6,548
6,185
5,965
5,731
5,336
5,160
5,069
4,907
4,715
4,361
4,342
4,090
4,099
4,198
4,169
5,044
6,661
7,567
8,643
8,045
9,057
9,816
12,492
12,775
11,796
11,724
10,188
9,427
10,495
7,324
7,301
Non jordanians
Male
Female
3,335
3,469
3,359
3,181
3,031
2,940
2,684
2,546
2,602
2,517
2,424
2,232
2,288
2,154
2,187
2,202
2,320
3,024
4,445
5,184
6,037
5,502
6,427
7,345
9,980
10,245
9,502
9,350
7,999
7,310
8,085
5,464
5,449
3,175
3,208
3,189
3,004
2,934
2,791
2,652
2,614
2,467
2,390
2,291
2,129
2,054
1,936
1,912
1,996
1,849
2,020
2,216
2,383
2,606
2,543
2,630
2,471
2,512
2,530
2,294
2,374
2,189
2,117
2,410
1,860
1,852
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Total
Total
Male
Female
Total
Jordanians
Male
Female
Total
43,769
47,740
40,477
40,543
38,043
34,613
33,255
32,655
27,429
28,002
25,488
26,590
23,050
26,822
25,417
24,989
26,244
26,945
22,321
22,163
18,255
23,813
19,479
19,068
15,970
18,195
18,341
16,201
12,694
12,570
9,814
16,432
10,112
8,877
8,163
6,610
23,043
25,018
20,709
20,424
20,259
18,174
17,431
17,024
14,173
14,490
13,185
13,422
11,477
12,711
12,707
12,661
12,928
14,003
12,282
11,967
10,231
12,012
10,516
9,826
8,460
9,841
9,249
7,928
6,831
6,750
5,596
7,953
5,543
4,790
4,618
3,671
20,726
22,722
19,768
20,119
17,784
16,439
15,824
15,631
13,256
13,512
12,303
13,168
11,573
14,111
12,710
12,328
13,316
12,942
10,039
10,196
8,024
11,801
8,963
9,242
7,510
8,354
9,092
8,273
5,863
5,820
4,218
8,479
4,569
4,087
3,545
2,939
38,250
41,420
34,780
35,826
33,939
30,543
29,861
28,439
24,684
24,881
23,077
23,823
20,629
24,502
23,496
23,263
24,455
25,032
21,017
20,839
17,321
22,458
18,467
18,216
15,203
17,354
17,593
15,291
12,187
12,048
9,410
15,781
9,643
8,590
7,787
6,331
18,978
20,364
16,603
17,100
17,450
15,414
15,108
14,112
12,305
12,329
11,581
11,547
9,849
11,256
11,466
11,523
11,820
12,778
11,448
11,122
9,630
11,167
9,846
9,335
7,978
9,373
8,839
7,422
6,558
6,459
5,371
7,663
5,294
4,653
4,409
3,523
19,272
21,056
18,177
18,726
16,489
15,129
14,753
14,327
12,379
12,552
11,496
12,276
10,780
13,246
12,030
11,740
12,635
12,254
9,569
9,717
7,691
11,291
8,621
8,881
7,225
7,981
8,754
7,869
5,629
5,589
4,039
8,118
4,349
3,937
3,378
2,808
5,519
6,320
5,697
4,717
4,104
4,070
3,394
4,216
2,745
3,121
2,411
2,767
2,421
2,320
1,921
1,726
1,789
1,913
1,304
1,324
934
1,355
1,012
852
767
841
748
910
507
522
404
651
469
287
376
279
Non jordanians
Male
Female
4,065
4,654
4,106
3,324
2,809
2,760
2,323
2,912
1,868
2,161
1,604
1,875
1,628
1,455
1,241
1,138
1,108
1,225
834
845
601
845
670
491
482
468
410
506
273
291
225
290
249
137
209
148
1,454
1,666
1,591
1,393
1,295
1,310
1,071
1,304
877
960
807
892
793
865
680
588
681
688
470
479
333
510
342
361
285
373
338
404
234
231
179
361
220
150
167
131
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98+
Unspec.
TOTAL
Total
Total
Male
Female
Total
Jordanians
Male
Female
Total
8,329
8,567
4,692
4,710
3,703
7,867
3,698
3,500
2,552
2,220
2,501
3,318
1,236
1,435
1,182
3,062
1,175
783
642
604
732
1,038
327
338
392
634
105
42
35
685
3,318
4,110,0
21
4,088
3,653
2,475
2,349
1,878
3,229
1,763
1,959
1,315
1,212
1,242
1,278
639
715
630
1,341
506
413
354
359
376
427
199
185
206
317
44
25
15
286
1,870
2,135,8
39
4,241
4,914
2,217
2,361
1,825
4,638
1,935
1,541
1,237
1,008
1,259
2,040
597
720
552
1,721
669
370
288
245
356
611
128
153
186
317
61
17
20
399
1,448
1,974,1
82
8,022
8,130
4,504
4,487
3,565
7,611
3,567
3,420
2,445
2,146
2,442
3,173
1,198
1,370
1,143
2,954
1,129
759
616
582
701
992
316
328
383
606
101
40
35
667
2,155
3,795,0
56
3,954
3,463
2,395
2,242
1,824
3,129
1,712
1,917
1,270
1,182
1,221
1,224
624
688
612
1,297
494
402
343
344
366
415
195
179
204
310
43
24
15
278
963
1,926,7
71
4,068
4,667
2,109
2,245
1,741
4,482
1,855
1,503
1,175
964
1,221
1,949
574
682
531
1,657
635
357
273
238
335
577
121
149
179
296
58
16
20
389
1,192
1,868,2
85
307
437
188
223
138
256
131
80
107
74
59
145
38
65
39
108
46
24
26
22
31
46
11
10
9
28
4
2
0
18
1,163
314,965
Non jordanians
Male
Female
134
190
80
107
54
100
51
42
45
30
21
54
15
27
18
44
12
11
11
15
10
12
4
6
2
7
1
1
8
907
209,068
173
247
108
116
84
156
80
38
62
44
38
91
23
38
21
64
34
13
15
7
21
34
7
4
7
21
3
1
10
256
105,897
* Definitions * DOS Home * DOS-NIS: Population and Housing * DOS-NIS: Population * How to Download/Print the Table? *
Note: All values are absolute figures collected in the above-mentioned census
Source: General Census of Population and Housing of Jordan 1994
Table 2 Economic Growth Rates (Percentages)
Current Prices
GDP at
GNDI*
market
prices
1997
1998
1999
2000 (1)
2001(1)
*:
4.6
9.2
2.8
3.9
4.5
5.1
6.6
5.5
7.7
2.8
Constant Prices
(1994=100)
GDP at
GNDI*
market
prices
3.3
3.0
3.1
4.0
4.2
3.8
0.6
5.8
7.8
2.6
Represents GDP at market prices plus net workers’ remittances,
net investment income, and net current transfers.
(1) : Preliminary.
Table 3 - Growth Rates of Economic Sectors (at Constant Basic Prices)* (Percentages)
1997
Agriculture
Mining and quarrying
Manufacturing
Electricity and water
Construction
Total commodity producing sectors
Trade, restaurants, and hotels
Transport and communications
Finance, real estate, and business services
Social services
Producers of government services
Non-profit institutions
Domestic services of households
Total services sectors
GDP at constant basic prices
*: Based on the Department of Statistics data.
(1): Preliminary.
-8.5
13.2
10.8
5.5
-7.9
3.2
5.2
1.6
2.6
20.9
3.2
-0.8
-10.5
3.8
3.6
1998
13.0
1.8
9.3
2.8
-17.0
3.2
-14.3
18.8
5.3
10.7
2.0
3.3
27.5
3.1
3.1
1999
-29.3
2.8
4.9
6.6
7.0
-0.2
5.0
6.4
0.1
7.9
3.3
2.3
20.0
4.1
2.8
2000(1)
2001(1)
6.4
-1.3
5.8
4.0
1.9
4.3
8.6
4.6
4.1
1.8
6.6
-16.2
25.5
5.0
4.8
1.1
4.1
4.9
2.3
11.1
5.2
4.4
5.6
3.7
5.9
1.7
7.1
-4.9
3.8
4.2
Table 4 The Relative Importance of Economic Sectors to GDP (at Constant Basic Prices)* (Percentages)
1997
Agriculture
Mining and quarrying
Manufacturing
Electricity and water
Construction
Total commodity-producing sectors
Trade, restaurants, and hotels
Transport and communications
Finance, real estate, and business services
Producers of government services
Other services
Total services sectors
GDP at basic prices
*
: Based on the Department of Statistics data.
(1) : Preliminary.
4.5
3.2
14.5
2.6
6.3
31.1
13.5
14.7
20.2
17.4
3.1
68.9
100.0
1998
4.9
3.2
15.3
2.6
5.1
31.1
11.2
17.0
20.6
17.2
2.9
68.9
100.0
1999
3.3
3.2
15.7
2.7
5.3
30.2
11.5
17.5
20.1
17.3
3.4
69.8
100.0
2000(1)
3.4
3.0
15.8
2.7
5.1
30.0
11.9
17.5
20.0
17.6
3.0
70.0
100.0
2001(1)
3.3
3.0
15.9
2.6
5.5
30.3
11.9
17.8
19.8
17.2
3.0
69.7
100.0
Contribution of Economic Sectors to Economic Growth (at Constant Basic Prices)*
(Percentage Points)
1999
Agriculture
Mining and quarrying
Manufacturing
Electricity and water
Construction
Total commodity producing sectors
Trade, restaurants, and hotels
Transport and communications
Finance, real estate, and business services
Producers of government services
Other services
Total services sectors
GDP at constant basic prices
-1.44
0.09
0.76
0.17
0.36
-0.06
0.56
1.09
0.02
0.57
0.62
2.86
2.80
2000(1)
0.21
-0.04
0.91
0.11
0.10
1.29
0.98
0.81
0.83
1.14
-0.25
3.51
4.80
2001(1)
0.03
0.12
0.77
0.06
0.57
1.55
0.52
0.99
0.74
0.30
0.10
2.65
4.20
* : Based on the Department of Statistics data.
(1): Preliminary.
Inflation Rates of Main Component Groups of the Cost of Living Index (Percentages)
Groups
1997
Percentage change in the index
1998
1999
2000
2001
Food items
Housing
Clothing and footwear
Other goods and services
General index
6.6
0.8
-3.6
1.8
3.0
4.0
1.8
3.8
2.6
3.1
0.3
1.8
1.2
4.7
1.8
-0.9
0.8
5.3
2.0
0.6
-0.7
1.4
0.6
2.8
0.7
Economic developments in 2001
Table 1 Main Economic Indicators (JD Million)
1997
Population (In Thousands)
Output and Prices
Gross National Product (GNP) at Current Market Prices
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Current Market Prices
Growth Rate of GDP at Constant Market Prices (%)
Nominal Gross National Disposable Income (GNDI)
Growth Rate of GNDI at Constant Market Prices (%)
Change in Cost of Living Index (%)
Change in GDP Deflator (%)
Ratio of Total Consumption to GDP at Current Market Prices (%)
Ratio of Gross Fixed Investment to GDP at Current Market Prices (%)
Ratio of Domestic Saving to GDP at Current Market Prices (%)
Money and Banking (1)
Average JD Exchange Rate against US Dollar
Money Supply (M2)
Net Foreign Assets of Banking System
Net Domestic Assets of Banking System
Claims on Government (Net)
Claims on Private Sector (Resident)
Other Items (Net) (2)
Deposits in JD Held at Banks
Deposits in F.C Held at Banks
Rediscount Rate (%)
Interest Rate on 3-month Treasury Bills (%)
Interest Rate on 6-Month Treasury Bills (%)
Interest Rate on 3-Month CDs (%) (3)
Interest Rate on 6-Month CDs (%) (3)
1998
1999
2000
2001
4,600
4,756
4,900
5,039
5,182
5,090.2
5,137.6
3.3
6,302.3
3.8
3.0
1.2
96.5
25.8
3.5
5,604.0
5,609.8
3.0
6,718.3
0.6
3.1
6.0
97.6
21.2
2.4
5,758.6
5,767.3
3.1
7,086.9
5.8
0.6
-0.2
92.7
23.5
7.3
6,087.6
5,992.1
4.0
7,636.1
7.8
0.7
-0.1
99.5
25.6
0.5
6,391.5
6,258.8
4.2
7,851.1
2.6
1.8
0.3
N.A
N.A
N.A
1.410
5,576.6
2,263.5
3,313.1
501.1
3,535.3
-723.3
4,076.7
2,311.2
7.75
8.90
6.25
6.50
1.410
6,026.3
2,374.8
3,651.5
1,052.3
3,872.6
-1,273.4
4,178.5
2,632.9
9.00
9.20
9.45
9.50
1.410
6,747.6
3,003.4
3,744.2
1,157.3
4,062.1
-1,475.2
4,681.4
2,821.0
8.00
6.00
6.00
8.25
1.410
7,434.7
3,852.1
3,582.6
1,070.8
4,243.9
-1,732.2
5,000.2
3,224.3
6.50
5.88
6.00
6.05
1.410
7,866.1
3,991.0
3,875.1
1,276.0
4,723.6
-2,124.5
5,203.7
3,517.6
5.00
3.924
3.90
4.00
Table 1 Main Economic Indicators (Contd.) (JD Million)
Public Finance
Total Revenues and Grants
Ratio to GDP (%)
Total Expenditures and Net Lending
Ratio to GDP (%)
Deficit/ Surplus (Excluding Grants)
Ratio to GDP (%)
Deficit/ Surplus (Including Grants)
Ratio to GDP (%)
Gross Domestic Public Debt
Ratio to GDP (%)
External Public Debt Outstanding (4)
Ratio to GDP (%)
External Trade and Balance of Payments
Commodity Exports (f.o.b.)
Commodity Imports (c.i.f.)(5)
Trade Deficit
Ratio to GDP (%)
Workers’ Remittances Receipts
Current Account
Ratio to GDP (%)
Capital Account
Ratio to GDP (%)
Change in Net Foreign Assets/ Surplus (-)
(1):
(2):
(3):
(4):
(5):
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
1,574.9
30.7
1,906.1
37.1
-536.2
-10.4
-331.2
-6.4
4,580.6
89.2
1,699.5
30.3
2,055.1
36.6
-558.6
-10.0
-355.6
-6.3
1,119.0
19.9
5,009.8
89.3
1,783.8
30.9
2,007.4
34.8
-422.1
-7.3
-223.6
-3.9
1,024.0
17.8
5,186.2
89.9
1,800.9
30.0
2,004.7
33.5
-444.0
-7.4
-203.8
-3.4
1,203.0
20.1
4,794.7
80.0
1,885.1
30.1
2,075.5
33.2
-437.4
-7.0
-190.4
-3.0
1,369.0
21.9
4,742.8
75.8
1,301.4
2,906.5
-1,605.1
-31.2
1,173.5
20.8
0.4
211.9
4.1
-499.1
1,277.9
2,712.4
-1,434.5
-25.6
1,093.8
15.5
0.3
205.3
3.7
-127.5
1,298.8
2,622.5
-1,323.7
-23.0
1,179.8
287.1
5.0
133.3
2.3
-656.4
1,346.6
3,245.2
-1,898.6
-31.7
1,308.2
41.5
0.7
408.1
6.8
-840.7
1,625.7
3,407.3
-1,781.6
-28.5
1,426.0
40.1
0.6
-86.5
-1.4
-130.8
New classification for both government and public entities accounts at the banking system has been adopted since January 2000. Data for
1998 and 1999 was reclassified accordingly.
Includes claims on public entities, claims on financial institutions, and other items (net) as shown in the Monetary Survey Table.
Represents unified interest rate on the last issue.
Figures represent disbursed loans minus repayments (excluding collateralized Brady Bonds).
Excluding imports of non-residents.
Sources : Monthly Statistical Bulletin / Central Bank of Jordan.
Table 1 Industrial Origin of Gross Domestic Product at Current Prices (JD Million)
1997
Agriculture
Mining and Quarrying
Manufacturing
Electricity and Water
Construction
Trade, Restaurants, and Hotels
Transport and Communications
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate,
and Business Services
Social and Personal Services
Producers of Government Services
Producers of Private Non-Profit
Services for Households
Domestic Household Services
Less: Imputed Bank Service Charge
GDP at Basic Prices
Net Taxes on Products
GDP at Market Prices
Net Factor Income from Abroad
GNP at Market Prices
Source : Department of Statistics.
(1)
: Preliminary.
1998
1999
2000(1)
2001(1)
148.3
169.9
621.6
117.9
240.5
510.4
672.7
144.7
170.4
742.0
121.2
214.6
532.4
717.1
115.9
163.8
750.2
129.4
207.1
543.2
762.2
116.7
157.4
792.0
134.6
203.9
602.5
831.6
115.9
156.9
828.7
135.1
227.2
650.5
876.7
918.6
178.3
896.1
979.1
200.3
943.2
990.5
224.3
995.7
1,071.2
242.9
1,079.1
1,136.2
265.0
1,112.7
52.9
5.2
-81.0
4,451.4
686.2
5,137.6
-47.4
5,090.2
56.1
6.6
-107.5
4,720.2
889.6
5,609.8
-5.8
5,604.0
57.4
7.9
-93.5
4,854.1
913.2
5,767.3
-8.7
5,758.6
63.2
9.7
-108.5
5,196.3
795.8
5,992.1
95.5
6,087.6
73.5
9.2
-116.6
5,471.0
787.8
6,258.8
132.7
6,391.5
Table 2 Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product at Current Prices (JD Million)
Total Consumption
Public
Private
Gross Capital Formation
Gross Fixed Capital Formation
Buildings and Constructions
Machines and Equipments
Change in Stocks
Total Domestic Demand
Net Exports of Goods and Non-Factor Services
Exports
Imports
GDP at Market Prices
Source : Department of Statistics.
(1): Preliminary.
1997
1998
1999
2000(1)
4,959.7
1,312.5
3,647.2
1,321.8
1,325.1
809.7
515.4
-3.3
6,281.5
-1,143.9
2,532.8
3,676.7
5,137.6
5,477.4
1,367.0
4,110.4
1,225.4
1,189.8
656.4
533.4
35.6
6,702.8
-1,093.0
2,515.7
3,608.7
5,609.8
5,348.2
1,386.7
3,961.5
1,451.6
1,353.5
688.1
665.4
98.1
6,799.8
-1,032.5
2,505.4
3,537.9
5,767.3
5,964.2
1,502.9
4,461.3
1,630.4
1,532.3
677.5
854.8
98.1
7,594.6
-1,602.5
2,507.0
4,109.5
5,992.1
Table 28 Summary of Government Budget (JD Million)
2001
Budget
Law
Preliminary
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Revenues and Grants
Domestic Revenues
Tax Revenues
Non-tax Revenues
Foreign Grants
Total Expenditures and Net Lending
Current Expenditures, of which:
Interest Payments (Commitment)
Capital Expenditures
Net Lending
Primary Deficit/Surplus
Current Deficit/Surplus
Current Deficit/Surplus, Excluding Interest
1,574.9
1369.9
798.5
571.4
205.0
1,906.1
1,524.8
268.7
287.4
93.9
-267.5
-154.9
113.8
1,699.5
1496.5
858.6
637.9
203.0
2,055.1
1,644.6
247.7
365.5
45.0
-310.9
-148.1
99.6
1,783.8
1585.3
884.2
701.1
198.5
2,007.4
1,643.1
278.1
299.0
65.3
-144.0
-57.8
220.3
1,800.9
1560.7
961.9
598.8
240.2
2,004.7
1,718.3
293.1
288.4
-2.0
-150.9
-157.6
135.5
2,079.1
1,837.1
1,059.0
778.1
242.0
2,257.6
1,843.1
300.0
445.1
-30.6
-120.4
-6.0
294.0
1,885.1
1,638.1
1,020.0
618.1
247.0
2,075.5
1,786.9
275.0
325.5
-36.9
-162.4
-148.8
126.2
Overall Deficit/Surplus, Excluding Grants
-536.2
-558.6
-422.1
-444.0
-420.5
-437.4
Overall Deficit/Surplus, Including Grants
Rescheduled Interest
Overall Deficit/ Surplus (Cash Basis)
-331.2
67.8
-263.4
-355.6
59.0
-296.6
-223.6
83.2
-140.4
-203.8
84.0
-119.8
-178.5
73.6
-104.9
-190.4
68.8
-121.6
Source : Ministry of Finance.
Table 30 Components of Public Expenditures (JD Million)
1- Current Expenditures
Wages and Salaries
Purchases of Goods & Services
Interest Payments (Commitment Basis)
Internal
External
Food Subsidies
Other Transfers
Pensions
Social Security
Decentralized Agencies
Relief Operations
Universities & Municipalities
Other
Defense and Security
Others
2- Capital Expenditures
Wages and Salaries
Studies and Research
Equipment, Machines, Apparatuses, and Supplies
Lands, Buildings & Constructions, and Other
3- Net Lending
Gross Lending
Repayments
Total Expenditures and Net Lending
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,524.8
342.0
68.5
268.7
19.1
249.6
71.2
287.9
213.4
7.2
44.8
7.9
14.6
444.5
42.0
287.4
18.6
5.2
46.7
216.9
93.9
139.8
-45.9
1,906.1
1,644.6
339.0
63.1
247.7
26.0
221.7
38.0
371.4
235.0
8.2
62.7
5.8
43.0
16.7
491.0
94.4(2)
365.5
19.8
4.3
45.5
295.9
45.0
77.6
-32.6
2,055.1
1,643.1
343.4
72.6
278.1
47.3
230.8
15.0
376.7
238.5
9.3
66.8
5.1
43.0
14.0
512.1
45.2
299.0
18.9
6.3
46.4
227.4
65.3
97.4
-32.1
2,007.4
1,718.3
366.0
72.2
293.1
48.6
244.5
0.0
408.4
268.6
9.8
67.2
5.0
43.0
14.8
531.2
47.4
288.4
19.9
5.7
40.9
221.9
-2.0
47.4
-49.4
2,004.7
Source Ministry of Finance.
(1)
: Preliminary.
(2)
: Includes JD 64.0 million for domestic payments arrears on public sector.
2001 (1)
1,786.9
380.3
81.7
275.0
56.0
219.0
0.0
452.5
292.7
10.7
77.4
9.0
48.0
14.7
537.2
60.2
325.5
20.3
5.3
40.2
259.7
-36.9
35.1
-72.0
2,075.5
Table 31 Central Government Domestic Debt (Budgetary Central Government and Own-Budget Agencies) (JD Million)
Gross Domestic Debt
1) Budgetary Central Government
A) Treasury Bills and Bonds
Bank Sources
Non-Bank Sources
B) Development Bonds
Bank Sources
Non-Bank Sources
C) Loans & Advances
Central Bank
Licensed Banks
Non-Bank Sources
2) Own-Budget Government Agencies
A) Corporate Bonds
Bank Sources
Non-Bank Sources
B) Direct Credit Facilities
Bank Sources
Gross Government's Deposits with the Banking System
1) Budgetary Central Government's Deposits
A) Ministry of Finance
With the Central Bank(1)
With Licensed Banks
B) Other Ministries
With the Central Bank
With Licensed Banks
2) Own-Budget Government Agencies Deposits
Net Budgetary Central Government Domestic Debt(2)
Net Central Government Domestic Debt(3)
(Budgetary and Own-Budget Agencies)
1998
1999
2000
2001
1,119
1,007
238
184
54
156
80
76
613
509
79
25
112
25
18
7
87
87
300
142
-92
-118
26
234
141
93
158
865
1,024
889
330
319
11
137
74
63
422
322
79
21
135
61
32
29
74
74
146
-8
-318
-345
27
310
187
123
154
897
1,203
1,120
480
412
68
172
85
87
468
272
119
77
83
31
22
9
52
52
291
114
-225
-277
52
339
195
144
177
1,006
1,369
1,261
740
629
111
160
69
91
361
272
79
10
108
63
51
12
45
45
250
94
-256
-307
51
350
207
143
156
1,167
819
878
912
1,119
Source : Ministry of Finance.
(1): Represents net treasury overdraft (treasury overdraft account minus Ministry of Finance gross deposits with
the Central Bank).
(2): epresents gross domestic debt of budgetary central government minus gross budgetary central government's
deposits with the banking system.
(3): Represents gross domestic debt minus gross government's deposits with the banking system.
Table 32 Outstanding External Public Debt (1) (JD Million)
1) Long-Term Loans
A)
Arab and Foreign Governments, of which:
Saudi Arabia
Germany
Japan
France
United Kingdom
United States
B)
Multilateral Institutions, of which:
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
Islamic Development Bank
IBRD and IDA
IMF
European Investment Bank
C)
Foreign Banks & Companies
2) Short-Term Loans
3) Other(2)
Outstanding External Public Debt (Excluding collateralized Brady
Bonds)
Collateralized Brady Bonds
Outstanding External Public Debt (Including Collateralized Brady Bonds)
Source : Ministry of Finance.
(1):
Represents balance of disbursed loans minus repayments.
(2):
Includes bonds and leases.
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
4,276.1
2,913.7
120.4
286.4
1,121.0
493.0
398.1
109.6
1,289.0
218.1
86.5
540.2
286.8
90.9
73.4
304.5
4,580.6
417.5
4,998.1
4,698.8
3,142.6
120.5
316.6
1,270.4
533.2
408.7
89.2
1,506.6
266.4
88.3
580.1
332.5
163.7
49.6
311.0
5,009.8
323.9
5,333.7
4,868.2
3,179.5
88.5
270.5
1,438.6
478.9
417.7
87.1
1,646.2
337.7
87.1
647.9
353.4
154.6
42.5
318.0
5,186.2
323.9
5,510.1
4,669.0
3,036.5
233.3
1,270.4
410.4
397.7
232.8
1,597.0
339.3
81.7
633.5
328.1
162.5
35.5
125.7
4,794.7
251.0
5,045.7
4,634.9
2,963.4
219.3
1,106.1
408.3
382.6
280.8
1,643.1
341.7
72.1
705.6
307.1
164.4
28.4
107.8
4,742.8
226.6
4,969.4
Table 33 Distribution of External Loans Disbursed in 2001 According to Source
Source
Industrial Countries:
United States
Spain
Japan
Germany
Denmark
Italy
Other
Multilateral Institutions, of which:
IBRD
IMF
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
European Investment Bank
Arab Monetary Fund
Islamic Development Bank
Other
Total
Source : Ministry of Finance.
Disbursements
(JD Million)
Relative Share
(%)
80.6
39.8
13.8
11.0
6.3
3.5
3.2
3.0
203.0
112.5
27.3
22.5
16.7
14.0
6.1
3.9
283.6
28.4
14.0
4.9
3.9
2.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
71.6
39.7
9.6
7.9
5.9
4.9
2.2
1.4
100.0
Table 34 Distribution of External Loans Contracted in 2001 According to Source and Economic Sector (JD Million)
Foreign
Governments
Adjustment Program
Imports Financing
Education
Water & Irrigation
Health
Transportation
Total
Source : Ministry of Finance
6.7
39.7
30.4
7.1
5.0
4.1
93.0
Multilateral
Institutions
126.5
16.5
143.0
Total
133.2
39.7
30.4
23.6
5.0
4.1
236.0
Relative
Share (%)
56.4
16.8
12.9
10.0
2.1
1.8
100.0
GREECE
Dr. Nicholas P. Glytsos
11873_2002
1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
COUNTRY PROFILE: ESSENTIAL FIGURES
1.1. Population
According to the 2001 Greek population census, the population of Greece
was 10,964,020, of which 5,431,816 were men and 5,532,204 were women.
The population is aged, with people over 65 representing 17.1 per cent of
the total and children below 14 representing 5.4 per cent, whereas 31 per
cent of the population is between 40 and 64 years of age (Table A1).
Between 1991 and 2001, population grew at an annual average rate of 0.67
per cent compared to a corresponding growth rate, in the previous decade,
of 0.52 per cent. Greece, as the other Western European countries, has been
experiencing a declining natural population growth. During the period 19912001, the average annual growth rate was of the order of 0.4 per cent.
Particularly in recent years, the situation has been aggravated, with the
number of deaths exceeding since 1997 the number of births. The birth rate,
in 2001, has dropped to 0.98 per cent and the death rate has climbed to 1.01
per cent. The total fertility rate per woman of reproduction age, from an
average of 2.3 children, during 1970-75, dropped to 1.3 children during
1995-2000. Thus, if it wasn’t for immigration, the Greek population would
have been roughly at the same level as 10 yeas ago.
Net migration, calculated as the difference of population between 1991 and
2001 minus the total number of births plus the total number of deaths during
the decade, was of the order of 700,223. The 2001 census of population
registered 796,713 persons (436,225 men and 360,488 women) with a
foreign citizenship, the Albanians representing 56 per cent of all foreigners
(Table A2). In reality, however, the number of foreigners in Greece is
believed to approach 1,000,000, given first, the considerable number that
did not apply for legalization in the recent government call, becoming thus
‘’invisible” during the census day, and second, the additional arrivals in the
meantime.
The overwhelming majority (98 per cent) of population is ethnic Greeks and
94 per cent belong to the Greek Orthodox Christian persuasion. The official
and spoken language is Greek of which the immigrants of various
nationalities seem to get rather quickly at least a minimum knowledge for
the bare communication with the native population.
124
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Due to the demographic deterioration and the ageing population, the number
of children in primary education decreased from about 900,000 in 1981 to
647,000 in 1999 and remained pretty stable thereafter, most probably
because of the rising enrollments of immigrant children. The number of
pupils in secondary general education is also down, from 716,000 in 1991 to
590,000 in 2002. However, at the same time, the number of students in
secondary technical and vocational education has increased by about 16.5
per cent, from 135,000 in 1991 to 157,000 in 2001, pushed by the rising
unemployment of youth with only secondary general education.
In tertiary education, despite the demographic hold down effect of
enrollments at the earlier educational levels, the demand for higher
education has been rising to a considerable degree. Thus, the number of
students in Universities from 86,000 in 1981 climbed to 117,000 in 1991
and to 149,000 in 2001, experiencing an increase of 27.4 per cent in the last
ten years. Analogous is the situation with the third level technical education,
in which the number of students increased from 29,000 in 1981 to 78,000 in
1991 and to 91,000 in 2001. In addition, due to the numerus clausus
restriction in Greek tertiary education, a very substantial number of Greek
students are studying currently in foreign universities.
Illiteracy is now insignificant in Greece and concerns very high ages. The
adult literacy rate (% of age 15 and above), although high even by mid1980s (93.2 per cent), has increased by the year 2000 to 97.2 per cent,
whereas the youth literacy rate (% of ages 15-24) is now 99.8 per cent, up
from 99.4 per cent in 1985. Adult women literacy rate is only very slightly
lower than that of men (female/male ratio 0.97 in 2000), while female youth
literacy is the same as male youth. We may note in this context, that the
female enrollment in secondary and tertiary education is higher than the
enrollment of male (female as a % of male 103 and 107, respectively for the
two levels of education, in 1998). Although the inability to read and write
has been eradicated in Greece, the ‘’functional illiteracy’’ is widespread,
creating problems of integration in the labour market.
1.2. Economy and Labour
The Greek GDP was, in 2002, of the order of 141 billion Euros, divided by
major economic sector as follows: agriculture 9.1 billion (6.4 per cent);
125
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
industry 27.7 billion (19.6 per cent); and services 104.3 billion (74.0 per
cent) (table 1).
In the same year, the gross national per capita income was 12,923 Euros and
the net per capita national disposal income 11,957 Euros. The average
annual growth rate of GDP per capita was, 0.9 per cent, during the period
1975-2000, doubled to1.8 per cent, between 1990 and 2000. The share of
investment in GDP has been rising in recent years, ending up in 2002 with a
23.2 per cent. The share of private consumption expenditure has been
declining since 1995 to reach 67.3 per cent in 2002, while public
consumption expenditure is more or less stable around 15.5 per cent. The
share of exports in GDP declined by almost 4.5 percentage points, but the
share of imports declined even more, by 5.0 percentage points (Table 2). As
table 1 shows, employment amounted to 3,917,500 persons, in 2001,
representing 52.8 per cent of the 15-64 years old population. The lion’s
share in employment 61.8, in 2002, belongs to services, 15.8 per cent to
agriculture and 13.7 per cent to industry. The unemployment rate was, in
2002, 9.6 per cent, dropping from 11.7 per cent in 1999. Female
unemployment rate is more than double the male unemployment rate (14.6
per cent as against 6.2 per cent). Youth unemployment is much higher than
the average for the whole population. At the end of 2002, the less than 25
years old youth had an unemployment rate of 21.0 per cent. Inflation
(change in the consumer price index) averaged, during the period 19902000, 9.0 per cent per annum, dropping to an average of 3.2 per cent over
the 1999-2000 period, whereas in 2002 rose by 3.6 per cent.
Exports of goods from Greece amounted, in 2002, to 29.0 billion Euros and
imports of goods to 37.9 billion Euros, generating a trade deficit of 8.9
billion Euros. Exports were equal to 20.5 per cent of GDP and imports equal
26.8 per cent of GDP. Compared to 2001, exports decreased by 2.4 per cent
and imports by 1.2 per cent, widening thus the balance of trade deficit. But
things have subsequently changed. During the first quarter of 2003, despite
the increased exports, the increased value of imports including oil led to a
deterioration in the overall balance of current account, raising the deficit
from 3.7 billion EUR, the first quarter of 2002 to 4.3 billion EUR in the first
quarter of 2003 (Table 3).
126
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 1 - Industrial Composition (%) of GDP and Employment in Greece, in selected years of the period 1980-2002
Economic
Sector
GDP
1980
1990
2000
2002
Primary
25.0
10.5
6.6
6.4
Mining
0.6
0.9
0.5
0.5
Manufacturing 15.2
15.3}
12.5}
12.2
Utilities
1.8
2.7
0.8
1.0
Construction
7.7
7.6
6.5
7.4
Services
49.7
63.0
74.4
74.0
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Size1
4,477
34,729 121,628 141,132
1981
Employment
1991
2001
2002
30.7
22.2
16.015.8
0.5
0.5
19.3
19.2
14.2
13.7
0.9
0.8
8.3
6.8
7.3
7.4
40.4
50.3
61.1
61.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
3,529.3
3,632.4
3,917.5
3,948.9
Sources: Ministry of Economics and Finance, National Accounts Statistics (various issues) Statistical Service of
Greece (NSSG), Labour Force Survey (various issues)
1
GDP at current prices, in million EUR. Employment in thousand persons
Table 2 - The Composition of Greek GDP by Expenditure Category, 2000-2002 (At current prices)
Expenditure Category
Years
1995
Private Consumption
Public Consumption
Investment
Exports
Imports
GDP
Size of GDP (million EURO)
73.1
15.3
18.9
17.6
-24.9
100.0
79,927
2000
69.5
15.7
22.5
24.1
-31.8
100.0
121,628
Source: Greek National Accounts Statistics (www.statistics.gr tables/S900).
2001
68.4
15.3
22.9
22.7
-29.3
100.0
130,927
2002
67.3
15.8
23.2
20.5
-26.8
100.0
141,132
Table 3. Greek Balance of Payments (million EUR)
Items
Balance of Current Account
Balance of Trade (without oil)
Balance of Oil
Exports
Imports
2001
-2,441.7
-6,057.6
-1,143.1
3,712.7
10,913.4
January-April
2002
2003
-3,722.1
-6,381.8
-1,156.7
3,350.5
10,889.0
-4,330.9
-5,856.5
-1,687.0
3,627.5
11,171.0
Source: Kathimerini, 21.6.2003 (original source: Bank of Greece)
2003/2002
(%)
16.35
-8.23
45.85
8.27
2.59
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
1.3. Geography and Territorial Characteristics
Greece’s surface is 131,957 sq. km. Islands – more than 2000 in number of
which only 170 are inhabited – occupy 20 per cent of this surface. Eighty
per cent of the land is mountainous, whereas Greece’s very long coastline
sums to 13,700 km. Cultivated fields and orchards occupy about 30 per cent
of the territory. The climate of Greece varies substantially among its
regions. In southern and central Greece the climate is Mediterranean with
hot dry summers and mild winters. In northern Greece, winters are colder.
Regions in the west receive far more rain compared to the east. The average
annual rainfall in Athens and central Greece is 400 mm, whereas the
mountains receive much snow. The average temperature in Athens is in
January 10 degrees centigrade and in July 28 degrees centigrade. Greece is
divided into 9 geographic departments, the two of which, Attica and
Macedonia are respectively dominated by the two large cities of the country,
Athens and Thessaloniki, with a corresponding population of 3.0 and 2.3
million, representing 52 per cent of the country’s 11 million population. The
third major department is Peloponnesos with 1.2 million, while the other 6
departments have each a population ranging between 215,000 and 796,000
inhabitants (Clogg, 2003).
The principal natural resources of the country include lignite, with an annual
production of 58 to 62 million tons. The certain reserves of lignite number
9,500 million tons, but are not all exploitable. Lignite is used almost
exclusively for electricity production. There is also bauxite, whose
production, in recent years, reaches roughly 1.8-1.9 million tons a year.
Minerals, such as chromium, copper, uranium and magnesium are also
present in small quantities. Petroleum also exists in very small quantities
while there are no considerable reserves of natural gas (ibid.). Mild forms of
energy, i.e. solar, aeolic and geothermic, exist in substantial quantities bur
are only very little exploited. Water resources give annually about 65-69
trillion m3, of which 80-84 per cent are used for irrigation, 13-15 per cent in
households and 2.5-4.0 per cent for energy production. However, the
distribution of water resources is unequal and creates often tensions,
although things are getting better over time. Greece cannot cover all its
energy needs from local natural sources and depends on imported energy.
Finally, the islands and the coasts of Greece supporting the tourist industry
are also, in a way, part of its natural resources.
130
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Concerning the environment, the per capita emissions of carbon dioxide
from a level that was 10 per cent lower than the European average, in 1990,
today it exceeds substantially that average, despite the lower than the
European per capita consumption of energy. This is due to the heavily
polluting energy mix of lignite for electricity production and the
conventional oil use in transportation. Air pollution becomes at times severe
in the larger cities, Athens being the champion. Due to the industrial activity
and the densely populated city, in conjunction with the great number of
circulating automobiles compared to the capacity of the streets, Athens
suffers considerably from air pollution, which has implications to the health
of its inhabitants, particularly those suffering from respiratory problems. It
also damages the Greek antiquities, primarily Parthenon. The city’s
industrial wastes and sewage find an outlet in the gulf of Saronikos in the
vicinity of Athens (Clogg, 2003). It is true that as a result of an antipollution
policy, poisonous air emissions have been reduced in recent years, but
Greece is still far above the European average.
In respect to solid wastes, Greece has doubled in ten years’ time the
production of wastes, which is though lower than in Europe as a whole.
Furthermore, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture
deteriorates the water horizon, whereas industry has a rather low share in air
pollution, i.e. 17 per cent in carbon dioxide and 16 per cent in sulphur
dioxide emissions.
It is evident, that the energy sector has the main responsibility for all
categories of pollutants. Overall, the ratio of energy consumption to GDP is
about double the European average, indicating the non-efficient use of
energy in the Greek economy (Kathimerini, 20.6.2003, referring to a report
of the National Center of Environment).
Regarding the social consciousness on environmental issues and the reaction
of people to environmental problems, a recent opinion poll conducted at the
New York College in Athens showed that these issues are placed seventh in
terms of importance on a priority list of contemporary problems.
Environment is preceded by unemployment, the economy, education,
criminality, drugs and poverty. Emphasis was given in this poll on the lack
of adequate information concerning the nature and the various aspects of
environmental degradation, as well as the factors that cause it. A majority of
73 per cent of the interviewees are of the opinion that despite the efforts
made by the state, the environment continues to deteriorate, due primarily to
industrial activity and to a lesser extent the automobiles. The poll further
showed that the participation of youth in environmental organizations is
131
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
practically non-existed, while the participation in volunteer programmes for
environmental issues is small.
1.4. Key Issues
Apart from the significant problems of health, poverty and crime to be
discussed shortly, some other important issues for consideration are
highlighted in this section. The ‘’historical’’ paternalism and nepotism
characterizing Greek politics dominates the ‘’way of doing things’’ in
Greece. This, and the large scale interconnection between politicians and the
business community do not allow the healthy development of class politics
and the unaffected decision making in government for the general good.
This kind of situation makes often politicians shy away from the real
practical problems of the people, while the political debate often refers
either to the general abstract ideals of freedom, democracy and socialism or
to the past historical behaviour of opposing political parties, taking
sometimes the form of personal confrontation.
Related to this is the corruption, at a small or larger scale, of public officials.
Due to the bureaucracy and the malfunctioning of the various government
departments, citizens are often forced by the circumstances to pay either for
avoiding delays in having their problems solved or bribing for illegal or
irregular favours. The GRECO (2002) group of the Council of Europe
maintains that ‘’corruption appears to merge into the much more global
problem of administrative malfunctioning, in which individual acts of
corruption pass unnoticed’’. It continues to say that ‘’the problem of
transparency of rules and regulations seem to be crucial and is likely to
contribute to the persistence of certain forms of corruption’’ (page 18). In
regard to transparency, GRECO is placing Greece as 42nd on a list of
countries, which is the lowest place among EU members. Particular Public
Services that are often discussed in the press as nests of corruption are the
city planning authorities, the internal revenue service and the police, among
others.
The ageing population and the low reproduction rate have become chronic
problems of concern in the Greek society. Any rise in population comes
from the inflow of immigrants in the country. However, as it is generally
accepted, immigration cannot, in the long run, contain demographic
deterioration.
132
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The environment, already touched upon earlier, particularly the pollution in
the larger cities, notably Athens, although reduced a little in recent years as
a result of appropriate policies, its level is still unacceptable and much
higher than the European average.
At the macroeconomic level, a particular problem that raises concern is the
difficulty to overcome low competitiveness of the Greek economy vis-à-vis
its partners in the EU and the third countries that are associated with it. The
low productivity and the relatively higher inflation of Greece compared to
its European partners are major contributing factors. This leads to the
chronic problems in the balance of payments, accumulating the external
public debt.
Persisting unemployment, especially of youth even educated youth, but also
women, is a disturbing and painful problem affecting a considerable number
of households, has economic, social and psychological implications and is a
factor contributing to deviance and crime.
The large number of illegal immigrants that still exist, despite the recent two
efforts for their legalization, is a concern both of the government and the
general public, and is also a source of poverty and crime, as will be further
discussed in this report.
133
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
2.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
HEALTH
2.1. Definitions, Facts and Figures
The health care services are provided in Greece by a mixed public-private
system consisting of the National Health System (NHS), established in
1983, the health units of certain Social Insurance Funds - the largest of
which is IKA, covering just about half of the population – the military
hospitals and a private network of health care facilities, which include
physicians with specialties, clinics, diagnostic centers and laboratories. Part
of the NHS are the Health Centers, located all over the country, particularly
for servicing the countryside, providing primary health care and prevention.
In the NHS that includes the public hospitals and the primary health care
centers, all services are provided free of charge to everyone.
In 2002, the health care capacity of the country consisted of 59,518 hospital
beds, of which 36,621 (67.7 per cent) belonged to the NHS and 15,397 (25.9
per cent), contained in 234 hospitals, to the private sector. Primary health
care is serviced by about 25,000 private practices and laboratories, and 250
diagnostic centers. Half of these centers are situated in Athens and are
equipped with high quality expensive medical technology. They are
financed by signing contracts with the social insurance Funds, on a case by
case basis. Most of the private hospitals are general and maternity units and
are financed, as the diagnostic centres, by the social insurance funds through
contracted arrangements and also by the patients themselves. Greece, with
5.44 hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants holds a low place among the EU
countries. It has however the lowest occupancy rate (70.4 per cent), stable
over the last decade.
Concerning the medical and nursing staff of health care delivery in Greece,
a study by the National School of Public Health in Athens shows the
existence of a ‘disequilibrium’ between physicians with specialties and
general physicians and family doctors. According to this study, Greece has
41.5 physicians per 10,000 inhabitants, but only one general practitioner.
General practitioners make up 1.8 per cent of the total number of physicians
in the country. This compares very badly with, for instance, Great Britain
where 46 per cent of all physicians are general practitioners. Analogous,
unfavorable for Greece, is the comparison with other countries, such
Austria, Portugal and Italy, with correspondingly 50, 31 and 34 per cent of
134
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
general practitioners (Kathimerini, 22.6.2003). More specifically, the above
study finds a ‘surplus’ of 34 per cent of special physicians and a great
shortage of general and family doctors who should increase six times if this
gap is to be bridged. Nurses and related personnel are also lacking and
should be doubled to come to a satisfactory level. This study is also pointing
out the lop-sided emphasis on the NHS hospitals and the neglect of
preventive efforts concerning the risks of the modern way of living
(smoking, lack of exercise, overweight, drugs, etc.), which are responsible,
as it is noted, for the 90 per cent of premature deaths. Finally, the study
recommends the connection between the health care services and the social
services, given that several health problems, especially the chronic ones, are
related to social factors.
One very important aspect of the health insurance in Greece is the inequality
in insurance benefits among different insurance funds, and consequently, the
different burden on family budgets for health cost. Among the 40 or so
health insurance funds, 5 are the major ones (Table 4). Each one of these
funds has its own rules and regulations; some funds are healthier and more
generous to their beneficiaries, others weaker and less generous. This has
implications on health care delivery, particularly with respect to the primary
health care. Despite the efforts made by the government for the unification
of some of these funds, the task is difficult, facing the opposition of the
beneficiaries of the more wealthy funds.
The IKA that is the major fund for private employees, having by far the
largest number of beneficiaries, of the order of 5.5 million people, has, as
we noted, its own polyclinics for the delivery of health care. However, the
quality of services offered and the accessibility of patients to this system is
not satisfactory. In a survey, it was found that 40 per cent of patients at the
IKA clinics visit at least once a year a private physician either because of
lack of confidence (41.1 per cent) or for getting a second opinion (19.4 per
cent) (Theodorou, 1993, p.127).
135
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 4: Health (and Pension) Insurance Funds in Greece, 2001
Insurance Funds Insured Population Proportion of Beneficiaries
(%)
Social Insurance Fund (IKA)
Social Insurance Fund for Farmers (OGA )
Fund for Merchants, Business Owners, taxi and Lorry drivers, etc.
(OAEE)
Fund for Civil Servants (OPAD)
Fund for Sailors and Shipment
Rest of Funds
TOTAL
5,530,000
2,150,000
1,422,000
46.5
18.1
12.0
1,289,000
10.8
203,000
1.7
1,300,000
10.9
11,894,0002 100.0
Source: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Health, Health Care and welfare in Greece, 2003,
p.39 (Adjusted and complemented).
2
The number of beneficiaries of all funds together exceeds, the size of the population, due to the fact that, for
various reasons, in some cases one person may be registered to more than one fund.
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The OGA for farmers, with 2.2 million insured persons, has no clinics of its
own, its beneficiaries having a free access to the Health Centers of the NHS.
The beneficiaries of the fund for civil servants have a free of charge access
to any physician on a list of contracting physicians paid by the fund on a
case by case basis with very low fixed fees. Finally, the beneficiaries of the
fund for merchants and business owners may visit physicians of 9
specialties who are paid by the fund according to the number of patients
registered with them.
Apart from these, the rest of the numerous funds cover special groups of
beneficiaries, such as employees of banks, public utilities, or certain
occupational groups, such as lawyers, physicians, engineers, etc. Among
them, they offer health insurance coverage to about 1.3 million people. A
few of them have their own clinics.
Turning to the financial issues of health care, we may note that the NHS is
financed by the state budget, the Social Insurance Funds in a case by case
manner and the households that make use of the health services. Despite the
supposedly free of charge services to all citizens by the NHS, a high share
of the overall cost for health is incurred by households, feeding a flourishing
private sector supply of health services. By 1989, the share of each of the
above three sources of finance was roughly one-third of total expenditure.
These shares changed however over time. In 2000, social insurance funds
represented 46 per cent of total health expenditure, the private sector 42 per
cent and the rest 12 per cent came directly from the government budget. In
other words, the two major sources of finance took a much higher burden
than in the past. Concerning the allocation of expenditure, the non-private
spending, i.e. social insurance funds plus the government budget, goes
mostly to hospital treatment (56 per cent in 1998), whereas primary health
care absorbed only 28 per cent. Households’ medical expenses are heavily
(72 per cent) directed to the primary health care, including dental treatment
that takes almost half of it (34 percentage points). Households spent 12 per
cent of their health expenditure for hospital treatment and 15 per cent for
pharmaceuticals, just about the same proportion as paid by the public sector
at large (table 5).
137
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 5: Composition (%) of Health Care Expenditure in Greece, 1998
Category
Hospital
Expenses
Primary
Health
Pharmaceuticals
Care
Public expenditure (Including social
insurance)
Private expenditure
Total Expenditure
55.91
28.27
15.82
100.0
12.36
37.11
72.26
47.26
15.38
15.63
100.0
100.0
Source: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Health, Health Care and Welfare in Greece, 2002.
Total
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
In 2000, total public and private health care expenditure in Greece
represented 9.1 per cent of GDP, up from 4.2 per cent in 1990. This figure is
considered by researchers as an underestimate of the actual expenses by 11.5 per cent of GDP, due to the inaccurate calculation of the private
expenditure – missing the underground economy in health care in the form
of expenses not included in GDP or tax evasion. These expenses are under
the table payments for quicker access to NHS or extra charges by the
physicians in public hospitals, e.g. for an operation or tips to nurses. For
instance, by mid-1990s, the ‘’unregistered’’ expenditure on health was
estimated to represent 1.1 per cent of GDP (table 6).
2.2. Policy and Legislation
The NHS was established in 1983 (L. 1397/1983) after the socialist
government took office, setting as a basic principle that health care is a
social good not subjected to the laws of profit and is offered free of charge
equally to each and every citizen independently of his or her socioeconomic
position. The protection of the citizens’ health is the exclusive responsibility
of the state. The law sets in motion a process of decentralization of health
services; their integrated planning; the development of primary health care
at the Health Centers; and the institution of the hospital physician with ‘full
and exclusive’ employment. Private hospitals that until then were subsidized
by the government were turned into state hospitals.
Over time, it was realized that the NHS was not functioning in the way
expected and the provisions of the law were, for a number of reasons, not
properly implemented. Thus, in 1992, a new law (L. 2071/1992) was passed
by the conservative government that came to power, for the ‘modernization’
and organization of the NHS. Changing partly the philosophy of the
previous system, the new legislation moved towards a more ‘neoliberal’
approach. They tried, in effect, to fix some of the weaknesses and flaws of
the NHS after ten years’ experience with it.
139
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 6 Estimated ‘’Unregistered’’ Health Expenditure as a Proportion of GDP and
of Total Expenditure on Health
Years
1982
1988
1994
Unregistered health Expenditure as % of
GDP
Total health expenditure
1.06
1.56
1.13
17.5
25.1
16.9
Note: Unregistered health expenditure is taken as the difference between expenditure on
health given in the household survey and income from the National Accounts Statistics.
Source: Souliotis, 2002
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The new legislation made an effort for a more competitive market in health
care services and a better control of public expenditure, limiting the
responsibility of the state. This resulted in a greater share of households in
health care expenditure. The new legislation introduced, in parallel with the
‘full and exclusive’ employment of the previous regime, the practice of
‘part-time employment’ of physicians, allowing them in compensation to
have also a private practice. Every physician of the NHS had, in effect, the
option of either of the two possibilities. Due to the much lower wages of the
part-time alternative, the response of physicians to it was very small.
Furthermore, the new law allowed, under certain qualitative conditions, the
operation of private clinics and hospitals.
After the socialist government returned to power anew, legislation (L.
2194/1994) was passed to restore the NHS to its original philosophy,
abolishing, in effect, the 1992 law, but with the ambition of setting the NHS
to a new operational framework. Subsequently, with the purpose of fixing
some of the malfunctioning of the system, after consideration of the findings
of a Commission of International Experts, a new legislation (L. 2519/1997)
was voted, in 1997. This law established some Organs for the protection of
the rights of hospital patients; emphasized the preventive health care and the
need for more and better information, and it provided for the development
of facilities for the care of children’s health. Attention was also given to the
continuous training of the health personnel and the cooperation of public
health services with the welfare and social protection services. The new
legislation further provided for regional workshops of public health and a
better finance management and control of hospitals and other medical units.
In this framework, physicians of general practice were hired in clinics and
Health Centers of primary health care, while as an innovative initiative,
networks of primary health care were connected with the NHS hospitals.
Finally, the National Organization of Drugs prepared an exclusive list of
medicines that could be financed by the various health insurance funds, on
behalf of their beneficiaries.
One step further, new legislation (L. 2889/2001) followed, in 2001, with the
main objective of changing the organizational structure and management of
the NHS. Administrative managers were appointed in all public hospitals,
while health care facilities were further decentralized, by creating a
‘Regional Health System’ (PeSYs). The purpose was to create unified and
comprehensive quality regional services in all stages of health care,
including medical care at home. The PeSYs, 17 in number, have, according
to the law, extensive responsibilities for the coordination of regional
141
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
activities and the effective organization and management of all health care
units within their jurisdiction. All health care units operate as decentralized
and independent units of the PeSYs they belong to (Ministry of Health and
Welfare Report). Specific actions in this context include the ‘’Asterias
Programme’’, which promotes networking between local authorities in order
to strengthen services to citizens and the ‘’Hippocrates Programme’’ that
improves the access of small islands to health care services (EC, 2002, p.
66). Another important innovation of this legislation is the instituted
possibility of physicians to receive patients in hospitals after regular hours
in the afternoon, charging a predetermined fee that is allocated to the
hospital and those involved in the after hours practice. At no other
circumstances may the physicians of the NHS exercise private practice in or
out of the hospital.
According to a recent statement of the undersecretary of the Ministry of
Health and Welfare, the main policy objective for 2003 is prevention,
subscribing to the philosophy that it is better to have fewer patients in
hospitals rather than more hospital beds. A ‘’smoke free environment
everywhere’’ and a warning to people, especially the young generation,
about the harmful effects of modern dietic habits and alcohol, as well as the
benefits of more exercise are the primary concern. Building new hospitals in
various parts of the country and staffing them with the appropriate medical
and nursing personnel are also in the agenda of this year’s activities.
142
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
3.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
POVERTY
3.1. Definitions, Facts and Figures
The EU considers as poor “persons, families or groups of persons who have
so limited means (material, cultural and social) that they are excluded from
the minimum bearable mode of life in the countries where they live” (OKE,
2000, p.20). This abstract conception is conventionally quantified by
Eurostat, defining as “the line of poverty the 50 per cent of the arithmetic
mean of equivalent adult per capita net monetary income, on the basis of a
country’s measurement”. The 50 per cent definition seems to be preferred in
Greece, for policy purposes, as also in most of the EU countries and the
OECD. We may note here the emphasis given by the Greek Economic and
Social Committee (OKE) on the qualitative rather than the quantitative
aspect of poverty, claiming that ‘’the qualitative dimension of poverty refers
to the inability of access of an individual in the basic social, political,
cultural and professional opportunities and possibilities of a society at a
particular time period’’ (OKE, 2000, p.3). On the basis of this definition,
Eurostat data from a European wide investigation show that, by the end of
2000, 1,000,000 people, i.e. 10 per cent of the population fell, for three
consecutive years, below the poverty line (http://ta-nea.dolnet.gr).
Although this seems to be the prevalent, it is not the only quantification of
the poverty line, since the alternative of the 60 per cent mean is also used,
giving 17 per cent of Greeks below the poverty line (Eurostat August,
2000). Of them, one-fourth were 16-24 years of age, 61 per cent 25-49 and
14 per cent 50-64 (the corresponding figures for the EU were 20, 62 and 19
per cent) (www.in gr/news,2000/Greece). As is noted, however, these figures
underestimate the true poverty, because official statistics don’t include the
foreigners, who would raise, as is guessed, the proportion of poor by 43 per
cent.
Being that as it may, the NAP for social inclusion makes it clear that Greece
has neither adopted an official definition of poverty line nor has it arranged
for a universal minimum guaranteed income. We may note in this context
that a Eurostat Task Force on Social Exclusion and Poverty Statistics
‘’declined to define social exclusion arguing that this was just not possible’’
(Micklewright, 2000, p.8). Although in Greece, relative poverty is measured
by various studies on the basis of either consumption or income, the use of
143
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
consumption is justified, because it incorporates to some extent some of
these missing elements (EC, 2002, p. 79). However, as it appears, this
consumption-income dichotomy in calculating poverty in Greece has some
meaning only for the 50 per cent definition or below, concerning people for
whom the non-inclusive elements just described are relatively more
noticeable (Table 7).
In counterpart, and aside from official income statistics, a more accurate
assessment of the actual dimensions of poverty, particularly for international
comparisons, would require the consideration of some additional elements
not included in these figures. Such elements refer to the high proportion of
self-occupancy housing, even among poor households, the still considerable
agricultural sector and the extra non-registered income of various groups,
such as farmers working seasonally in tourism or others in jobs in the
unregistered economy that is flourishing in Greece (it is estimated to about
30 per cent of GDP). As noted in the Greek Action Plan for Social Inclusion
2001-2003, counting the contribution of the owner-occupied housing alone,
would reduce the proportion of poor by 3 percentage points, or 15 per cent.
This suggests that the poverty measured by the official statistics is very
likely overestimated, especially when it is calculated from the internal
revenue data collection.
Among the causes of poverty, it is found that unemployment is, par
excellence, the major contributor, whereas 31 per cent of the pensioners live
at the margin of poverty. What is even more disturbing is that these
proportions tend to increase over time. Other groups exposed to poverty
include the uninsured, the elderly, the ill and persons with disabilities (The
Nea, 17.10.2000). The incidence of poverty is much lower for working
household heads, while is not terribly different from the overall average for
unemployed household heads, given that the majority of unemployed in the
country do not belong to this group. In contrast, poverty is found to be
remarkably higher for households with female than male head (Glytsos and
Kanellopoulos, 1999).
144
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 7 Poverty line in Greece according to alternative
definitions. (Calculated from the Greek Household
Survey 1998/1999)
Definition of Proportion of people On the basis On the basis
below the poverty line:
of
of income
consumer expenditure
poverty line
40% of median income
50% of median income
60% of median income
70% of median income
Gini coefficient
4.9
10.7
17.9
25.6
0.307
6.0
11.2
17.3
25.1
0.322
Source: Adapted from the Greek National Action Plan for Social
Inclusion
Note: Expenditure and income are per equivalent adult in the
household, taking account of the size and the age composition of the
household, on the basis of the OECD scale.
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Comparing Greece with the EU average shows that the risk of poverty (60
per cent definition) is 23 per cent against 16 per cent for the Union. The risk
of poverty varies among different groups of people. For example,
unemployed males have a risk of 45 per cent-the highest- the retired females
40 per cent; and the economically inactive males 29 per cent. The
corresponding average figures for the Union are, 43, 19 and 25 per cent.
While the figures for unemployed males and inactive males are only a little
higher than those of the Union, the risk of poverty of retired females is
double the figure of the Union (EC, 2002, pp.186, 188). In Greece, 46 per
cent of one-person households over 65 live below the poverty line as against
an average of 27 per cent for the EU (50 per cent definition of poverty line).
Poor men over 65 represent 37.8 per cent of all aged men and poor women
59.6 per cent of all aged women. It is particularly interesting that the level
of education of the Greeks who are below the poverty line is much higher
than the corresponding average of the EU. About 23 per cent of the poor
Greeks have a relatively higher level of education compared to a
corresponding 9 per cent in the EU (Eurostat, August, 2000).
3.2. Policy and Legislation
Let me note at the outset the interesting observation that the Greek National
Action Plan for Social Inclusion, which is, in effect, directly and indirectly a
plan for poverty, is the responsibility of five ministries, namely Labour and
Social Security as coordinator; Health and Welfare; Interior, Public
Administration and Decentralization; National Education and Religion; and
the National Economy and Finance. The lack of a specific official definition
of poverty for policy purposes, explains, according to the NAP for social
inclusion, the co-existence of a great variety of policies and income transfer
schemes to certain population groups, which in fact include people with a
high incidence of poverty (Glytsos and Kanellopoupos, 1999). Such
measures, with evidently other objectives that in reality alleviate poverty
include welfare assistance; jobs for the unemployed; training; solidarity pay
to low pension beneficiaries; tax reductions; family allowances based on the
number of children, or income transfers to persons with disabilities,
unemployed, ex-prisoners, uninsured, women, etc. It must be emphasized in
this context that the particular weight of the Greek social security system on
work, is making it incapable of sufficiently covering those with a poor
employment record, including young job seekers, the long term unemployed
146
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
and persons with disabilities. The unification of policies and the application
of uniform criteria to the disparate benefits, as the Plan goes, remains a task
for the future (p. 106). The NAP for Social Inclusion identifies key issues
and concentrates on certain target groups in a nexus of economic,
employment and social reforms. New targeted initiatives, such as income
support to households, and low pension receivers, or cash benefits to long–
term unemployed aged 45-65 and to families with children in school up to
16 years of age, are all part of this effort.
The Eurostat Task Force, mentioned above, suggests that the statistical
analysis concerning exclusion should focus on the labour market, given
‘’the importance of employment as the core of the social tie, as the entrance
to social protection, as it gives a social identity, social status, satisfaction
social contacts and prevents families from long term poverty’’
(Micklewright, 2000, p. 8). This, and the recognition that ‘’participation in
employment is emphasized by most member states [including Greece] as the
best safeguard against poverty and social exclusion’’ (EC, 2000, p.12), led
to a two-way link between the NAP for Social Inclusion and the NAP for
Employment. On the one hand, the aim is to increase employability and
create new job opportunities, and on the other to focus on actions facilitating
participation in employment for individuals, groups, or communities found
at a distance from the labour market. The trend towards more active and
preventive policies reflects experience gained under the Luxembourg
process (ibid.).
In this spirit, the Greek Action Plan for Social Inclusion considers as the
major challenge and a policy priority the preservation of social cohesion,
including measures for the smooth integration of immigrants. The policies
adopted in the NAP for Employment for the purpose of fighting
unemployment are to the direction of meeting this challenge. But apart from
these rather general measures, the NAP for Social Inclusion proposes also a
series of more concrete reforms linked to exclusion (health, welfare,
education, social security, public administration and decentralization).A
case in point is the development of a system in schools offering second
opportunities for the reintegration of persons over 18 in the educational
system through individual teaching, as an alternative to basic qualifications.
Furthermore, for acquainting people in remote areas and islands with
computers, certain internet information centers are conveniently located for
the promotion of ‘’eInclusion’’, including possibilities that favour the access
of persons with disabilities to information and communications
technologies.
147
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Adopting the proposition of ‘higher employment for lower poverty’, the
Action Plan for Health and Welfare initiates and encourages policies
“aiming primarily at the prevention and eradication [sic] of phenomena of
poverty and social exclusion”. In this respect, the plan discusses active
measures for employment and social inclusion on an “individual basis” and
promotes equal opportunities to employment, improving the access of
sensitive groups of people and of women to the labour market. This is
pursued with family-friendly measures of employment in a decentralized
system of social protection, aiming at the “support of the individual or
groups of individuals in a context of self-determination and active
involvement vis-à-vis the problem emerged”. The welfare system favours
the “open” as opposed to institutionalized care of sensitive groups, making
also provisions for the association of the welfare services with the NHS and
the psychiatric health services, as well as with the services that promote
employment and the prevention of social, economic and labour market
exclusion.
The OKE report, mentioned above, maintains that although poverty in
Greece is considerable, the attention given to it by the political and social
dialogue is not up to the severity of the problem, maintaining that ‘’the
Greek state but also the Greek society never had a comprehensive policy for
poverty as an autonomous phenomenon’’(p. 6). They continue to suggest
that existing policies on poverty involve passive financial assistance without
offering outlets of escaping it. Poverty is basically attributed by OKE to
technological unemployment, globalization and, to a considerable extent,
the inadequacy of the educational system to reorient the labour force to
alternative directions of employment. Relevant active policies ought, as the
report goes, to fight poverty along with social exclusion, the two being an
undivided issue.
The EU project EQUAL for fighting discrimination and inequalities with
respect to the labour market is certainly expected to have some relief on
poverty. This programme is targeted to groups that are usually consisting of
persons exposed to high risks of poverty, such as high unemployment youth
and women; persons with low education; asylum seekers; deviants; exprisoners; drug addicts etc. In this project Greece participates with 40
partnerships most of which concern ‘’employability’’. Among the objectives
of several of these partnerships are the access and return to the labour
market of discriminated against workers and the fighting against racism and
xenophobia in respect to the labour market. The theme “equal opportunities
for men and women’’ concerns family-friendly employment projects and the
148
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
eradication of professional distinction between the sexes. Some of the more
specific actions taken are the cooperation and networking of bodies
supportive of employment; improvement of the systems that promote
employment of disadvantaged persons; programmes of long-term training
for such groups, and many more.
In the framework of adopted or planned policies just discussed, a sample of
very specific measures, taken or proposed, targeted to various disadvantaged
groups, but working towards alleviating poverty, are now presented. Some
of them are ‘’passive’’ and others ‘’active’’. To begin with, since 1996, all
receivers of low pensions (below 6,340 Euros in 2003) get an Allowance of
Social Solidarity (EKAS), ranging inversely according to the level of
pensioner’s income, between 27.80 to 111.18 Euros in 2003, under the
condition that the family taxable income is below a certain level (11,511
Euros in 2003). About 360,000 persons are currently the beneficiaries of this
allowance.
In the summer of 2002 started a new programme providing financial
assistance to 270,000 household heads of extremely poor families in
mountainous and disadvantaged areas. The allowance amounts to 300-600
Euros annually, depending on the beneficiaries’ income. In addition, a
school allowance of 300 Euros is given per child of poor families until
finishing the 9-year compulsory education, in case the annual family income
is below 3,000 Euros (Kathimerini, 3.7.2002).
One recent active measure, on which special emphasis is given in the draft
of the Action Plan for Employment 2003, is part-time employment – in
Greece it is only 5 per cent of total employment - in the public sector, with
the expressed objective of containing poverty and safeguarding social
cohesion (Kathimerini, 24.7.2003. The part-time employment is considered
appropriate by the government on grounds that an unemployed person is
2.15 times more at risk of being poor compared to someone holding a job.
Furthermore, a housewife who welcomes part-time employment is given
this outlet, reducing substantially her household risk of poverty and social
exclusion.
Currently, the Greek government is preparing a bill – to be submitted to the
parliament this Fall – that proposes a three-year programme of incentives,
for the establishment of ‘’social cooperatives’’. These incentives - social
security contribution allowances - are addressed to ‘’groups of high
unemployment’’ and to ‘’socially vulnerable groups’’. More specifically,
the beneficiaries are planned to be mainly women, young people, long-term
149
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
unemployed, persons with disabilities, one-parent families and ex-drug
addicts. These cooperatives of social scope may offer a range of services
and products. They will be able to contract with private enterprises, the
public sector and local authorities for the purpose of developing the ‘’third
sector’’, which in other Mediterranean countries is known to have
contributed to employment creation, as claimed by the planners of this
policy.
150
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
4.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
CRIME
4.1. Definitions, Facts and Figures
In the last 20 or so years crime has been rising at a rather fast pace. Figures
presented by the Vice-Chief of Police show a rapid rise of criminal activity,
particularly of heavy crimes. Until the late 1980s, 87-90 homicides were
committed annually. In 1990, homicides reached 104, in 1997, 251 and in
1998, 258. He concluded that foreigners, especially the Albanians, had a
significant share in these crimes. Analogous has been the situation with
robberies. As he stated, until 1995, there were 825 robberies on the average
per annum. From 1996 onwards, the number started to increase, reaching
2,368 robberies in1998. The Vice-chief further stated that the organized
crime has no solid organizational structures and strategies in Greece and
does not operate through an integrated and stable network.
(www.patris.gr/archive/99/10/23/1stpage.htm). This exacerbation of criminal
activity has subsequently receded, at least for heavy crime. In 2002,
homicides were 94; attempted homicides 115, rapes 222 and robberies
2,266, but other crimes have increased. Per 100,000 of population, total
recorded crimes were 834.62, in 2002, which is the same as in 1996 (Table
8). We may point out that with reference to 1996, although homicides
dropped substantially by the year 2002 - and the same is true for thefts and
burglaries - rapes and robberies have increased.
Referring to more recent years, the major opposition party of New
Democracy suggested that criminal activity of heavy crime has increased in
2002.They presented data in the parliament, according to which, in the 11month period of 2002 the number of burglaries amounted to 44,211
compared to 41,000 in the corresponding period of the previous year,
robberies reached 1,800 up from 1,500 in 2001. Without disputing these
figures - they are official in any case – the Minister of
Public Order stated in the parliament that, nevertheless, ‘’Greece is the last
country in criminal activity and the more secure in Europe. It is the least
violent country in the world’’. He went on to say that criminality, especially
homicides, has decreased in recent years. In the city of Thessaloniki alone, the drop
reached 50 per cent, compared to the previous year, recognizing, however, that the
problem exists with robberies in Greater Athens.
151
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 8 Crimes recorded in criminal (police) statistics, including attempts to commit crimes
Crime category
Grand total of recorded crimes
Homicides completed
Homicides attempted
Frauds
Rapes
Animal thefts
Thefts-Burglaries
Automobile thefts
Contraband
Robberies
Sexual assault
Drug offences
Other crimes3
Number of Crimes
1991
1996
2002
59,897
138
93
587
243
575
42,938
8,653
99
1,207
974
2,449
1,941
87,312
169
149
544
183
599
63,699
12,498
186
1,531
564
4,695
2,495
90,874
94
115
821
222
559
49,641
17,889
471
2,266
409
10,424
7,963
Rate per 100,000 inhabitants
1991
1996
2002
587.22
1.35
0.91
5.75
2.38
5.64
420.96
84.83
0.97
11.83
9.55
24.00
19.03
834.32
1.61
1.42
5.20
1.75
5.72
608.68
119.42
1.78
14.63
5.39
44.86
23.84
Source: Ministry of Public Order, Crime Statistics (http://www.ydt.gr/main).
3
Includes smuggling of antiquities, blackmail, beggaring, copyright, forgery, guns.
834.62
0.86
1.05
7.54
2.04
5.13
455.92
164.30
4.32
20.81
3.76
95.74
73.14
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
One important issue widely debated in Greece is the extent to which
immigrants are involved in criminal activities. Popular belief, formed partly
by exaggerating TV reports, has it that illegal immigrants are responsible for
the majority of crimes. Relevant figures show that among arrested criminals,
illegal immigrants committed, in 1999, 34 per cent of homicides, 25 per cent
of rapes, 42 per cent of thefts-burglaries and 35 per cent of robberies
(Eleftherotypia, 5.4.2000, presenting data of the Ministry of Public Order).
It is believed that these comparative figures give an underestimate of the
true share of foreigners in crime, due to the relative difficulty of
apprehending them (no papers, no fingertips, no specific address, etc). Data
from the ministry of Public Order, referring to the wanted by the police
criminals in Athens and Thessaloniki show that out of the 643 robberies, in
2002, 64 per cent were committed by foreigners, and out of 105 rapes, 51
were committed by foreigners too. In the attempted 47 homicides, the
offenders are foreigners in 33, whereas of the 266 premeditated murders,
207 were committed by foreigners, in which the Albanians have the higher
share. For the ‘’lighter’’ crimes, on the other hand, such as theft and drugs,
the Greeks have the greater responsibility (Ethnos, 25.10.2000). A report
submitted by the ministry of Public Order to the President of the Greek
Parliament, indicates a high share of foreigners in organized crime, pointing
out the particular threat of Albanian, Russian and Turkish gangs (1998).
It is very disturbing that, according to the special Juvenile Tribunal of
Athens, juvenile crime climbed up in the region of Attica, mostly Athens
conurbation, by 23 per cent in 2001. Of the 5,106 cases processed by the
court, 4,885 concerned boys over half of which aged 13-17 years. Robberies
increased by 23 per cent and violence (body injuries) by 14 per cent.
Driving misdemeanors went up by 56 per cent, beggaring 21 per cent, and
theft 9 per cent. Drugs concerned only 5 per cent of the cases in the Juvenile
court, but the problem is believed to be in reality much more severe. Most
of young criminals have a low educational level, including dropouts and
they come from disturbed families, living mostly in the poor
neighbourhoods of Greater Athens. There is a great concern about the
criminality of teenagers 15-19 years of age that is related to drugs. Some
consider TV as a major causing factor, acquainting youth with crime as a
means of success. Data show that the deaths o youngsters below 17 caused
by the use of drugs have increased, in ten years’ time, 1987-97, by a factor
of 11, while the access to drugs of 16 year olds increased 20 times, between
1991 and 1997, and of people of all ages the access has tripled.
153
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
A study of the Council of Europe by GRECO, referring to the case of
Greece, maintains that corruption is not limited to the ‘’little envelop’’ got
by certain civil servants for complementing their income, but it has become
wide scale, taking advantage of international networks, including those of
organized crime. This is the case, for instance, with illegal migration
trafficking and prostitution networks (p. 17). According to this report, no
official study exists on corruption in Greece. The GRECO evaluation team
(GET) refers however to a 1998 study, drafted on the initiative of a
parliamentarian, showing that ‘’corruption was on a larger scale than had
been imagined, affecting in particular the police, the tax authorities and the
construction sector’’. Furthermore, from the replies to a questionnaire,
corruption takes the form of bribery (passive or active). Among the different
forms is the bribery of public officials to assist people to get subsidies or aid
from the EU funds, or to help immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe
to obtain the Greek citizenship. On the basis of these developments, it is
suggested that Greece needs a global comprehensive strategy, not a
fragmentary one, against corruption (p.25). Money laundering is a separate
criminal offense (L. 2331/1995). This law has established a body
responsible for centralizing information on laundering operations (GRECO,
p.6). The ‘’Section 7 Committee’’ is an independent administrative
authority funded by the ministry of finance.
Crime is proved to be a lucrative business endeavour. Data presented in a
colloquy at the Technical University of Crete in Greece, in 1999, show that
about 1000 persons were murdered, in the preceding five years and 6,200
were injured by criminals during the process of crimes and terrorists’
attacks. It is estimated that out of the 292,000 criminal acts, robberies,
burglaries, etc, criminals made about 323 million Euros. This figure does
not include the proceeds from the sale of drugs and the trafficking of women
and illegal migrants, neither the proceeds from the counterband of
cigarettes, cosmetics and alcoholic beverages, all of which are a flourishing
business in Greece. On a world-wide basis, UNICEF presents data of the
annual trafficking of women and children for the purpose of prostitution,
amounting respectively to 700,000 and 1,000,000, with Greece having a fare
share at least for women trafficking from Central and Eastern Europe. Out
of this global crime, it is noted that traffickers make about 30,000 USD per
head, totaling a revenue of the order of 51 billion USD annually.
154
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.2. Policy and Legislation
In support of the government efforts, the Minister of Public Order claims
that the policy adopted in recent years against crime was effective and has
decreased considerably criminal activity. He admits, nevertheless, the rising
uneasiness of citizens regarding crime. Summarizing the measures taken
against crime, the Vice-chief of the police referred particularly to the steps
made for the modernization of police methods and technology;
improvement in the organization of the police and the training and retraining
of the police force; the disengagement of police from non-policing services;
the learning from the good practices applied in other EU countries; the
putting into effect already signed bilateral agreements with neighbouring
countries and other Central and Eastern European countries for deterring
trafficking of people, drugs and guns and he pointed out the active
involvement of citizens in fighting crime. Recent legislation (L. 2928/2001)
on the ‘’Protection of Citizens from Criminal Acts committed by Criminal
Organizations’’ is a law against organized crime and terrorism, providing
new court practices and much stiffer penalties than the previous legislation.
The Vice-chief of the police also drew the attention to the priority given in
enhancing the pedestrian and mounted police patrols as a deterrent to
robberies, theft and other crimes. For small crime prevention, the
‘’neighbourhood policeman’’ in cooperation with people and local bodies
intervenes for solving problems of security and reassuring the feeling of
safety to the citizens. This new police service was put in force on a pilot
basis on 17 March this year in 35 police precincts in Attica and 2 in
Thessaloniki, involving 354 policemen in an equal number of
neighbourhoods. Before starting, these policemen attended special seminars
on the philosophy of this institution and their specific duties. So far, the
results of this experiment are judged encouraging by the competent ministry
and they plan to expand the project to the rest of the country (Table A3).
A new institution, announced by the Minister of Public Order, is the
establishment of Local Councils of Criminal Prevention, which is a policy,
decided three years ago, but had not the expected appeal to the
municipalities. Through the Councils, the government offers its support for
the drafting of local preventive programmes. As the minister explained, the
idea is not that the Councils ‘’take the law in their own hands, neither to
create islands of informers’’. Their main role is to register and study the
155
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
criminality in their neighbourhood and prepare an annual report; to
encourage citizens to participate in programmes of prevention; to assist in
the social action of the police; to develop social solidarity; to establish
centers of assistance and information, in cooperation with local social
bodies, for the crime victims (Kathimerini, 19.5.2002). These Councils can
be created in localities with more than 3,000 inhabitants and are staffed with
volunteer scientists and functionaries of the region. As the initiators of this
idea note, the experience of other countries has shown that this is a difficult
task to accomplish, since the Councils run the risk of becoming bureaucratic
and have their role confused with that of the police.
The prevention of youth criminality falls under the domain of the ministry
of justice and its Societies of Adolescence Protection (EPA), established
in1940 and brought up to date with recent legislation (L. 2298/1995, L.
2331/1995). These societies are public entities under the supervision and
finance – except of some donations - of the ministry of justice, and they are
situated at the seats of the courts of First Instance. Their task is to prevent
the commitment of juvenile crimes by the antisocially behaving youth, or
youth who, according to their family and social conditions, are in danger of
becoming offenders or victims. Another body with responsibilities ‘’after
the fact’’ is the Supervisor Service (L. 378/1976 and Presidential Decree
49/1979) at the Juvenile Courts. This is the most important noninstitutionalized caretaker of adolescences who have committed offenses or
are in danger of doing so. In the competence of the ministry of justice also
belong the 2 Special Centers for Therapy (L. 2721/1999) of imprisoned
youth with drug offenses. These centers can accommodate in all 610
persons. Their therapy goes through four different stages of treatment of 26
month duration until they are prepared and ready to reintegrate into the
society. For helping the discharged persons to integrate into the labour
market, the ministry of justice in cooperation with the ministry of labour and
social security has programmes of subsidizing new jobs for them.
Speaking on behalf of the EU, in a UN conference for the prevention of
crime, during the recent Greek presidency, the Greek Minister of Justice
emphasized the role of the newly established European Network for the
Prevention of Crime, pointing out its significance for juvenile delinquency
and the criminality in the cities. He praised the progress made in dealing
with the trafficking of women and children and its connection with the
cross-border organized crime, which is this year’s primary objective. This
effort, as he stated, cannot be successful without cooperation between the
state and the citizens and without international cooperation. Greece is
156
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
greatly concerned with this kind of criminal activity and welcomes and
shares in any EU relevant policies and interventions. In this respect, Greece
supports and has participated actively in the project of ‘’small arms and
light weapons’’ (SALW) control concerning the South East Europe.
Technical support was also offered and seminars were given to the Albania
police, and in addition, Greece is financing the SALW programme for
Albania with 50,000EUR annually for the period 2002-2006. Furthermore,
Greece is cooperating under a bilateral agreement with Bulgaria police on
border control issues. Similar agreements are also signed with Russia and
Ukraine (europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc).
The two consecutive legalizations of immigrants in 1998 (Presidential
Decrees 357 and 358/1997) and in 2001 (L. 2910) seem to have contributed
to the containment of their criminal activity, by offering them the possibility
of making some first steps to their gradual integration into the Greek
economy and society. A byproduct of this legalization is that it facilitates
the search and control of immigrants’ criminal activity through the
requirement that the applicants are fingerprinted. The legalization also
contributes to the reduction of their poverty and the related to it tendency of
offensive behaviour and criminal actions.
157
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
5.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
TRENDS AND CORRELATION
5.1. Evolution and Structural Developments over time
Health: Five major laws for the reformation of the health care system in
Greece were passed in the last 20 years (1983-2003). This series of
legislation started up, in1983, with the establishment of the NHS and ended
in 2001, with the setting up of major Regional Health Systems. The creation
of the NHS in 1983 was by itself, despite its several weaknesses and
inefficiencies, a great step towards the democratization of health care
delivery in Greece. It put an order to the previous situation of a disorganized
and inaccessible to all citizens health care system, and offered a relief to the
low income and poor people. Of particular interest has been the
decentralization introduced with the establishment of NHS, which was more
recently enhanced by the regional organisation and coordination of health
care by the creation of the Regional Health System (PeSYs). The increasing
attention over time to the primary health care and the connection of primary
health care networks to the NHS hospitals has also been a welcomed
development. The improvement in the management of the system by
appointing, in 2001, administrative managers in the NHS hospitals and the
hiring of more physicians of general practice filled partly a long standing
gap in primary health care. Positive is also the cooperation of public health
services with the welfare and social protection services, introduced in 1997.
The part-time employment of NHS physicians, introduced in 1992, did not
seem to work due to low wages, whereas the possibility of full-time
physicians to receive private patients in after hours inside the hospitals they
work is a controversial issue, standing to criticism on grounds that it refutes
the essential NHS philosophy of free health services for all. It serves
however the practical purpose of keeping the interests of good doctors to the
NHS alive, without an excessive financial burden to the system that would
have been necessary for raising salaries to a competitive level. The rising
share of the state, over time, in total health expenditure, although very far
from satisfying the principle of free health services for all, is in the right
direction. The establishment of the exclusive list of approved medicines, to
be paid by the social insurance funds for their beneficiaries, is an effort to
control the tremendous expenses for pharmaceuticals, aiming at a more
efficient use of the funds’ financial resources devoted to health care.
158
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Without disregarding the various weaknesses of the health care system, the
government seems to be content with the progress made so far. They
consider as a satisfactory development the creation of modern infrastructure
at the regional level, succeeding in covering geographically the needs of the
population and reducing regional inequalities, as a result of which the flow
of patients to the city hospitals has been declined. They believe that the
regional improvements in the health care facilities are ‘’a prerequisite for
the balanced social and economic development of the regions’’ (Action Plan
for Health and Welfare, p. 20). The government finds also adequate the
coverage of needs in the secondary and tertiary health care. All these
developments and improvements in the health care supply services leave,
however, much to be done for satisfying the patients and restore their
confidence in NHS. Their dissatisfaction is very vividly indicated by the
still high ‘unofficial’ private health expenses, representing, as we have
mentioned, 1.1 per cent of GDP.
Poverty: Although, in the 1970s, poverty was mostly a characteristic of
farmers, it has increasingly become, in the 1980s and 1990s, an urban
characteristic as well, due mainly to the rise of urban unemployment.
Between 1982 and 1994, poverty of scientists and executives more than
doubled, has increased for office clerks, and has declined a little for farmers
and blue collar workers. This notwithstanding, farmers continued to have
the highest incidence of poverty, 36.3 per cent (1994) as compared to
scientists and executives who carry the lowest incidence rate, 19.0 per cent
(Table A4).
Using the Greek Household Survey data, an econometric study found that,
between 1974 and 1994, income inequality and poverty (absolute and
relative) was reduced. The reduction took place particularly during the
period 1974-82, then, after an intermittent increase it was reduced again
(Mitrakos and Tsakloglou 2000). Taking, in addition, into account a number
of non-monetary welfare indexes (housing conditions, durable consumer
goods, etc), the standard of living of the poor has been continuously
improving. A primary contributing factor is considered by these authors the
rise of the educational level and the greater urbanization (ibid. p. 46).
According to other econometric findings (Sarris and Zografakis, 1997),
presented in table A4, education is indeed a reducing factor of poverty in
Greece. In 1994, the incidence of poverty for household heads without
primary education was 40.8 per cent; for those with primary education 28.4
per cent; with secondary education 13.6 per cent and with tertiary education
7.7 per cent. However, over time, especially since 1989, the situation of
159
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
secondary and tertiary education degree holders has substantially
deteriorated, while people with primary education have seen their poverty to
decline slightly. The intensity of poverty changes are inversely related with
age. For persons under 24, the incidence of poverty almost doubled,
whereas for ages 55-64 poverty has increased slightly and for persons over
65 declined a bit.
A distinctive and varied role in poverty has been played over time by
emigration from and immigration to Greece. First, the exodus of Greeks, in
the 1960s and early 1970s, reduced the number of poor, while the inflows of
migrant remittances raised the incomes of their poor families at home.
Second, the termination of the great emigration had on both counts a reverse
negative impact on poverty. Third, the great inflows of unskilled foreigners,
starting in the early 1990s and continued to the present time, raise both
inequality and poverty. Apart from adding to the cohorts of poor with their
presence, the illegal immigrants among them, working often for low wages,
displace to some extent unskilled Greek workers (see, for instance, Glytsos
and Katseli, 2003).
To answer the question whether the various government transfers to low
income people reduces poverty and to what extent, if any, consider the
following information. According to Eurostat data presented by ESSPROS,
Greece has increased social protection expenditure to 24.5 per cent of GDP
in 1998 (EU average is 27.7 per cent). More than half of social expenditure
goes to old age and survivors’ pensions (52.6 per cent, as against 45.7 per
cent in EU), leaving fewer resources for funding other social transfers. The
greater proportion of pensions in Greece, such as the minimum IKA pension
and the farmers’ (OGA) pensions, which are at or near the poverty line, are,
in fact, for their major part, social welfare payments. They are justified as a
means of reducing poverty for people over 65, which is the main age group
affected by poverty. It has been estimated that this kind of state
‘’intervention’’, including the EKAS, i.e. the allowance of social solidarity
for receivers of low pensions, has cut in half the 1999 proportion of poor (50
per cent definition), from 22.6 per cent without these transfers to 11.4 per
cent after they are counted in the relevant calculations. As a result, the
proportion of poor was kept stable in the face of an increasing poverty trend
(1988-1999) without these transfers (National Action Plan for Social
Inclusion, 2001). In absolute terms, on the basis of the 1994 poverty line,
the proportion of poor has been reduced by 34 per cent, the above transfers
having contributed to this reduction (ibid.). Let me note, in this context, the
government’s claim that the cost for Greece’s accession to the European
160
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Monetary Union was not borne by the poor since their economic conditions
had improved during the adjustment period for satisfying the Maastricht
criteria. They explained this by the increasing social expenditure that took
place, notwithstanding the efforts for the accession.
Eurostat’s findings show, however, that, apart from the redistributing impact
of pensions, any other state transfers, in the context of the welfare policies,
have very weak redistributive effects, reducing the proportion of people
below the poverty line only by one percentage point. This figure is the
lowest among the EU countries, in which such transfers reduce poverty even
up to 18 percentage points. In the same spirit, the Greek Economic and
Social Committee (OKE) has expressed the ‘’opinion’’ that the taxation
system in Greece is incapable of playing its redistributive role, on grounds
that the share of the indirect taxes in total tax revenue is high. In addition,
the great tax evasion, particularly within the extensive unregistered
economy, is not a poverty reducing factor. In the same tone, the leading
daily newspaper Kathimerini (20.11.2002), discussing the 2003 Greek
government budget, expressed doubts about its poverty relieving
possibilities. As the argument goes, the expected increase of indirect taxes,
weighing heavily on total tax burden falls unequally on the poor, whereas
the proposed income tax cut, does not in reality concern the poor without a
taxable income. On the other hand, the proposed increases in wages and
pensions or the unemployment benefits would give only a marginal relief to
the main part of the poor who are chronically in that situation.
Crime: Up until the 1980s, Greece was a country experiencing a very
limited criminal activity, mainly light offenses and minimal heavy crime,
the offenders being Greeks, without imported crime. Along with economic
development and the restructuring of the economy towards more urbanized
production, in the following years, there came higher urban unemployment,
greater income inequality and urban poverty, as well as the invasion of
drugs and the uncontrolled flocking of illegal immigrants from neighbouring
and Eastern European countries. These developments and the collapsed
regimes in the countries just referred to, have also opened up the possibility
of a lucrative business of cross-boarder trafficking of illegal workers,
women for prostitution and drugs, through established inter-country
networks of smugglers and traffickers, as well as a rising mobilization of
foreign criminals within Greece. As a result, criminal activity of all sorts
was accelerated, particularly in the 1990s. Foreigners and foreign organized
gangs – mostly from Central and Eastern Europe – have more than a fare
share in the criminal activity in Greece, particularly in homicides, robberies
161
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
and burglaries. Juvenile crime, which is an altogether different type of
crime, to some extent with different motives and modes of operation, has, in
recent years, increased greatly, especially in certain Athens neighbourhoods.
The overwhelming majority of these crimes are not however related to
drugs, despite their tremendous proliferation in these years.
Several measures have been taken for fighting crime in the past couple of
years, including legislation for improving courts efficiency, prison
infrastructure and management and providing for more stiffening penalties
for certain crimes. The police have been reorganized, better equipped with
modern technology and adopted new police practices for policing and
investigation. Many illegal immigrants have been legalized, which helps
them to be better integrated in the Greek economy and society, and by
implication, reduce their poverty and the tendency to commit crime. All
these measures seem to have contributed to the drop of crime. Although in
2002 a resurgence of burglaries and robberies is observed, homicides, as
well as the overall criminal activity are reduced considerably compared to
the 1998 level.
Despite the recession in criminal activity, Greeks consider crime as one of
the most serious problems in the country (Kathimerini, 19.5.2002). A
relevant opinion poll, in 1999, indicated that crime is the second most
serious problem after the economy but before unemployment. They are not
generally convinced, about this crime setback, and they connect the overall
rising criminality, in the last decade, to the presence of large numbers of
immigrants in the country. Newspaper reports suggest, however, that despite
the impressions given by TV, statistics show that the crimes committed by
foreigners are a much lower proportion than the crimes committed by
Greeks. One of the reasons for the ‘’explosive’’ criminality is, according to
this view, the unprepared police, including the inadequate training, despite
the serious steps of improvements made. It is suggested – and this is another
angle to the problem in hand - that the police has been socially disgraced,
originally during the seven-year dictatorship, but also afterwards by the
socialist and leftist political parties. It is interesting, however, that today
there is no political party of the extreme right persuasion to have
extravagant views and propose ‘’radical’’ measures against crime,
especially with respect to immigrants.
The Youth Club of the New Democracy party, now in opposition,
underlines the increasing criminality after 1994 and the inability of the
government to deal with it. Referring to a recent opinion poll, they note that
76.9 per cent of people are scared and feel unprotected even in their own
162
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
neighbourhood. The Club is disputing the international statistics, which
show that Greece occupies a low position on a list of European countries
regarding crime. They explain their view on grounds that the Greeks don’t
trust the effectiveness of the police to resort to when they become victims of
certain criminal acts.
An opinion poll by the Greek section of Transparency International, in
February 2001, presented evidence that 83 per cent of the 920 interviewees
considered Greek society to be infected by corruption, 45 per cent had given
a bribe or ‘’backhander’’ and 18 per cent admitted of having used
connections. This survey found however no connection between corruption
and organized crime. On a scale of 0-10 (10 being the best – the least
corrupted), Greece with a score of 4.2, occupied, in 2001, the 42nd place in
the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, which is the
lowest place among the EU countries.
5.2. Correlation Between poverty, Health and Crime
Despite the improvements made in the poverty front, the EC maintains that
‘’as a result of the problems in labour market, and of structural
developments – such as the change from a rural to an urban society, the
ageing population, the weakening of family support mechanisms and the
strong immigration flows – poverty and social exclusion continue to
represent a serious challenge’’ (EC, 2002). Greece is experiencing the wellknown connection between long –term unemployment and low income,
which makes it vulnerable to poverty, in fact, ‘’this risk is considered as a
major factor behind poverty and social exclusion [in Greece]’’ (ibid., p. 24).
The malfunctioning of the Greek labour market and the related to it
unemployment are key factors in generating poverty and of keeping many
young people for lengthy period of times out of work. Economically
suffering households constitute an unhappy and miserable environment for
raising children who become vulnerable to bad influences that may push
them to social deviance and crime. A good experiment that economic and
social exclusion tends to offensive behaviour, and, conversely, that
economic and social integration and employment contains criminality. For
instance, the legalization of immigrants may affect their social conduct.
Stepping out of illegality and being treated equally with the Greeks in the
labour market, they won’t have to resort to crime for their survival. Not that
163
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
legalization solves all the problems of immigrants, but it makes them equal
at least in the eyes of the law, giving them the opportunity to have social
insurance, better paid jobs and working conditions, in other words, a first
serious step for their integration into the Greek society and the sense of
belonging and not being always on the run.
Several studies confirm the a priori positive association of economic growth
with poverty reduction. This connection varies among countries according
to income inequality. In countries of low income inequality, ‘’growth is
twice as effective in reducing poverty as in countries with high inequality’’
(Lusting and Stern, 2000, p.3). And inversely, reducing inequalities in
people’s assets, including land and education, can improve efficiency and
growth, while reforms bringing down inflation and raising growth are good
for the poor (ibid. p.4). These authors also suggest that the containment of
bureaucracy and corruption encourages private investment. Pursuing
policies that benefit small firms and small producers makes market work
better for the poor (ibid.). Other writers maintain as a general corollary that
growth benefits the poor and poverty reduction is good for growth. In
general, policies such as investment in primary education; rural
infrastructure; health and nutrition that increase the income of the poor tend
to enhance the productive capacity of the whole economy, boosting the
incomes of all groups (Rodrik, 2000, p.8). This seems to fit the case of
Greece. The NAP for social inclusion, highlights the strong correlation
between poor health and poverty and exclusion. An EU-wide survey found
that of people below the poverty line, 13 per cent had bad health as against 9
per cent of people above the poverty line.
On the controversial issue of the connection between globalization and
poverty, Berg and Krueger (2002), discussing cross-country evidence and
reviewing some of the vast microeconomic literature on the effects of trade
liberalization on income distribution, reached the conclusion that ‘’there is
no systematic relationship between openness and the income of the poorest,
beyond the positive effect of openness on overall growth’’ (p.18). The
income of the poor is growing one-for -one with average income. They note,
however, that in some countries the poor do better than average and in
others worse than average. It has been argued that corruption is higher in
countries where domestic firms are sheltered from foreign competition,
while trade liberalization ‘’combats the corruption that flourishes wherever
there is too much red tape and protectionism’’ (Sutherland, 2002).
A report of the ‘’Transparency International’’, called ‘’World Barometer of
Corruption’’ concludes that, generally, ‘’the poor suffer more seriously and
164
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
more directly from political corruption compared with their privileged
fellow countrymen’’. In this context, interpreted properly, our preceding
analysis gives some clues as to the implications of various factors, such as
macroeconomic development, social and political changes, and the policies
adopted on health, poverty and crime, on Greece’s structural development,
growth and quality of life. Inferences may also be made regarding the
interconnection among these three issues and their feedback effects on the
economy and society.
The linking of the NAPs for Social Inclusion, Employment and Health and
Welfare in a concerted action for attacking this complex set of problems is
evidence that the Greek government is well aware of the connection
between employment and social exclusion, with all the undesirable
ramifications that entails with respect to poverty and crime and their
interrelationships. However, in certain respects, a better tighting of policies
would probably be needed. The NAP for Social Inclusion gives some hints
on such inconsistencies, noting that the measures proposed ‘’to prevent the
risks of exclusion’’ cover most population groups at risk of poverty, but
they appear to be fragmented and not tied up to the measures proposed for
employment and the access to resources. For instance, the policy ‘’to help
the most vulnerable’’ has ‘’no evident link between the actions foreseen and
the accompanying social support services that are needed for the specific
groups’’ (ibid.).
Although most of the particular measures are targeted to specific population
groups, some of them are innovative with an integrated approach. A case in
point is the Integrated Action Plan for Roma, which combines
infrastructural investment and investment in human and social capital. In the
administrative context, the Plan provides a decentralized delivery
mechanism of 50 Employment Promotion Centers. As it has been observed,
if decentralization is accompanied by the provision of financial resources,
technical assistance and participatory mechanisms ‘’can make state
institutions more responsive to poor people by increasing the interaction
with them’’ (Lusting and Stern, 2000, p.6).
The mixture of the policies, in this framework, concern economic and social
measures; the improvements made in the NHS and the educational system;
the legalization of immigrants; the technical and organizational updating of
police methods and practices for crime prevention and the apprehension of
criminals; and the intensified participation of Greece in transnational
projects and networks against crime. This collection of policies has the
potentials – and there are already some good signs – of improving the
165
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
economic wellbeing of disadvantaged people and of weakening the povertycrime-poverty vicious circle in the years to come.
One characteristic of the Greek society and its mode of operation, which
needs particular consideration in the context of this report, is that many
problems are beautifully solved in paper by laws and regulations, but if one
looks at the real world, things are not working as they are supposed to. Law
requires, for instance, that all workers, irrespective of nationality etc, should
be treated equally, are socially insured and they and their employers pay
social security contributions. And yet, the reality is different for thousands
of Greeks and legalized immigrants alike, who may still work without social
security and at wages below the legal minimum, or long hours without
analogous pay. Thence, equality and regularization in paper may solve some
of the problems of workers in general, but do not necessarily help them
escape poverty or remove the causes of crime.
The ‘paper-versus-reality’ situation is vivid in Greece in the case of the
NHS. Its philosophy expressed practically in the law by the declaration that
all citizens have a free of charge access to the NHS is in its implementation,
for various reasons, far from being true. As a result, poor people who cannot
afford the private health care services may not have the appropriate medical
attention, with implications on their health condition. By the same token,
people are inadequately protected against various diseases by the ineffective
primary health care and the unsuccessful efforts of preventive medicine, in
respect to smoking, drinking, drugs, dietary habits, lack of exercise, which
are all important factors of sickliness. Recall the non-negligible proportion
of poor that are found with health problems. People found in that situation
have difficulties with the labour market, which in turn leads to more poverty
with feedbacks in a process of poverty-health-poverty vicious circle.
Another ‘’free of charge’’ public good supposed to be equally accessible to
all, according to the law, is education from kindergarten all the way up to
the university. In reality, however, students bear a considerable cost of their
education for extra-school private tutorials, which is an old tradition in
Greece, signalizing the inadequacies in all levels of public education. In
addition, students enrolling in higher education institutions incur additional
living expenses - especially when they have to study in a place other than
the place of their parents’ residence - or are deprived of their education by
lack of family finance or the non-affordable foregone income. This situation
is equivalent to an actual inequality in the access to education, raising the
risk of unemployment, with further implications on poverty, youth
delinquency and crime, already mentioned. As our earlier presentation has
166
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
shown, low education workers with low wages, at the margin of the labour
market, have a high participation in the cohorts of poor people.
The taxation system in Greece is not generally a successful policy
instrument for redistributing income in favour of the poor. Although various
income tax arrangements are often made in the name of low income
households, the exceptionally high proportion of indirect taxes in total tax
revenue renders the taxation system as a whole regressive, turning it against
the poor. Furthermore, any transfers by the government to low income
people, except pensions, have only a marginal beneficial effect on poverty.
5.3. Key issues, political agenda and perspectives
Health: Although the chain legislation of the last 20 years brought
considerable improvements in health care delivery, it has been incapable of
resolving certain chronic problems and inadequacies of the system. A
Commission of foreign experts appointed by the government in 1994 to
study the NHS drew the attention to the underdevelopment of the system;
the unprofessional behaviour of the staff; the excessive number of
specialists; the unsatisfactory organization of the supply of primary health
care; and the low satisfaction of patients. They also noted the problems
generated by the discontinuity and inconsistency of health care policies and
legislation over time. Such inadequacies that pose today a big challenge
concern the infra-structure, staffing and management of the NHS, in
particular the excessive number of physicians in hospitals and clinics in the
large cities and the shortages in regional and rural areas; the general
shortages of nurses all around; and the inadequacies of primary and
preventive health care. While the Health Centers in the countryside are
inadequately staffed with personnel that lacks the appropriate professional
experience, in the cities the problem is that there is no integrated network
system of primary health care, which has negative implications on the
quality and the cost of the services offered (Action Plan on Health and
Welfare). Furthermore, the traditional form of management and the slow
introduction of information technologies, particularly in the public sector,
contain the effectiveness and efficiency of the primary health care system.
The lack of a coherent system with a core stable framework has left
unresolved major problems, such as great inequalities in the accession to
health care services, which among others is the consequence of the
167
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
inequality in health insurance by different social security funds, resulting in
unequal health care coverage and imposing excessive financial burdens on
the beneficiaries of the weaker funds. It is thus pertinent to improve the
efficiency and accessibility for all in the NHS, so that low and middle
income patients are not forced to resort to the expensive private clinics. This
is a problem to which relatively more attention should be given both in the
cities and the countryside. The situation could be improved by the merging
of certain funds, a difficult task that has been unsuccessfully attempted by
the government, meeting strong opposition by the more wealthy funds and
their beneficiaries. For avoiding some of the disadvantages in the supply of
health services, it has been suggested that it would be better – less expensive
and more efficient - that certain social security funds, which have their own
clinics, such as IKA, ‘buy’ health services at good prices and offer them to
their beneficiaries. Certain efforts made by the government to that direction
were, however, met with strong opposition by the management and the
employees’ organizations, having reservations as to the ways of
implementing this cooperation, or simply opposing the idea of surrendering
their sovereignty.
Our analysis has shown that appropriate staffing of hospitals and clinics
should be a priority. Particularly pertinent is the increase in the ratio of
general physicians over specialists, which at present is extremely low, and
the setting into operation the institution of the ‘’family doctor’’. At the
regional level, and in the framework of the recent Regional Health System,
a more complete and balanced staffing with physicians and nurses is
needed, safeguarding a necessary minimum of specialties in regional
hospitals –recall that in Athens they are in surplus. This way, the large city
hospitals, notably in Athens and Thessaloniki, would not be overcrowded by
patients from all over the country. Particular attention should be given, in
this respect, to the reformation of the IKA clinics – the major social security
fund in the country – in all aspects of health care delivery, but more so in
staffing and the accessibility of patients to the system without long delays
and queues.
According to a survey of the Greek National Center for the Quality of Life,
concerning the satisfaction of patients with the NHS, half of the
interviewees characterize as ‘’very bad’’ the cleanness of the hospitals and
39 per cent as ‘’very bad’’ the information offered inside the hospitals.
Thirty-five per cent characterize the accessibility of the hospital health
services as below average. Only 6.8 per cent is satisfied with the
accessibility to these facilities (Medical Press, 1999). This forces several
168
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
people to resort to expensive health services abroad. According to an older
opinion poll, 72.3 per cent of those hospitalized in Greece expressed their
intention of going abroad (Douli et al, 1992). I believe that things have
improved materially since then, so that the number of patients to seek
hospitalization in other countries has decreased. This is indicated by an
opinion poll, a couple of years ago, which showed that 85,9 per cent of the
sample were satisfied with the standards of the private health services, as
against 59.2 per cent with the NHS hospitals (Souliotis, 2000, p.260). Some
of the more specific aspects of these inadequacies, detected by the Greek
ombudsman concern great delays in medical appointments for planned nonemerging tests, both at the NHS hospitals and the IKA clinics The fact that
all appointments are fixed for the same hour, results to a long waiting until
one’s turn comes around, whereas absenteeism or delays in arrival of
physicians in their posts are also witnessed. All these inefficiencies can
explain why patients are resorting to private health care services.
Poverty: There is no specific official definition of poverty for policy
purposes in Greece, probably because there is no targeted policy for poverty
per se. This notwithstanding, various measures addressed to different groups
of people, such as the unemployed, the low educated, the low pension
receivers, the large families, persons with disabilities or ex-prisoners, to
mention only some, seem to cut across the poor segment of society, given
that these are the groups with a high incidence of poverty in any way it may
be conceived. As we have seen, the unemployed workers, particularly men,
experience the highest risk of poverty along with retired women and people
over 65 years of age.
Several of the measures that, one way or another, may alleviate poverty
offer passive relief assistance rather than constituting an active effort for
helping the poor escape long-term poverty. On the side of active policies are
the measures proposed by the link between the NAP for Employment and
the NAP for Social Inclusion, offering a potential outlet from poverty.
Measures related to education and training, or ‘’family friendly
employment’’, such as the currently decided part-time employment
openings in the public sector, favouring especially women, are pointing to
this direction. How effective they would be remains to be seen, since until
now no follow up studies exist to give some clues.
One important corollary of our presentation is that the poverty line, defined
on the basis of official statistics, leaves out some significant elements of
income or wellbeing, which in a country as Greece are contributing to the
standard of living of individuals and families. The non-inclusion of these
169
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
elements in the calculation of poor results in an overestimation of the extent
of poverty computed from official statistics. Missing wellbeing elements of
this category include self-consumption by the still high number of farmers;
the high proportion of owner-occupied housing; probably the unregistered
incomes from the extensive underground economy in Greece; and, finally,
certain incomes from the seasonal and occasional employment in tourism.
This situation is problematic both for knowing the extent of the true poverty
in the country and for valid international comparisons with countries in
which such sources of income or wellbeing are limited.
EC has proposed for fighting poverty in Greece what seems to be the
obvious to say but not so easy to implement, by suggesting that ‘’the major
challenge lying ahead is to elaborate and implement specific policies to
improve the interventions in the social protection area in favour of all those
citizens at risk of social exclusion and poverty. Other major challenges are
to promote the employment prospects of the most vulnerable population
groups, given the link between unemployment and situations of poverty and
social exclusion, and the need for a major pensions reform to safeguard
pensions adequacy and sustainability in the long term’’ (EC, 2002, p. 104).
In this framework, one must take seriously into consideration that Greece is
moving rapidly towards the knowledge economy.
New technologies have the power of restructuring the skill pattern of labour
demand – rendering obsolete certain traditional skills - and of increasing
productivity, but the bad news come first. The various inflexibilities in the
Greek labour market and the educational system prolong the required
restructuring of the labour force, as a result of which the response of supply
is dragging behind the new labour demand. This process may hold back the
positive effects of the new technologies and most probably postpone the
‘’eInclusion’’ process, with further implications on labour market
mismatches, persisting unemployment and a slow moving exit from poverty.
Any emerging low pay job opportunities for unskilled workers are filled by
immigrants, since Greeks have relatively high reservation wages for this
kind of jobs. They can afford this through the protective role of the family
that finances the waiting during the search for good employment
opportunities. The Greek government itself admits, in its Action Plan for
Employment 2001, that ‘’despite the implementation of a plethora of
measures for the labour market, unemployment and particularly the
discrimination and inequalities in the labour market are sustained at high
levels’’.
170
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The increasing flow of immigrants in Greece has accumulated a
disproportional number of foreign workers compared to the native
workforce. This is particularly the case in certain depopulated and small
areas of the country, e.g. islands. This concentration, although economically
desirable, generates various cultural, religious and educational problems that
may have potential serious implications on policies that aim at social
inclusion and the strengthening of social cohesion (EC, 2002). The
Commission has stressed that ‘’failure to develop an inclusive and tolerant
society which enables different ethnic minorities to live in harmony with the
local population of which they form part leads to discrimination, social
exclusion and the rise of racism and xenophobia’’ (ibid. p. 23).
Crime: Although overall criminal activity has dropped substantially in the
very recent years, juvenile crime, e.g. robberies, body injuries and theft is in
the rising in the large cities. Drugs are only a limited cause of this increase
Youth with low education coming from unstable family environments and
poor city neighbourhoods are mainly the criminal offenders. Organized
crime has no deep roots in Greece and there is no network to operate
through. Corruption exists in various departments of the Greek
administration, some forms of which, such as trafficking of illegal
immigrants and women for the purpose of prostitution, are connected to
international networks. And yet, the knowledge concerning the extent of the
various forms of corruption is still scanty, since there is no comprehensive
study on the issue but only bits and pieces of evidence and popular belief.
Efforts for fighting crime come from various directions, namely the EU;
international cooperation; bilateral agreements between Greece and Central
and Eastern European countries; and at the national level, the Greek
legislation and the Greek police. Policies concern both the prevention of
crime and the apprehension of criminals. Preventive measures with
reference to youth are taken by the Ministry of Justice, while for the
population as a whole, new police practices are introduced, including
pedestrian police patrols and the ‘’neighbourhood policeman’’. The latter, in
cooperation with local authorities, various local bodies and the citizens has
the job of preventing light crimes and provide relief assistance to victims.
The experience is still short to have any solid information on the
effectiveness of these practices. The legalization of immigrants seems also
to play some positive role in containing their criminal activity.
Some important policy actions concern as much the courts, as the police and
the prison system, all of which are characterized by major inefficiencies and
need adjustment and reformation. Legal regulations have become recently
171
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
more severe for crimes committed by ‘’criminal organizations’’. A recent
law (L. 2928/2001) is passed for expediting the prosecution of cases related
to organized crime and terrorism. These cases are judged in the Court of
Appeals by professional judges without jury. The heavy burden of cases to
be processed, in conjunction with the inadequate staffing of the courts, make
for a very slowly moving award of justice and a long waiting before cases
come to the hearing. The prison system needs great reformation both in
terms of improving its operational effectiveness and for preventing prisons overcrowded as they are - of becoming schools of crime and drug
trafficking. In this respect, the idea of privatized prisons of the type already
existing in France and England has been thrown on the table to be tried on a
pilot basis. The proponents of this idea evoke the experience of good
practice in these two countries. Apart from the comparatively lower cost of
running these prisons, they are very effective in reforming prisoners, as
evidenced by the fact that only 3 per cent of the discharged convicts from
these prisons revert to criminal activity. Despite its potential benefits, this is
an institution that, for reasons of trust, would probably be difficult to
introduce in Greece.
At the police level, new technologies, new training and new more
systematic methods of investigation have made the police more effective in
fighting crime and eradicating terrorism. Witness to this is the successful
dismantling of the terrorist group 17N. This progress notwithstanding, there
are still several technical and organizational inadequacies and practical
malfunctioning to fix, so that police becomes up to date. A case in point is
police corruption that should be dealt with the development and
improvement of Internal Affairs, a service introduced in recent years in the
Greek police.
172
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
6.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
SOURCES AND DATA
6.1. Health
Sources
WHO, The World Health Statistics (annual)
WHO, The World Health Report 2000: Health Systems, Improving
Performance
Ministry of Health and Welfare, Yearbook of Statistics on Health
Ministry of Health and Welfare (various pieces of information)
Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Social Budget (annual)
[Data on number of beneficiaries, pensioners, social security agencies,
expenditure on health and social welfare]
NSSG, Social Welfare and Health Statistics (Series)
NSSG, Annual Survey of Activities of Organizations of Social Security
NSSG, Household Surveys
Social Insurance Fund (IKA)
Social Insurance Fund for Civil Servants
Social Insurance Fund for Farmers (OGA)
Various Surveys and Opinion Polls
173
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Data
Let me note, in a way of introduction, that the Greek data on health are
inadequate or, in certain cases, unreliable or non-existed. As a consequence,
the figures provided to European and international organizations, such as
Eurostat or WHO, often cover a limited spectrum of statistical information,
thence the blank spaces in data presentation.
Category
Population using adequate sanitation facilities
Population using improved water resources
Population with access to essential drugs
Oral rehydration therapy use rate
Contraceptive prevalence
Births attended by skilled health staff
Physicians (per 100, 000 people)
Health expenditure per capita
n.a.4
n.a.
Undernourished people
Children underweight of age (% under 5)
Infants with low birth weight (%)
People living with HIV/AIDS 15-49 years of
age
Malaria cases
Tuberculosis cases (per 100,000people)
Cigarette consumption per adult (annual
average)
Health expenditure, public (%GDP)
Health expenditure, private (%GDP)
n.a.
n.a.
Years
Number
1999 95-
100
1990-02
2000
392
1,349
(PPP.USD)
Proportion
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
1995-00
2001
1998
2001
1992-00
7.00
0.17
18
11
3,230
2000
2000
4.6
3.7
Source: U.N. Development Report: Greece 2003 (www.undp.org)
NSSG, Household Survey, 1998/99
NSSG, Social Welfare and Health Statistics, 1997 (published 2001).
4
not available
174
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
6.2. Poverty
Sources
NSSG, Household Surveys
[This is the main statistical source, appearing at four to five years’ intervals,
from which one can calculate income distribution and poverty, on the basis
of income or expenditure. The figures given in this publication have some
advantages of better accuracy compared to the European Community
Household Panel (ECHP). This is because, as we maintained earlier, in a
country like Greece, at least some of the incomes generated in the still
considerable small agriculture and the related self-consumption, the
seasonal employment of farmers and the incomes in the significant
unregistered economic activity, as well as the value of the high owneroccupied housing, are calculated in the Greek Household Survey but not in
the European.]
Ministry of Finance, Internal Revenue Service
[The taxation figures of the Internal Revenue Service can and, on occasion,
have been used in research on income distribution and poverty. However,
using these data, one runs the risk of getting a gravely distorted picture of
income distribution and poverty due to the high income tax evasion of the
more wealthy people.]
Eurostat, European Social Statistics: Income, poverty and Social Exclusion,
Luxembourg, EC
Eurostat Task Force, Recommendations on Social Exclusion and Poverty
Statistics, CPS 98/31/2, December 1998, Eurostat, Luxembourg, 1998.
175
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Data
Category
Human poverty index (HPI) value
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (% cohort)
Adult illiteracy rate (% age 15+)
% of population not using improved drinking water sources
Underweight children under age-five
Population below income poverty line -50% definition-(%)
Human poverty index rank
People who are functionally illiterate
Long-term unemployment (as % of labour force)
Year
Figures
2000-05
2001
9.1
2.7
1998/99
11.2
2002
5.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Sources: U.N. Human Development Report, 2003.
NSSG, Labour Force Survey, 2002 (www.statistics.gr)
6.3. Crime
Sources
Ministry of Public Order, Statistical Yearbook
[Criminal statistics, police statistics, statistics on foreigners].
Juvenile Tribunal of Athens
[Data on juvenile delinquency and crime]
Ministry of Justice, Supervisor Services for Adolescence).
[It provides figures on adolescence criminal activities, the number of cases
and the causes of adolescence deviant behavior.]
176
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Data
Category
Police
Offenses
Committed
crimes
indictable offenses
Prosecution
Number of cases presented for trial
(Administrative courts)
Courts
Decisions issued
Persons sentenced (For indictable offenses
or crime)
Prison
Accommodating capacity of prisons
(1/1/2001)
Number of prisoners
Prisoners pending trial
Foreign prisoners
Juvenile
Crimes
Property crimes (see table 8)
Robbery
Sexual assault
Assault
Bribery (corruption)
Proportion per
100,000
Population
Year
Figures
1999
1999
1999
373,680
4,994
368,686
3,809
51
3,758
1996
214,147
2,185
1996
1996
72,228
88,974
737
908
4,825
#
#
#
#
8,295
2,296
3,783
570
#
#
#
n.a.
Sources: NSSG, Statistical Yearbook for Greece, 2001 (published 2002).
177
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
7.
STATISTICAL ANNEX
Table A1. Population of Greece by sex and age, 2001
Age
brackets
0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85-89
90-94
95-99
100+
Total
Population
Both sexes
531,636
547,241
588,011
728,440
834,026
843,609
871,496
784,426
781,319
711,697
684,288
553,901
630,687
615,964
547,672
337,373
195,493
114,571
45,047
11,944
5,179
10,964,020
Age
Composition
(%)
4.8
5.0
5.4
6.6
7.6
7.7
7.9
7.2
7.1
6.5
6.2
5.1
5.8
5.6
5.0
3.1
1.8
1.0
0.4
0.1
0.05
100.0
Source: Greek Census of Population, 2001
Males
272,548
281,642
306,528
382,115
436,128
436,427
443,413
393,477
388,232
356,192
338,540
272,177
299,755
291,567
246,413
143,230
76,444
43,813
16,594
4,385
2,196
5,431,816
Females
259,088
265,599
281,483
346,325
397,898
407,182
428,083
390,949
393,087
355,505
345,748
281,724
330,932
324,397
301,259
194,143
19,049
70,758
28,453
7,559
2,983
5,532,204
Table A2 - Population in Greece by Country of Citizenship
Country of citizenship
Both sexes
Total population
10,964,020
5,431,816
5,532,204
Greek citizenship
Greek and other (double)
Australia
Georgia
USA
Canada
Cyprus
Ukraine
Russian federation
Rest of the world
10,077,722
89,207
8,699
8,666
13,314
7,111
3,280
3,083
9,507
35,547
4,955,613
39,796
4,020
4,070
6,146
3,351
1,457
1,027
4,207
15,518
5,122,109
49,411
4,679
4,596
7,168
3,760
1,823
2,056
5,300
20,029
796,713
443,550
37,230
15,303
23,159
22,507
15,308
19,084
14,149
11,192
13,378
23,066
18,219
8,297
6,861
7,846
7,808
9,677
6,513
7,409
7,188
7,953
6,909
5,898
5,638
52,571
436,225
261,502
15,058
6,525
9,980
11,013
6,450
9,031
3,633
10,703
6,140
13,176
6,901
4,338
1,942
6,087
3,648
4,580
2,733
6,876
5,062
3,962
3,337
1,799
4,464
27,285
360,488
182,048
22,172
8,778
13,179
11,494
8,858
10,053
10,516
489
7,238
9,890
11,318
3,959
4,919
1,759
4,160
5,097
3,780
533
2,126
3,991
3,572
4,099
1,174
25,286
Foreign Citizenship
Albania
Bulgaria
Germany
Georgia
USA
United Kingdom
Cyprus
Ukraine
Pakistan
Poland
Rumania
Russian Federation
Turkey
Philippines
Egypt
Armenia
Australia
France
India
Iraq
Italy
Canada
Moldavia
Syria
Rest of the world
Source: NSSG, Census of Population, 2001
Males
Females
Table A3 - Activities of the Neighborhood Policeman in the Region of Attica in Greece,
during the period 17.3-30.5.2003)
Action Taken
Communication with representatives of Local Authorities, Associations, Institutes,
Organizations and other bodies and citizens
Response to requests by various bodies and citizens
Cooperation with pedestrian and riding police patrols
Intervention in cases of offenses and conduct with victims
Interventions or assistance in various occurrences
Participation in local events
Direct intervention in other Services, public and private Organizations or public
enterprises
Reports on problems in neighborhoods, with actions taken and results
Cases of intervention from the office
Cooperation with Psychologists and Social Workers
Source: Ministry of Public Order (www.ydt.gr/main/Article.jsp?)
Number of
Cases
31,550
2,493
919
856
828
455
270
165
123
66
Table A4 - Incidence of Poverty (Percentage of people below the poverty line of
corresponding categories)
Household Head Characteristics
1982
Incidence of poverty (%)
1988
1994
Education
Tertiary
Secondary
Primary
Not-completed Primary
4.2
9.6
29.1
38.0
5.1
9.6
29.4
39.5
7.7
13.6
28.4
40.8
Age
Under 24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75+
7.7
25.4
27.6
23.3
21.3
26.8
37.5
4.2
22.2
24.6
22.5
21.0
29.1
38.6
14.2
19.5
27.2
22.1
23.5
25.7
35.0
Occupation
Scientists and Executives
Office Clerks
Farmers
Blue collar workers
Not employed
7.5
11.5
40.4
27.6
24.4
8.5
11.0
41.5
24.6
27.1
19.0
16.2
36.3
26.4
24.7
Source: Adapted from Sarris and Zografakis, 1997
11873_2002
8.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
ESSENTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
General
Clogg Richard, (2003). ‘Greece’ Microsoft ® online Encyclopedia 2003
(http: //Encarta.msn.com)
GRECO, Council of Europe, 17.5.2002.
Kathimerini, 20.6.2003
Kathimerini, 21.6.2003 (original source: Bank of Greece)
Ministry of Economics and Finance, National Accounts Statistics (various
issues)
Ministry of Economics and Finance, National Accounts Statistics
(www.statistics.gr tables/S900).
National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG), Labour Force Survey
(various issues)
NSSG, Census of Population, 2001
Health
Douli A, B. Kyritsis, N. Polyzos and N. Christopoulou (1992). ‘’Demand
for Health Services Abroad’’, Health Review, vol.3, No. 2, March-April,
Athens (in Greek).
ΕΚΠΟΙΖΩ (1999). ‘’The Satisfaction from the Health Services in Greece’’.
Medical Press, No. 211, January, Athens (in Greek).
European Commission (2002). Joint Report on Social Inclusion.
Employment and Social Affairs, Social Security and Social Integration,
European Commission, Belgium.
Georgoussi E. Kyriopoulos G. and Bearoglou (Editors) (2000). Society and
Health, Themelio, Athens (in Greek).
ICAP (1999). Sectoral Studies: Private Health Services, Athens, February
(in Greek).
183
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Kathimerini, 22.6.2003
Kyriopoulos G. and Geitona M. (1995). The Crossborder Flow of Patients in
Greece and Europe, Exantas, Athens (in Greek).
Medical Press , January 1999 (in Greek) (no author)
Ministry of Health (1999). Health Care in Greece, Athens.
Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001). National Action Plan: HealthWelfare. 3rd Community Support Framework, 2000-2006, Athens (in
Greek).
Ministry of Health and Welfare (2003). Health, Health Care and Welfare in
Greece, Report, Athens.
Niakas D. (1994).‘’The Health Policy in Greece and the Suggestions of the
Foreign Experts’ Committee’’. In Society, Economy and Health, vol.3, No.
3, July-September. (in Greek).
NSSG, Household Survey, 1998/99
NSSG, Social Welfare and Health Statistics, 1997 (published 2001).
Review on Health (2003).( Various articles – no authors), March-April (in
Greek).
Soulis S. (1998). Economics of Health, Papazissis, Athens (in Greek).
Souliotis K. (2000), The Role of Private Sector in the Greek Health System.
Papazissis, Athens.(in Greek).
Themelion (publisher) Health Policy in Greece: At the cross-road of choices
(no author, no date) (in Greek).
Theodorou, M. (1993). “Primary Health Care in IKA: A Comparative
Investigation of two Types of Organising the Family Doctor”, IMOSY (in
Greek).
Theodorou M, M. Sarris and S. Soulis (1996). Systems of Health and the
Greek Reality, Athens (in Greek).
Tountas, John (2003). ‘’Primary Health Care at a Critical Crosssroad’’.
Eleftherotypia (daily newspaper), 21.2.2003.
U.N. Development Report: Greece 2003 (www.undp.org)
184
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Poverty
Berg A. and a. Krueger (2002). ‘’Lifting All Boats: Why Openness Helps
Curb Poverty’’. Finance and Development, September.
Case, Anne and Angus Deaton (2003), Consumption, Health, Gender and
Poverty, World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper 3020, Washington
DC, April.
Chryssakis M. (1999). ‘’Social Exclusion and Educational Inequalities ‘In
Karantinos et al. (in Greek).
Economic and Social Committee (OKE) (2000). Poverty in Greece, Report,
Athens, 13 July (in Greek).
ESSPROS (European System of integrated Social Protection Statistics).
European Commission (2002). Joint Report on Social Inclusion.
Employment and Social Affairs, Social Security and Social Integration,
European Commission, Belgium.
Eurostat (2000), August. (www.in gr/news,2000/Greece).
Glytsos, Nicholas P. and C. Kanellopoulos (1999).Aspects of Inequality and
Poverty in Greece: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement. Report on
behalf of the Femise Project on Poverty, Athens, November, mimeo
Glytsos, Nicholas P. and Louka T. Katseli, (2003). “Greek Migration: The
Two Faces of Janus”. In K.F.Zimmermann (editor), European Migration:
What Do We Know? , Oxford University Press (forthcoming.
Greek National Action Plan (NAP) for Fighting Poverty and Social
Exclusion, Athens
Kanellopoulos, C. (Coordinator) (1999). Distribution, Redistribution and
Poverty, KEPE, Athens, December (in Greek), mimeo.
Karantinos D, I.Maratou-Alipranti, and E. Fronimou (Editors) (1999).
Dimensions of Social Exclusion in Greece: Main Issues, vols I and II,
Athens, EKKE, Second Edition (in Greek).
Kathimerini, 3.7.2002; 20.11.2002; 24.7.2003.
Katsejopoulou M. and N.Bouras (1999). ‘’Labour Market Function and
Social Exclusion’’. In Karantinos et al. (in Greek).
185
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Lusting Nora and N. Stern (2000). ‘’Broadening the Agenda for Poverty
Reduction: Opportunity, Empowerment, Security’’. Finance and
Development, IMF, December.
Micklewright John (2002). Social Exclusion and Children: A European
View for a US Debate. Innocenti Working Papers, No.90, Unicef, February.
Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001), National Action Plan for Social
Inclusion
Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001). National Action Plan: HealthWelfare. 3rd Community Support Framework, 2000-2006, Athens (in
Greek).
Ministry of Labour and Social Security (2001) National Action Plan for
Employment
Ministry of Labour and Social Security (2003). Draft National Action Plan
for Employment
Mitrakos T. and P. Tsakloglou (2000), ‘’Changes in Total Inequality and
Poverty in Greece, after the Restoration of Democracy’’’. In EMOP (in
Greek).
Nolan B. (1999).’’Targeting Poverty: Lessons from Ireland on Setting a
National Poverty Target’’. New Economy, 6(1): 44-49.
NSSG, Labour Force Survey, 2002 (www.statistics.gr)
Rodrik Dani (2000). ‘’Growth versus Poverty Reduction: A Hollow
Debate’’. Finance and Development, IMF, December
Rowlands D. (1998), ‘’Poverty and Environmental Degradation as Root
Causes of International Migration: A Critical Approach’’. In UN-IOM,
Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development. The
Hague, 29 June.
Sarris A. and zografakis S. (1997). ‘’Poverty and Income Inequality in
Greece after the Restoration of Democracy’’. Paper presented at the 5th
Colloquy of IMOP (in Greek), mimeo.
The Nea, 17.10.2000.
Tsakloglou P. and G. Panopoulou (1998), ‘’Who are the Poor in Greece:
Analysing Poverty under Alternative Concepts of Resources and
Equivalence Scales’’, Journal of European Social Policy, 8, pp.229-252.
U.N. Human Development Report, 2003.
186
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Workshop of Economic Policy Studies (EMOP) (2000). The Redistributive
Role of the State in Greece, No. 5 (in Greek).
World Bank (2001). World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking
Poverty, Washington DC.
World Bank (2002). Globalisation, Growth and Poverty, A World Bank
Policy Research Report, Washington, DC.
www.in gr/news, 2000/Greece
Crime
Eleftherotypia, 14.3.1998; 5.4.2000; 5.11.2000
Ethnos, 25.10.2000
europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc
GRECO (Group of States against corruption), Council of Europe,
Evaluation Report on Greece, Strasbourg, 17.5.2002.
Kathimerini, 25.4 1998; 19.5.2002;
Ministry of Public Order (www.ydt.gr/main/Article.jsp?)
Ministry of Public Order, Crime Statistics (http://www.ydt.gr/main).
NSSG, Statistical Yearbook for Greece, 2001 (published 2002).
Pontiki, 9.9.1999.
Sutherland, P. D. (2002). “Why We Should Embrace Globalisation”,
Finance and Development, September.
The Nea, 18.12.1999.
U.N. Office of Drugs and Crime, Seventh U.N. Survey of Crime Trends and
Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, Covering the Period 1998-2000.
http://ministryofjustice.gr/modules.php?
http://www.patris.gr/archive/99/10/23/1 stpage.html
http://www.petsalnikos.gr/delt 130503.htm
http://www.prin.gr/561/561_18.htm
http://www.medium.gr/articles
187
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
http://www.e-grammes.gr/ideology/immigration.htm
http://ta-nea.dolnet.gr/neaweb/
www.ydt.gr/main/Article.jsp?Article
www.onned.gr/Text/politikh.doc
www.presspoint.gr/release.asp?.id=18619
www.unodc.org/unodc/index
188
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
ITALY
Dr. Rosario Sapienza
Dr. Marta Picarozzi
11873_2002
1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
PROFILO DEL PAESE: DATI ESSENZIALI
1.1. Popolazione
La popolazione italiana al 1 gennaio 2001 conta 57.844.017 persone, di cui
29.749.160 femmine e 28.094.857 maschi. L’Italia è oggi il Paese con
l’indice di vecchiaia più alto del mondo (133 persone di 65 anni e oltre ogni
100 persone sotto i 15 anni). Quasi un italiano su cinque ha più di 65 anni (il
18,5% della popolazione). La popolazione con meno di 15 anni rappresenta
soltanto il 14,4% del totale (Istat). Secondo stime Eurostat, l’indice di
accrescimento della popolazione italiana è nel 2001 del 3 per mille.
La presenza degli stranieri in Italia è in crescita. Tuttavia, rispetto agli altri
paesi dell’Unione Europea, la popolazione straniera residente in Italia, che
conta 1.464.589 persone, rappresenta ancora una quota poco rilevante della
popolazione (2,5% nel 2001 rispetto alla media europea del 5,2).
Il tasso di natalità del 2001 è del 9,4 per mille mentre quello di mortalità del
9,3. Il numero medio di figli per donna è in diminuzione e questo calo della
riproduttività risulta agli studi come un fenomeno di lungo periodo, il più
radicato fra tutti i Paesi sviluppati, associato alla progressiva posticipazione
del momento del primo parto nella vita media delle donne. L’età media delle
madri alla nascita del primo figlio è, infatti, di oltre 27 anni (Istat). Nel
2001, secondo stime Eurostat, il numero medio di figli per donna è di 1,24,
con livelli leggermente più elevati al Sud Italia e più bassi al Centro e al
Nord Italia. Il tasso di mortalità infantile, relativo al primo anno di vita, è
del 4,3 per 1000 nati vivi.
La speranza di vita alla nascita ha raggiunto quasi i 77 anni per gli uomini e
83 per le donne, senza grandi differenze a livello regionale.
Il legame tra nuzialità e riproduttività è ancora molto forte, oltre il 90% dei
figli nasce ancora all’interno del matrimonio (Istat). Le unioni coniugali
sono instabili: ogni anno, ogni quattro matrimoni celebrati viene
pronunciata una sentenza di separazione e sono quasi 2,5 milioni gli italiani
che hanno sperimentato nel corso della loro vita lo scioglimento del
190
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
matrimonio (Istat, 2001). Il numero di famiglie è aumentato negli ultimi
anni (sono quasi 22 milioni nel 2001, secondo l’Istat), sebbene le loro
dimensioni si stiano riducendo (2,6 componenti in media).
1.2. Economia e lavoro
I dati sull’economia italiana nel 2001 rispecchiano l’andamento negativo del
ciclo economico mondiale e in particolare dei Paesi più industrializzati. La
crescita del Prodotto interno lordo nel 2001 è dell’1,8%, mentre quella del
2000 era stata del 2,9%. La crescita dell’agricoltura nel 2001 è negativa, 1%, mentre l’industria cresce dello 0,5% e i servizi del 2,5% (Istat).
L’andamento dell’inflazione in Italia ha risentito della conversione dei
prezzi dalla lira all’euro, la moneta unica europea entrata in circolazione nel
gennaio del 2002. In base a stime Eurostat, il tasso di inflazione è stato del
2% nel 1998, 1,7% nel 1999, 2,6% nel 2000 e 2,3% nel 2001, mentre
secondo l’Istat è stato del 2,5% nel 2000, 2,7% nel 2001 e 2,5% nel 2002.
Tuttavia, l’inflazione percepita dagli italiani e le stime delle associazioni
dei consumatori sono di molto superiori alle stime ufficiali.
Il rallentamento della congiuntura internazionale ha prodotto nel 2001 una
battuta d’arresto del commercio internazionale. Le esportazioni, dopo
l’eccezionale incremento del 17,8% registrato nel 2000, sono cresciute nel
2001 solo del 3,6%. Le importazioni sono invece cresciute nello stesso
anno dello 0,6%, un valore modesto grazie soprattutto al calo dei prezzi dei
prodotti energetici. L’ammontare delle esportazioni nel 2001 è di 269.634
milioni di euro, mentre l’ammontare delle importazioni è di 260.162
milioni di euro. Il saldo tra esportazioni e importazioni è quindi positivo e
ammonta a 9.472 milioni di euro. Lo stesso dato nel 2000 era di 1.852
milioni di euro e nel 1999 di 14.679 milioni di euro (Istat). La pressione
fiscale nel 2002 è pari al 41,6% del prodotto interno lordo (Istat).
191
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
1.3. Geografia e caratteristiche territoriali
L’Italia è una penisola di 301.333
Kmq, con una estensione massima di
1.200 Km. Il 35% del territorio è
montagnoso e il 42% collinare. Gran
parte del territorio è bagnata dal
mare e l’estensione delle coste
marine è pertanto molto elevata,
7.375 Km, di cui il 65,7%
balneabile.
Da
un
punto
di
vista
amministrativo, l’Italia si divide in
20 regioni, 103 province e 8.100
comuni. La densità media della
popolazione è di 192 abitanti per
Kmq. Le città più popolose sono
Milano (4.251.000 abitanti), Napoli
(3.012.000 abitanti), la capitale Roma (2.646.000 abitanti) e Torino
(1.294.000 abitanti).
La superficie forestale è di 68.475 Kmq. Il patrimonio boschivo, che nel
2000 è di 6.853 migliaia di ettari, è ubicato per il 59,4% in montagna, per il
35,5% in collina e per il 5,1% in pianura. La superficie italiana ad alta
sismicità è pari a 14.463 Kmq, quasi il 23% della superficie totale.
A luglio 2000, le aree protette iscritte nell’Elenco ufficiale risultano 669
con un’estensione territoriale pari a 3.013.944 ettari. Il clima in Italia è
generalmente temperato. Solo raramente si hanno temperature più alte di 40
gradi centigradi d’estate, o temperature inferiori ai 10 gradi sotto lo zero
d’inverno. Essendo molto estesa da Nord a Sud, l’Italia può essere divisa in
tre fasce climatiche distinte: a) il Nord, ovvero la parte compresa tra le Alpi
e l’Appennino Tosco-Emiliano, è la zona meno influenzata dall’azione
temperante del mare e ha un clima molto rigido d’inverno, mentre l’estate è
molto calda e con alti livelli di umidità; b) il Centro, compreso
approssimativamente tra la Liguria e Roma, ha un clima temperato, che non
presenta grandi differenze tra le stagioni estreme, anche se si può passare da
un inverno piuttosto rigido ad una stagione estiva molto calda; c) il Sud (che
comprende anche le isole maggiori, la Sicilia e la Sardegna) ha un clima
192
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
secco e generalmente caldo, con scarse precipitazioni e periodi di vera e
propria siccità. Il Mediterraneo ha una grande influenza sul clima italiano: le
zone costiere sono meno calde durante l’estate e meno fredde durante
l’inverno rispetto alle zone interne. Le differenze climatiche contribuiscono
ad aumentare le differenze socioeconomiche nelle tre aree della penisola.
I minerali di cui l’Italia è ricca sono mercurio, potassio, marmo e zolfo. Nel
2000 le riserve di greggio ammontano a 621,8 milioni di barili. La
produzione di energia elettrica è di 247.679 milioni di kWh nel 2001. La
quota di produzione interna di energia rispetto all’offerta totale, necessaria a
soddisfare le esigenze del paese, è più limitata che negli altri paesi europei.
Nel 1990 la quota di produzione di energia sull’offerta totale di energia
primaria è del 16,2%, all’incirca uguale a quella del 1999 (16,4%). La
produzione in Italia di energia da fonti rinnovabili costituisce il 38% circa
della produzione totale.
I risultati di un’indagine Istat sulle famiglie nel 2001 mostrano come i
problemi ambientali maggiormente sentiti dalle famiglie sono il traffico
(47,6%), la possibilità di bere acqua dal rubinetto (42,0%), la difficoltà di
parcheggio (41,6%), l’inquinamento dell’aria (39,9%) e il rumore (38,5%).
Minore rilevanza viene data ad aspetti quali la sporcizia nelle strade
(33,8%), il rischio di criminalità (30,8%) e le difficoltà di collegamento con
i mezzi pubblici (30,9%), mentre l’irregolarità nell’erogazione dell’acqua
viene considerato un problema dal 16,3% delle famiglie. Quest’ultimo
fenomeno è molto più diffuso nel Mezzogiorno ed in particolare in Calabria
(51,1%), Sardegna (42,8%) e Sicilia (39,6%).
1.4. Temi chiave
La bassa fecondità e l’invecchiamento della popolazione espongono
l’Italia a grandi rischi per quanto riguarda la sostenibilità dei sistemi di
welfare e in particolare di quelli pensionistici. L’economia è specializzata in
settori a basso contenuto tecnologico. Le imprese sono scarsamente
propense a una crescita di dimensioni e hanno spesso una visione locale del
mercato. Il Sud Italia versa ancora in grandi difficoltà rispetto al resto del
Paese, nonostante alcuni segnali positivi in anni recenti come una riduzione
del tasso di disoccupazione e una crescita del Pil superiore alla media
nazionale: le migrazioni verso il Centro-Nord del paese sono ricominciate e
193
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
la quota di disoccupati di lunga durata è sensibilmente più alta rispetto al
resto d’Italia. Si possono notare alcuni segnali positivi quali la vitalità delle
piccole e medie imprese e lo sviluppo dell’occupazione femminile, che ha
trainato il mercato del lavoro.
1.5. Fonti
- Censis, 36° Rapporto sulla situazione sociale del Paese 2002,
(www.censis.it)
- Istat, Annuario Statistico Italiano 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Italia in cifre 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Rapporto annuale sulla situazione del Paese 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Relazione Generale sulla Situazione Economica del Paese
(www.istat.it)
- Eurostat (europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat)
- Istituto Tagliacarne (www.tagliacarne.it)
- Nucleo di valutazione spesa previdenziale (www.welfare.gov.it)
194
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
2.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
HEALTH
2.1. Definitions
Secondo l’Art. 32, la Repubblica Italiana tutela la salute come fondamentale
diritto dell’individuo e interesse della collettività, e garantisce cure gratuite
agli indigenti. Al di là di questo presupposto generale la legislazione in
ambito sanitario è estesa e in continua evoluzione perché rincorre i
cambiamenti che si susseguono in campo medico e nella ricerca scientifica i
quali arrivano a mutare ruoli e contesti tradizionali, implicano maggiore
attenzione al rapporto medico paziente e aprono sempre nuovi interrogativi
sul diritto universale alla Salute.
2.2. Policy and Legislation
Le principali leggi che attualmente ordinano la materia sono:
Legge 23.12.1978, n. 833
Istituzione del servizio sanitario nazionale
Riordino della disciplina in materia sanitaria, a norma
D. Lgs. 30.12.1992, n. 502
dell’articolo 1 della legge 23 ottobre 1992, n. 421.
Razionalizzazione
della
organizzazione
delle
amministrazioni pubbliche e revisione della disciplina in
Decreto Legge 03.02.1993, n. 29
materia di pubblico impiego a norma dell’art. 2 della
legge 23 ottobre 1992, n.421.
Modificazioni al Decreto Legislativo 30.12.1992 n. 502
D. Lgs. 07.12.1993, n. 517
recante riordino della disciplina in materia sanitaria, a
norma dell’art. 1 della Legge 23.10.1992 n. 421.
Norme per la razionalizzazione del Sistema Sanitario
D. Lgs. 19.06.1999, n. 229
Nazionale, a norma dell’art. 1 della legge 30.11.1998, n.
419 (riforma Bindi).
D. Presidente consiglio dei
Definizione dei livelli essenziali di assistenza.
Ministri 29.11.2001
Piano sanitario nazionale 2002Presentato al Consiglio dei Ministri il 28/03/2002
2004
Approvazione del Piano Sanitario Nazionale 2003-2005
D.P.R. 23/05/2003
(G.U. n. 139 del 18/06/2003).
195
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
2.3. Fonti
- Istat, Indagine Multiscopo (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Stili di vita e condizioni di salute, anno 2001 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Sistema sanitario e salute della popolazione, anno 2002
(www.istat.it)
- Istituto Superiore di Sanità (www.iss.it)
- Ministero della Salute (www.ministerosalute.it)
- Farmindustria (www.farmindustria.it)
2.4. Dati
In base a un’indagine effettuata dall’Istat, il 74,9% della popolazione
italiana dichiara nel 2001 di essere in buona salute, mentre il resto della
popolazione è affetto da una o più malattie croniche. Rispetto al totale dei
cronici, il 19,1% di essi è affetto da artrosi o artrite, l’11,7% da ipertensione,
l’8,2% da malattie allergiche. Sono invece scarsamente diffusi il diabete
(3,9% dei malati cronici), le malattie del cuore (3,7%) e i disturbi nervosi
(4%). Oltre il 90% della popolazione con meno di 35 anni e oltre il 50% di
quella con meno di 65 anni è in stato di buona salute. La fascia di età
compresa tra i 65 e i 74 anni è in buona salute per il 43,3% mentre oltre i 75
anni la percentuale di persone in buona salute scende al 27,5%. La
percentuale di uomini in buona salute è superiore in media di quasi 7 punti
percentuali a quella delle donne e questa differenza tra i sessi è più
accentuata nelle fasce di età più elevate.
Secondo l’Istituto Superiore di Sanità, nel 2001 i casi notificati di Aids in
Italia sono 2,9 ogni 1000 residenti, più al Nord e al Centro Italia (3,6)
rispetto al Sud (1,4). Dal 1995 (in cui ogni 1000 residenti si avevano 9,6
casi) ad oggi i casi sono costantemente diminuiti.
196
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
La causa principale di decessi è attribuibile alle malattie del sistema
circolatorio (41,6 decessi ogni 10.000 abitanti nel 2000), seguita dai tumori
(27,7 decessi ogni 10.000 abitanti). Tutte le altre cause di decesso
provocano meno di 6,5 decessi ogni 10.000 abitanti. I dati riguardanti i
decessi a causa di malattie del sistema circolatorio e di tumori sono rimasti
sostanzialmente invariati negli ultimi sei anni.
In Italia esistono 778 istituti di cura pubblici e 530 istituti accreditati che,
rispettivamente, hanno a disposizione 236.308 e 51.317 posti letto, 5,05
ogni 1.000 abitanti (dati del Ministero della Sanità, 2001). Il numero più
elevato di posti letto si registra al Centro Italia (5,51 ogni 1.000 abitanti) e il
più basso al Sud (4,41). Il Sud dispone tuttavia di un numero più elevato di
strutture sanitarie pubbliche diverse dagli ospedali, 4.036, rispetto al Centro
(3.399) e al Nord (3.472).
Sempre secondo i dati del Ministero della Sanità, nel 2001 ogni medico
generico aveva 1.065 adulti residenti e ogni pediatra 1.075 bambini in cura,
con differenze scarsamente rilevanti tra le aree geografiche del paese.
Secondo dati Farmindustria, la spesa farmaceutica pubblica e privata in
Italia nel 2001 ammonta a 296.805 milioni di euro ed è in crescita (nel 1999
era di 247.726 milioni di euro e nel 2000 di 264.460 milioni di euro).
2.5. Phenomenology
«Più mercato e meno Stato» è lo slogan che, dalla seconda metà degli anni
Ottanta, accompagna anche in Italia una radicale rivisitazione della Pubblica
Amministrazione. L’Italia è attualmente in una fase di drastico
ridimensionamento delle spese sanitarie per ridurre il debito pubblico.
L’orientamento liberista ha però in Italia un profilo meno esplicito che nel
mondo anglossassone. Il ripensamento nei confronti del vecchio “Stato
sociale” si è soprattutto concentrato a ridurre le disfunzioni ed anche le
degenerazioni del sistema politico che sono culminate negli scandali della
fase di Tangentopoli nella prima metà degli anni ‘90.
La spinta a contenere la spesa e a correggere alcune involuzioni gestionali
trova in Italia una mai risolta esigenza di riforme che dalla prima metà degli
anni ‘90 hanno affrontato le principali questioni lasciate irrisolte dalla Legge
197
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
n. 833, che nel 1978 aveva istituito il Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN).
Tali questioni possono essere così riassunte:
- il problema di separare le funzioni di finanziamento e di programmazione
da quelle di gestione e di organizzazione dei servizi;
- la regionalizzazione della spesa;
- l’incremento di un sistema misto, attraverso la creazione di Aziende
Sanitarie Locali (ASL) in competizione tra loro e con le strutture private
accreditate;
- l’introduzione del sistema di rimborso più funzionale e meno oneroso da
parte degli utenti;
Tali argomenti, delicati e difficili da risolversi, sono inseriti in un contesto
politico e legislativo instabile e contraddittorio, soprattutto per quel che
riguarda i rapporti tra pubblico e privato, e in un quadro di drastica
contrazione delle risorse pubbliche per la salute.
La Legge 502/1992 segna, ad esempio, il passaggio da un diritto alla
tutela della salute costituzionalmente garantito a un diritto
finanziariamente condizionato. A partire dalla riforma del 1992 la spesa
diventa una variabile indipendente (stabilita annualmente dal Governo in
funzione delle compatibilità economiche e finanziarie del Paese), mentre i
bisogni di salute rappresentano una variabile dipendente. Alle nuove
Aziende Sanitarie Locali (ASL) viene affidato il compito di garantire
anzitutto il pareggio del bilancio, a prescindere dai risultati di salute degli
assistiti. Il metodo delle risorse definite ex ante produce una inevitabile e
costante riduzione dei fondi a disposizione e il finanziamento pubblico
risulta decisamente sottostimato rispetto al fabbisogno.
Per quanto riguarda il rapporto tra pubblico e privato, la competizione è
affidata a un modello di accreditamento delle strutture private debole,
svincolato dalla programmazione, ancorato ai soli criteri quantitativi; sul
versante pubblico, essa fa perno sulla separazione degli ospedali dalle
aziende territoriali e sulla loro trasformazione in aziende ospedaliere
autonome, le cui prestazioni sono pagate secondo tariffe prestabilite. È il
primo passo verso la separazione tra la funzione di programmazione e di
tutela della salute e la funzione di erogazione delle prestazioni. La
concorrenza tra aziende pubbliche e strutture private accreditate non è
198
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
compiuta ma risulta fittizia perché chi finanzia, ovvero rimborsa la struttura
pubblica e quella privata accreditata, è alla resa dei conti sempre il Servizio
Sanitario Nazionale. In definitiva, il mercato sanitario è un mercato
assistito in cui non esiste un vero e proprio rischio d’impresa.
Altro aspetto problematico, l’organizzazione dei servizi privilegia le
strutture ospedaliere piuttosto che la prevenzione, la medicina di base, la
riabilitazione, e più in generale tutti i servizi territoriali (salute mentale, cura
tossicodipendenze, consultori familiari, assistenza a persone portatrici di
handicap, ecc.).
Anche sul versante della spesa i tentativi di riforma sono tutt’altro che
«virtuosi» e, insieme al drastico sottofinanziamento della Sanità,
comportano un aumento considerevole dei deficit delle Regioni.
Anche la regionalizzazione del sistema procede in modo del tutto
insoddisfacente, pur essendo la Sanità il terreno più avanzato di autonomia
organizzativa e gestionale. La maggiore autonomia locale produce
conflittualità a tutti i livelli: tra Regioni e Comuni, perché i sindaci non
hanno alcuna voce in capitolo sulle scelte regionali; tra Governo centrale e
Governi regionali, impegnati soprattutto in una estenuante contrattazione
delle risorse sempre più scarse. Le Regioni procedono in ordine sparso e il
Ministero non ha né strumenti efficaci di verifica e controllo sullo stato di
attuazione del processo di riordino, né poteri per sanzionare i ritardi e le
omissioni. Ad esempio, dal 1988 al 1996, la maggioranza delle Regioni ha
utilizzato poco o male i fondi per l’edilizia sanitaria e il Ministero non aveva
strumenti per sanzionare i ritardi. Si accentuano il divario tra Nord e Sud del
Paese e le disuguaglianze nelle opportunità di cura.
Si impone l’esigenza di correggere le ambiguità e le contraddizioni di un
modello di aziendalizzazione e regionalizzazione che rischia di aggravare il
debito senza migliorare la qualità. La Sanità italiana si trova oggi davanti a
un bivio: abbandonare il sistema universalistico, sostituendolo con forme
assicurative private più o meno estese, o rafforzare il SSN e gli strumenti di
governo del sistema.
199
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
3.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
POVERTY
3.1. Definitions
Sono molti gli strumenti forniti dalla Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana
a sostegno delle politiche contro la povertà e l’esclusione sociale:
Articoli 1, 4, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 per il diritto al lavoro
Articoli 29, 30, 31 - diritti della famiglia, matrimonio, tutela genitoriale,
maternità, l’infanzia e la gioventù
Articoli 3, 37, 38, per le pari dignità sociali ed i diritti di pari opportunità
per categorie svantaggiate
Articoli 34, diritto all’istruzione
E’ probabilemte l’Articolo 3 quello che più incarna il principio ispiratore
delle politiche di welfare e di inclusione sociale : “Tutti i cittadini hanno
pari dignità sociale e sono eguali davanti alla legge, senza distinzione di
sesso, di razza, di lingua, di religione, di opinioni politiche, di condizioni
personali e sociali. È compito della Repubblica rimuovere gli ostacoli di
ordine economico e sociale, che, limitando di fatto la libertà e l’eguaglianza
dei cittadini, impediscono il pieno sviluppo della persona umana e l’effettiva
partecipazione di tutti i lavoratori all’organizzazione politica, economica e
sociale del Paese.”
3.2. Policy and Legislation
Anche il sistema del welfare sta subendo una rapida e drastica evoluzione e i
principali più recenti provvedimenti legislativi riguardano il diritto al lavoro
e la previdenza sociale, il diritto alla cittadinanza degli immigrati e alle pari
opportunità per categorie svantaggiate. Anche il sistema della pubblica
istruzione è al centro di una serie di dibattiti parlamentari e di riforme. Per
200
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
ciascuno di questi ambiti sono allo studio nuove proposte di legge e i temi
vengono discussi intorno ad alcune questioni chiave:
- Per le politiche sul lavoro e sulla previdenza sociale la recente Legge 14
febbraio 2003, n.30 “Biagi” apre a nuovi scenari di flessibilità rispetto ad
un sistema tradizionale italiano caratterizzato da forti garanzie per i
lavoratori e buone condizioni previdenziali per gli ex lavoratori che non
risulta però più sostenibile;
- Per le pari opportunità ed il diritto alla cittadinanza degli immigrati la
recente Legge 30 luglio 2002 n.189 “Bossi/Fini” ha legato strettamente i
flussi di entrata allo status di lavoratore, inasprendo le sanzioni contro la
immigrazione irregolare e imponendo l’emersione dalla black economy;
- Il sistema della pubblica istruzione in seguito alla legge del Legge 28
marzo 2003, n. 53 sta sperimentando nuove forme in sintonia con il resto
delle politiche del welfare verso una maggiore autonomia degli organi
periferici ed un’apertura al settore privato;
E’ opinione diffusa il fatto che su tutti questi ambiti si sia in mezzo ad un
processo avviato ma i cui risultati a regime stentano a percepirsi.
3.3. Fonti
- Censis, 36° Rapporto sulla situazione sociale del Paese 2002,
(www.censis.it)
- Istat, La povertà in Italia nel 2002, 2003 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Quanto hanno speso le famiglie nel 2002, (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Annuario Statistico Italiano 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Italia in cifre 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Rapporto annuale sulla situazione del Paese 2002 (www.istat.it)
201
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
3.4. Data
Nel 2002, in base a dati Istat, l’11% delle famiglie italiane e 7.140 mila
individui vivono sotto una soglia relativa di povertà, fissata a 823,45 euro di
spesa mensile per una famiglia di due componenti; il 4,2% delle famiglie e
2.916 mila individui vivono invece al di sotto di una soglia assoluta di
povertà basata sul valore monetario di un paniere di beni e servizi fissato a
573,63 euro mensili per una famiglia di due componenti.
La povertà colpisce soprattutto il Mezzogiorno, le famiglie più numerose e
le famiglie di anziani. Al Sud Italia il 22,4% delle famiglie è al di sotto della
povertà relativa. Le famiglie con tre o più figli sono povere nel 25% dei casi
all’incirca. Le famiglie con due o più anziani sono povere nel 17,4% dei
casi.
Riguardo all’Istruzione, in Italia la scuola è obbligatoria dai 6 ai 15 anni.
Nel 2002, secondo i dati dell’Istat, la popolazione italiana senza alcun titolo
di studio o con la sola licenza elementare è il 30% (il 24,8% dei maschi e il
34,8% delle femmine) mentre il 32,9% ha raggiunto la licenza media (il
36,4% dei maschi e il 29,7% delle femmine); il 29,6% della popolazione ha
terminato la scuola superiore (il 30,8% dei maschi e il 28,5% delle
femmine) mentre solamente il 7,5% ha concluso gli studi universitari (l’8%
dei maschi e il 7,1% delle femmine).
Il reddito pro capite del 2001 è di 15.037 euro, con differenze rilevanti tra
le aree geografiche del paese: 17.903 euro al Nord-Ovest, 16.977 euro al
Nord-Est, 16.620 euro al Centro e 11.100 euro al Sud.
Nel 2002, in base a dati Istat, l’11% delle famiglie italiane e 7.140 mila
individui vivono sotto una soglia relativa di povertà, fissata a 823,45 euro
di spesa mensile per una famiglia di due componenti, e il 4,2% delle
famiglie e 2.916 mila individui vivono al di sotto di una soglia assoluta di
povertà basata sul valore monetario di un paniere di beni e servizi fissato a
573,63 euro mensili per una famiglia di due componenti. La povertà
colpisce soprattutto il Mezzogiorno, dove il 22,4% delle famiglie è al di
sotto della povertà relativa, le famiglie più numerose e le famiglie di
anziani. Circa il 25% delle famiglie con tre o più figli risulta povero. Le
famiglie con due o più anziani sono povere nel 17,4% dei casi.
202
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Il tasso di disoccupazione negli ultimi anni ha iniziato a scendere. Nel 2001
le persone disoccupate erano 2.267.000 (9,1% in meno rispetto al 2000) e il
tasso di disoccupazione era del 9,5% (10,6% nel 2000, dati Istat). Nel 2002
i disoccupati sono 2.163.000 (4,6% in meno rispetto al 2001) e il tasso di
disoccupazione è del 9%. Tuttavia, il tasso di disoccupazione tocca livelli
preoccupanti al Sud, dove è ancora del 18,3% nel 2002 (al Nord e al Centro
è rispettivamente del 4% e del 6,6%, secondo dati Istat). La disoccupazione
riguarda le donne più degli uomini: nel 2002 il tasso di disoccupazione
femminile è del 12,2%, rispetto al 7% degli uomini, e al Sud Italia è
addirittura del 26,4%. I lavoratori indipendenti sono nel 70,8% dei casi
uomini e i lavoratori dipendenti di alto livello (dirigenti e direttivi-quadri)
sono ugualmente, nel 70,7% dei casi, uomini (Istat 2002).
Il tasso di disoccupazione giovanile in Italia è del 27,2%, 31,4% tra le
donne e 24% tra gli uomini. Anche in questo caso le differenze regionali
sono notevoli: al Sud i giovani tra 15 e 24 anni sono disoccupati nel 49,4%
dei casi (Istat, 2002). Si può tuttavia osservare negli ultimi anni una
tendenza decrescente del tasso di disoccupazione giovanile: nel 1999 era
infatti del 56,6%, nel 2000 del 55% e nel 2001 del 50,8% (Istat).
La spesa pensionistica per i lavoratori dipendenti ha raggiunto nel 2001 i
138.015 milioni di euro (nel 2000 l’importo era di 130.846 milioni di euro).
La pensione media annua è di 17.250 euro (nel 2000 era di 16.500 euro) ma
esistono differenze a seconda delle tipologie di lavoratori: il fondo pensioni
lavoratori dipendenti dell’Inps dà diritto in media a soli 8.000 euro l’anno
mentre l’istituto giornalisti a 44.000 euro l’anno (dati del Nucleo di
valutazione spesa previdenziale).
Per quanto riguarda i lavoratori autonomi e i professionisti, la spesa nel
2001 ammonta a 26.161 milioni di euro (25.043 milioni nel 2000) con una
pensione media annua di 5800 euro l’anno (dati del Nucleo di valutazione
spesa previdenziale).
203
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
3.5. Phenomenology
La crisi che dagli anni ‘70 si è sempre più configurata nei termini di una
rottura dell’equilibrio che la protezione sociale, attraverso la sua continua
espansione, garantiva nei decenni precedenti caratterizzati da una fotre
espansione economica. Questa crisi sembra avere, in linea di principio, due
ordini di cause: a) il problema della crisi fiscale dello Stato, dello squilibrio
tra le entrate e le spese delle istituzioni; b) l’unificazione dei mercati delle
monete e del credito e l’accelerazione dell’innovazione tecnologica ed
organizzativa
Entrambe queste cause hanno ridotto i margini di manovra a disposizione
degli Stati nazionali per trasformare i vincoli generati dall’economia
mondiale in opportunità di sviluppo da cogliere localmente. I nuovi scenari
sembrano inoltre minare gli equilibri storici del mercato del lavoro e
produrre nuova incertezza per quote sempre più ampie della popolazione
locale, anche nelle asce medie tradizionalmente al riparo da regimi di
incertezza sconosciuti negli ultimi 50 anni.
Lo stesso mercato del lavoro premia la soggettività personale, declinata in
termini di individualismo e di flessibilità, in un contesto che appare
contraddistinto da una crescita esponenziale della competitività, il cui effetto
è un sempre più accentuato declino delle coscienze collettive e delle
solidarietà di classe, dei corpi intermedi e di tutti gli organi di
rappresentanza, con una segmentazione molecolare dei gruppi sociali che
esprimono domande e bisogni sempre più spesso diversificati, se non
addirittura opposti, e la creazione di una fascia di “nuova povertà” formata
da esclusi spesso incapaci di, o impossibilitati a, far sentire la propria
presenza sullo scenario della politica sociale. L’effetto di tale crisi è
dirompente e trascende l’impressione di un semplice malfunzionamento. I
fattori di crisi più sopra richiamati sembrano avere l’effetto di svuotare di
contenuti la stessa concezione di Welfare. L’Italia è entrata in un’epoca di
transizione perpetua, nella quale il cambiamento non è più immediatamente
interpretabile in termini di progresso, di sviluppo dell’individuo e della
società, ma è piuttosto generatore di incertezza, di confusione, di
insicurezza, di disintegrazione sociale. La fase di crisi, che si è acuita dagli
anni ‘90, non riguarda soltanto l’ambito dei diritti sociali, ma investe anche
le dimensioni dei diritti politici con una spirale che coinvolge e si alimenta
nello svuotamento di contenuti della partecipazione politica. Persino i diritti
civili, a causa dell’aumento dell’incertezza personale in tutti gli ambiti
204
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
connessi al well-being producono ulteriori incertezze, fragilità, esclusione
sociale e devianza, con la conseguente perdita del controllo e della perdita di
efficacia dell’intero impianto della protezione sociale.
In simili circostanze è sempre più difficile, in Italia così come negli altri
paesi con una economia avanzata, “quadrare il cerchio” che i principi laici e
democratici hanno legato, almeno nella concezione della Repubblica, il
benessere economico alla coesione sociale ed alla libertà politica. Tale
difficoltà diventa macroscopica ed ancora più scomoda se proiettata nelle
contraddizioni del sistema nazionale di protezione sociale, dove ad un
periodo di espansione del welfare, della cittadinanza, della spesa pubblica, si
va gradatamente sostituendo un sistema che è stato beffardamente definito
“Stato asociale” (Boeri 2000), che dissemina di “trappole” (cfr. Ferrera
1998) il percorso di sviluppo della società italiana, anziché promuovere
garanzie.
Nuove opportunità di inserimento sociale – ad esempio per le donne -, e
nuove speranze di riscatto della povertà – per gli immigrati che provengono
dalle società “in via di sviluppo” – si accompagnano a crescenti rischi di
emarginazione o di autentica esclusione in una società che – con maggiore
evidenza nei contesti urbani - diviene sempre più complessa, sempre più
interdipendente, sempre più pervasa da ambiguità e incertezze che troppo
spesso vengono declinate in termini di precarietà nelle chances di vita.
205
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
4.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
CRIME
4.1. Definitions
Nella Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana l’Articolo 27 precisa che “la
responsabilità penale è personale. L’imputato non è considerato colpevole
sino alla condanna definitiva. Le pene non possono consistere in trattamenti
contrari al senso di umanità e devono tendere alla rieducazione del
condannato. Non è ammessa la pena di morte, se non nei casi previsti dalle
leggi militari di guerra. Altri articoli, (111, 112 e 113) regolano le “Norme
sulla giurisdizione” ed il primo di essi regola i diritti dell’accusato: “Nel
processo penale, la legge assicura che la persona accusata di un reato sia, nel
più breve tempo possibile, informata riservatamente della natura e dei
motivi dell’accusa elevata a suo carico; disponga del tempo e delle
condizioni necessari per preparare la sua difesa; abbia la facoltà, davanti al
giudice, di interrogare o di far interrogare le persone che rendono
dichiarazioni a suo carico, di ottenere la convocazione e l’interrogatorio di
persone a sua difesa nelle stesse condizioni dell’accusa e l’acquisizione di
ogni altro mezzo di prova a suo favore; sia assistita da un interprete se non
comprende o non parla la lingua impiegata nel processo”. La legge penale
italiana è regolata dal Codice penale ed obbliga tutti coloro che, cittadini o
stranieri, si trovano ne l territorio dello Stato, salve le eccezioni stabilite dal
diritto pubblico interno o dal diritto internazionale.
4.2. Policy and Legislation
La legge penale italiana obbliga altresì tutti coloro che, cittadini o stranieri,
si trovano all`estero, ma limitatamente ai casi stabiliti dalla legge medesima
o dal diritto internazionale. Le pene principali stabilite per i delitti sono
l’ergastolo, la reclusione (fino a 24 anni), la multa, l’arresto e l’ammenda.
Sotto la denominazione di pene detentive o restrittive della libertà personale
la legge comprende: l’ergastolo, la reclusione e l’arresto. Sotto la
denominazione di pene pecuniarie la legge comprende: la multa e
l’ammenda.
206
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.3. Fonti
- Censis, Sviluppo e legalità nel Mezzogiorno (www.svileg.censis.it)
- Istat, Annuario Statistico Italiano 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Italia in cifre 2002 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Statistiche giudiziarie penali, anno 2001 (www.istat.it)
- Istat, Statistiche giudiziarie civili, anno 2001 (www.istat.it)
4.4. Data
Secondo i dati dell’Istat, nel 2001 i reati denunciati alle autorità giudiziarie
dalle forze dell’ordine sono 2.163.826, 41.956 in meno rispetto al 2000.
Sempre nel 2001, al Nord sono denunciati 1.048.781 reati, al Centro
459.419 e al Sud 655.626. Le denunce sono in media 38 ogni 1.000 abitanti,
più frequenti al Nord e al Centro (rispettivamente 41 e 42,1 ogni 1.000
abitanti), rispetto al Sud (32 denunce ogni 1.000 abitanti).
La popolazione carceraria, secondo dati Istat relativi al 2001, ammonta a
55.751 persone, 16.511 delle quali straniere (il 29,6%). Solamente il 4,3%
delle persone detenute è di sesso femminile; tra le donne detenute, la
percentuale delle straniere è molto più alta rispetto agli uomini (il 41,5%
rispetto al 29,1%). Nel complesso, nel 2001, i detenuti sono il 16,7% in più
rispetto al 1995 e gli stranieri detenuti, addirittura il 102,7% in più rispetto
allo stesso anno. Il numero più elevato di detenuti si registra al Sud (23.441
rispetto ai 21.243 del Nord e i 11.067 del Centro) ma il numero maggiore di
detenuti stranieri si trova al Nord (8.709 rispetto ai 4.322 del Centro e i
3.480 del Sud).
207
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.5. Phenomenology
Il delicato rapporto tra giustizia e politica, seppure in questi ultimi anni ha
acceso molte polemiche e fratture fra alti rappresentanti del potere esecutivo
e giudiziario del Paese, ha posto le condizioni per una riflessione sui mali
della giustizia penale italiana. Fra le questioni recentemente in Italia emerse
nel dibattito sulla Giustizia degli ultimi anni:
- la riforma di una sentenza di assoluzione attraverso la mera rivisitazione
dei giudici d’appello degli stessi elementi di prova raccolti nel
contraddittorio e nell’oralità dai primi giudici;
- la separazione delle carriere tra giudici e pubblici ministeri;
- l’immunità parlamentare;
- la possibilità, in condizioni di “legittimo sospetto”, di rimette il processo
ad altro giudice, su richiesta motivata del procuratore generale, del
pubblico ministero o dell’imputato stesso;
- la pronuncia di una sentenza di condanna a più di 20 anni dal fatto;
- l’abuso del ricorso allo strumento della misura cautelare.
Numerose sono le voci che hanno espresso la volontà di affrontare
costruttivamente le delicate questioni oggetto del dibattito su una riforma
della Giustizia nella convinzione della necessità di una riforma organica che
renda il sistema più rapido ed efficiente e che allo stesso tempo garantisca la
separazione ed autonomia del potere giudiziario dai sistemi esecutivo e
legislativo del Paese.
Le condizioni per tale riforma non sono particolarmente propizie nell’Italia
di oggi, dove la questione della Giustizia assume delle accese valenze di
carattere politico, e dove le obiezioni espresse e le soluzioni auspicate
fuoriescono dagli ambiti tecnici di una riforma e trovano cassa di risonanza
sull’acceso dibattito politico di questi ultimi anni. Se da un lato le forze
politiche di maggioranza si sono impegnate in interventi riformatori di breve
respiro, spesso ispirati al soddisfacimento di interessi particolari, d’altro lato
le forze politiche di minoranza non hanno saputo immaginare alternative
alla tentazione di demonizzare ogni ipotesi di riforma anche prescindendo
208
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
dal suo contenuto. Il coinvolgimento della stessa Magistratura in tale
dibattito politico non gioca a favore di una riflessione costruttiva. Superare
le sterili contrapposizioni e affrontare con concretezza i nodi del sistema
giudiziario italiano appare una scommessa tanto auspicabile quanto ardua.
209
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
5.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
TRENDS AND CORRELATIONS
5.1. The evolution from the ‘80s
Al di là delle problematiche connesse al funzionamento dei sistemi
previdenziali, sanitari e giudiziari, nell’ultimo ventennio l’Italia ha
attraversato una fase caratterizzata da fenomeni di una certa stabilità.
Nonostante i grossi cambiamenti intercorsi nell’economia, nella sfera
politica e nella congiuntura internazionale, la ricchezza procapite è andata
aumentando in modo costante, fino ad una prima recente battuta d’arresto
nel 2002 (tab. 1).
Tab. 1 - Analisi della povertà in Italia - Anni 1980-2002
Indicatore sintetico di ricchezza
(valore aggiunto per ab.in mgl di euro
a prezzi 1995)
Anno
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
11,6
11,6
11,7
11,8
12,1
12,4
12,7
13,0
13,5
13,9
14,1
14,5
14,6
14,4
14,7
15,2
15,3
15,6
15,8
16,1
16,5
17,0
17,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
210
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
La ricchezza in Italia (v.a. per abitante in migliaia di euro)
Anni 1980-2002
18,0
17,0
16,0
15,0
14,0
13,0
12,0
11,0
20
02
20
00
19
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
90
19
88
19
86
19
84
19
82
19
80
10,0
Anni
Anche la spesa delle famiglie per salute e spese sanitarie, sebbene si
dimostra meno lineare dell’incremento della ricchezza, registra una
tendenza positiva e piuttosto ciclica, con delle avanzate della spesa negli
anni 1987, 1993, 1995-96, un calo evidente nel 2000 ed una netta ripresa
negli ultimi anni (tab. 2).
211
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Tab.2 – Analisi della salute in Italia (spesa delle famiglie) Anni 1980-2002
Anno
Indicatore sintetico salute
(spesa delle famiglie per servizi
sanitari in mln di euro a prezzi
1995 per 100.000 famiglie)
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
35,8
37,2
37,2
38,3
40,3
39,6
43,2
43,1
47,0
50,1
51,4
56,6
65,3
66,8
73,7
81,2
82,3
84,1
85,0
84,4
84,0
87,4
89,4
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
212
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Spesa delle famiglie residenti in Italia
per servizi sanitari (milioni di euro)
Anni 1980-2002
90,0
80,0
70,0
60,0
50,0
40,0
20
02
20
00
19
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
90
19
88
19
86
19
84
19
82
19
80
30,0
Anni
La diffusione della criminalità, invece, registrata attraverso in numero di
delitti per abitante, dimostra un andamento assai più irregolare, con un picco
mai più eguagliato nel 1991 di quasi 47 delitti ogni 1000 abitanti, un netto
calo fino al 1994, e poi una netta ripresa seguita da una morbida flessione
fino al 2001, anno in cui ha inizio una ripresa che arriva ad oggi (tab. 3). Le
oscillazioni non sono semplici da spiegare, specialmente a causa delle
diverse concause fra le quali è possibile elencare:
- le evoluzioni legislative, con importanti modificazioni delle leggi penali
vigenti;
- l’aumento della compagine sociale e dell’incidenza di popolazione
immigrata irregolare con basse possibilità di inserimento regolare;
- il frammentarsi della criminalità organizzata ed il suo evolversi verso
crimini diversi;
- l’aumento della microcriminalità ed il suo distribuirsi nella penisola
rispetto a fenomeni classici di maggiore concentrazione nelle aree
metropolitane meridionali.
213
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Tab. 3 – Analisi della criminalità in Italia - Anni 1980-2002
Indice di diffusione della criminalità
(delitti per 1.000 abitanti)
Anno
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
32,9
35,7
43,3
46,7
42,0
39,6
38,0
39,5
42,2
42,4
42,1
41,2
38,1
38,0
38,9
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat e Ministero dell’interno
Il livello di difusione della criminalità initalia (delitti per 1.000 abitanti)
Anni 1988-2002
50,0
45,0
40,0
35,0
30,0
25,0
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Anni
214
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Oltre a quanto rilevato per l’indicatore sintetico di ricchezza, calcolato
attraverso il valore aggiunto per abitanti, è possibile calcolare anche
l’indicatore sintetico di povertà che stabilisce l’incidenza delle famiglie
povere sul totale delle famiglie italiane. Dal 1995 al 2001 l’incidenza oscilla
intorno ad una media dell’11,5% e sembra indifferente all’incremento della
ricchezza, all’aumento della spesa per la salute delle famiglie (tab. 4).
L’indice di criminalità diffusa, calcolato sulla percentuale dei “piccoli
crimini” su quelli più gravi, segue un andamento tendente all’incremento del
tutto sganciato da quello della criminalità in generale, e quasi speculare, con
incrementi nel 1998 e 1999 anni in cui la criminalità in generale era stabile o
in decremento, e con una espansione nel 1997 che non trova riscontro nei
dati complessivi dei reati rispetto alla popolazione.
Tab. 4 - Analisi della povertà, salute e criminalità in Italia - Anni 1995-2001
Indicatore sintetico povertà
(incidenza % delle famiglie
povere)
Anno
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
10,6
10,3
12,0
11,8
11,9
12,3
12,0
Indice di criminalità diffusa
(furti e rapine meno gravi in %
dei delitti)
60,1
58,6
58,6
62,3
63,8
63,5
61,8
Fonte: dati Istat
215
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Famiglie povere in Italia (val. %) Anni 1995-2001
12,5
12,0
11,5
11,0
10,5
10,0
9,5
9,0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Indice di criminalità diffusa in Italia (val. %) Anni 1995-2001
65,0
64,0
63,0
62,0
61,0
60,0
59,0
58,0
57,0
56,0
55,0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
216
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
5.2. Correlation between poverty, health crime and other
development indicators in the last decades
Alta ed indiscutibile è la correlazione fra ricchezza e spesa sanitaria delle
famiglie italiane, con un tasso di correlazione dello 0,9216. L’aumento della
ricchezza delle famiglie si traduc, pressochè automaticamente, in un
aumento della spesa per servizi sanitari (tab. 5).
Tab. 5 - Analisi della povertà e salute in Italia - Anni 1980-2002
Anno
Indicatore sintetico di richezza
(valore aggiunto per ab.in mgl di
euro)
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
11,6
11,6
11,7
11,8
12,1
12,4
12,7
13,0
13,5
13,9
14,1
14,5
14,6
14,4
14,7
15,2
15,3
15,6
15,8
16,1
16,5
17,0
17,0
Indicatore sintetico salute (spesa
delle famiglie per servizi sanitari in
mln di euro per 100.000 famiglie)
35,8
37,2
37,2
38,3
40,3
39,6
43,2
43,1
47,0
50,1
51,4
56,6
65,3
66,8
73,7
81,2
82,3
84,1
85,0
84,4
84,0
87,4
89,4
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
217
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
La ricchezza e la spesa sanitaria delle famiglie residenti in Italia
Anni 1980-2002
2
R = 0,9216
100,0
90,0
80,0
70,0
60,0
50,0
40,0
30,0
20,0
10,0
0,0
10,0
11,0
12,0
13,0
14,0
15,0
16,0
17,0
18,0
Viceversa, un dato significativo è rappresentato dalla completa mancata
correlazione, né positiva né negativa, dell’aumento della ricchezza con
l’aumento, o il diminuire, dell’indice di diffusione della criminalità, pari all
0,0089. Indipendentemente dal cambiare della condizione di ricchezza delle
famiglie, l’indice di criminalità sembra rispondere ad altre logiche che non
comunicano con l’incremento o la riduzione della ricchezza. Una debolezza
simile, anche se meno accentuata si riscontra fra criminalità e presenza o
meno di famiglie povere, dove il tasso di correlazione sale allo 0,3842 (tab.
6).
218
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Tab. 6 - Analisi della povertà e criminalità in Italia - Anni 1988-2002
Indicatore sintetico di richezza
(valore aggiunto per ab.in mgl di
euro)
Anno
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Indice di diffusione della criminalità
(delitti per abitante per 1.000 abitanti)
13,5
13,9
14,1
14,5
14,6
14,4
14,7
15,2
15,3
15,6
15,8
16,1
16,5
17,0
17,0
32,9
35,7
43,3
46,7
42,0
39,6
38,0
39,5
42,2
42,4
42,1
41,2
38,1
38,0
38,9
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat e Ministero dell’interno
La ricchezza e il livello di diffusione di criminalità in Italia
Anni 1988-2002
R2 = 0,0089
50,0
48,0
46,0
44,0
42,0
40,0
38,0
36,0
34,0
32,0
30,0
12,0
13,0
14,0
15,0
16,0
17,0
18,0
219
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Analisi della povertà, salute e criminalità in Italia - Anni 1980-2002
Indicatore sintetico povertà
(incidenza % delle famiglie
povere)
Anno
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
10,6
10,3
12,0
11,8
11,9
12,3
12,0
Indice di criminalità diffusa
(furti e rapine meno gravi in
% dei delitti)
60,1
58,6
58,6
62,3
63,8
63,5
61,8
Fonte: dati Istat
Famiglie povere in Italia e livello di diffusione di criminalità Anni 1995-2001
65,0
R2 = 0,3842
64,0
63,0
62,0
61,0
60,0
59,0
58,0
10,0
10,5
11,0
11,5
12,0
12,5
Analoga debolezza di correlazione si riscontra fra la spesa della salute delle
famiglie ed I tassi di criminlaità rispetto alla popolazione, confermando
l’esistenza di 3 elementi la cui correlazione non è nè diretta nè lineare e che
per essere rintracciata ha bisogno di tecniche di analisi più articolate come
l’analisi della correlazione delle componenti principali (ACP) che è stata
condotta sul compesso dei paesi del Mediterraneo nella Parte Seconda della
presente ricerca.
220
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Tab. Analisi della salute e criminalità in Italia - Anni 1980-2002
Indicatore sintetico salute
(spesa delle famiglie per
servizi sanitari in mln di
euro a prezzi 1995 per
100.000 famiglie)
Anno
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Indice di diffusione della
criminalità (delitti per
abitante per 1.000 abitanti)
47,0
50,1
51,4
56,6
65,3
66,8
73,7
81,2
82,3
84,1
85,0
84,4
84,0
87,4
89,4
32,9
35,7
43,3
46,7
42,0
39,6
38,0
39,5
42,2
42,4
42,1
41,2
38,1
38,0
38,9
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat e Ministero dell’interno
La spesa sanitaria delle famiglie residenti in Italia e il livello di diffusione di criminalità Anni 1988-2002
2
R = 0,0208
50,0
48,0
46,0
44,0
42,0
40,0
38,0
36,0
34,0
32,0
30,0
40,0
50,0
60,0
70,0
80,0
90,0
100,0
221
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
5.3. Key issues, political agenda and perspectives
L’analisi teorica ed empirica sulla protezione sociale, sulla possibile
ridefinizione del punto di equilibrio fra esigenze di welfare e crisi dello
sviluppo economico e sue interconnessioni con la sicurezza individuale e la
criminalità, è di immediato e condiviso interesse per la comunità scientifica
internazionale, sia quella afferente a contesti sulla via dello sviluppo sia
quella che riflette sul cammino dei Paesi più avanzati del bacino del
mediterraneo. La sfida che sta di fronte a studiosi e ricercatori appare
triplice:
- per un verso si tratta di combinare una varietà di concetti e di strumenti
prelevati dalla “cassetta degli attrezzi” delle scienze sociali – e dunque
della sociologia, dell’economia, della scienza politica, della statistica,
della giurisprudenza, della demografia – per interpretare i processi in
corso, individuare le cause dei problemi, valutare le possibili alternative,
proporre ipotesi di intervento;
- per un altro, bisogna tenere presente una varietà di livelli di analisi e di
proposta: dal livello globale, al quale già si affaccia l’ipotesi di una
cittadinanza mondiale portatrice di istanze di riequilibrio della sovranità
del mercato mondiale autoregolato, a quello delle istituzioni
sovranazionali, che riguarda particolarmente l’Italia in quanto impegnata
nel processo di costruzione di una “cittadinanza europea”, a quello dello
Stato nazionale, che in ciascun Paese rappresenta tuttora la porzione più
cospicua del sistema della protezione sociale; a quello dei contesti locali,
sui quali paiono scaricarsi i costi umani e sociali dei cambiamenti in
questione e che tuttavia presentano opportunità che è importante cogliere
per la riattivazione di interventi di protezione sociale e di percorsi di
inserimento e di partecipazione che possono assumere un’importanza
notevole nel quadro delle trasformazioni in corso;
- per un altro ancora, occorre studiare, con l’ausilio degli strumenti in
precedenza menzionati, ai diversi livelli sopra citati, e con il ricorso ad
una metodologia comparativa d’indagine, gli effetti prodotti dai
mutamenti che intervengono nella protezione sociale sugli assetti e sugli
orizzonti dei contesti più avanzati, in maniera da delineare i livelli di
sicurezza e di coesione disponibili e l’articolazione di questi in rapporto
alle diverse fasce della popolazione.
222
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Il che significa ricondurre il problema della cittadinanza sociale alla
questione della “giusta tutela”, e quindi in sostanza dei contenuti
effettivamente fruibili dei diritti che definiscono la cittadinanza in ciascun
contesto storico-sociale e che possono consentire di difendere, e forse anche
di promuovere, la libertà e l’eguaglianza nel rispetto della diversità. Il che
significa affrontare, con strumenti interdisciplinari ed avendo riguardo alle
interazioni ed alle interferenze tra i molteplici livelli territoriali dell’analisi e
della ricerca sul campo, il problema dell’integrazione tra i diversi comparti
della politica sociale – il sistema dell’istruzione e della formazione
professionale, le misure di inserimento sociale ed occupazionale, il settore
della previdenza, la politica dell’abitazione ecc. – e tra questa e la più
generale politica del Paese – ad esempio, l’interazione tra la politica sociale,
la politica fiscale, la politica economica, la politica di coesione regionale e
di sviluppo.
223
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
6.
ANNESSO STATISTICO
DATI GENERALI
Tab. 1 - Struttura per età della popolazione residente in Italia per ripartizione territoriale al 01/01/2001, Maschi - (v.a. e val. %)
0 - 14
15 - 64
65 e oltre
Totale
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
Nord
Centro
Sud e isole
1.670.278
747.908
1.852.400
13,3
13,9
18,2
8.857.299
3.727.130
6.928.785
70,7
69,2
68,1
2.008.999
913.735
1.388.323
16,0
17,0
13,7
12.536.576
5.388.773
10.169.508
100,0
100,0
100,0
Italia
4.270.586
15,2
19.513.214
69,5
4.311.057
15,3
28.094.857
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 2 - Struttura per età della popolazione residente in Italia per ripartizione territoriale al 01/01/2001, Femmine - (v.a. e val. %)
0 - 14
15 - 64
65 e oltre
Totale
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
Nord
Centro
Sud e isole
1.576.008
705.548
1.751.762
11,9
12,2
16,4
8.680.992
3.772.163
7.017.809
65,3
65,4
65,7
3.040.707
1.293.099
1.911.072
22,9
22,4
17,9
13.297.707
5.770.810
10.680.643
100,0
100,0
100,0
Italia
4.033.318
13,6
19.470.964
65,5
6.244.878
21,0
29.749.160
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 3 - Struttura per età della popolazione residente in Italia per ripartizione territoriale al 01/01/2001, Totale - (v.a. e val. %)
0 - 14
15 - 64
65 e oltre
Totale
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
v.a.
%
Nord
Centro
Sud e isole
3.246.286
1.453.456
3.604.162
12,6
13,0
17,3
17.538.291
7.499.293
13.946.594
67,9
67,2
66,9
5.049.706
2.206.834
3.299.395
19,5
19,8
15,8
25.834.283
11.159.583
20.850.151
100,0
100,0
100,0
Italia
8.303.904
14,4
38.984.178
67,4
10.555.935
18,2
57.844.017
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 4 - Struttura demografica dei Paesi dell'Unione Europea - Anni 1995-2002 (v.a.e val. %)
Popolazio
ne al 1
gennaio in
migliaia di
abitanti
Quota %
sul totale
Eur15
Tasso di
accrescime
nto per
1.000
abitanti
Quota %
0-19 anni
Quota %
20-59 anni
Quota %
60 anni e
oltre
Anni
Belgio
Danimarca
Germania
Grecia
Spagna
1995
10.130,6
5.215,7
81.538,6
10.442,9
39.177,4
Francia
Irlanda
Italia
Lussemburgo
Paesi Bassi
Austria
Portogallo
Finlandia
Svezia
Regno Unito
58.020,1
3.594,7(1)
57.268,6
406,6
15.424,1
8.039,9
9.912,1
5.098,8
8.816,4
58.500,2
3.615,6(1)
57.333,0
412,8
15.493,9
8.054,8
9.920,8
5.116,8
8.837,5
58694,0 (1)
3.652,2 (1)
57.461,0
418,3
15.567,1
8.067,8
9.934,1
5.132,3
8.844,5
58.901,8 (1)
3.694,0 (1)
57.563,4
423,7
15.654,2
8.075,0
9.957,3
5.147,3
8.847,6
59.089,6 (3)
3.734,9
57.612,6
429,2
15.760,2
8.082,8
9.979,5
5.159,6
8.854,3
59.391,1 (3)
3.776,6
57.679,9
435,7
15.864,0
8.102,6
9.997,6
5.171,3
8.861,4
59.623,4
3.826,2 (1)
57.844,0
441,3
15.987,1
8.121,3
10.262,9
5.181,1
8.882,8
59.894,2 (3)
3.884,2
(2)
58.017,9
(2)
446,4
(2)
16.100,3
(1)
8.140,0
(2)
10.355,6
(1)
5.194,9
8.909,1
60.113,9
(3)
Eur 15
371.586,7
(2)
372.653,6
(1)
373.713,4
(1)
374.582,8
(2)
374.978,6
(2)
375.973,6
(2)
378.036,6
(2)
379.600,7
(2)
58.255,9
(1)
58.491,6
(1)
58.726,9
(1)
58.494,0
(1)
58.744,1
(1)
59.037,2
(1)
59.344,0
(1)
1996
10.143,0
5.251,0
81.817,5
10.465,1
39.241,9
1997
10.170,2
5.275,1
82.012,2
10.486,6
39.298,6
1998
10.192,3
5.294,9
82.057,4
10.511,0
39.347,9
1999
10.213,8
5.313,6
82.037,0
10.521,7
39.394,3
2000
10.239,1
5.330,0
82.163,5
10.542,8
39.441,7
2001
10.263,4
5.349,2
82.259,5
10564,7 (1)
40.127,7
2002
10.307,3
(2)
5.638,4
82.431,0
10.598,3
(2)
40.409,3
2002
2,7
1,5
21,7
2,8
10,6
15,6
1,0
15,3
0,1
4,2
2,1
2,7
1,4
2,3
15,8
100,0
1995
1,2
6,8
3,4
2,1
1,6
4,1(1)
5,8(1)
1,1
15,1
4,5
1,9
0,9
3,5
2,4
3,3(2)
2,9
1996
2,7
4,6
2,4
2,1
1,4
4,0 (1)
10,1
2,2
13,3
4,7
1,6
1,3
3,0
0,8
3,4 (1)
2,8 (1)
1997
2,2
3,7
0,6
2,3
1,3
4,0 (1)
11,4 (1)
1,8
12,8
5,6
0,9
2,3
2,9
0,4
3,1
2,3 (1)
1998
2,1
3,5
-0,2 (1)
1,0
1,2
3,3 (1)
11,0 (1)
0,9
12,9
6,7
1,0
2,2
2,4
0,8
5,1 (1)
2,2 (1)
1999
2,5
3,1
1,5
2,0
1,2
4,3
11,1
1,2
15,0
6,6
2,4
1,8 (3)
2,3
0,8
3,9
2,7 (1)
2000
2,4
3,6
1,2
1,0 (1)
9,7
4,9 (1)
13,0 (1)
2,8
12,8
7,7
2,3
6,3
1,9
2,4
4,5 (3)
4,1 (2)
2001
4,3 (2)
3,6
2,1 (3)
3,2 (3)
7,1
5,2 (1)
15,1 (2)
3,0 (2)
11,4 (2)
7,1 (1)
2,3 (2)
7,1 (1)
2,7
3,0
3,7 (3)
4,1 (2)
1990
24,8
24,3
21,8
27,0
28,8
27,8
36,7
24,5
23,2
25,7
24,3
29,3
25,4
24,5
25,9
25,5
1995
24,1
23,6
21,5
24,4
25,0
26,1
33,8
21,5
23,8
24,4
23,3
26,1
25,5
24,7
25,3
23,9
1998
23,8
23,6
21,5
22,8
22,8
25,8 (1)
32,0
20,2
24,2
24,3
23,1
24,3
25,0
24,4
25,4
23,3 (1)
1999
23,7
23,6
21,4
22,3
22,2
25,7
31,4
20,0
24,3
24,4
23,0
23,9
24,8
24,3
25,4
23,1
2000
23,6
23,7
21,3
21,8
21,7
25,6
30,8
19,8
24,4
24,4
22,8
23,5
24,7
24,2
25,3
23,0
1990
54,7
55,3
57,9
53,3
52,5
53,2
48,0
55,0
57,9
57,1
55,5
52,2
56,2
52,6
53,3
54,6
1995
54,6
56,6
57,8
54,1
54,4
53,8
51,0
56,2
57,1
57,9
57,0
54,0
55,6
53,3
54,2
55,5
1998
54,5
56,8
56,6
54,6
55,8
53,9 (1)
52,8
56,7
56,7
57,8
57,2
55,4
55,6
53,6
54,2
55,5 (1)
1999
54,5
56,7
56,2
54,9
56,3
53,9
53,4
56,5
56,6
57,6
57,2
55,6
55,6
53,6
54,2
55,5
2000
54,5
56,6
55,7
55,1
56,7
53,9
54,1
56,3
56,5
57,5
56,8
55,9
55,5
53,6
54,3
55,4
1990
20,5
20,4
20,3
19,7
18,7
19,0
15,3
20,5
18,9
17,2
20,2
18,5
18,4
22,9
20,8
19,9
1995
21,3
19,8
20,7
21,5
20,6
20,1
15,2
22,3
19,1
17,7
19,7
19,9
18,9
22,0
20,5
20,6
1998
21,7
19,6
21,9
22,6
21,4
20,3
15,2
23,1
19,1
17,9
19,7
20,3
19,4
22,0
20,4
21,2
1999
21,8
19,7
22,4
22,8
21,5
20,4
15,2
23,5
19,1
18,0
19,8
20,5
19,6
22,1
20,4
21,4
2000
21,9
19,7
23,0
23,1
21,6
20,5
15,1
23,9
19,1
18,1
20,4
20,6
19,8
22,2
20,4
21,6
(1) Dati provvisori; (2) Stima Eurostat; (3) Stima nazionale
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Eurostat
Tab. 5 - Principali indicatori socio-demografici europei - Anni 1970-2001 (v.a.e val. %)
Anni
Belgio
Danimarca
Germania
Grecia
Spagna
Francia
Irlanda
Italia
Lussemburgo
Paesi
Bassi
Austria
Portogallo
Finlandia
Svezia
Regno
Unito
Eur 15
Tasso di
natalità (nati
per 1.000
abitanti)
1970
1980
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
14,7
12,6
12,4
11,3
11,4 (1)
11,4
11,2
11,1
11,3 (1)
11,2 (2)
14,4
11,2
12,4
13,4
12,9
12,8
12,5
12,4
12,6
12,2
13,4
11,1
11,4
9,4
9,7
9,9
9,6
9,4
9,3
8,9 (3)
16,5
15,5
10,1
9,7
9,6
9,7
9,6
9,6
9,6 (3)
9,5 (2)
19,7
15,3
10,3
9,2
9,1
9,2 (1)
9,2 (1)
9,6 (1)
9,9 (1)
10,1 (3)
16,8
14,9
13,5
12,5
12,6 (1)
12,4 (1)
12,7 (1)
12,7 (1)
13,2 (1)
13,1 (1)
21,9
21,8
15,1
13,5
13,9
14,2 (1)
14,4
14,2
14,3 (1)
15,0 (2)
16,8
11,4
10,0
9,1
9,2
9,2 (1)
9,3
9,1
9,4
9,4 (2)
13,0
11,5
13,0
13,3
13,7
13,1
12,6
12,9
13,1
12,3 (2)
18,4
12,9
13,3
12,4
12,2
12,3
12,7
12,7
13,0
12,7 (1)
15,1
12,0
11,8
11,0
11,0
10,4
10,1
9,7
9,6
9,3 (2)
20,8
16,3
11,7
10,8
11,1
11,4
11,4
11,6 (3)
11,7
10,9 (1)
14,0
13,2
13,2
12,4
11,8
11,5
11,1
11,1
11,0
10,8
13,8
11,7
14,5
11,7
10,8
10,2
10,1
10,0
10,2
10,3
16,3
13,4
13,9
12,5
12,5
12,3
12,1
11,8
11,4 (3)
11,2 (3)
16,2
13,1
12,0
10,8
10,8 (1)
10,8 (1)
10,7 (1)
10,6 (1)
10,8 (3)
10,6 (2)
Tasso di
mortalità
(decessi per
1000 abitanti)
1970
1980
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
12,3
11,5
10,5
10,3
10,4 (1)
10,2
10,2
10,3
10,2
10,1 (2)
9,8
10,9
11,9
12,1
11,6
11,3
11,0
11,1
10,9
10,9
12,5
12,2
11,6
10,8
10,8
10,5
10,4 (3)
10,3
10,2
10,0 (3)
8,4
9,1
9,3
9,6
9,6
9,5
9,7 (3)
9,8
9,8 (2)
9,7 (2)
8,3
7,8
8,6
8,7
8,9
8,9 (1)
9,1 (1)
9,4 (1)
9,0 (1)
8,7 (3)
10,7
10,2
9,3
9,2
9,2 (1)
9,1 (1)
9,2 (1)
9,2 (1)
9,1 (1)
8,9 (1)
11,4
9,9
8,9
8,8
8,7
8,6 (1)
8,3 (1)
8,4
8,2 (1)
7,7 (2)
9,7
9,8
9,6
9,6
9,5
9,6 (1)
10,0 (1)
9,9
9,7
9,3 (2)
12,3
11,3
9,9
9,3
9,4
9,3
9,0
8,8
8,6
8,4 (2)
8,5
8,1
8,7
8,8
8,9
8,7
8,7
8,9
8,8
8,7 (1)
13,3
12,3
10,8
10,1
10,0
9,8
9,7
9,7
9,5
9,2 (2)
10,7
9,8
10,4
10,5
10,8
10,6
10,7
10,8 (3)
10,3
10,6 (1)
9,6
9,3
10,1
9,7
9,6
9,6
9,5
9,6
9,5
9,4
10,0
11,1
11,2
10,7
10,6
10,6
10,5
10,7
10,5
10,5
11,8
11,8
11,2
11,0
10,8
10,7
10,6 (3)
10,6
10,2 (3)
10,1 (3)
10,8
10,5
10,2
10,0
10,0 (1)
9,8 (1)
9,9 (1)
9,9 (1)
9,7 (2)
9,5 (2)
Tasso
migratorio per
1000 abitanti
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
0,3 (1)
1,6 (1)
0,9
1,1 (1)
1,6
1,3 (1)
3,2 (2)
5,5
3,3
2,3
2,1
1,8
1,9
2,3
4,9
3,4
1,1
0,6 (3)
2,5
2,0
3,2 (3)
2,0
2,1
2,1
1,2 (3)
2,3
1,2 (3)
3,3 (2)
1,2 (1)
1,2 (1)
0,9 (1)
1,1 (1)
1,0 (1)
8,8 (3)
5,8 (3)
0,7 (1)
0,6 (1)
0,7 (1)
-0,1 (1)
0,8 (1)
0,8 (1)
1,0 (1)
1,1
3,7 (1)
5,7 (1)
5,0 (1)
5,3
7,0 (2)
7,8 (2)
1,6 (1)
2,6 (1)
2,2 (1)
1,6 (1)
2,0
3,1
2,9 (2)
11,2
8,9
9,1
9,4
10,9
8,3
7,5 (2)
1,0
1,4
1,9
2,8
2,8
3,6
3,1 (1)
0,9
0,6
0,4
0,6
2,4
2,1
2,2 (2)
0,5
1,0
1,5
1,5
1,0 (3)
4,9
6,3 (1)
0,8
0,8
0,9
0,9
0,7
0,5
1,2
1,3
0,7
0,7
1,2
1,5
2,7
3,2
1,8 (1)
1,7 (1)
1,5
3,6 (1)
2,8
3,3 (3)
2,6 (3)
2,1
2,0 (1)
1,4 (1)
1,4 (1)
2,0 (1)
3,1 (2)
3,1 (2)
Nati fuori dal
matrimonio
(per 1.000 nati
vivi)
1970
1980
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
27,7
41,2
116,1
150,0
186,0
201,0 (2)
220,0 (2)
-
110,3
331,7
464,0
464,7
462,8
451,0
448,0
449,0
446,0
446,0
72,3
118,9
153,2
160,6
171,2
180,0
200,0
221,0
234,0
236,0 (3)
11,1
14,6
21,7
30,4
32,7
35,0
38,0
39,0
41,0 (2)
-
13,6
39,3
96,1
107,6
117,0
131,0
141,0 (2)
170,0 (2)
-
68,6
113,8
300,5
372,0
388,0 (1)
401,0 (1)
407,0 (1)
417,0
426,0
-
26,5
50,3
146,4
227,4
247,7 (1)
266,0 (1)
283,0
309,0
318,0 (1)
312,0 (1)
21,8
42,9
64,7
80,6
83,4 (1)
89,0 (1)
87,0 (1)
92,0
96,0 (2)
-
40,1
59,7
127,8
131,3
149,6
168,0
175,0
186,0
219,0
223,0
20,8
41,1
113,8
155,2
169,9
192,0
208,0
227,0
249,0
277,0 (1)
127,7
177,8
235,5
273,7
280,2
288,0
295,0
305,0
313,0
331,0
73,3
92,0
147,1
186,7
186,6
196,0
201,0 (1)
208,0
222,0
238,0
58,3
130,8
252,4
331,2
353,8
365,0
372,0
387,0
392,0
395,0
185,6
397,2
470,0
529,6
538,8
541,0
547,0
553,0
553,0
555,0
80,4
115,2
279,0
335,7
355,1
367,0
376,0
388,0
395,0
401,0 (1)
55,9
96,3
195,5
233,6
243,3 (1)
251,0 (2)
260,0 (2)
272,0 (2)
284,0 (2)
-
Segue tab. 5
Segue tab. 5
Tasso di
mortalità
infantile (morti
primo anno di
vita per 1.000
nati vivi)
Anni
Belgio
Danimarca
Germania
Grecia
Spagna
Francia
Irlanda
Italia
Lussemburgo
Paesi
Bassi
Austria
Portogallo
Finlandia
Svezia
Regno
Unito
Eur 15
1970
1980
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
21,1
12,1
8,0
6,1
5,6 (1)
6,1
5,6
4,9
4,8 (1)
5,0 (1)
14,2
8,4
7,5
5,1
5,6
5,3
4,7
4,4
5,3
4,9
22,5
12,4
7,0
5,3
5,0
4,9
4,7 (1)
4,5
4,4
4,5 (3)
29,6
17,9
9,7
8,1
7,2
6,4
5,7 (3)
6,2
6,1 (3)
5,9 (3)
28,1
12,3
7,6
5,5(2)
6,0
5,6(1)
5,7 (1)
4,9 (1)
3,9 (1)
3,9 (2)
18,2
10,0
7,3
4,9(1)
4,8
4,8 (1)
5,2 (1)
4,8 (1)
4,6 (2)
4,6 (2)
19,5
11,1
8,2
6,4
5,5
6,2(1)
6,2 (1)
5,5
5,9 (1)
5,8 (1)
29,6
14,6
8,2
6,2(1)
5,9
5,5(1)
5,3 (1)
5,2
4,5
4,3 (2)
24,9
11,5
7,3
5,5
4,9
4,2
5,0
4,7
5,1
5,9
12,7
8,6
7,1
5,5
5,7
5,0
5,2
5,2
5,1
5,3 (1)
25,9
14,3
7,8
5,4
5,1
4,7
4,9
4,5
4,8
4,8
55,5
24,3
11,0
7,5
6,9
6,4
6,0
5,6
5,5
5,0
13,2
7,6
5,6
3,9
4,0
3,9
4,2
3,6
3,8
3,2
11,0
6,9
6,0
4,1
4,0
3,6
3,5
3,4
3,4
3,2
18,5
12,1
7,9
6,2
6,1
5,9
5,7 (1)
5,8
5,6 (1)
5,5 (1)
23,4
12,4
7,6
5,6
5,5(1)
5,3(1)
5,2 (2)
5,0 (1)
4,7 (2)
4,6 (2)
(1) Dati provvisori
(2) Stima Eurostat
(3) Stima nazionale
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Eurostat
Tab.5 (segue)- Principali indicatori socio-demografici europei - Anni 1970-2001 (v.a.e val. %)
Tasso di
fecondità
totale (nati
per donna
in età
feconda)
Tasso di
nuzialità
(per 1.000
abitanti)
Segue tab. 5
Anni
Belgio
Danimarca
Germania
Grecia
Spagna
Francia
Irlanda
Italia
Lussemburgo
Paesi
Bassi
Austria
Portogallo
Finlandia
Svezia
Regno
Unito
Eur 15
1970
2,25
1,95
2,03
2,39
2,9
2,47
3,93
2,42
1,98
2,57
2,29
2,83
1,83
1,92
2,43
2,38
1980
1,68
1,55
1,56
2,21
2,2
1,95
3,25
1,64
1,49
1,6
1,62
2,18
1,63
1,68
1,9
1,82
1990
1,62
1,67
1,45
1,39
1,36
1,78
2,12
1,34
1,61
1,62
1,45
1,57
1,78
2,13
1,83
1,57
1995
1,55(2)
1,8
1,25
1,32
1,18(1)
1,7(1)
1,86(2)
1,17
1,69
1,53
1,4
1,4
1,81
1,73
1,7(2)
1,43
1996
1,55 (3)
1,75
1,32
1,3
1,15 (3)
1,72(1)
1,88 (1)
1,21 (3)
1,76
1,53
1,42
1,43
1,76
1,6
1,72
1,44 (2)
1997
1,55
1,75
1,37
1,31
1,16(1)
1,71(1)
1,92(1)
1,22(1)
1,71
1,56
1,37
1,46
1,75
1,52
1,72
1,45(2)
1998
1,53 (1)
1,72
1,36
1,29
1,15
1,75 (1)
1,93 (1)
1,20 (1)
1,68
1,63
1,34
1,46
1,7
1,51
1,72
1,45(2)
1999
1,61
1,74
1,37
1,3
1,20 (1)
1,77 (1)
1,89
1,23
1,71
1,64
1,32
1,49
1,73
1,5
1,68
1,45 (1)
2000
1,66
1,77
1,36 (3)
1,29 (3)
1,23 (1)
1,88 (1)
1,89 (1)
1,24 (3)
1,78
1,72
1,34
1,52
1,73
1,54
1,64
1,48 (2)
2001
1,65 (2)
1,74
1,29 (2)
1,29 (3)
1,25 (3)
1,90 (1)
1,98 (1)
1,24 (2)
1,70 (1)
1,69 (1)
1,29 (2)
1,42 (2)
1,73
1,57
1,63 (3)
1,47 (2)
1970
7,6
7,4
7,4
7,7
7,3
7,8
7
7,3
6,4
9,5
7,1
9,4
8,8
5,4
8,5
7,7
1980
6,7
5,2
6,3
6,5
5,9
6,2
6,4
5,7
5,9
6,4
6,2
7,4
6,1
4,5
7,4
6,3
1990
6,5
6,1
6,5
5,8
5,7
5,1
5,1
5,6
6,1
6,4
5,8
7,2
5
4,7
6,5
6
1995
5,1
6,6
5,3
6,1
5(1)
4,4
4,3(1)
4,9(1)
5,1
5,3
5,3
6,6
4,6
3,8
5,5(1)
5,1
1996
5
6,8
5,2
4,3
4,9
4,8 (1)
4,5
4,7
5,1
5,5
5,2
6,4
4,8
3,8
5,4
5,1 (1)
1997
4,7
6,5
5,2
5,8
4,9
4,9 (1)
4,3
4,8 (1)
4,8
5,4
5,1
6,6
4,6
3,7
5,3 (1)
5,1 (1)
1998
4,4
6,5
5,1
5,3
5,1 (1)
4,8 (1)
4,5
4,8 (1)
4,8
5,5
4,7
6,9
4,7
3,6
5,1 (1)
5,0 (2)
1999
4,3
6,7
5,2
5,8
5,2 (1)
4,9 (1)
4,9
-
4,8
5,7
4,9
6,9 (3)
4,7
4
5,1
5,1 (1)
2000
4,4
7,2
5,1
4,3 (3)
5,3 (1)
5,2 (1)
5,0 (1)
4,9
4,9
5,5
4,8
6,2
5,1
4,5
5,1
5,1 (2)
2001
4,1 (2)
6,6
4,7 (3)
5,4 (2)
5,2 (3)
5,1 (1)
5,0 (2)
-
4,5 (2)
5,1 (1)
4,2 (2)
5,7 (1)
4,8
4
-
-
Segue tab. 5
Età media
al primo
matrimoni
o (uomini)
Età media
al primo
matrimoni
o (donne)
Tasso di
divorzialit
à (divorzi
per 1.000
abitanti)
Lussemburgo
Paesi
Bassi
Regno
Unito
Anni
Belgio
Danimarca
Germania
Grecia
Spagna
Francia
Irlanda
Italia
1970
24,4
25,3
24,9
28,7
27,4
24,7
27,4
27,4
-
25
25,6
26,6
25,3
26,4
1980
24,3
27,2
25,7
27,9
25,9
25,1
27,1
27,1
-
25,5
25,9
25,4
26,5
28,6
25,2
26
1990
26,3
30
27,9
28,7
27,5
27,5
28,3
28,6
26,9
28,2
27,4
26
27
29,9
27,2
27,8
1995
27,4
31,4
29,1
29,8
28,9
28,9
29,7
29,6
28,9
29,4
28,6
26,7
28,9
31,1
28,5
29
1996
27,7
32
29,2
29,9
29,2
29,4
-
29,8
28,8
29,2
28,8
26,9
29,2
31,3
28,8
1997
27,8
31,6
29,3
30,2
29,4
29,6
30
30
29,3
29,8
28,9
27
29,3
31,6
29
1998
27,8
31,7
29,5
30,3 (1)
29,4
29,6
30,0 (1)
30,0 (1)
29,6
30
29,2
27,1
29,5
31,7
29,2
29,6 (1)
1999
28,9
32,5
30,9
-
29,5
31,2
-
-
30,7
30,7
30,3
27,2
30,5
32,9
29,6
30,3 (3)
1970
22,4
22,8
22,5
23,7
24,7
22,6
25,3
23,9
-
22,9
22,9
24,3
23,4
23,9
-
23,2
1980
22,3
24,6
22,9
-
23,5
23
24,7
23,9
-
23,2
23,2
23,1
24,4
26
-
23,3
1990
24,3
27,6
25,3
24,7
25,3
25,6
26,5
25,6
25,4
25,9
24,9
23,9
25
27,5
25
25,3
1995
25,4
29
26,4
25,7
26,8
26,9
27,9
26,7
26,6
27,1
26,1
24,8
27
28,7
26,4
26,5
1996
25,6
29,7
26,6
26
27,1
27,4
-
26,8
26,5
26,7
26,3
24,9
27,3
28,9
26,7
-
1997
25,7
29,9
26,7
26,3
27,4
27,6
28,2
27,1
27,1
27,4
26,5
25
27,3
29,1
26,9
27,2
1998
25,7
29,4
26,9
26,5 (1)
27,4
27,6
28,2 (1)
27,1 (1)
1999
26,6
30,1
28,2
-
27,6
29,1
-
1970
0,7
1,9
1,3
0,4
-
0,8
1980
1,5
2,7
1,8
0,7
-
1,5
1990
2
2,7
2
0,6
0,6
1995
3,5
2,5
2,1
1,1
0,8(1)
1996
2,8
2,4
2,1
0,9
0,8
1997
2,6
2,4
2,3
0,9
1998
2,6
2,5
2,3
0,8
1999
2,6
2,5
2,3
0,9
-
2
2000
2,6
2,7
2,4
0,9 (1)
1
2,0 (4)
2001
2,9 (2)
2,7
-
0,9 (2)
-
-
-
(1) Dati provvisori
(2) Stima Eurostat
(3) Stima nazionale
(4) 1999
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Eurostat
Austria
Portogallo
Finlandia
Svezia
Eur 15
25,9
29,5
27,2
27,6
26,7
25,1
27,5
29,3
27
27,3 (1)
-
28,3
28,3
27,9
25,5
28,3
30,4
27,5
28,1 (3)
-
-
0,6
0,8
1,4
0,1
1,3
1,6
1,1
0,8
-
0,2
1,6
1,8
1,8
0,6
2
2,4
2,8
1,4
1,9
-
0,5
2
1,9
2,1
0,9
2,6
2,3
2,9
1,7
2(1)
-
0,5
1,8
2,2
2,3
1,2
2,7
2,6
2,9(1)
1,8
2,1 (1)
-
0,6
2
2,3
2,2
1,4
2,7
2,4
2,9
1,8 (3)
0,9
2,0 (1)
-
0,6
2,4
2,2
2,2
1,4
2,6
2,4
2,7 (1)
1,8 (2)
0,9 (1)
2,0 (1)
-
0,6 (1)
2,4
2,1
2,2
1,5
2,7
2,3
2,7 (1)
1,8 (2)
-
0,6
2,4
2,1
2,3
1,8 (3)
2,7
2,4
2,7
1,8 (2)
0,7 (1)
0,7
2,3
2,2
2,4
1,9
2,7
2,4
2,6
1,9 (2)
-
2,3 (2)
2,3 (1)
-
1,8 (1)
2,6
2,4
-
-
Tab. 6 - Cittadini stranieri residenti in Italia per ripartizione geografica (al 1° gennaio dell'anno) - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a. e val. per 1000 ab.)
1996
1995
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud ed Isole
216.086
133.309
212.269
123.805
Italia
685.469
Fonte: elaborazione Censis Istat
1997
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
14,4
12,8
19,3
5,9
231.351
149.176
226.338
130.928
12,0
737.793
1999
1998
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
15,4
14,3
20,6
6,3
272.806
179.109
274.894
157.746
18,2
17,1
24,9
7,5
316.674
205.725
296.830
172.449
12,9
884.555
15,4
991.678
2000
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
21,1
19,5
26,9
8,2
366.491
236.616
328.910
184.377
17,2
1.116.394
2001
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
v.a.
per
1.000
abitanti
24,3
22,4
29,7
8,8
420.423
279.442
363.433
207.255
27,8
26,3
32,8
9,9
489.038
332.034
417.890
225.627
32,3
31,1
37,4
10,8
19,4
1.270.553
22,0
1.464.589
25,3
Tab. 7 - Popolazione per classe d'età e titolo di studio - Maschi - Anno 2002 (val%)
Senza titolo e
licenza elementare
Licenza
Media
Diploma
Laurea
Totale
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-59
60 e oltre
4,7
2,9
3,4
15,3
63,7
82,0
31,9
35,4
40,1
18,7
13,3
64,1
51,7
33,8
11,8
0,0
1,1
9,6
10,8
5,8
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
Totale
24,8
36,4
30,8
8,0
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 8 - Popolazione per classe d'età e titolo di studio -Femmine- Anno 2002 (val%)
Senza titolo e
licenza elementare
Licenza
Media
Diploma
Laurea
Totale
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-59
60 e oltre
3,9
2,6
3,6
21,4
76,4
81,0
23,0
29,6
35,2
13,0
15,1
72,4
53,8
32,8
8,0
0,0
1,9
13,0
10,5
2,5
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
Totale
34,8
29,7
28,5
7,1
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 9 - Popolazione per classe d'età e titolo di studio -Totale-Anno 2002 (val%)
Senza titolo e
licenza elementare
Licenza
Media
Diploma
Laurea
Totale
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-59
60 e oltre
4,3
2,7
3,5
18,4
71,0
81,5
27,5
32,5
37,7
15,5
14,2
68,2
52,7
33,3
9,7
0,0
1,5
11,3
10,7
3,9
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
Totale
30,0
32,9
29,6
7,5
100,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 10 - Andamento del Prodotto Interno Lordo - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a. in mld di lire dal 1995, mln di euro e mld di lire per gli anni
1999-2000-2001, var. %)
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
lire
euro
lire
euro
lire
euro
PIL ai prezzi di mercato
PIL ai prezzi di mercato
(prezzi 1995)
Numero indice
(1995=100)
var. %
(in termini reali)
1.787.278
1.902.275
1.987.165
2.077.654
2.146.350
1.108.497
2.255.303
1.164.767
2.355.634
1.216.583
1.787.278
1.806.815
1.843.426
1.876.497
1.906.388
984.567
1.961.058
1.012.802
1.996.120
1.030.910
100,0
101,1
103,1
105,0
106,7
2,9
1,1
2,0
1,8
1,6
109,7
2,9
111,7
1,8
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Relazione Generale sulla Situazione Economica del Paese
Tab. 11 - Valore aggiunto ai prezzi di mercato - Valori a prezzi correnti - Anni 1995-2002 (milioni di euro dal 1999; milioni di eurolire per gli anni precedenti)
1995
Agricoltura, silvicoltura e pesca
Industria in senso stretto
Costruzioni
Commercio, riparazioni, alberghi e ristoranti, trasporti e
comunicazioni
Intermediazione monetaria e finanziaria; attività immobiliari ed
imprenditoriali
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
26.285
251.345
45.704
27.121
257.877
49.218
26.984
265.875
49.562
27.286
276.279
49.959
27.631
279.920
51.502
27.131
288.625
54.172
28.132
299.441
58.051
28.068
300.947
60.584
206.408
217.585
225.303
235.111
239.305
252.774
267.310
273.514
211.967
233.658
246.900
258.596
272.356
293.880
308.815
328.303
Altre attività di servizi
167.007
182.247
192.286
198.670
206.169
214.214
227.007
236.085
Valore aggiunto ai prezzi di mercato (al lordo SIFIM)
908.716
967.706
1.006.909
1.045.902
1.076.883
1.130.796
1.188.756
1.227.501
Valore aggiunto ai prezzi di mercato (al netto SIFIM)
868.856
926.986
965.800
1.005.078
1.037.844
1.087.365
1.140.754
1.176.596
Prodotto interno lordo ai prezzi di mercato
923.052
982.443
1.026.285
1.073.019
1.107.994
1.166.548
1.220.147
1.258.349
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 12 - Reddito disponibile - Anno 2001 (v. a. in mln di euro e v.pro capite in euro)
V.A.
V. pro capite
Piemonte
ValleAosta
Lombardia
Trentino Alto Adige
Veneto
Friuli Venezia Guilia
Liguria
Emilia Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
73.092
2.147
162.294
14.238
71.141
19.903
29.880
75.325
60.160
12.323
22.587
86.279
16.501
4.004
62.308
44.687
6.286
21.871
53.101
18.880
17.348
17.959
17.966
15.138
15.705
16.816
19.032
18.904
17.203
14.915
15.354
16.861
13.071
12.495
10.929
11.118
10.522
10.883
10.694
11.577
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud
267.413
180.607
181.349
227.638
17.903
16.977
16.620
11.100
Italia
857.008
15.037
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istituto Tagliacarne
Tab. 13 - Variazione armonizzata dei prezzi al consumo nei principali paesi europei - Anni 1998-2002 (var. %)
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002*
Italia
Germania
Francia
Regno Unito
UE 15
2,0
1,7
2,6
2,3
2,5
0,8
0,6
2,1
2,4
1,7
0,7
0,6
1,8
1,8
2,1
1,6
1,3
0,8
1,2
1,5
1,3
1,2
2,1
2,3
2,2
*Media aritmetica dei dati relativi ai mesi di gennaio, febbraio, marzo, aprile, maggio.
Per il Regno Unito il dato relativo al mese di maggio non è disponibile.
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Eurostat.
Tab. 14 - Popolazione secondo la ripartizione territoriale e la condizione socio-economica -Anni 2000-2002 (v.a. in migliaia e var.%)
Nord
Forze
lavoro
Cemtro
Sud
1999
2000
20001
2002
11.316
11.442
11.553
11.675
1,1
4.594
4.638
4.693
4.737
0,9
7.451
7.495
7.535
7.581
0,6
23.361
23.575
23.781
23.993
0,9
10.704
10.907
11.090
11.213
1,1
4.172
4.255
4.345
4.424
1,8
5.816
5.918
6.079
6.192
1,9
20.692
21.080
21.514
21.829
1,5
611
535
463
462
-0,2
422
384
348
313
-10,1
1.636
1.576
1.456
1.389
-4,6
2.669
2.495
2.267
2.163
-4,6
426
370
315
320
1,6
317
288
265
241
-9,0
1.333
1.266
1.178
1.126
-4,4
2.076
1.924
1.758
1.687
-4,1
185
165
148
142
-4,1
105
96
83
72
-13,8
303
310
278
263
-5,3
593
571
509
477
-6,4
14.035
14.005
14.020
13.986
-0,2
6.365
6.356
6.353
6.354
0,0
13.317
13.252
13.194
13.141
-0,4
33.717
33.614
33.567
33.482
-0,3
6.315
6.170
6.054
5.940
-1,9
2.937
2.886
2.842
2.815
-0,9
6.535
6.492
6.440
6.382
-0,9
15.787
15.548
15.336
15.137
-1,3
227
202
204
192
-5,7
217
205
187
179
-4,1
759
804
784
754
-3,9
1.203
1.211
1.175
1.125
-4,2
737
736
506 (1)
299 (2)
-40,9
363
361
286
162
-43,3
941
937
839
634
-24,4
2.041
2.034
1.631
1.095
-32,8
1999
2000
20001
2002
Var.%
01-02
1999
2000
20001
Italia
Var.%
01-02
2002
Var.%
01-02
1999
2000
20001
2002
Var.%
01-02
di
Occupati
Persone
in
cerca
di
occupazione
- Disoccupati
e in cerca I°
occupazione
Altre
persone
in
cerca di lavoro
Non forze di
lavoro
In eta' 15-64
anni
cercano
lavoro
non
attivamente
-disposte
a
lavorare
a
partic. condiz.
- non aventi
poss.
o
interesse
a
lavorare (*)
In eta' non
lavorativa
5.351
5.233
5344 (1)
5448 (2)
2,0
2.357
2.320
2.369
2.474
4,4
4.835
4.751
4.817
4.994
3,7
12.543
12.304
12.530
12.916
3,1
7.720
7.835
7.966
8.046
1,0
3.428
3.470
3.511
3.539
0,8
6.782
6.760
6.753
6.759
0,1
17.930
18.066
18.230
18.345
0,6
Popolazione
presente
25.351
25.447
25.573
25.661
0,3
10.959
10.995
11.046
11.091
0,4
20.768
20.747
20.729
20.722
0,0
57.078
57.189
57.348
57.474
0,2
(*) Con riferimento all'anno 2002 la definizione è la seguente: "non vogliono lavorare o non immediatamente
(1) Con la rilevazione di aprile 2001 è stata modificata la domanda relativa alla disponibilità al lavoro che è richiesta essere immediata.
(2) Con la rilevazione di aprile 2002 la disponibilità viene rilevata solo se sussiste il desiderio di lavorare.
Fonte : elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 15 - Occupati per posizione nella professione e sesso - Anno 2002 (val.% e var. %)
Val.%
2002
Var %
2000-2002
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
Imprenditori
Liberi professionisti
Lavoratori in proprio
Soci di cooperativa di produzione
Coadiuvanti
78,8
73,9
75,8
62,6
45,8
21,2
26,1
24,2
37,4
54,2
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
16,2
5,4
-3,5
-29,8
7,9
20,0
15,0
-4,1
-17,4
5,1
17,0
7,8
-3,6
-25,6
6,4
Totale indipendenti
70,8
29,2
100,0
0,0
1,9
0,5
Dirigenti
Direttivi-Quadri
Impiegati o Intermedi
Operai, Subalterni ed assimilati
Apprendisti
Lavoranti a domicilio per conto imprese
78,3
63,1
47,9
68,5
59,4
22,2
21,7
36,9
52,1
31,5
40,6
77,7
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
-6,3
5,3
5,8
1,8
-6,1
-23,7
0,3
8,6
9,7
4,0
1,6
-16,0
-5,0
6,5
7,8
2,5
-3,1
-17,9
Totale dipendenti
59,0
41,0
100,0
3,1
7,3
4,7
Totale
62,3
37,7
100,0
2,1
6,1
3,6
Fonte: elaborazioni Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 16 - Tassi di disoccupazione per sesso e ripartizione territoriale - Anni 1999-2002 (val.%)
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
1999
2000
2001
2002
1999
2000
2001
2002
1999
2000
2001
2002
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud
3,8
2,8
6,6
17,3
3,4
2,4
6,1
16,3
2,9
2,3
5,4
14,8
3,0
2,2
4,7
14,1
9,2
7,1
13,2
31,3
8,0
5,9
11,6
30,4
6,3
5,4
10,3
28,1
6,4
4,9
9,4
26,4
6,0
4,6
9,2
22,0
5,3
3,8
8,3
21,0
4,3
3,6
7,4
19,3
4,4
3,3
6,6
18,3
Italia
8,8
8,1
7,3
7,0
15,7
14,5
13,0
12,2
11,4
10,6
9,5
9,0
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 17 - Tassi di disoccupazione giovanile (15-24) della popolazione per sesso e ripartizione territoriale - Anni 1999-2002 (val.%)
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
1999
2000
2001
2002
1999
2000
2001
2002
1999
2000
2001
2002
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud
14,1
8,9
24,6
51,0
12,4
7,6
21,0
49,3
11,1
7,2
21,3
44,2
11,5
6,4
18,7
42,6
22,3
14,6
35,8
64,5
20,2
12,9
32,4
63,1
14,3
11,9
27,6
60,0
15,6
9,9
26,0
59,5
18,0
11,6
29,6
56,6
16,1
10,1
26,3
55,0
12,6
9,3
24,2
50,8
13,3
8,0
22,0
49,4
Italia
29,2
27,6
25,0
24,0
37,4
35,4
32,2
31,4
32,9
31,1
28,2
27,2
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 18 - Assicurati e pensionati, spesa pensionistica (Lavoratori dipendenti) - Anni 2000-2001 (v.a. in mgl, mgl di
euro e mln di euro)
Numero assicurati
Numero pensioni
Pensione media
annua
Importo pensioni
*
2000
2001
2000
2001
2000
2001
2000
2001
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl €
mgl €
mln €
mln €
Inps
Fondo Pensioni Lavoratori
Dip.
11.380
Fondo Trasporti
113
Fondo Telefonici
91
Fondo Elettrici
77
Fondo Volo
12
Fondo Imposte di consumo
2
Fondo Enti Pubblici Creditizi
74
11.520
115
83
72
12
2
74
10.020
121
52
94
5
11
32
10.047
121
55
97
5
11
32
8
16
20
19
31
13
25
8
16
21
20
32
13
25
79.154
1.929
1.052
1.792
138
133
816
82.385
1.977
1.157
1.895
145
138
816
Totale dipendenti Inps
11.747
11.877
10.334
10.368
8
9
84.740
89.161
Altri fondi
Istituto Dirigenti di Azienda
Istituto Giornalisti
Ente Lavoratori Spettacolo
80
14
211
82
15
214
84
5
57
87
5
56
39
43
11
40
44
12
3.239
213
640
3.488
223
657
Totale
fondi
305
311
145
148
28
30
4.097
4.366
Inpdap
Cassa Dipendenti Enti Locali
Cassa Insegnanti di Asilo
Cassa Sanitari
Cassa Ufficiali Giudiziari
Dipendenti dello Stato
1.350
20
113
6
1.800
1.350
20
113
6
1.794
875
12
44
2
1.379
894
12
46
2
1.412
13
13
31
14
17
14
13
33
14
18
11.643
153
1.370
30
23.584
12.339
162
1.519
32
24.985
Totale dipendenti Inpdap
3.289
3.283
2.313
2.366
16
17
36.775
39.044
Altri fondi pubblici
Dipendenti delle FFSS
Dipendenti delle Poste e Tel.
111
183
107
173
268
103
268
108
14
13
15
14
3.858
1.364
3.987
1.467
Totale dipendenti
fondi pubblici
293
280
371
376
14
15
5.234
5.445
dipendenti
altri
altri
* Ottenuto moltiplicando la pensione media per il numero delle pensioni
Fonte: elaborazioni Censis su dati del Nucleo di valutazione spesa previdenziale
Tab. 19 - Assicurati e pensionati, spesa pensionistica (Lavoratori autonomi e professionisti) - Anni 1999-2000 (v.a. in mgl, mgl di euro e mln di euro )
Numero assicurati
Numero pensioni
Pensione media
annua
Importo pensioni *
2000
2001
2000
2001
2000
2001
2000
2001
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl €
mgl €
mln €
mln €
Inps
Fondo Artigiani
Fondo Commercianti
Fondo CDCM
1.833
1.785
652
1.850
1.800
646
1.162
1.035
2.033
1.186
1.068
2.000
6,3
5,6
4,9
7
6
5
7.319
5.798
9.960
7.946
6.304
10.201
Totale autonomi Inps
4.271
4.296
4.230
4.255
5,5
5,7
23.263
24.251
Liberi professionisti
Cassa Avvocati
Cassa Notai
Cassa Ingeneri e Architetti
Cassa Geometri
Cassa Dottori Commercialisti
Cassa Ragionieri e P. C.
Ente Consulenti Lavoro
Ente Veterinari
Ente Farmacisti
Fondo Spedizionieri
89
5
87
94
33
31
19
18
61
-
94
5
93
96
35
31
19
19
63
-
20
2
14
18
3
3
5
6
26
2,1
21
2
14
19
4
4
5
6
26
2
14,8
44,7
9,9
8,4
16,1
16,4
5,6
3,1
5,1
9,5
16
50
11
9
19
17
6
3
5
9,6
299
107
139
150
55
56
26
20
131
20
323
120
154
165
67
60
28
20
134
20
Totale liberi professionisti
436
455
100
102
10
10,7
999
1.086
Medici
303
304
121
123
5,7
5,9
692
728
Clero
21
21
15
15
5,8
6,1
89
91
1.897
2.070
5
8,7
--
0,5
--
4
Parasubordinati
* Ottenuto moltiplicando la pensione media per il numero delle pensioni
Fonte: elaborazioni Censis su dati del Nucleo di valutazione spesa previdenziale
SALUTE
Tab. 20 - Andamento della condizione di salute della popolazione italiana - Anni 1993-2001 (val %)
% sul totale dei residenti
In buono stato di Con una malattia
salute (*)
cronica o più
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Nord
Centro
Sud
Italia
72,0
76,0
75,3
75,9
76,0
75,2
75,5
73,7
74,0
72,2
77,4
74,9
35,4
35,4
36,0
36,9
35,3
33,5
34,9
36,1
35,9
37,3
34,6
35,7
% sul totale dei cronici
Con due malattie
Cronici in buona
croniche o più
salute
18,2
18,1
18,1
18,8
17,6
16,6
16,8
18,7
17,7
19,4
19,4
18,6
(*) Esprimono un voto 4 o 5 in una scala 1=stato peggiore; 5=stato migliore
Fonte: indagine Multiscopo, Istat
44,0
47,1
46,3
47,8
48,0
47,0
46,0
45,8
48,4
45,3
48,3
47,8
Tab. 21 - Andamento della diffusione delle principali malattie croniche nella popolazione italiana -Anni 1993-2001 (val. %)
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001 Nord
Centro
Sud
Italia
Diabete
Ipertensione
Bronchite
cronica*
Artrosi
Artrite
Osteoporosi
Malattie
del cuore
Malattie
allergiche
Disturbi
nervosi
Ulcera
gastrica e
duodenale
3,4
3,4
3,4
3,4
3,4
3,5
3,5
3,8
3,4
4,1
4,3
3,9
10,0
9,7
10,2
10,3
10,3
10,3
11,1
12,1
11,7
11,8
11,7
11,7
7,4
6,9
6,9
6,9
6,3
6,0
6,0
6,4
5,8
6,4
6,9
6,3
20,5
19,7
20,3
20,6
19,3
17,8
18,1
19,0
17,5
20,4
20,4
19,1
4,6
4,6
4,8
5,2
5,2
5,0
5,3
6,4
5,6
7,1
6,8
6,3
3,7
4,0
3,8
3,8
3,8
3,7
3,8
3,9
3,9
3,4
3,6
3,7
6,8
6,3
6,8
7,2
7,1
6,6
7,7
8,1
8,6
8,6
7,7
8,2
5,1
5,2
4,9
4,9
4,4
3,8
4,2
4,3
3,6
3,8
4,7
4,0
3,8
4,0
3,9
3,9
3,5
3,0
3,2
3,6
3,1
3,4
3,1
3,2
* Inclusa asma bronchiale
Fonte: indagine Multiscopo, Istat
Tab. 22 - Condizioni di salute della popolazione italiana per sesso e classi di età - Anno 2001 (val. %)
% sul totale dei residenti
% sul totale dei cronici
Con due malattie
croniche o più
Con una malattia
cronica o più
In buono stato di salute (*)
Cronici in buona salute
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
Maschi
Femmine
Totale
0-14
15-17
18-19
20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-59
60-64
65-74
75 e più
91,6
95,0
93,0
93,7
91,6
86,1
78,4
68,1
60,8
47,7
31,4
92,3
94,9
95,0
91,9
88,8
83,7
72,0
62,0
52,6
39,7
25,2
91,9
94,9
94,0
92,8
90,2
84,9
75,2
65,0
56,6
43,3
27,5
9,0
11,4
10,6
12,5
15,7
23,1
37,0
51,2
62,2
71,8
80,1
6,9
10,3
11,7
13,4
15,1
24,8
43,0
60,9
71,3
79,9
87,5
8,0
10,9
11,2
13,0
15,4
23,9
40,1
56,1
66,9
76,3
84,8
1,2
1,6
2,2
2,4
3,1
6,2
13,7
24,3
32,3
44,5
57,6
0,9
1,1
1,9
2,6
3,6
7,8
19,4
34,8
45,3
58,7
69,2
1,0
1,4
2,1
2,5
3,3
7,0
16,6
29,6
39,0
52,4
64,9
85,7
88,6
83,1
82,7
78,4
67,0
59,3
52,1
49,1
38,4
23,5
84,5
91,1
87,6
77,2
71,0
64,5
53,8
48,4
41,4
32,7
21,3
85,2
89,8
85,4
79,9
74,8
65,8
56,3
50,1
44,9
35,1
22,0
Totale
78,3
71,6
79,9
32,3
38,9
35,7
14,7
22,4
18,6
52,5
44,0
47,8
(*) Esprimono un voto 4 o 5 in una scala 1=stato peggiore; 5=stato migliore
Fonte: Indagine Multiscopo, Istat
Maschi Femmine
Totale
Tab. 23 - Andamento dei casi di Aids notificati (1) per regione - Anni 1995-2001 e I semestre
2002 (val. per 1000 abitanti)
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
2001 (2)
I semestre
2002 (2)
Piemonte
Valle d'Aosta
Lombardia
Trentino A.A.
Bolzano
Trento
Veneto
Friuli V.G.
Liguria
Emilia Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzi
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
8,6
5,9
18,7
6,8
5,3
8,2
7,2
3,3
17,1
14,5
10,3
5,8
6,2
14,1
3,7
1,5
3,6
5,4
3,1
2,7
4,3
11,3
8,1
8,4
16,8
6,0
5,9
6,0
6,3
4,1
15,6
12,6
8,1
6,3
5,5
12,7
3,2
0,6
3,1
5,6
3,3
2,9
3,4
8,8
5,3
2,5
10,5
4,4
3,7
5,1
4,0
2,4
9,7
7,9
5,8
3,2
3,8
9,4
2,4
0,6
2,3
3,7
1,1
1,5
3,1
5,6
3,7
4,2
7,1
2,9
2,8
3,0
2,6
1,3
6,6
5,7
4,0
2,9
3,1
6,8
1,4
0,9
2,2
2,5
1,8
1,3
2,5
3,1
3,2
4,2
6,9
1,7
1,5
1,9
2,3
1,9
5,2
4,2
4,5
2,3
2,9
5,8
1,9
0,3
1,6
2,2
1,3
0,7
1,7
2,7
3,1
1,7
6,1
1,7
2,4
1,0
1,7
1,5
4,4
5,2
3,1
2,5
2,8
4,7
1,2
1,5
1,6
2,0
0,5
0,5
1,8
2,4
2,8
2,5
5,4
1,4
1,5
1,3
1,8
0,8
4,9
4,2
3,0
1,7
2,5
4,7
1,3
0,6
1,2
1,7
0,7
1,2
1,4
2,4
0,5
0,0
1,6
0,6
0,2
1,0
0,6
0,3
0,8
1,3
1,2
0,9
0,8
1,1
0,6
0,3
0,5
0,7
0,2
0,4
0,3
1,0
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud
15,5
9,4
11,3
4,6
14,1
8,4
9,8
4,1
8,8
5,3
7,1
2,9
6,0
3,7
5,1
2,2
5,7
2,9
4,7
1,7
5,0
3,0
3,8
1,6
4,6
2,5
3,6
1,4
1,2
0,8
1,1
0,5
9,6
8,6
5,7
4,0
3,6
3,2
2,9
0,8
Italia
(1) casi notificati al 31/12 dell'anno di riferimento, riguardanti i residenti in Italia per i quali sia stato
accertato il luogo di residenza
(2) la popolazione di riferimento è quella del Censimento 2001
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tab. 24 - Andamento dei decessi per causa - Anni 1995-2000 (val. per 10.000 abitanti
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
0,5
26,9
0,5
27,3
0,6
27,3
0,6
27,6
0,6
27,5
0,6
27,7
Malattie del sistema circolatorio
Malattie dell'apparato respiratorio
Malattie dell'apparato digerente
Altri stati morbosi
Sintomi segni e stati morbosi mal definiti
Cause esterne dei traumatismi e avvelenamenti
3,3
42,4
5,9
4,7
7,1
1,5
4,9
3,4
41,8
5,6
4,6
7,2
1,4
4,9
3,6
42,4
6,2
4,5
6,7
1,4
4,9
3,9
43,9
6,5
4,6
6,6
1,2
4,8
3,9
42,7
6,8
4,5
6,5
1,3
4,7
4,0
41,6
6,5
4,3
6,4
1,2
4,5
Totale
97,1
96,6
97,5
99,7
98,5
97,0
Malattie infettive e parassitarie
Tumori
Disturbi psichici e malattie del sistema nervoso e degli
organi dei sensi
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 25 - Distribuzione degli istituti di cura pubblici e privati accreditati e dei posti letto per regione - Anno 2001 (v.a. e val.%)
Numero istituti
Numero posti letto pubblici effettivi
Pubblici
Accreditati
Non
acceditati
Day
Hospital
Piemonte
Valle d'Aosta
Lombardia
Trentino A.A.
Bolzano
Trento
Veneto
Friuli V.Giulia
Liguria
Emilia Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
44
1
71
21
7
14
75
19
25
42
41
11
38
75
23
7
66
68
11
37
70
33
38
0
54
10
5
5
16
5
2
41
28
5
14
94
13
2
76
30
1
38
50
13
7
0
11
4
4
0
3
0
9
5
5
0
0
37
0
0
6
5
0
0
10
0
1.927
45
3.554
423
111
312
2.065
517
818
2.007
1.496
506
547
2.559
484
21
1.327
1.236
184
703
2.107
574
11,0
8,8
8,7
9,1
5,0
12,9
9,4
9,0
9,6
11,5
10,0
14,6
8,4
11,7
8,8
1,4
8,8
7,2
7,1
10,9
12,0
8,4
Nord Ovest
Nord Est
Centro
Sud
Italia
141
157
165
315
778
94
72
141
223
530
27
12
42
21
102
6.344
5.012
5.108
6.636
23.100
9,4
10,1
10,9
9,1
9,8
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Ministero della Salute
% Day
Degenza
Hospital
ordinaria
sul totale
Totali
% posti
letto
pubblici
sul totale
posti letto
pubblici e
privati x
1.000
abitanti
Numero posti letto accreditati
Degenza
pagamento
Totali
Day
Hospital
% Day
Degenza
Hospitals
ordinaria
ul totale
15.289
467
36.639
4.146
2.031
2.115
19.068
5.041
7.680
15.311
13.116
2.944
5.920
19.171
4.803
1.457
13.761
15.623
2.378
5.755
15.377
6.164
224
2
578
80
80
0
722
213
28
117
344
16
29
113
196
0
63
210
15
13
77
64
17.440
514
40.771
4.649
2.222
2.427
21.855
5.771
8.526
17.435
14.956
3.466
6.490
21.843
5.483
1.478
15.151
17.069
2.577
6.471
17.561
6.802
81
0
477
0
0
0
56
28
0
112
124
18
0
378
1
0
236
58
0
26
0
18
2,2
0,0
5,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
4,4
4,4
0,0
2,3
5,3
6,9
0,0
3,9
0,3
0,0
3,5
2,9
0,0
0,8
0,0
1,2
3.556
0
8.465
692
259
433
1.206
608
128
4.732
2.229
244
1.074
9.351
294
93
6.518
1.910
60
3.335
3.725
1.484
3.637
0
8.942
692
259
433
1.262
636
128
4.844
2.353
262
1.074
9.729
295
93
6.754
1.968
60
3.361
3.725
1.502
82,74
100,00
82,01
87,04
89,56
84,86
94,54
90,07
98,52
78,26
86,41
92,97
85,80
69,18
94,89
94,08
69,17
89,66
97,72
65,82
82,50
81,91
5,00
4,30
5,50
5,68
5,36
5,99
5,10
5,41
5,51
5,59
4,95
4,51
5,14
6,17
4,58
4,90
3,84
4,74
4,41
4,89
4,29
5,09
60.075
43.566
41.151
65.318
210.110
832
1.132
502
638
3.104
67.251
49.710
46.755
72.592
236.308
558
196
520
339
1.613
4,4
2,6
3,9
1,9
3,1
12.149
7.238
12.898
17.419
49.704
12.707
7.434
13.418
17.758
51.317
84,11
86,99
77,70
80,35
82,16
5,35
5,37
5,51
4,41
5,05
Tab. 26 - Distribuzione regionale delle strutture sanitarie pubbliche per tipo di assistenza erogata - Anno 2001 (*) (v.a.)
Piemonte
Valle d'Aosta
Lombardia
Trentino A.A.
Bolzano
Trento
Veneto
Friuli V.G.
Liguria
Emilia
Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
Attività
clinica
Diagnostica
strumentale
Attività di
laboratorio
Consultorio
maternoinfantile
Assistenza
psichiatrica
Assistenza per
tossicodipendenti
Assistenza
Aids
Assistenza
anziani
Assistenza
disabili fisici
Assistenza
disabili
psichici
Totale
strutture
353
6
455
174
142
32
242
101
239
129
3
194
74
59
15
99
24
76
127
2
155
23
12
11
96
20
30
261
24
336
74
57
17
318
31
124
211
5
628
19
8
11
256
82
71
0
1
97
5
4
1
50
22
27
0
0
24
1
1
0
7
5
3
50
0
52
1
0
1
21
21
16
15
0
38
1
0
1
54
6
4
24
0
90
4
4
0
79
23
8
1.170
41
2.069
376
287
89
1.222
335
598
236
444
88
158
313
103
22
286
261
60
199
290
169
74
107
28
68
165
43
16
119
99
16
61
147
53
69
82
23
65
123
51
12
118
89
17
63
130
42
194
266
47
45
200
34
6
152
142
32
45
163
73
201
242
52
67
222
22
11
139
80
12
45
216
58
50
71
13
22
44
5
5
39
29
2
14
36
13
2
8
2
3
9
0
0
4
1
1
1
6
0
182
119
15
34
6
3
1
14
0
0
2
7
1
72
56
13
11
5
0
1
10
13
6
15
5
11
53
84
22
21
36
2
0
20
18
5
17
12
21
1.133
1.479
303
494
1.123
263
74
901
732
151
462
1.012
441
118
225
174
28
545
57
133
85
61
336
122
159
163
95
539
3.878
3.066
3.399
4.036
14.379
Nord Ovest
1.053
402
314
745
915
125
27
Nord Est
753
271
208
617
558
127
15
Centro
1.003
368
293
558
583
150
22
Sud
1.390
554
522
647
583
143
13
Italia
4.199
1.595
1.337
2.567
2.639
545
77
(*) Dal totale è esclusa una struttura sanitaria rilevata in Toscana ed una in Calabria che erogano assistenza idrotermale
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Ministero della Salute
Tab. 27 - Attività di medicina di base - Medici generici e pediatri. Assistibili per medico generico e per
pediatra - Anno 2001 (v.a.)
V.A.
INDICI
Adulti residenti
Bambini per
per medico
pediatra
generico
Medici generici
Pediatri
Piemonte
Valle D'Aosta
Lombardia
Trentino A.A.
Bolzano
Trento
Veneto
Friuli V.G.
Liguria
Emilia Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
3.544
104
7.310
590
230
360
3.517
1.027
1.394
3.225
3.077
710
1.206
4.700
1.033
280
4.509
3.275
506
1.722
3.971
1.327
416
15
956
112
41
71
522
102
171
477
396
102
169
713
196
38
780
592
72
295
845
230
1.075
1.020
1.095
1.359
1.699
1.141
1.129
1.035
1.049
1.110
1.028
1.049
1.072
980
1.078
1.012
1.055
1.051
1.019
999
1.068
1.079
1.157
965
1.170
1.262
1.815
943
1.089
1.231
929
902
973
938
1.046
980
856
1.150
1.313
1.091
1.241
1.095
988
940
Nord-Ovest
Nord-Est
Centro
Sud
Italia
12.352
8.359
9.693
16.623
47.027
1.558
1.213
1.380
3.048
7.199
1.083
1.126
1.012
1.053
1.065
1.138
1.043
983
1.097
1.075
Fonte: elaborazione Censis su dati Ministero della Salute
Tab. 28 - Spesa farmaceutica pubblica e privata in diversi Paesi - Anni 1999-2001 (mld di lire correnti e mln di euro)
1999
Spesa totale
2000
lire
euro
lire
euro
Italia
27.623
14.266
29.536
Francia
43.047
22.232
Germania
53.120
27.434
Regno Unito
30.303
Belgio
Olanda
2001
1999
Spesa pro-capite
2000
lire
euro
lire
euro
lire
euro
15.254
33.240
17.167
479.664
247.726
512.066
46.776
24.158
51.447
26.570
734.539
379.358
56.265
29.058
60.192
31.087
647.383
334.345
15.650
35.585
18.378
38.870
20.075
513.543
6.452
3.332
6.890
3.558
7.245
3.742
-
-
7.000
3.615
7.689
3.971
2001
1999
Indice spesa
2000
2001
% spesa farmaceutica
1999
2000
2001
lire
euro
264.460
574.694
296.805
100,0
100,0
100,0
1,30
1,31
776.062
400.803
873.582
451.167
153,1
151,6
152,0
1,66
1,73
1,82
685.425
353.992
732.807
378.463
135,0
133,9
127,5
1,39
1,43
1,52
265.223
600.723
310.248
653.266
337.384
107,1
117,3
113,7
1,20
1,20
1,26
633.702
327.280
674.066
348.126
706.554
364.905
132,1
131,6
122,9
1,45
1,44
1,45
-
-
451.984
233.430
482.795
249.343
-
88,3
84,0
-
1,08
1,01
1,41
Spagna
16.952
8.755
18.524
9.567
19.604
10.125
431.086
222.637
469.938
242.703
496.731
256.540
89,9
91,8
86,4
1,54
1,58
1,56
USA
266.792
137.787
512.562
264.716
629.764
325.246
1.011.219
522.251
1.878.357
970.090
2.286.957
1.181.115
210,8
366,8
397,9
2,29
2,45
2,87
Giappone
159.235
82.238
216.312
111.716
148.163
76.520
1.262.107
651.824
1.707.466
881.833
1.167.382
602.902
263,1
333,4
203,1
1,55
1,54
1,64
Fonte: Farmindustria
POVERTÀ
Tab. 29
POVERTÀ NEL TEMPO E SUL TE
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 30
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 31
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 32
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 33
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 34
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 35
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 36
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 37
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 38
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 39
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 40
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 41
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 42
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 43
Fonte: Istat
CRIMINALITÀ
Tab. 44 - Reati denunciati alle Autorità giudiziarie dalle Forze dell'ordine, provincia - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a.)
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Torino
Vercelli
Biella
Verbano-Cusio-Ossola
Novara
Cuneo
Asti
Alessandria
102.850
7.336
11.441
13.119
4.902
10.466
107.551
4.332
6.264
5.175
9.139
15.158
8.066
12.081
137.561
4.022
4.921
5.675
8.356
15.548
9.179
12.290
130.270
5.476
5.942
5.144
9.605
17.126
7.816
11.015
119.270
5.150
6.935
5.813
11.230
17.392
9.490
12.926
133.330
5.377
6.945
5.810
11.708
17.813
9.145
12.406
134.364
4.669
6.339
5.509
12.423
17.035
7.914
13.715
PIEMONTE
Aosta
VALLE D'AOSTA
Varese
Como
Lecco
Sondrio
Milano
Bergamo
Brescia
Pavia
Lodi
Cremona
Mantova
150.114
3.492
3.492
27.756
24.014
4.760
259.825
28.088
40.468
12.384
8.389
5.419
167.766
4.316
4.316
27.160
16.312
12.104
5.122
288.042
27.380
61.925
12.212
5.920
8.175
6.302
197.552
4.320
4.320
25.773
17.065
12.714
4.891
299.723
27.703
37.891
13.451
7.747
9.747
6.737
192.394
4.368
4.368
28.379
18.064
12.996
4.881
265.146
29.560
39.405
13.918
7.042
8.874
8.887
188.206
3.693
3.693
30.813
20.552
10.616
5.178
249.325
31.458
52.178
14.597
6.869
9.254
7.900
202.534
2.951
2.951
28.628
17.225
10.116
3.821
187.720
24.839
45.032
16.176
4.757
8.003
7.883
201.968
3.684
3.684
27.762
17.305
9.280
4.073
190.947
28.633
43.163
14.847
5.003
7.320
6.648
LOMBARDIA
Bolzano
Trento
TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE
Verona
Vicenza
Belluno
Treviso
Venezia
Padova
Rovigo
VENETO
Pordenone
Udine
Gorizia
Trieste
FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA
Imperia
Savona
Genova
La Spezia
411.103
14.784
11.240
26.024
25.864
26.508
5.832
21.582
37.586
26.340
5.665
149.377
8.811
23.834
4.088
13.608
50.341
11.820
10.972
57.822
6.473
470.654
13.633
12.174
25.807
27.977
27.708
5.914
29.155
38.198
33.447
5.093
167.492
8.570
25.854
5.921
14.741
55.086
11.340
15.276
65.151
7.744
463.442
13.637
10.574
24.211
31.006
24.534
5.508
26.289
37.800
32.761
5.061
162.959
8.867
21.433
6.497
12.877
49.674
12.580
13.829
62.590
6.780
437.152
14.482
10.951
25.433
37.468
28.038
5.654
34.041
41.608
34.560
4.973
186.342
8.061
22.513
7.453
12.517
50.544
13.392
18.714
66.117
7.266
438.740
14.528
12.712
27.240
38.737
26.798
6.509
23.986
46.956
36.112
5.632
184.730
8.364
17.838
7.589
10.916
44.707
19.401
15.685
53.452
7.221
354.200
12.023
10.685
22.708
25.880
25.529
6.562
25.206
36.954
28.300
7.101
155.532
7.571
14.704
5.987
10.199
38.461
11.510
16.451
57.655
6.766
354.981
11.946
10.812
22.758
24.639
23.747
7.029
24.322
38.733
31.781
6.482
156.733
7.825
15.187
6.319
11.056
40.387
12.820
17.496
50.209
7.327
Segue tab. 44
Segue tab. 44
LIGURIA
Piacenza
Parma
Reggio nell'Emilia
Modena
Bologna
Ferrara
Ravenna
Forlì-Cesena
Rimini
EMILIA - ROMAGNA
Massa-Carrara
Lucca
Pistoia
Firenze
Prato
Livorno
Pisa
Arezzo
Siena
Grosseto
TOSCANA
Perugia
Terni
Segue tab. 44
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
87.087
5.572
9.625
10.011
18.533
56.495
10.851
17.850
32.394
161.331
5.558
14.859
9.350
51.581
12.017
12.630
5.767
5.110
4.503
121.375
13.850
4.234
99.511
6.359
9.462
10.613
19.259
60.864
13.097
17.237
9.719
28.688
175.298
5.944
15.368
10.291
58.215
9.650
14.317
14.998
6.093
6.137
5.651
146.664
16.016
3.784
95.779
6.592
8.614
12.360
25.018
78.050
15.436
13.605
12.301
29.707
201.683
7.184
14.962
10.990
59.129
12.838
13.009
12.348
7.046
6.216
4.896
148.618
15.476
4.279
105.489
6.301
9.527
15.300
24.828
75.780
12.173
16.760
11.013
24.810
196.492
6.635
9.831
10.582
62.003
12.478
12.855
12.943
9.287
6.198
5.287
148.099
14.658
5.233
95.759
7.174
9.309
12.607
23.708
63.240
12.839
19.949
13.354
19.421
181.601
6.794
10.239
9.886
52.800
10.654
13.094
13.481
9.949
6.590
5.341
138.828
19.412
6.582
92.382
6.905
11.487
13.999
24.315
62.242
12.209
16.791
13.530
19.433
180.911
6.575
10.345
6.491
48.746
8.612
13.384
12.412
9.259
6.903
6.100
128.827
18.891
5.613
87.852
7.038
12.944
14.435
24.244
62.328
12.344
15.833
11.975
19.277
180.418
5.382
11.839
7.549
46.183
9.049
13.514
12.769
8.105
6.436
6.642
127.468
20.085
6.601
Segue tab. 44
UMBRIA
Pesaro e Urbino
Ancona
Macerata
Ascoli Piceno
MARCHE
Viterbo
Rieti
Roma
Latina
Frosinone
LAZIO
L'Aquila
Teramo
Pescara
Chieti
ABRUZZO
Isernia
Campobasso
MOLISE
Caserta
Benevento
Napoli
Avellino
Salerno
CAMPANIA
Foggia
Bari
Taranto
Brindisi
Lecce
PUGLIA
Potenza
Matera
Segue tab. 44
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
18.084
7.321
9.381
7.201
9.098
33.001
7.232
3.224
276.944
16.637
9.537
313.574
4.936
10.744
9.649
6.965
32.294
1.589
4.774
6.363
18.430
5.568
163.635
10.211
31.314
229.158
22.812
74.895
28.494
15.056
20.461
161.718
7.786
4.592
19.800
7.395
9.879
7.611
11.079
35.964
7.195
3.460
284.909
16.847
10.146
322.557
5.886
9.718
10.293
6.406
32.303
1.353
5.249
6.602
23.836
6.170
158.269
10.211
30.773
229.259
21.978
70.922
22.175
14.179
21.466
150.720
7.225
4.315
19.755
7.038
8.987
7.024
11.355
34.404
8.943
3.948
252.605
18.897
11.001
295.394
5.692
8.973
11.831
6.477
32.973
1.200
5.646
6.846
31.694
4.655
185.818
8.741
28.911
259.819
22.740
52.521
16.840
13.540
20.148
125.789
6.855
4.353
19.891
6.334
10.218
8.652
11.702
36.906
7.969
2.993
235.465
20.783
10.954
278.164
6.243
10.997
11.506
6.705
35.451
1.209
4.520
5.729
32.909
4.857
181.263
8.660
26.554
254.243
21.734
58.673
17.182
17.142
19.887
134.618
6.782
4.430
25.994
7.781
9.899
8.994
11.699
38.373
8.197
3.625
241.933
18.107
11.070
282.932
6.689
8.604
10.952
7.185
33.430
973
4.732
5.705
23.441
4.582
149.603
9.307
33.739
220.672
23.338
57.946
20.172
18.217
20.467
140.140
6.847
3.720
24.504
9.182
12.062
8.721
11.173
41.138
7.229
4.190
227.960
18.238
11.693
269.310
7.295
9.167
10.476
7.431
34.369
1.508
4.277
5.785
23.198
5.508
127.743
8.135
33.837
198.421
27.218
53.903
16.498
18.870
21.672
138.161
6.162
3.875
26.686
8.220
10.212
7.292
10.603
36.327
8.767
3.253
225.529
19.109
12.280
268.938
6.521
9.313
10.481
7.087
33.402
1.532
3.895
5.427
23.092
4.845
122.802
8.719
31.420
190.878
24.726
50.838
16.448
16.385
22.841
131.238
7.813
4.451
Segue tab. 44
BASILICATA
Cosenza
Crotone
Catanzaro
Vibo Valentia
Reggio di Calabria
CALABRIA
Trapani
Palermo
Messina
Agrigento
Caltanissetta
Enna
Catania
Ragusa
Siracusa
SICILIA
Sassari
Nuoro
Oristano
Cagliari
SARDEGNA
Nord
Centro
Sud e Isole
Italia
Fonte: Istat
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
12.378
15.651
18.334
21.807
55.792
14.827
56.799
19.617
9.837
7.887
4.198
38.337
7.518
17.266
176.286
18.591
7.643
3.565
38.797
68.596
11.540
13.936
5.059
11.029
5.674
20.851
56.549
14.205
62.405
19.355
10.577
8.877
4.078
39.906
6.942
16.113
182.458
15.452
7.809
3.854
35.530
62.645
11.208
16.150
5.153
10.245
5.409
19.915
56.872
13.013
60.124
20.107
9.642
8.866
4.447
40.799
6.522
23.276
186.796
15.007
7.843
4.909
34.901
62.660
11.212
17.097
5.122
12.125
5.644
20.107
60.095
13.457
64.339
19.752
9.548
8.698
3.811
39.642
8.000
13.054
180.301
16.366
8.975
4.562
32.922
62.825
10.567
18.335
5.610
12.458
6.065
19.926
62.394
12.052
63.085
20.967
9.867
9.414
3.918
41.883
7.752
16.261
185.199
19.199
9.492
4.303
32.062
65.056
10.037
17.221
5.963
12.886
5.203
16.860
58.133
12.256
68.268
21.518
8.667
8.991
3.722
42.452
7.625
13.277
186.776
17.884
8.962
4.846
28.950
60.642
12.264
19.166
5.818
12.040
5.108
20.534
62.666
12.891
49.787
20.174
9.137
7.839
3.388
40.945
7.331
12.013
163.505
18.342
8.926
3.655
25.323
56.246
1.038.869
486.034
742.585
1.165.930
524.985
732.076
1.199.620
498.171
742.963
1.198.214
483.060
744.474
1.164.676
486.127
723.163
1.049.679
463.779
692.324
1.048.781
459.419
655.626
2.267.488
2.422.991
2.440.754
2.425.748
2.373.966
2.205.782
2.163.826
Tab.45-Reati denunciati alle Autorità giudiziarie dalle Forze dell'ordine, provincia - Anni 1995-2001 (valori per 1.000 abitanti)
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Torino
Vercelli
Biella
Verbano-Cusio-Ossola
Novara
Cuneo
Asti
Alessandria
46,3
40,2
33,7
23,8
23,4
24,2
48,4
23,8
32,9
32,1
26,8
27,4
38,4
27,8
62,0
22,2
25,9
35,2
24,5
28,0
43,7
28,4
58,8
30,3
31,4
31,9
28,0
30,8
37,2
25,5
53,9
28,5
36,6
36,2
32,7
31,2
45,1
30,0
60,2
29,8
36,7
36,2
33,9
31,9
43,4
28,9
62,1
26,4
33,9
34,7
36,2
30,6
38,0
32,8
PIEMONTE
Aosta
VALLE D'AOSTA
Varese
Como
Lecco
Sondrio
Milano
Bergamo
Brescia
Pavia
Lodi
Cremona
Mantova
35,0
29,4
29,4
34,4
45,2
26,9
69,8
30,0
38,0
25,0
25,3
14,7
39,1
36,2
36,2
33,5
30,6
39,7
28,9
77,3
29,0
57,7
24,6
30,9
24,7
17,0
46,0
36,1
36,1
31,7
31,9
41,6
27,6
80,2
29,2
35,1
27,2
40,1
29,4
18,2
44,9
36,4
36,4
34,9
33,6
42,3
27,5
70,6
30,9
36,2
28,0
36,2
26,6
23,9
43,9
30,7
30,7
37,7
38,1
34,3
29,2
66,4
32,6
47,5
29,3
35,1
27,7
21,1
47,2
24,5
24,5
34,9
31,7
32,5
21,5
49,7
25,5
40,5
32,4
24,1
23,8
21,0
47,9
30,8
30,8
34,2
32,2
29,8
23,0
51,5
29,4
38,9
30,1
25,3
21,8
17,6
LOMBARDIA
Bolzano
Trento
TRENTINO-ALTO
ADIGE
Verona
Vicenza
Belluno
Treviso
Venezia
Padova
Rovigo
VENETO
Pordenone
Udine
Gorizia
Trieste
FRIULI-VENEZIA
GIULIA
Imperia
Savona
Genova
La Spezia
46,1
32,7
24,3
52,5
30,0
26,2
51,6
29,8
22,6
48,4
31,5
23,3
48,4
31,4
26,8
38,8
25,8
22,4
39,3
25,8
22,6
28,5
32,3
34,7
27,5
28,5
46,0
31,5
23,1
33,7
31,9
45,8
29,6
53,4
28,1
34,7
36,0
27,9
38,2
46,8
39,9
20,8
37,6
31,0
49,8
43,0
58,3
26,2
38,2
31,7
26,0
34,2
46,3
38,9
20,7
36,5
32,0
41,3
47,1
51,3
27,4
45,9
35,9
26,8
43,9
51,1
40,9
20,4
41,5
29,0
43,4
54,0
50,3
29,1
47,2
34,0
30,8
30,6
57,6
42,5
23,1
40,9
29,8
34,4
54,9
44,1
24,1
31,2
32,1
31,1
31,8
45,3
33,2
29,2
34,3
26,8
28,3
43,1
41,4
24,2
29,8
29,9
33,6
30,5
47,8
37,4
26,7
34,6
27,3
29,3
46,3
45,7
42,3
54,5
38,8
62,0
28,7
46,4
52,2
54,2
70,3
34,5
41,9
58,0
49,2
68,0
30,3
42,7
61,8
66,7
72,4
32,7
37,7
89,7
56,1
58,9
32,5
32,4
53,2
58,8
63,8
30,5
34,1
62,5
64,2
57,3
34,0
Segue tab. 45
Segue tab. 45
LIGURIA
Piacenza
Parma
Reggio nell'Emilia
Modena
Bologna
Ferrara
Ravenna
Forlì-Cesena
Rimini
EMILIA - ROMAGNA
Massa-Carrara
Lucca
Pistoia
Firenze
Prato
Livorno
Pisa
Arezzo
Siena
Grosseto
TOSCANA
Perugia
Terni
UMBRIA
Pesaro e Urbino
Ancona
Macerata
Ascoli Piceno
MARCHE
Viterbo
Rieti
Roma
Latina
Frosinone
LAZIO
L'Aquila
Teramo
Pescara
Chieti
ABRUZZO
Isernia
Campobasso
MOLISE
Caserta
Benevento
Napoli
Avellino
Salerno
Segue tab. 45
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
52,5
20,9
24,6
23,3
30,4
62,4
30,5
51,0
92,5
41,1
27,6
39,6
35,2
54,1
35,7
32,8
18,2
20,3
20,8
34,4
23,0
18,9
21,9
21,6
21,3
24,1
24,9
22,9
25,0
21,4
73,4
33,4
19,5
60,3
16,2
37,5
33,0
17,9
25,4
17,2
20,0
19,2
21,9
18,8
52,8
23,1
28,8
60,3
23,9
24,0
24,4
31,4
67,0
37,0
49,3
27,7
107,7
44,5
29,6
40,9
38,6
61,2
43,3
42,6
39,0
19,2
24,4
26,1
41,6
26,4
16,9
23,9
21,7
22,4
25,4
30,2
24,8
24,8
23,0
75,3
33,5
20,7
61,8
19,3
33,8
35,2
16,5
25,4
14,7
22,0
20,0
28,1
20,9
50,9
23,1
28,2
58,3
24,8
21,9
28,2
40,6
85,7
43,9
38,9
35,0
110,9
51,1
35,9
39,8
41,1
62,1
57,2
38,8
32,1
22,1
24,7
22,6
42,1
25,4
19,2
23,8
20,6
20,3
23,4
30,9
23,7
30,7
26,2
66,4
37,4
22,4
56,3
18,7
31,0
40,4
16,6
25,8
13,0
23,7
20,8
37,2
15,8
59,6
19,8
26,5
64,6
23,7
24,1
34,5
40,0
83,0
34,8
47,9
31,2
92,2
49,6
33,2
26,2
39,5
65,2
55,2
38,4
33,6
29,0
24,6
24,5
42,0
24,0
23,5
23,9
18,5
23,1
28,7
31,7
25,4
27,3
19,9
61,8
40,9
22,2
52,9
20,6
38,0
39,2
17,2
27,8
13,2
19,1
17,4
38,5
16,5
58,3
19,6
24,3
58,9
27,0
23,4
28,1
37,9
69,0
36,8
56,9
37,7
71,4
45,6
34,0
27,3
36,7
55,3
46,7
39,2
34,9
30,9
26,1
24,8
39,3
31,7
29,5
31,1
22,6
22,3
29,7
31,6
26,3
28,0
24,1
63,4
35,5
22,4
53,7
22,0
29,6
37,2
18,4
26,1
10,6
20,0
17,4
27,4
15,6
48,3
21,1
30,9
57,0
25,9
28,7
30,7
38,4
67,5
35,1
47,7
37,9
70,8
45,1
33,0
27,5
24,0
51,0
37,4
40,1
32,0
28,6
27,2
28,3
36,3
30,6
25,2
29,2
26,4
27,0
28,6
30,1
28,0
24,6
27,7
59,2
35,5
23,7
50,8
24,0
31,4
35,5
19,0
26,8
16,5
18,1
17,7
27,1
18,8
41,2
18,5
31,0
56,0
26,7
32,9
31,7
38,2
68,1
35,9
45,5
33,4
70,8
45,3
27,3
31,8
28,1
49,5
39,6
41,4
33,2
25,1
25,5
31,5
36,5
33,1
30,0
32,3
23,4
22,8
24,2
28,7
24,7
30,3
22,0
60,9
38,9
25,3
52,6
21,9
32,4
35,5
18,6
26,5
17,1
16,9
16,9
27,1
16,9
40,1
20,3
29,3
Segue tab. 45
CAMPANIA
Foggia
Bari
Taranto
Brindisi
Lecce
PUGLIA
Potenza
Matera
BASILICATA
Cosenza
Crotone
Catanzaro
Vibo Valentia
Reggio di Calabria
CALABRIA
Trapani
Palermo
Messina
Agrigento
Caltanissetta
Enna
Catania
Ragusa
Siracusa
SICILIA
Sassari
Nuoro
Oristano
Cagliari
SARDEGNA
Nord
Centro
Sud e Isole
Italia
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
39,8
32,6
48,0
48,1
36,4
25,0
39,6
19,4
22,1
20,3
20,8
47,7
37,7
26,9
34,2
45,8
28,7
20,7
27,9
22,6
35,2
25,3
42,5
34,6
40,5
28,0
22,5
50,4
41,3
39,6
31,4
45,3
37,5
34,3
26,2
36,9
18,1
20,8
19,0
18,5
28,4
28,7
31,7
36,0
27,3
32,6
50,2
28,4
22,3
31,3
22,1
36,5
23,2
39,7
35,8
33,6
28,7
24,3
46,0
37,7
44,8
32,6
33,5
28,5
32,6
24,6
30,8
17,0
21,0
18,4
21,5
29,0
26,6
30,2
34,4
27,5
29,9
48,3
29,5
20,3
31,2
24,2
37,2
21,7
57,4
36,6
32,6
28,8
31,0
45,3
37,7
43,9
31,2
37,3
29,2
41,5
24,3
32,9
16,9
21,4
18,4
22,8
29,0
31,6
31,7
34,9
29,1
31,0
51,8
29,1
20,2
30,7
20,8
36,1
26,6
32,2
35,4
35,7
33,2
28,9
42,9
38,0
38,2
33,6
36,8
34,3
44,3
25,1
34,3
17,1
18,0
17,4
24,6
32,2
32,6
34,3
34,8
30,4
27,8
51,0
31,0
21,0
33,4
21,6
38,1
25,7
40,3
36,4
41,8
35,2
27,4
41,9
39,4
34,3
39,3
34,1
28,1
45,9
26,6
33,8
15,4
18,8
16,6
23,2
34,4
33,8
29,6
29,6
28,5
28,3
55,3
31,9
18,6
31,8
20,6
38,5
25,2
33,0
36,8
39,0
33,4
30,9
37,9
36,8
33,5
35,8
32,6
28,4
40,7
29,0
32,7
19,9
21,8
20,5
26,1
33,6
32,6
30,0
36,4
31,2
30,3
40,3
30,5
20,4
28,7
19,1
38,8
24,8
30,3
32,9
40,5
33,7
23,9
33,3
34,5
40,8
44,2
35,6
45,7
47,6
35,0
46,9
45,1
35,5
46,7
43,6
35,6
45,3
43,8
34,7
40,6
41,6
33,2
41,0
42,1
32,0
39,5
42,2
42,4
42,1
41,2
38,1
38,0
Fonte: elaborazioni Censis su dati Istat
Tab. 46 - Detenuti Presenti al 31 dicembre negli istituti di prevenzione e di pena per adulti, per cittadinanza, sesso e regione - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a.)
Maschi
Piemonte
Valle d'Aosta
Lombardia
Trentino-Alto Adige
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia
Giulia
Liguria
Emilia-Romagna
Toscana
Umbria
Marche
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
Campania
Puglia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicilia
Sardegna
Nord
Centro
Sud e isole
Italia
segue
Femmine
Totale
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
3.838
3.695
3.854
3.755
4.222
4.039
4.230
179
162
160
133
175
150
152
4.017
3.857
4.014
3.888
4.397
4.189
4.382
115
141
168
135
218
242
232
11
4
0
0
1
0
0
126
145
168
135
219
242
232
6.642
6.468
6.309
6.144
6.598
6.747
7.412
504
477
442
431
495
532
597
7.146
6.945
6.751
6.575
7.093
7.279
8.009
296
320
309
283
352
345
332
26
23
8
0
18
17
15
322
343
317
283
370
362
347
1.847
1.841
1.892
2.021
2.148
2.269
2.416
111
118
131
120
146
192
171
1.958
1.959
2.023
2.141
2.294
2.461
2.587
506
576
699
706
701
750
743
40
26
31
30
21
21
24
546
602
730
736
722
771
767
1.610
1.078
1.041
1.311
1.480
1.614
1.536
1.523
57
71
73
77
97
86
87
1.135
1.112
1.384
1.557
1.711
1.622
2.831
2.644
2.884
2.849
3.107
3.201
3.197
97
104
87
79
86
132
112
2.928
2.748
2.971
2.928
3.193
3.333
3.309
3.519
3.597
3.596
3.426
3.615
3.980
3.950
102
117
138
113
157
145
164
3.621
3.714
3.734
3.539
3.772
4.125
4.114
775
814
884
776
846
948
1.020
70
60
53
44
40
38
51
845
874
937
820
886
986
1.071
752
609
672
734
853
815
731
11
13
9
6
9
18
14
763
622
681
740
862
833
745
4.210
4.342
4.813
4.481
4.842
4.899
4.771
289
325
336
326
355
344
366
4.499
4.667
5.149
4.807
5.197
5.243
5.137
1.170
1.353
1.396
1.314
1.519
1.627
1.544
37
34
32
29
54
44
52
1.207
1.387
1.428
1.343
1.573
1.671
1.596
238
294
286
303
342
361
362
3
7
6
5
10
8
4
241
301
292
308
352
369
366
5.493
5.975
6.021
6.135
6.358
6.544
6.663
261
210
207
221
229
222
230
5.754
6.185
6.228
6.356
6.587
6.766
6.893
2.958
3.238
3.783
3.166
3.456
3.486
4.121
132
106
120
93
100
144
151
3.090
3.344
3.903
3.259
3.556
3.630
4.272
419
496
498
505
576
590
586
9
11
9
6
25
19
17
428
507
507
511
601
609
603
1.510
1.597
1.822
1.852
1.890
2.070
1.986
24
15
16
16
15
27
30
1.534
1.612
1.838
1.868
1.905
2.097
2.016
5.116
5.368
5.554
5.551
5.895
5.880
5.900
116
114
95
113
112
127
125
5.232
5.482
5.649
5.664
6.007
6.007
6.025
2.304
2.106
1.783
1.680
1.528
1.394
1.611
63
52
40
35
45
50
59
2.367
2.158
1.823
1.715
1.573
1.444
1.670
17.153
16.726
17.426
17.373
18.960
19.129
20.085
985
932
870
1.13
0
545
1.15
8
595
18.178
17.711
18.358
18.243
19.999
20.259
21.243
9.256
9.362
9.965
9.417
10.156
10.642
10.472
1.02
5
472
515
536
489
1.03
9
561
9.728
9.877
10.501
9.906
10.717
11.187
11.067
19.208
20.427
21.143
20.506
21.564
21.952
22.773
645
549
525
518
590
641
668
19.853
20.976
21.668
21.024
22.154
22.593
23.441
45.617
46.515
48.534
47.296
50.680
51.723
53.330
2.14
2
2.04
9
1.99
3
1.87
7
2.19
0
2.31
6
2.42
1
47.759
48.564
50.527
49.173
52.870
54.039
55.751
segue
Maschi
Femmine
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Piemonte
805
837
910
1.159
1.420
1.463
1.575
Valle d'Aosta
33
50
54
45
90
132
1.390
1.600
1.819
1.903
2.205
2.188
Lombardia
1995
1996
1997
Totale
1998
1999
2000
2001
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Di cui stranieri
25
24
24
32
55
60
76
830
861
934
1.191
1.475
1.523
1.651
110
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
34
52
54
45
90
132
110
2.677
105
115
108
151
170
205
255
1.495
1.715
1.927
2.054
2.375
2.393
2.932
Trentino-Alto Adige
99
120
127
121
143
164
153
4
0
2
0
9
4
4
103
120
129
121
152
168
157
Veneto
495
603
751
881
996
1.089
1.188
29
27
50
41
57
92
88
524
630
801
922
1.053
1.181
1.276
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
155
168
264
356
339
397
353
8
10
6
16
11
10
8
163
178
270
372
350
407
361
Liguria
353
393
534
651
695
745
737
13
13
24
16
39
36
39
366
406
558
667
734
781
776
Emilia-Romagna
724
726
943
990
1.081
1.292
1.382
20
29
30
31
42
80
64
744
755
973
1.021
1.123
1.372
1.446
Toscana
946
990
1.086
1.101
1.263
1.517
1.578
21
33
41
27
61
67
79
967
1.023
1.127
1.128
1.324
1.584
1.657
Umbria
149
177
247
214
213
343
424
16
12
11
12
11
8
27
165
189
258
226
224
351
451
Marche
104
103
176
211
286
275
251
4
2
3
1
4
11
9
108
105
179
212
290
286
260
1.112
1.242
1.455
1.490
1.697
1.791
1.758
95
122
134
143
176
191
196
1.207
1.364
1.589
1.633
1.873
1.982
1.954
236
301
360
333
384
505
468
4
6
2
1
9
9
12
240
307
362
334
393
514
480
Lazio
Abruzzo
Molise
22
53
34
47
66
81
73
0
2
2
5
3
5
2
22
55
36
52
69
86
75
Campania
446
403
473
446
453
574
718
31
38
41
35
34
49
56
477
441
514
481
487
623
774
Puglia
106
165
351
297
462
441
462
8
4
6
14
26
53
48
114
169
357
311
488
494
510
Basilicata
11
38
54
107
191
216
180
0
0
0
0
17
13
9
11
38
54
107
208
229
189
Calabria
31
57
112
140
272
397
358
2
2
2
5
1
3
9
33
59
114
145
273
400
367
Sicilia
148
222
203
382
731
797
686
3
3
5
7
4
14
8
151
225
208
389
735
811
694
Sardegna
392
547
299
435
325
252
376
1
2
1
2
9
13
15
393
549
300
437
334
265
391
Nord
4.054
4.497
5.402
6.106
6.969
7.470
8.175
205
220
244
287
383
487
534
4.259
4.717
5.646
6.393
7.352
7.957
8.709
Centro
2.311
2.512
2.964
3.016
3.459
3.926
4.011
136
169
189
183
252
277
311
2.447
2.681
3.153
3.199
3.711
4.203
4.322
Sud e isole
1.392
1.786
1.886
2.187
2.884
3.263
3.321
49
57
59
69
103
159
159
1.441
1.843
1.945
2.256
2.987
3.422
3.480
7.757
8.795
10.252
11.309
13.312
14.659
15.507
390
446
492
539
738
923
1.00
4
8.147
9.241
10.744
11.848
14.050
15.582
16.511
Italia
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 47 - Condannati per distretto di Corte di Appello - Maschi - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a.)
Torino
Milano
Brescia
Trento
Bolzano (Sez.)
Venezia
Trieste
Genova
Bologna
Firenze
Perugia
Ancona
Roma
L'Aquila
Campobasso
Napoli
Salerno
Bari
Lecce
Taranto (Sez.)
Potenza
Catanzaro
Reggio di Calabria
Palermo
Messina
Caltanissetta
Catania
Cagliari
Sassari (Sez.)
Italia
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
17.259
15.820
5.597
3.407
16.286
5.580
8.927
17.596
16.395
2.625
5.479
21.055
6.293
2.212
20.237
3.355
11.059
4.779
4.730
1.967
3.557
2.134
8.325
3.849
1.941
8.179
5.204
1.877
225.724
18.281
18.472
7.481
1.659
1.612
14.461
6.680
8.967
11.582
12.737
2.246
4.737
16.444
5.618
1.329
14.866
3.409
9.179
6.496
3.429
2.190
2.481
2.239
9.358
2.154
1.265
8.531
4.613
1.850
204.366
23.233
21.624
5.715
1.613
2.086
12.984
5.345
10.197
12.846
12.345
2.714
4.870
18.821
5.879
1.467
29.448
5.269
9.681
4.455
6.600
2.305
5.866
2.086
13.743
2.446
1.295
12.329
4.193
1.529
242.984
22.599
25.607
7.993
1.545
1.837
14.745
5.831
8.690
12.946
13.009
2.459
5.285
23.135
5.739
1.622
28.295
5.626
10.448
5.425
4.440
2.407
5.910
1.764
13.447
2.225
1.461
9.320
4.353
3.099
251.262
19.589
16.877
6.129
1.254
1.859
11.564
4.994
7.620
12.543
11.403
2.120
4.144
37.321
5.498
1.184
26.384
4.488
8.698
4.510
5.209
1.978
4.319
1.919
10.694
1.540
1.993
8.987
5.304
2.677
232.799
12.704
14.751
4.766
1.077
1.150
8.784
3.382
6.844
10.065
8.983
1.558
2.773
102.502
2.863
785
16.734
3.329
6.013
3.637
3.780
1.591
3.103
2.795
10.977
2.504
1.247
8.162
2.336
2.256
251.451
14.449
22.691
6.035
1.313
1.730
13.673
4.725
9.169
12.447
12.457
2.537
3.988
21.738
4.615
1.242
15.566
3.220
7.667
4.832
4.006
1.673
2.974
1.633
11.118
3.208
1.723
7.366
4.901
2.112
204.808
(a) I dati si riferiscono alle iscrizioni che vengono effettuate, nel corso dell'anno di riferimento, presso il Casellario Centrale Giudiziale e
risentono, pertanto, del volume di attività svolto.
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 48 - Condannati per distretto di Corte di Appello - Femmine - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a.)
Torino
Milano
Brescia
Trento
Bolzano (Sez.)
Venezia
Trieste
Genova
Bologna
Firenze
Perugia
Ancona
Roma
L'Aquila
Campobasso
Napoli
Salerno
Bari
Lecce
Taranto (Sez.)
Potenza
Catanzaro
Reggio di Calabria
Palermo
Messina
Caltanissetta
Catania
Cagliari
Sassari (Sez.)
Italia
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
3.346
3.276
1.165
559
2.703
1.131
941
1.276
3.262
561
1.255
2.989
1.341
290
4.510
635
673
671
634
260
621
330
1.327
236
309
1.743
556
236
36.836
3.604
4.529
1.755
290
293
2.833
1.229
1.855
2.252
2.893
505
1.004
2.976
1.359
258
3.046
667
1.322
962
343
353
529
556
2.112
424
253
1.935
680
239
41.056
4.945
4.386
1.230
254
346
2.520
1.064
1.953
2.521
2.700
564
1.059
3.506
1.385
290
6.768
1.104
1.536
795
597
355
1.149
807
3.420
537
250
3.160
555
240
49.996
4.360
5.220
1.555
209
300
2.991
1.257
1.585
2.463
2.928
508
1.078
4.640
1.336
316
6.779
1.379
1.539
957
531
378
1.088
353
3.357
501
267
2.445
618
466
51.404
3.599
2.965
1.109
182
293
1.929
1.005
1.309
2.013
2.525
447
790
9.029
1.273
205
5.819
904
1.142
452
706
276
752
375
2.670
259
423
2.303
699
408
45.861
2.079
2.129
806
175
170
1.569
617
1.044
1.661
1.920
297
493
30.486
573
132
3.312
618
586
406
560
241
518
891
2.278
499
209
1.824
343
413
56.849
2.286
3.000
982
214
235
2.431
836
1.358
2.007
2.346
477
676
4.024
892
240
2.754
542
866
501
537
267
460
257
2.504
845
333
1.490
658
348
34.366
(a) I dati si riferiscono alle iscrizioni che vengono effettuate, nel corso dell'anno di riferimento, presso il Casellario Centrale Giudiziale e
risentono, pertanto, del volume di attività svolto.
Fonte: Istat
Tab. 49 - Condannati per distretto di Corte di Appello - Totale - Anni 1995-2001 (v.a.)
Torino
Milano
Brescia
Trento
Bolzano (Sez.)
Venezia
Trieste
Genova
Bologna
Firenze
Perugia
Ancona
Roma
L'Aquila
Campobasso
Napoli
Salerno
Bari
Lecce
Taranto (Sez.)
Potenza
Catanzaro
Reggio di Calabria
Palermo
Messina
Caltanissetta
Catania
Cagliari
Sassari (Sez.)
Italia
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
20.605
19.096
6.762
3.966
18.989
6.711
9.868
18.872
19.657
3.186
6.734
24.044
7.634
2.502
24.747
3.990
11.732
5.450
5.364
2.227
4.178
2.464
9.652
4.085
2.250
9.922
5.760
2.113
262.560
21.885
23.001
9.236
1.949
1.905
17.294
7.909
10.822
13.834
15.630
2.751
5.741
19.420
6.977
1.587
17.912
4.076
10.501
7.458
3.772
2.543
3.010
2.795
11.470
2.578
1.518
10.466
5.293
2.089
245.422
28.178
26.010
6.945
1.867
2.432
15.504
6.409
12.150
15.367
15.045
3.278
5.929
22.327
7.264
1.757
36.216
6.373
11.217
5.250
7.197
2.660
7.015
2.893
17.163
2.983
1.545
15.489
4.748
1.769
292.980
26.959
30.827
9.548
1.754
2.137
17.736
7.088
10.275
15.409
15.937
2.967
6.363
27.775
7.075
1.938
35.074
7.005
11.987
6.382
4.971
2.785
6.998
2.117
16.804
2.726
1.728
11.765
4.971
3.565
302.666
23.188
19.842
7.238
1.436
2.152
13.493
5.999
8.929
14.556
13.928
2.567
4.934
46.350
6.771
1.389
32.203
5.392
9.840
4.962
5.915
2.254
5.071
2.294
13.364
1.799
2.416
11.290
6.003
3.085
278.660
14.783
16.880
5.572
1.252
1.320
10.353
3.999
7.888
11.726
10.903
1.855
3.266
132.988
3.436
917
20.046
3.947
6.599
4.043
4.340
1.832
3.621
3.686
13.255
3.003
1.456
9.986
2.679
2.669
308.300
16.735
25.691
7.017
1.527
1.965
16.104
5.561
10.527
14.454
14.803
3.014
4.664
25.762
5.507
1.482
18.320
3.762
8.533
5.333
4.543
1.940
3.434
1.890
13.622
4.053
2.056
8.856
5.559
2.460
239.174
(a) I dati si riferiscono alle iscrizioni che vengono effettuate, nel corso dell'anno di riferimento, presso il Casellario Centrale Giudiziale e
risentono, pertanto, del volume di attività svolto.
Fonte: Istat
11873_2002
7.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
BIBLIOGRAFIA ESSENZIALE
GENERALE
- Censis, 36° Rapporto sulla situazione sociale del Paese 2002, Franco
Angeli
- Istat, Annuario Statistico Italiano 2002
- Istat, Italia in cifre 2002
- Istat, Rapporto annuale sulla situazione del Paese 2002
SALUTE
- Bucci R. Loiudice M.T., Il dibattito sulla qualità in ambito sanitario,
Collana I quaderni di Mecosan
- Censis, 36° Rapporto sulla situazione sociale del Paese 2002, Franco
Angeli
- Geddes M., Berlinguer G. (a cura di), La salute in Italia. Rapporto 1997,
Roma, Ediesse, 1997
- Mapelli V., Il sistema sanitario italiano, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1999
- Ministero della Salute, Relazione sullo stato sanitario del Paese 2001 –
2002
- Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri - Dipartimento per l’informazione e
l’editoria, Medicina e Migrazioni - Traumi e Problemi di Salute Fisica e
Mentale in Immigrati e Rifugiati,1992
- WHO, The World Health Report 2002
POVERTÀ
- Beckerman W., Stime della povertà in Italia nel 1975, Rivista
Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, n. 2, 1980
- Censis, 36° Rapporto sulla situazione sociale del Paese 2002, Franco
Angeli
288
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- P. Calza Bini, D. Maddaloni, La politica del lavoro e la cittadinanza
sociale in un’epoca di transizione: alcune riflessioni, IRiDiSS Research
Paper, 2000
- A.Ciocia, The New Italian Pension System Model, Paper presentato al
Seminar of the European Network for Research on Supplementary
Pensions (ENRSP), Roma, 17-18 dicembre 1998
- D. Maddaloni, Economia della partecipazione e configurazioni
occupazionali flessibili. Alcune osservazioni con riferimento
all’esperienza italiana, IRiDiSS-CNR Research Paper, 1998
- M. Falivene, Innovazione tecnologica e processo lavorativo. Il caso del
telelavoro, IRiDiSS-CNR Research Paper, 1998
- G. Ponzini, Alcune note a proposito del dibattito sulla bioetica, Relazione
presentata al Convegno “Etica e comunità”, Chieti, 22-23 aprile 1989
- G. Ponzini, Towards a New Social Contract?, IRiDiSS Cnr, Research
Paper, 1997
- S. Turcio, La qualità dei servizi in un processo di mutamento sociale,
intervento presentato al seminario internazionale “Change in Health
Policy: A European Perspective”, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,
Roma 16 e 17 dicembre 1996
- Disuguaglianza e stato sociale. Riflessioni sulla crisi del welfare italiano,
a cura di E. Bartocci, Donzelli, Roma, 1996
- Commissione Gorrieri di indagine sulla povertà, Primo rapporto e studi
base, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Roma, 1985
- Istat, Anziani in Italia, Il Mulino, Bologna, 1997
- Pace D., Pisani S., Le condizioni economiche degli anziani, VII Rapporto
Cer-Spi, La Terza, Bari, 1998
- Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Terzo rapporto sulla povertà in
Italia, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma, 1993
- Rizzi D., Poverty in Italy: 1984, Ricerche Economiche, XLIII, 3, 1989
289
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- Rossi N. (a cura di), Competizione e giustizia sociale:1994-1995, Terzo
rapporto CNEL sulla distribuzione e redistribuzione del reddito in Italia,
Il Mulino, Bologna
- Sarpellon G., La povertà in Italia, Franco Angeli, Milano, 1982
CRIMINALITÀ
- AA. VV., Rapporti degli ispettori europei sullo stato delle carceri in Italia
che vale anche da manuale da istruzioni per carcerieri, carcerati e
cittadini in libertà provvisoria, Palermo, Sellerio, 1995
- Campelli E., Faccioli F., Giordano V., Pitch T., Donne in carcere.
Ricerca sulla detenzione femminile in Italia, Feltrinelli, Milano 1992
- Censis, Cultura dello sviluppo, cultura della legalità - Programma
integrato per il Mezzogiorno, Roma, Gangemi, 1997
- Censis-Cds, Contro e dentro - Criminalità, istituzioni, società, Milano,
Franco Angeli, 1992
- Centorrino M., La Spina A. e Signorino G., Il nodo gordiano Criminalità mafiosa e sviluppo nel Mezzogiorno, Bari, Laterza, 1999
- Chinnici G., Santino U., La violenza programmata, Milano, Franco
Angeli, 1989
- Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia, Economia e criminalità, Forum
del 14-15 Maggio 1993, Camera dei Deputati
- Giovani Imprenditori Confindustria, Sviluppo, criminalità e corruzione in
Quale impresa, n. XIV, 1994
- Lupo S., Storia della mafia, Roma, Donzelli, 1993
- Occhiogrosso F., Introduzione a Mastropasqua I., I minori e la giustizia.
Operatori e servizi dell’area penale, Liguori, Napoli 1997
290
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
TURKEY
Selahattin Bekmez, Ph.D. - Cem Mehmet Baydur, Ph.D.
İbrahim Tokatlıoğlu, Ph.D. - Fatih Türe, Ph.D.
Necla Ayaş - Bayram Coskun
11873_2002
1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
COUNTRY PROFILE
This chapter intends to introduce a brief recapitulation of social, economic
and geographical caracteristics of Turkey.
1.1. Population
Turkey is the most densely populated country in the Middle East. According
to the 2000 census, the population of Turkey amounted to 67.8 million. 33.6
million of the population are female and 34.2 million are male. While the
annual average population increase was 24.9 %o in the 1980-85 period and
21.7 %o in the 1985-90 period , this figure dropped to 18.3 %o in the 19902000 period. This rate is expected to drop to 14.5 %o in the 2000-2005
period.
Since the 1960’s, Turkey has been considered to be among the countries
which registered the greatest progress in urbanization. Thi 2000 census
indicated that 44 million people live in provinces and administrative
centers, and 23.7 million people live in districts and villages. Of the 81
provinces in the country , three most densely populated are Istanbul with a
population of 10 million, Ankara with a population of 4 million, and Izmir
with a population of 3.4 million.
Turkey is a country with a young population. The 0-14 age group comprise
30% of Turkey’s population, the 15-64 age group 64.4% and the 65+ age
group 5.6% of the population. When these figures are compared with those
of European Union (EU) countries it is observed that the 0-14 age group in
the EU countries, with a mere 17.2% is approximately half of that of
Turkey. Conversely, the 65+age group in EU countries is almost thee-fold
of that in Turkey with 15.7%.
292
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 1: Developments in Demographic Indicators1
Demographic Indicators
Unit
1997
2001
20052
Total Population (Midyear)
Total Population Growth
Rate
Approximate Birth Rate
Approximate Mortality
Rate
Total Fertility Rate
Average Age for Child
Bearing
Infant Mortality Rate
Life Expectancy at Birth
1000 persons
63.7
67.8
71.7
Per thousand
16.4
14.6
13.1
Per thousand
Per thousand
21.6
6.5
20.2
6.5
19.0
6.5
No. of Children
Year
2.5
26.8
2.3
26.3
2.2
26.0
Per thousand
Year
40
68.2
33.9
69.1
28.8
70.3
According to 2000 general census 88 people live in 1 kilometre square.
Thus it can be said that country is not crowded. Basic problem of the
population is high growth rates. While Turkey’s population was one of the
rapid growing in the world in last fifty years, now this rate shows a
decreasing tendency in the last decade. Other dimension of the population
composition related to birth ant mortality rates. These rate reflects health
conditions and family planning in the country. Although birth rates are
decreasing they are stil high. Birth rates are decreasing because of
exploitation of better education and increasing participation fo the woman to
the employment and production.
1
2
State Statistical Institute
Projection
293
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 2 : Proportion of Population by Age Group
Demographic Indicators
Unit
1997
2000
2005
0-14 Age Group
Percentage
31.7
30.0
28.3
15-64 Age Group
Percentage
63.1
64.4
65.8
65 + Age Group
Percentage
5.1
5.6
5.9
Age composition is important in education programs, demographic
investments, social activities and to determine social needs. Produvticity and
needs of the people changes in age groups.
Migration
Turkey has growing and dynamic structure, and migration is an important
social and economic factor. The reasons of the migration are; poverty, low
life standarts in rural areas, labor demand in urban centres. It must be added
that the war in eastern and south-eastern part of the country until midnienties was the cause of strong movement ou the people in this areas. In
recent years this movement from rural areas to urban centres turned to
opposite: in a slow pace the pouple returning to their original settlements.
In the last 30 years, the population in the western and southern regions has
increased, while it has decreased in the central, northern and eastern
regions.The changes in the regional distribution of population in Turkey
resulted from migration from the eastern and northern regions to the western
and southern metropolises.
External migration began in 1960’s first to Europe and than to the world. So
called “Guest worker” from Turkey continued and today about 3.6 million
Turks are working and living in Europe, Australia, USA, Asia and Africa.
This migration movement abroad slowed after 1990’s. Better economic
possibilities in Turkey, restrictions of receiving countries are the main
reasons of slowing external migration from Turkey.
294
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 3: Turkish Citizen Working and Living Abroad
Countries
European countries
Germany
France
Holland
Austria
Belgium
Sweden
Great britain
Danmark
Italy
Finland
Spain
Switzerland
Norway
Luxemburg
Lichtenstein
Total
Middle-East and North Africa
Saudi Arabia
Libia
Quveyt
Irak
Israel
Jordan
Total
Other countries
Union of independent states.
Russian federation
Turkik republics
Australia
Usa
Canada
Japan
Rest of the world
Grand total
Turkish Citizen
LIVING
abroad
1995
1999
Turkish Citizen
WORKING
abroad
1995
1999
1.965.577
268.000
264.763
150.000
85.303
35.948
51.390
34.967
15.000
1.800
848
78.615
10.000
2.962.211
2.110.223
287.343
*279.786
138.860
73.818
35.943
66.000
38.055
8.500
2.000
904
79.478
10.000
220
809
3.131.939
742.566
102.900
84.500
51.297
26.764
24.800
15.746
14.445
5.000
1.400
500
35.828
6.000
1.111.746
740.530
78.965
*48.000
54.711
26.855
5.300
37.600
13.639
32.944
6.000
60
339
1.044.943
130.000
6.236
3.500
4.114
1.591
145.441
120.000
3.000
3.500
5.000
1.600
133.100
120.000
5.802
3.300
4.114
200
133.416
115.000
2.600
3.300
200
121.100
1995
40.000
1999
1995
40.000
1999
13.000
26.300
49.342
85.505
18.130
1.729
31.000
-
10.514
13.381
12.890
1.729
1.648
3.170
7.324
1.504
3.368.675
3.462.215
1.323.486
1.206.061
49.375
135.000
35.000
* Double passport holders included
Source:Ministry of Social Security and Employment
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Migration to Turkey mainly from neighboring countries continuing. In
1989-1990 345 thousand people came to Turkey during the Iran-Iraq war
and the population flow of Turkish origin from Bulgaria were the main
sources.
Turkey became in recent years one of the main routes of illegal migration
from Asia and Africa to Europe. Now after the normalization of the
conditions in southern and south-eastern part of the country the flow of
illegal migrants slowed drastically. Interior Ministry is now better equipped
and well trained specialists are in the scene against the illegal migration.
Ethnic, Religion compositions and Spoken Language3
Turkish is the language of %90 of the population of Turkey. The Caucasian
and several Kurdish dialects, Greek, Ladino and Armenian are among the
other 70 languages and dialects spoken in the country. The Turkish spoken
in Turkey is an agglutinative language similar to other Ural-Altaic
languages and is the modern form of Ottoman Turkish . Turkish is the
seventh most spoken and widespread language among the approximately
4000 languages spoken in the world today. More than 200 million people
speak Turkish.
There are no exact data on religious composition of the country. Researchs
about ethnic structure and spoken language shows %94 of the population is
moslem and other % 6 is christians mainly belonging the Greek, Armenian,
Assyrian churches and jewish.
Education
In Turkey, education is carried out under the supervision and control of the
state.According the Constitution, everyone has the right to receive an
education.
After 1997 compulsory education increased from five to eight years.
Investments in school building and equipment increased steadily afterwards.
296
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
In the 2001-2002 scholastic year, a total of 18.6 million students, composed
of 289 thousend preschool students, 10.5 million primary school students,
2.8 million secondary/middle-high school students, 1.7 million higher
education students and 3.2 million non-formal education students, were
educated in 60.057 formal and non-formal educational institutions.
Table : 4 – Composition of Education
1995-1996
Level of Education
Pre-school education
Primary school
Secondary school
Collage
Technical schoolUniversity and other
higher schools
Number of
Students
(‘000)
Rate of
Schoolarization
(%)
1999-2000
Number of
Students
(‘000)
Rate of
Schoolarization
(%)
2000-2005 (1)
Number of
Students
(‘000)
Rate of
Schoolarization
(%)
199
9.564
2.223
1.277
946
7,7
89,8
55,0
31,6
23,4
252
10.053
2.444
1.506
938
9,8
97,6
59,4
36,6
22,8
690
10.328
2.886
1.539
1.346
25,0
100,0
75,0
40,0
35,0
1.226
23,8
1.492
27,8
2.002
37,3
(*) Graduate Students included.
(1) Projection
Source : State Planning Organization
Literacy rate gradually increasing. During the tumultouse years from mideighties to mid-nienties educational institutionals were main targets of
terror. This had an negative impact on the rate of literacy. According the
General Census of 2000 literacy rate is %87.30 and continuing to decrease.
1.2. Economy and labor
Prior to 1980, Turkey followed an economic policy based on the
substitution of import. Instead of importing her goal was to manufacture
products in the country which would meet the domestic demand. Domestic
297
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
production and producers were protected by customs tariffs, import
restrictions for manufactured goods, and other equally efective taxes.
But on January 24, 1980 a comprehensive Stability Program with the
objective of providing radical economic reforms was introduced. Thus,
Turkey abondoned the planned economic development model and adopted
an industrialization model concentrating on, and giving priority to export
industries. Since then the process of implementing the Free Market
Economy continuing.
The foreign exchange regime was liberalized to a great extent as of
1984.Today, Turkey is one of the laeding countries in terms of liberal
foreign exchange regimes in the world.
According to World Data Bank daka, Turkey was in sixteenth place among
127 countries with her 2.9% increase in the annual average per capita GNP
between 1980-1991.
The GNP achieved an average increase of 5.3% per annum between 19801990, 3.2% between 1995-1997, and an average of 7.9% between 19951997, which is above woryd average. However, from August 1998 until
mid-1999, the Turkish economy which felt the negative impact of the
Russian crises in every sector, and especially in exports, was also hard
pressed by the tax reform and the tight monatery and fiscal policies
embraced withen the context of the disinflation program. With the delaying
of some of the liabilities in the Tax Law and the government package to
support the small and medium- size producers and exporters in the middle
of 1999, the economic indicators showed signs of picking up; but with the
earthquake disaster Turkey suffered yet another schock. Even though in
2001 the economy shrunk by 9.4%, as of March 2002, industrial production
rose by 18.8% and there were indicators that the situation was picking up.
298
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 5: Real GNP by Main Kind of Economic Activity (Billion TL)
Year
Agriculture
Industry
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
13.746
13.663
14.249
14.129(1)
14.358(1)
14.640(1)
15.395(1)
14.509(1)
16.176(2)
15.369(2)
15.962(2)
14.923(2)
21.873
22.504
23.911
26.260
24.775
27.766
29.743
32.337
33.494
31.814
33.738
31.207
Construction
Services
6.271
6.144
5.857
6.141
6.415
6.560
5.739
5.991
5.662
48.973
48.720
52.163
44.307
42.615
45.803
48.949
67.988
54.454
47.329
56.540
53.179
GDP
84.592
84.887
90.323
96.591
91.321
97.888
104.927
111.249
116.114
110.646
118.789
109.885
(1) Turkish economy statistics and analysis August 1997, State Institue Of Statistic Prime
Ministry Republic Of Turkey
(2) Turkish economy statistics and analysis January-march 2003, State Institue Of
Statistic Prime Ministry Republic Of Turkey
Table 6: National Per capita incomes, Unemployment, Inflation Rates
Per Capita
GNP(Dolar)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2175
2666
2774
3091
2192
2759
2928
3079
3255
2879
2948
2160
2584
Unemployment
Rates
8.0
8.1
8.3
8.8
8.4
7.5
6.5
6.7
6.8
7.7
6.6
8.5
10.6
IMF (World Economics Outloc) DİE 2002, DİE 1996.
Inflation Rates(%)
66.1
70.1
66.4
106.3
88.1
80.3
85.8
84.6
64.9
54.9
54.4
45.0
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Unemployment rate in 2001was about 8.5% (1,902,000 people). In terms of
gender, 8.8% of males and 7.9% of females in Turkey were unemployed in
2001. In cities the total unemployment rate is 11.5%, 10.3% for men and
16.8% for women. In rural areas, this reta is a total of 4.8%, with 6.5% for
men and 1.6% for women. In 2001, the rate of unemployment among
educated youth was 25.8%.
Foreign Trade
Turkey eliminated all trade barriers on imports of industrial goods from
members of the European Union (EU) with the Customs Union established
with the EU as of the 1st of January 1996 and also the EU’s Common
Customs Tariff has started to be applied in trade with other countries. As a
result , the balance of foreign trade yielded a deficit of 20 billon dollars in
1996. In 1997, exports increased by 13% reaching 26.2 billion dollars and
imports insreased by 11.3% amounting to 48.6 billion dollars. As of the end
of 2001, imports decraesed to 40 billion dollars and exports reached 30
billion dollars.
An important structural change occurred in Turkey’s exports in the 1980s.
The share of agricultural products in total exports, which was at a high level
of 75% in 1970 and 57% in 1980, was 7.2% in 2001. On the other hand, the
share of industrial products in exports, which was 18% in 1970 and 36% in
1980, insreased rapidly and reached 91.6% in 2001.
300
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table :7 İmport-Export Values (million dolar)
Export(Fob)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
12.959
13.593
14.715
15.345
18.106
21.636
23.224
26.261
26.973
26.588
27.775
31.340
35.753
İmport(Cif)
22.302
21.047
22.871
29.428
23.270
35.709
43.627
48.559
45.992
39.773
54.012
39.748
51.203
Foreign Trade
Balance
-9.343
-7.454
-8.156
-14.080
-5.164
-14.073
-20.403
-22.298
-18.949
-13.185
-26.237
-8.408
-15.450
Export/ımport
30.581
64.6
64.3
52.1
77.8
60.6
53.2
54.1
58.7
66.8
51.4
78.8
69.8
DİE 2001, T.C. Maliye Bakanlığı, 1996 Yıllık Ekonomik Rapor. (State Statistical Institute
2001 and Ministry of Fiunance Report)
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
1.3. Geography and territorial characteristics
Geography and territorial patterns of Turkey composite of geographical
surface, geographical distribution of population, principle Natural
Resources, climate characteristics and environmental Issues.
Geographical Surface
The Republic of Turkey spans two continents. The seas which surround the
country on three sides are the Black Sea, the Aegean and the Mediterranean.
Turkey has borders with Georgia, Armenia, Nakhicevan (Azerbaidjan) and
Iran to the east, Bulgaria, and Greece to the west and Iraq and Syria to the
south.
Turkey has an area of 814,578 km square. 3% of the area of Turkey is
located in Thrace in Europe, and the remaining 97%, which is referred to as
Anatolia, is located in Asia. The legth of the land borders of the country is
2,875 km. and the length of the coastline is 8,333 km. Turkey has a width of
app. 550 km. and a length of app. 1,500 km.
Turkey has seven geographical regions: The Black Sea, the Marmara, the
Aegean, the Mediterranean, the Central, East and Southeast Anatolia
Regions. The Regions are not definiteve demarcations, but markers of
gradually changing geographical and climatic features.
Principle Natural Resources
Turkey has large and varied mineral deposits and resources.Turkey holds
28th place in terms of total production among 132 countries in the world
who are involved in mining activities and 10th place in terms of the type of
minerals produced. Today 53 different metals and minerals are being
produced in the mining sector.
While the public sector predominates in the production of mineral fuels ano
metallic ores, the private sector has concentrated on industrial minerals.
302
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Some of the most important minerals produced in Turkey are as follows:
Coal :reserves around 1.3 billion tons, and 72% of it is coke.
Lignite: there are lignite deposits in almost every region of the country.Total
reserves are 8.3 billion tons; annual production is around 65-70 million tons.
Crude oil and natural gas : Turkey is a net importer of crude oil and natural
gas. Petroleum reserves are about one billion barrels and 14 billion metric
cubes of exploitable natural gas reserves are in the country. 2,5 million tons
of crude oil were produced in 2001. Again in 2001 311,5 million metric
cubes of natural gas were produced.
Iron ore is extracted from various regions in Turkey. The annal production
is over 6 million tons.
Chromium ore and other important minerals: Turkey is one of the leading
countries in the production and export of chromium ore. With its 40 million
tons of reserves, Turkey places fourth in the world. In recent years marble
production has also been increasing gradually, along with copper, boron,
aluminium,lead, mercury, sulfur, emery and meerschaum.
Climate Characteristics
Turkey is located along a moderate climate belt. In spite ou this, there are
differences in climate from region to region, the reason being that
mountains are parallel to the coast and there is diversification in the surface
morpholdgy. The coastal regions have a moderate maritime climate, while
the central regions, surrounded by mountains, have a continental climate.
The Mediterranean region experiences hot and arid summers, while in the
winter it is mild and rainy.The Mediterranean climate also manifest itself in
the Aegean region and in the south of the Marmara region. A more
moderate and rainy climate predominates in the Black Sea region. In the
interior regions, the summers are hot and slightly rainy and a steppe climate
is observed in the winter which is cold and snowy. In the Eastern Anatolia
region, the summers are cool and the winters are very cold and there is
snow. In the Southeastern Anatolia region, the summers are hot and arid,
and winters not very cold.
303
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Environmental Issues
Turkey faced environmental issues more late for being late to
industrialization. Rapid urbanization and industrialization caused at the
same time envirenmental problems like weather pollution, water pollution,
land degredation, coastal pollution, exhausting natural and cultural
resources, forest degredation, decreasing bio diversity and solid waste
problems in the metropolitan and urban areas.
Environmental policies becam than one of the important issues in the
country. Even a Ministry of Environment was established.
In the harmonization process with the EU which began with the Helsinki
Summit of 1999, preparatory studies aimed at intensifying cooperation with
the EU on environmental issues gained momentum. A national plan is being
prepared for the harmonization of environmental regulations. Regulations
concerning motor vehicles and chemical substances have already been made
to conform.
References
(1)
Aslan Eren, Türkiye’nin Ekonomik Yapısı ve Güncel Sorunları,
Muğla. Muğla Üniversitesi Yayını, 2002
(2)
Kemal Görmez, Çevre Sorunları ve Türkiye, Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi,
1997.
(3)
Orhan Türkdoğan, Etnik Sosyoloji, İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları, 1999
(4)
Peter Alford Andrews Türkiye’de Etnik Gruplar, çev. Mustafa
Küpüşoğlu, Ant Yayınları, 1993.
(5)
Rıdvan Karluk, Türkiye Ekonomisi, İstanbul. Beta Yayınları, 1995.
(6)
Türkiye Ekonomi Kurumu, Türkiye Ekonomisi Sektörel Analiz,
Ankara: İmaj Yayınları, 2001.
(7)
Turkish economy statistics and analysis January-march 2003, State
Institue Of Statistic Prime Ministry Republic Of Turkey.
304
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
(8)
Turkish economy statistics and analysis January-march 2003, State
Institue Of Statistic Prime Ministry Republic Of Turkey.
(9)
Statiatical Year Book Of Turkey 2001, State Institue Of Statistic
Prime Ministry Republic Of Turkey.
(10) Statiatical Year Book Of Turkey 1997, State Institue Of Statistic
Prime Ministry Republic Of Turkey.
(11) TC. Maliye Bakanlığı, 2001 Yıllık Ekonomik Rapor.
(12) TC. Maliye Bakanlığı, 1996 Yıllık Ekonomik Rapor.
(13) Turkey 2002, Directorate General of Press and Information of the
Prime Ministry.
305
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
2.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
HEALTH
According to the Turkish constitution, everybody has right to live in a
healthy and nutrious environment and the government has to provide
physical and physiological health services for the public (no:56). For that
reason, providing a healthy environment, and financing the health services
are a constitutional responsibility of the government. The law accepted in
1930 called “General Law of Health” ensures that government should
increase the living conditions of the public, solve the problems related to
public health and provide a better environment for the future generations
(no: 1).
The responsibility of public health is belong to the ministry of health.
Ministry of health has all the authority concerning public health, and a
healthy environment. One of the main objective of this organization is to
create “a healthy individual and healthy society, an improved health system,
a protection for diseases, and a planned health system”. The headquarters of
the ministry is in the capital, Ankara, and it has sub-offices in all 81 cities of
Turkey.
In additon to the “General Law of Public Health” and “Ministry of Health
foundation Law” there are more than 30 laws concerning health issues in
Turkey. Also, there are considerable amount of governmental decisions
regardin health problems.
The definition of health in Turkey generally is taken from the World Heatlh
Organization. Within this context, Nusret Fisek (1983:1) has defined the
heatlh as “health is not only to have a body without any physical desease,
but also it is mentally and socially the case of goodness.” However, in
practice health is considered as a goodness in terms of physical body
(Medicana: 379-380).
The main indicators in Health Sector in Turkey and some projections for
2005 as follow:
306
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 1: Existing Status and Objectives of VII.Plan at Health Indicators
Criterions
Bed Capacity (*) (2001)
Population per Bed (2001)
Bed Occupancy Rate (%) (2001)
Health Manpower (2001)
Number of Physicians
Population per Physician
Number of Dentists
Population per Dentist
Number of Pharmacist
Population per Pharmacist
Number of Sanitarian and Health
Population per Sanitarian
Number of Nurses
Population per Nurse
Number of Midwives
Population per Midwife
Existing Status
Targets of 2005
at VIII.Plan
175.190
392
60,2
200.000
351
75
85.117
797
16.002
4.237
23.266
2.914
46.528
1.457
71.612
947
41.590
1.630
89.000
789
16.000
4.389
77.100
910
-
(*) Ministry of National Defense is included
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/apk2001/002.htm
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
The big amount of hospitals in Turkey operate under the directions of
Ministry of Heath. However, there are small number of hospitals operate
under the directions of Ministry of Labor, universities, municipals and other
public institutions. The distribution of hospitals in terms of organizations as
follows:
Figure 1: Distribution of Hospitals in terms of Organizations, 2002
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/ytkiy2002/elektronikkitap/grafik1.htm
As shown in Figure 1, following the Ministry of Health, as a public
institutions the Social Insurance Institute (SSK) has the most of the
hospitals. Individuals who are working under coverage of Labor Low can
benefit from these hospitals. However, in 2003, the existing government
made possible for those people to use other public and private hospitals as
well. With this application, the burden of SSK hospitals has substially
lessened.
308
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 2: Number of Doctors an number of persons per doctor
Years
Population (1000)
Number of Doctors
People per doctor
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
53715
54893
56473
57326
58584
58869
61183
61444
62697
62610
64786
65819
66834
68610
69749
42502
46708
50639
53264
56985
61050
65832
69349
70947
73659
77344
81988
85117
88456
93586
1276
1270
1115
1076
1028
980
929
886
883
850
872
838
785
776
745
Soruce: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/ytkiy2002/elektronikkitap/tablo4.htm
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Due to an increse in education expenses in last decades, the number of
people per doctor has decreased. As can be seen in Table 2, in the last 14
years this decrease continued. While this number in 1988 was 1276, it
decreased to 745 in 2002. This improvement has been reached inspite of a
24% increase in population.
An increase in the health expenses in last years created an increase in heatlh
expenditure per person as well. Health expenditure per person has increase
by 38% in last ten years (tab. 3).
Even though there is an improvement in health expenditures in Turkey, it
still is too low when it comes to compare with the OECD countries. This
huge differences has been shown in Tabloe 4 below.
However, the same increasing trend cannot be seen in Ministry of Health’s
share from the general budget. In last ten years, the Ministry of Health’s
share from general budget fluctuates between 4.5% and 2.5%. The decrease
in health expenditure in last years is a result of economic crisis experienced
during last years (tab. 5).
Table 6 and 7 show the data for some contagious illnesses. According to
2001 data the AIDS incidents experienced is 1325. The number of men with
AIDS is more than the number of women with AIDS. According to 1999
data total number of cancer detected in Turkey is 25,942.
Medicine and medicine related imports show an incresing trend in terms of
years. In 1990, import of medicine and medicine related row materials is
about $470 million. This number reached to $1.5 million in 2001 (tab. 8).
The evaluation of mother-baby health issues in Turkey shows that the rate
of giving birth with the help of a specialist increases rapidly. The amount of
giving birth at home has decreased more than 50% in the period between
1999 and 2001 (tab. 9).
310
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 3: Heath Expenditures per year
Years
Total Health
Expenditure GDP
(%)
1991
1992
1993
3.7
3.9
4.4
63.5
66.2
68.2
97.8
107.7
130.1
182.4
207.0
247.1
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.6
4.0
64.7
64.3
64.0
63.0
63.0
85.2
106.5
111.4
119.8
139.9
161.9
234.3
251.1
259.1
279.1
1999
2000
4.1
4.3
79.9
80.0
116.4
135.3
220.0
250.0
Public ( % )
Per person Hearlth Per person Health
Expenditure ( $ ) expenses $/SAGP)
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/ytkiy2002/elektronikkitap/tablo10.htm
Table 4: Heath Expenditures of Selected OECD Countries, 2000
Country
Canada
Czeck Republic
Frans
Germany
Greese
Italy
Japan
Mexico
Portuqual
Spain
Turkey
England
U.S.A
Heath Expenditure
The share of
Private
Public in GDP
Expenditures (%)
(%)
72,0
91,4
76,0
75,1
55,5
73,7
76,7
46,4
71,2
69,9
71,1
81,0
44,3
28,0
8,6
24,0
24,9
44,5
26,3
23,3
53,6
28,8
30,1
28,9
19,0
55,7
The rate of Heath
Expenditures in
GDP (%)
9,1
7,2
9,5
10,6
8,3
8,1
7,8
5,4
8,2
7,7
5,0
7,3
13,0
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/ytkiy2002/elektronikkitap/tablo24.htm
Table: 5 Ratio of Budget of Ministry of Health To Budget State (Thousand TL)
Years
Budget of State
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
207.545.328.000
398.710.000.000
823.396.387.000
1.335.978.053.000
3.558.506.822.000
6.344.685.500.000
14.753.000.000.000
23.570.000.000.000
46.843.000.000.000
48.060.000.000.000
97.831.000.000.000
Budget of
Minis. of Health
Ratio of Budget of
Minis.of Health
To Budget of State
9.783.005.000
18.184.911.000
30.639.327.000
49.417.951.000
98.064.401.000
204.499.276.000
390.891.701.000
663.123.501.000
1.059.825.001.000
1.280.660.000.000
2.345.447.691.000
4,71
4,56
3,72
3,70
2,76
3,22
2,65
2,81
2,26
2,66
2,40
Table 6: Distribution of AIDSCases Cases and Carriers By Age Group and Sex
Age Group
Total
0
1–4
5–9
10 - 12
13 - 14
15 - 19
20 -24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 59
60 +
Unknown
Total
1.325
7
6
10
4
2
37
189
219
255
157
169
91
46
133
Male
Female
919
6
2
3
3
1
13
88
150
203
128
131
62
33
96
406
1
4
7
1
1
24
101
69
52
29
38
29
13
37
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/apk2001/073.htm
Table 7: Distribution of Cancer Cases with respect to Age and Sex, 1999
Age
Groups
Total
0–4
5–9
10 - 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 - 39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 +
Number
25.942
342
313
266
353
408
507
739
1240
1767
2400
2810
3139
3284
3872
2701
1801
Incidence
39.41
5,17
5,54
4,00
5,22
6,26
8,79
14,46
25,77
44,.46
73,78
111,02
158,46
184,49
241,4
260,46
209,91
Number
16.023
205
189
154
180
215
244
346
576
916
1.349
1.720
2.019
2.254
2.718
1.805
1.133
Male
Incidence
48,30
6,08
5,65
4,52
5,21
6,48
8,31
13,35
23,45
88,5
81,66
135,97
211,64
269,94
352,07
394,97
303,75
Number
Female
Incidence
5.051
137
124
112
173
193
263
393
664
851
1.051
1.090
1.120
1.030
1.154
896
668
30,38
4,21
3,87
3,44
5,23
6,16
9,57
15,75
29,14
45,46
68,42
90,08
110,56
109,34
141,6
167,79
144,28
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/apk2001/089.htm
Table 8: Imports of drug and drug raw material by years in Turkey (USA $)
Years
1990
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Total
470.114.087
522.394.938
510.532.307
489.174.620
729.565.587
978.504.000
981.953.471
1.180.592.194
1.242.129.545
1.511.000.000
1.491.579.320
Raw Material
Manufactured Drug
386.257.785
425.530.447
400.532.307
371.174.620
565.785.587
716.755.000
667.728.360
769.378.609
808.003.771
828.000.000
831.857.360
83.856.302
96.864.491
110.000.000
118.000.000
163.780.000
261.749.000
314.225.111
411.213.585
434.125.774
683.000.000
659.721.960
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/apk2001/107.htm
Table 9: Maternal and Child Health Services of Health Centers
Investigation of Pregnant and Child
Years
1990
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Pregnant
2.380.544
2.944.022
2.667.850
2.759.365
2.626.591
2.146.736
2.376.280
2.261.896
2.535.632
Infant
0-11 Months
4.886.821
5.116.693
5.109.084
4.995.731
4.877.703
4.064.790
4.573.632
4.363.537
4.726.729
Child
1-6 Ages
6.503.311
5.650.572
5.996.169
6.010.649
6.032.435
4.899.265
5.500.351
5.368.475
5.726.902
Total
508.634
542.994
577.703
589.159
586.108
505.725
578.065
557.315
602.219
Birth
With the Help
of Health
Personnel
428.257
474.786
511.214
533.519
536.593
469.981
542.334
525.163
567.792
Source: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/extras/istatistikler/apk2001/071.htm
Table 10: Data regarding General Health, Fertility and Nutrition
Indicators
The rate of contraception use
The rate of births with the assist of Health Personnal
Fertiliy rate of women in the age betwee 15-19
Persons who know how to use contraceptions
The rate of children that has taken measles shot
The rate of underweight childeren
Source: www.die.gov.tr
1991 (%)
1998 (%)
62.6
75.9
56
99.1
77.9
9.5
63.9
80.6
60
98.9
78.5
8.3
By
Herself
80.377
68.208
66.489
55.640
49.515
35.744
35.731
32.152
34.427
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 10 indicates that the rate of underweight children has decreased,
immunization rate for some illnesses has increased, and the use of
contraceptives has increased.
In addition to above given data there is a resarch conducted by Osman Gazi
University in 2002 (Aksam Newspaper, August 12, 2002).
- In Turkey, 20.2% of the population is not covered by the social security
- 2.7% of all babies die for several reasons.
- 25% of all drugs wasted.
- Import of drugs 10 times more than that of export.
- Only 1.2% of people give blood..
- Annual drug expenditure is 2.5 billion and annual drug consumption per
person is $38.
- The rate of people who has no healthy water is 26.5%.
- One third of 27 million children cannot receive appropriate nutritions.
Even though this research gives a pecimistic view, the official numbers
show an increase in health quality in Turkey. However, some people in
Turkey still cannot receive health protection, while some people are not
happy with their protection. Unfortunately, in most cases a health service
covering every part of Turkey cannot be given as it is planned. Especially,
data for rural and urban areas and data for east and west differ a lot. For that
reason, we cannot mention a standard health quality all over the country.
There are more than one reason for this. The reasons can be summarized as
follow (Ministry of Health, YKP, Special Council for Health, 2001, pp:4).
The whole authority in the health services belongs to the Ministry of Health
in Turkey. For that reason, it is widely open to political misuse. Decisions
are made according to political views of the government and thus, a long
run policies sometimes may not be possible to implement. Projections do
not imply the actual data in most cases due to political decisions. The
coordination cannot be reached among critical institutions for public health.
These institutions become a political arena for the parties in power, and
315
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
expected coordination and services cannot be provided to the public. Some
problems experienced in Turkey regarding health services are following:
- Health sector cannot be organized adequately due to spread structure of
institutions. The main reasons for this disorganization can be stated as
follow: misuse of human resources, political views, erroneous definitions
of duties, and lack of inspections in health sector. Another reason for
disorganization is that lack of information due to problems in the flow of
information among institutions.
- The share of health in GDP is not enough. Lack of building, resoruces
and other tools used in health servises are them main reasons of hardship
in health. İn other words, most of the problems in health sector is due to
financial problems.
Turkey is one of candidate countries for full membership to the European
Union. As analyzed from this point of view, Turkey has not yet reached to
the level of EU countries (Isik, 2001, pp: 106-107). However, efforts in this
area is notable in last five years. In addition to that, health institutions
belong to NGO in last years has increased. Also, people who have no health
securities, if they are eligible, can get health services free of charge from the
Ministry of Health. According to 2001 data 1.3 million people receive free
health services in Turkey.
But after the parlamentary elections last year Turkey has now a “one party
government”. It seems that some of the notorious problems in the health
sector are going to be solved. Reorganization of the sector is already
underway. Health Reform activities can be summarized as : the initiation of
the application of General Health Insurence as soon as possible; to separate
the service supplier from the financing organization; to give autonomy to
hospitals to help them provide high quality and efficient services; to adopt
the Family Medicine model in primary health services; to help the Ministry
of Health acquire a new structure and to harmonize Turkish health
regulations with EU norms.
The information and statistics in Turkey is collected and stored by the
Ministry of Health and State Institute for Statistics. The web addresses of
these institutions are:
- T.R. Ministry of Health: www.saglik.gov.tr
316
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
- State Institute for Statistics: www.die.gov.tr
References
- Aksam Newspaper, August 12, 2002
- Fisek, Nusret , Introduction to Public Health, Hacettepe University press,
Ankara 1983
- Isik, Nilufer Avci, The relations of Turkey-EU and the Health, Minsitry of
Health , EU coordination department, Ankara, 2001.
- Medicana General Health Ansiklopedia, Milliyet press, Vol:12, 1993
- VIII. Five year Development Plan: Efficiency in the Health Services, The
special commission for Health Report, State Planning Organization, Press No:
2561, Ankara, 2001.
- http://www.saglik.gov.tr
- http://www.die.gov.tr
317
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
3.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
POVERTY
3.1. Definitions
There are various definitions of poverty in literature, but three of which are
being used in Turkey. These definitions are: i) half of median income ii)
minimum food need to be purchased, and iii) basic needs approach.
Definition according to “Minimum Calorie need to be taken” approach
(minimum food basket): The poverty calculations are made based on
proposed calorie per person for all population in the country. People who
receive lower calories than propesed calorie are considered as poor (absolute
poverty definition).
Definition accordign to “minimum food need to be purchased” approacah:
In order for a person to continue his/her life there are some basic needs such
as nutrition, cloth, housing, education and health services that need to be
purchased. İt shows the border for poverty calculations made by using these
above mentioned criteria (absolute povery definition).
Definition accordign to “median or avarege income” approach: This
definiton uses average income created by whole society, takes half of this
median income, and considers those people who receive less than that as
poor (relative poverty definition).
State Planning Organization uses median income approach, but some
organizations suhc as Turk-Is labor Union use basic needs definition for
their calculations.
3.2. Policy and Legislation
One of the most efficient ways to prevent povery is to provide minimum
needs for live by providing social benefits for those considered as poor.
Given the main reason for poverty is lack of human capital, social benefits
318
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
such as education and health become the most efficient tool for preventiong
poverty. Government is the most active player in social benefits in Turkey.
In other words, payments for social benefits are paid by governments budget
from an item called “social transfer payments.”
However, these payments cannot be thought as enough given the magnitude
of poverty in Turkey. Usually the poor has no social security for themselves
and their families. Only those people who work with daily and/or monthly
salery have social security. The reminder of the population has no socail
security at all.
Table 1: Distribution of the poor in terms of Social Security Institutions (%) (2001)
1
Ssk
Emekli sandiği
Bağ-kur
Private
Non-registere
Total
2,17%
0,00%
2,53%
0,00%
95,31%
100%
2
20 PERCENTILE
3
4
4,96%
0,41%
3,72%
0,00%
90,91%
100%
7,75%
0,39%
4,26%
0,39%
87,21%
100%
16,10%
1,50%
6,37%
0,00%
76,03%
100%
Total
5
16,31%
1,77%
9,22%
0,71%
71,99%
100%
9,58%
0,83%
5,28%
0,23%
84,09%
100%
Source: Authors’ calculations from 2001 Household Labor Survey
As can be seen from Table 1, most of the poor are not covered by any social
security benefits. This means that government does not provide enough
social security benefits for its workers.
It is going to be meaningful to see the development of transfer policies with
respect to years.
319
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 2: Percentage rates of transfer payments in General Budget
1980
1985
1990
1994
1999
2000
Health
Education
4.4
2.8
4.7
3.5
2.4
2.3
16.1
12.3
18.8
13.4
11.8
9.4
Domestic Debt
interest payments
2
5
14
26
35
28
Total
Transfers/Budget
36.6
40.6
36.6
53.2
61.8
65.5
Source: Derdiyok, Turkmen, “Debt Policies after 1980” XVI.Turkish Public Finance
Symposium, May 28-31 2001. Antalya, Financial Policies after 1980 in Turkey
As can be seen from Table 2, between 1980 and 1999, the rate of interest
payments for domestic debts in general budget shows an increase, while the
rate of expenditures for education and health decreases. This numbers show
that Turkish officials use their choices in favor of those who receive capital
income. In addition, the poor gets poorer every year due to unsatisfactory
transfer payments of the government.
320
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Figure 1: Percentage shares in Total Transfers
67.5
70
63.2
60
53.8
50
52.9
52.1
43.1
55.8
58.2
57.7
51.3
41.9
40
30
20
10.4
10 7.1
16.3 14.2
13.5 15.7
12.4
5.3 5.4 5.4 6.2
00
20
99
19
98
19
97
19
96
19
95
19
94
19
93
19
92
19
91
19
19
90
0
Socail Transfers
Interest Payments for Domesti Debts
Source:
Derdiyok, Turkmen, “Debt Policies after 1980” XVI.Turkish Public Finance
Symposium, May 28-31 2001. Antalya, Financial Policies after 1980 in Turkey
When transfer payments in domestic national product is investigated, it can
be seen that while interest payments show a very sharp increase, security
payments show relatively very small increases. The share of social transfers
in total transfers was 12% in 2000. However, the same rate for domestic
interest payments was 67.5%.
Bu tablolar göstermektedir ki kamunun bozuk gelir dağılımını düzeltmek ve
yoksullukla mücadele etmekte önemli bir politika aracı olan transfer
ödemelerinin yapısı bu amacı gerçekleştirmekten uzaktır. Transfer
ödemelerinin yapısı, piyasa başarısızlığını gidermekten uzak ve hükümet
başarısızlığıyla sorunu derinleştirecek niteliktedir.
All the Tables mentioned above show that public sectors tranfer payments
are far away from providing equity in income distribution. The structure of
321
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
transfer payments has lack of ability in providing a justice in income
distribution, and it deepens the problem if we add the unorganized
goverments.
3.3. Sources
For definations and data of poverty in Turkey
www.die.gov.tr
For definations and policy and legislation issues
www.dpt.gov.tr
Different defination of poverty from Non-goverment organisations and data
www.turkis.org.tr
www.denizfeneri.com.tr
3.4. Data
Human Development Report (2001)
Human Poverty Index Rank: 22
Human Poverty Index Value: 12.4
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60: 8.0
Adult illiteracy rate: 14.5
% of population not using improved drinking water sources: 18
Underweight children under age-five: 8
322
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Population below income poverty line ($2 per day): 10.3
Long-term unemployment (as % of labour force):2.5
Table 3: Poverty Indecise
Nutrition
Poverty
Basic Needs
1994
Poverty
Income
Poverty
Nutrition
Poverty
Basic Needs
2001
Poverty
Income
Poverty
Number of
Head
Indecies
Yoksulluk
Açığı
Endeksi
Average
Poverty
Poor
Trashhold
Sen Index income(TL)
(TL)
0,07
0,37
0,039
490993
782899
0,31
0,33
0,46
0,218
818137
1520386
0,34
0,18
0,69
0,144
446219
1461220
0,22
0,08
0,25
0,048
27000000
36090420
0,31
0,41
0,45
0,260
47500000
86198920
0,33
0,18
0,73
0,140
23900000
86939760
0,24
Gini
coefficient
Soruce: SIS, 1994 and Authros’ calculations from 2001 household Labor Survey
Income distribution for all categories worsened under the criteria mentioned
above for years 1994 and 2001. While the Gini Coefficient for whole
Turkey was 0.46 in 1994, Gini Coefficient in 2001 increased to 0.49. if the
Gini coefficient for the poor is investigated we see an equity in income
distribution among the poor. However, this equity tends to worsen with the
economic crises experienced in recent years.
323
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Table 4: Expenditure Distribution for the Poor Household (%)
First 20th percentile
1994
2001
Health
Education
Others
Total
3,65
0,31
96,04
100
4,68
0,18
95,13
100
Second 20th
percentile
1994
2001
3,37
0,11
96,52
100
2,25
0,07
97,69
100
Third 20th
percentile
1994
2001
2,75
0,26
96,98
100
1,83
0,09
98,09
100
Fourth 20th
percentile
1994
2001
1,92
0,25
97,83
100
2,08
0,23
97,70
100
Sorce: SIS, 1994 and Authros’ calculations from 2001 household Labor Survey
It can be easily seen form Table 4 that there is a great diffusion in human
capital after economic crises. The share for education in total income is the
highest in the fifth 20th percentile. However, this share is not even equal to
1% in total. The share of education for all 20th percentile worsened from
1994 to 2001. This shows the greatness of the problem that the Turkish
economy facing and the stickiness, and intergenerational distribution of the
poverty.
324
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Fifth 20th percentile
1994
2001
2,02
0,23
97,75
100
2,64
0,21
97,15
100
11873_2002
4.
4.1.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
CRIME
Definitions
In theory and in law, it is quite difficult to agree on a common definition of
crime. For example; according to the positivist school, in the law order an
action that requires a punishment in the end is a crime. This definition is not
wrong but incomplete. To be more clear, it is a definition that is related to
how itiis done, not to the essence. As the law order may change according to
place and time, actions that are planned as normative actions are accepted
‘crime’. With respect to this point, the definition is true just in shape.
Crime is the action that destroys the morality and as a result ,cannot be
tolerated by the government. This definition is also incomplete. Because
there are some actions that do not destroy morality, yet, are accepted as
crime. For example; political crimes are not accepted as moral crimes. Or
vice versa: Some actions are morally corrupted but are not accepted as
‘crime’ . For example: adultry.
The most reasonable way to find a common definition is to head off with the
elements of crime. In Turkish Crime law – the main source of crime law in
Turkey – there is no definition of crime but there are elements of it.
According to it, there are three basic elements of crime :
1. The physical element
2. The spiritual element
3. The element of being against law.
There are three levels in the physical element: 1. action 2. result 3. cause
and effect relationship To be more clear: An active or passive human action,
a change that is felt in the outer world as a result of this action and the cause
and effect relationship between the action and the mentioned change form
the physical element.
On the other hand, the spiritual element is a concept that implies personal
responsibility. It means that the person who does the action, which forms
the physical element, does it on purpose. In other words; a person
325
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
deliberately and willingly does something that is “forbidden” by law or vice
versa: deliberately and willingly does not do the thing that he is supposed to
“do” by law.
The universal principal of the crime law: ‘there cannot be a crime and a
punishment without law.’ necessarily brings the the element of being against
law. A law that puts crime and punishment has to determine the action,
which is called ‘ crime’ and its prohibited result. This situation in the law is
called ‘the type’. An action that is fitting to the type is a crime. As a result
of the principal of legality, crime and punishment cannot be created by
anything except for the law. An action might be condemned or morally
blamed but if it is not fitting to the type, then it is impossible to talk about
crime and punishment.
With the reference to the mentioned elements of crime, we can describe it as
the following: “A faulty action that is fitting to the type and against law”.
This definition is very commonly accepted by official and non- official
authorities in Turkey.
4.2. Policy and legislation
According to the second article of the Constitution; “ Turkish Republic is a
... democratic, secular and social law state”. The inevitable and obligatory
result of being a law state is to bind those who rule and those who are being
ruled equally and to guarantee and develop human rights and freedom at the
highest level.
The fifth article of the Constitution says that “The fundamental aims and
duties of the state are ... to strive for the removal of political, social and
economic obstacles which restrict the fundamental rights and freedoms of
the individual in a manner incompatible with the principles of justice and of
the social state governed by the rule of law; and to provide the conditions
required for the development of the individual’s material and spiritual
existence”. Philosophically liberal state stands for it.
When it is analysed through the perspective of crime and punishment
concepts, these principles in the Constitution and the texts of the acts that
regulate the mentioned area should be parallel. More clearly, the acts that
326
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
regulate the area of crime and punishment should equally protect the
essential rights and freedom of both the victim and the guilty in the sense of
justice. But up to recent years, it is difficult to say that primarily the Turkish
Punishment Law and other acts that regulate the crime and punishment area
have been applied in the way mentioned above.
For example; in punishment acts, the area of crimes that are committed
against the State has been thoıght very wide and to express the ideas that are
against the official ideology were accepted as crime. So the freedom of
expressing your opinion- one of the basic human rights- was dramatically
restricted. From this perspective, up to the end of 1990s , Turkey reflected
itself as an authoritarian state rather than a state that is respectful to human
rights.
In December 1999, Turkey, which had been trying to be a member of the
European Union (EU) since 1960s, got the status of being a candidate
country to it. Apart from political, economic, and social rules, naturally
there are legal rules to be a member of the EU. These rules are called
Copenhagen Criteria and to carry them out is the pre-condition of the
membership. For this reason, since the beginning of 2002 to make its law
regulations concordant with the EU regulations, Turkey have prepared
seven adaptation packets including changes in some acts.
Again for the same reason,there have been significant changes in crime acts.
For example; Death Penalty has been abolished, and the area of political
crimes – icluding the crime of expressing opinion- has been restricted. In
short, The Turkish Grand National Assembly has enthusiastically been
working to make Turkish Law Regulations concordant with the EU. Also
the governments in recent years have been very careful and extremely
sensitive about the matter and are trying to make it the general policy of the
country.
Apart from the process of integration with the EU, the studies that have
been carried out since the mid 1980s to update the Turkish Crime Law – the
basic source of crime law in Turkey - are due to be completed.
In Turkey the basic rules that regulate the crime and punishment area are in
the Constitution and in the Turkish Crime Law. In the Constitution the
principles at the highest level about this subject are arranged in the 37th and
38th articles:
327
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
“No one may be tried by any judicial authority other than the legally
designated court. Extraordinary tribunals with jurisdiction that would in
effect remove a person from the jurisdiction of his legally designated court
shall not be established (art. 37)”
“No one shall be punished for any act which does not constitute a criminal
offence under the law in force at the time committed; no one shall be given
a heavier penalty for an offence other than the penalty applicable at the time
when the offence was committed. The provisions of the above paragraph
shall also apply to the statute of limitations on offences and penalties and
one the results of conviction. Penalties, and security measures in lieu of
penalties, shall be prescribed only by law. No one shall be held guilty until
proven guilty in a court of law. No one shall be compelled to make a
statement that would incriminate himself or his legal next of kin, or to
present such incriminating evidence. Criminal responsibility shall be
personal. General confiscation shall not be imposed as a penalty. The death
penalty shall not be imposed excluding the cases in time of war, imminent
threat of war and terrorist crimes. Findings obtained through illegal methods
shall not be considered as evidence. No one shall be deprived of his liberty
merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation. No
citizen shall be extradited to a foreign country on account of an offence (art.
38)”.
There are basic three parts in the Turkish Crime Law that was accepted in
1926. The first part, which was titled as ‘ Genaral Judgements’ contains the
basic rules that are valid for all crimes. For example; the application rules of
crime acts, types of punishments, the situations that decrease, abolish or
increase the crime and punishment, prescription, the principle of legality
can be counted among them.
The second part, which is titled as’ Crimes’ regulate the more serious crimes
that necessitate life imprisonment, heavy imprisonment and heavy fine.
The third part, which is titled as ‘ Offenses’ regulate the petty crimes that
necessitate lenient imprisonment and light fine.
Apart from the Turkish Crime Law, there are some special acts to regulate
the crime and punishment area. The Act For Struggling Against Terrorism,
The Act of Forests, The Act of Traffic and The Act of Fire Arms can be
counted among these special acts.
328
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.3. Sources
In Turkey, the basic sources of official statistics and non- official
information sources about crime and punishment are the following:
4.3.1. Official sources
www.adli-sicil.gov.tr/istatist.htm
www.adalet.gov.tr/cte/istatistikler.htm
www.die.gov.tr
www.egm.gov.tr
4.3.2. Non-official sources
www.idealhukuk.com
www.hukukcu.com
www.hukukrehberi.net
www.turkhukuksitesi.com
www.hukuk.gen.tr
www.kriminoloji.com
www.e-akademi.org
4.4. Data
In Turkey the number of majors and juveniles in prisons and reformatories
can be indicated as the following:
329
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
TABLE I – Convicts Received Into Prison by Type of Crime, 1990-2000
Againts Government Administration (Debt,
Bribery, Misuse of Duty)
Againts Public Decency and Family Order
(Rape, Crime About Family)
Againts Individual (Homicide, Assault, Insult
and Swear)
Againts Property (Theft, Surindle, Robbery)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
550
469
452
519
559
574
583
690
822
905
888
3222
2681
2336
2303
2123
2197
2282
2359
2348
2323
2071
5723
5879
5290
5453
6684
6770
6832
6999
7475
7471
7293
8276
8369
9509
8407
9071
9640
10230
11139
12315
12498
13861
Source: Statistical Yearbook of Turkey, State Institute Statistics Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey, publication number: 2690, Ankara, 2001, p.187
TABLE II - Sentenced Juveniles Received Into Reformatory by Type of Crime, 1990-1999
Homicide
Theft
Rape
Sodomy
Battery
Robbery
Other
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
70
161
68
56
16
73
21
86
115
63
56
11
69
10
77
170
46
66
11
69
16
84
153
44
73
13
110
17
133
213
41
72
12
115
39
140
239
49
53
19
138
33
123
280
54
70
14
112
38
157
231
64
60
16
77
25
142
309
59
50
15
102
29
118
215
42
23
10
120
57
Source: Judicial Statistics 1999, State Institute Statistics Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey, publication number: 2450, Ankara, 1999, p.6
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
4.5. Phenomenology
After talking about the basic policies and information about the area of
crime and punishment in Turkey, it will be right to make its critical analysis.
Clearly to analyse the general character of the Turkish crime law and to
summarise the basic structure of the crime act will help us understand the
matter better.
When we functionally look at the history of crime law, it is possible to say
that there are three different concepts of crime law. These are the oppressive
crime law, the preferential crime law, and the crime law that is in favor of
freedom.
The Oppressive Crime Law is the crime law of monarchic systems.This type
of crime law, which is also seen in totalitarian regimes in modern times, is a
means of excessive political powers. The fundemental aim is to preserve
the political power and to eliminate the ideas that are contrary to the idea
that is accepted the unique truth by the state. The area of crime and the
discretionary power of judges are wide. As the guilty person is regarded as
an aggressive brutal man who attacks on the physical and spiritual
possessions of others, he is very severely punished. Among his
punishments, death penalty, torture, cutting off an organ and imprisonment
in dungeon can be counted.
Preferential Crime Law developed after the French Revolution. With the
revolution, a shift from the mınarchic system to the liberal state, naturally
brought a change in the social structure.The priviliged classes that depended
on the base of blood and religion lost their authority and new social classes
that depended on wealth replaced them.Thus, the preferential crime law
emerged and developed during the time of the liberal state and functioned as
the protector of the rich classes and their priviliges. Moreover, it defended
these priviliged classes against the poor who were regarded as ‘ dangerous
classes ‘ . When opposing social rights are in conflict, this crime law
protected the rights of the more powerful, no matter how much
disadvantegous it was for the less powerful and it guaranteed the freedom
not among the non-equals but among the equals.
332
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
On the other hand, the crime law that is in favor of freedom is the last
milestone on the way of the development of crime law. Its most important
characteristic is its being equal to all classes without being in favor of any of
them. More clearly, this crime law is not a means of restrictions of human
rights. On the contrary, it is a means of protecting them equally against the
private and especially judicial ( state-oriented) attacks.
In 1926, The Turkish Crime law was prepared and accepted as a product of
a liberal- conservative ideology. But this law lost its this characteristic on
account of the modifications that took place in 1936. As a result of it, it was
transformed into an oppressive and preferential crime law. Moreover, in the
following years, on the pretext of solving the problems caused by the
frequent, extra-ordinary situations that the society underwent, its oppressive
and preferential characteristics were increased by the new modifications and
reforms.
By the process of adaptation to the EU, it is inevitable to re-arrange the
present turkish Crime Law in order to make it more liberal and respectful to
freedom. Anyway, the draft crime law is under discussion. Non
Governmental Organizations, Universities, Lawyears Associations,
Producer Organizations etc. are taking part vividly to the discussions.
Government itself shows a democratic position, in favor of a modern
criminal law. Opposition is also in the same path.
Time will show us what will change in this structure on account of the
adaptation process to the EU.
Literature
ALACAKAPTAN, Uğur, Elements of Crime, Ankara, 1970.
DÖNMEZER, Sulhi, Criminology, 8th edit., İstanbul, 1994.
DÖNMEZER, Sulhi-ERMAN, Sahir, Theoretical and Practical Criminal Law,
10th edit., İstanbul, 1987.
ERDURAK, Y. Güngör, Turkish Punishment Law by Doctrine, Ankara, 1984.
333
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
EREM, Faruk, Turkish Criminal Law (General Rules), 12nd edit., Ankara,
1984.
ERMAN, Sahir-ÖZEK, Çetin, Turkish Criminal Law (Special Rules), İstanbul,
1992.
ÖNDER, Ayhan, Punishment Law (General Rules, General Theory of Crime),
İstanbul, 1989.
ÖZGEN, Eralp, Crime and Crime Judgemental Law, Eskişehir, 1988.
TOROSLU, Nevzat, Punishmental Law, Ankara, 1988.
334
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
5.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
TRENDS AND CORRELATIONS
This chapter of the research analyzes the relationship among health,
poverty, crime, and other socioeconomic factors. We initially provided brief
explanations, definitions, and appropriate data and data sources, then, gave
the rates of interrelations among those factors mentioned above.
As it is the case in the whole world, Turkish health organizations spent
considerable efforts to prevent diseases that risk public health. Especially in
last two decades these efforts reached to its maximum. The idea of
improved health system in Turkey is not new. It actually started just after
the foundation of modern Turkish Republic. For instance, in 1947 the first
of “Ten year domestic health plan” had been published. This plan
emphasized the importance of health services in small villages and provided
solutions to this problem. In this plan, a health specialist and a midwife for
each 10 villages, and one hospital for each 40 villages had been aimed. In
1954, another master plan has been prepared, but unfortunately, this plan
did not become as successful as expected.
After 1960’s, centrally planned Turkish economy came into effect. As a
result of centrally planned services, enough consideration has been given to
health services. The services have reached to densely populated areas as
well as small villages. Also, the quality of health services aimed to be
increased during these years.
Last two decades were golden years of the Turkish health system, even
though there still are some unsolved issues. Within these years, non-optional
public and private insurance programs have been introduced. Social welfare
programs have been introduced, and free health system called “green card”
application provided for those who have below average income level.
Table 1 below shows some indicators of Turkish economy in the last two
decades regarding education, crime, income level, unemployment rate, and
health services.
335
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
Table 1: Health, Education, Crime, and Economic Indicators of Turkey
Years
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Number of beds
in hospitals
99117
97765
96138
99396
100496
103918
107152
111135
113010
116061
120738
123706
126611
131874
134665
136072
139919
144984
148987
139388
131748
Number of
students per
School (high
schood)
480
458
462
443
445
478
489
500
486
478
462
450
474
490
498
541
547
504
445
505
578
Number of
Per capita income
persons convicted
($)
31518
36920
36520
32955
27929
29443
34931
39657
45821
41028
44826
53912
54400
53618
60742
63103
61120
62946
69077
83466
98969
1539
1570
1375
1264
1204
1330
1462
1636
1684
1959
2682
2621
2708
3004
2184
2759
2928
3079
3255
2879
2965
Number of
unemployed
persons
1255
1290
1200
1275
1388
1490
1530
1637
1709
1611
1663
1729
1725
1774
1607
1416
1463
1527
1773
1720
1840
Source: State Institue of Statistics, Annual Report for Turkish Statistics, 2000-2001 and, www.tcmb.gov.tr
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
Providing all the data for last two decades from a single source was not
possible. Most of data are not quite organized, and for more recent years.
For that reason, we collected the date from different source, and showed
extra efforts to eliminate inconsistencies. Improvements in the health sector
are represented by the number of beds in hospitals and the improvements in
education are represented by the number of schools and the number of
students per school. The main logic behind this is because only 5% of all
students can have chance to go to higher education institutions.
Correlation Coefficients
The primary aim in this chapter is to find interrelations among crime,
income and other socio-economic factors. The easiest way to know these
relations is to find the correlation coefficients of mentioned variables. A
correlation coefficient measures the value of interrelations between two
variables. If this coefficient receives a value between 0 and 1, we call it a
positive correlation, and if it receives a value between –1 and 0, we call it a
negative correlation. Actually, correlation coefficient receiving exactly the
value of zero implies that there is no relationship whatsoever between two
variables. In other words, a correlation coefficient is always between the
value of –1 and 1, and it gives only the magnitude of the relations, not
reasons of the relations. The following table has been prepared with this
logic.
Table 2 -
The correlation coefficients for people convicted and some economic
indicators
Number of
persons
imprisoned
No of persons imprisoned
Kişi Başına Düşen Gelir
İşsizlik
Eğitim
1
.823**
.628**
.653**
Per capita
income
.823**
1
.650**
.436*
Unemployment
.628**
.650**
1
0.258
Education
.653**
.436*
0.258
1
** % 1
337
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
There is a positive correlation between per capita income and the number of
people imprisoned. In other words, $1 increase in per capita income results
a 0.82 increase in the number of people imprisoned. This result is of course,
contradicts with expectations, since people expect that if per capita income
increases, the imprisonment level should decrease. However, number tells a
different story for Turkey. The reason for that is because, even though total
income level increases, the distribution of income has some problems. If the
distribution of income works against most of the population, and the
structure of economy makes the rich even richer while making the poor ever
poorer, the number of people imprisoned expected to increase. Per capita
income increased from $1500 to $2900 in last twenty years. Increase in per
capita income is 93.3%, while increase in the number of people imprisoned
is 200% in last twenty years. Table 3 and 4 below show inadequate income
distribution for 1987 and 1994.
Table 3: Income distribution Results for 1987 and 1994
Income groups
1987
1994
1.%20
2.%20
3.%20
4.%20
5.%20
Gini Katsayısı
5,2
9,6
14
21,2
50
0,43
4,9
8,6
12,6
19
54,9
0,49
Source: SIS, Household income and consumption expenses Survey results, 1987, p:63 and
1997, p:79
As can be seen from Table 3, the comparison of both 20% shares and Gini
coefficients for 1980 and 1990 show that inequity in income distribution
increases over time. As Gini coefficient gets close to one, the inequity in
income distribution increases. If we look at the fifth 20% of the population,
they receive 50% of all income in 1987, and almost 55% of all income in
1994. This means that the remaining 80% of the population receives the rest
of the income, and thus, they are poor. According to our point of view, the
main reason of positive correlation between income level and the rate of
crime is because of inequity in income distribution. Fortunately, event
338
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
though it is not enough, decreases in Gini coefficient in some extent has
been experience in last year.
Table 4: Share of the Biggest 500 Industry workers from Value Added (%)
Years
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Wage
42
49
37
34
25
23
23
29
32
39
29
27
20
16
16
18
Sources: ISO.500 Biggest Industry Survey, August, 1998, İstanbul, pp: 42.
If Table 4 is used to calculate correlation coefficient for income and crime
rates, above mentioned inconsistencies can be eliminated. The correlation
results have been shown in Table 5.
Table 5 - Correlation between Income distribution and the number of people
imprisoned
Number
of
people
imprisoned
Share of workers from total
income
Number of people
imprisoned
Share of workers from total
income
1
-0.780**
-0.780**
1
With use of this information above, we can also use regression method to
estimate if the coefficient is reliable. The results obtained can be reported as
follow:
PI = 69014 – 575.75 * PVA
(1)
Where PI stands for persons imprisoned, and PVA stands for share of workers from
income
339
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
T Statistics:
(13.72) (-2.92)
P value:
(000)
R2: 0.68, F: 8.57,
(0.04)
P value: (000)
In words, above statistical terms indicate that if the share of workers from
income increases by 1%, persons imprisoned decreases by 57%. This rate
looks a little high, but it could be the case in economic terms.
A positive correlation between the number of unemployed and the number
of people imprisoned also strengthen empirical results above. A regression
analysis between these two variables are shown below:
PI = 4450 + 30.88 * U, where U stands for unemployed people (-2) (2)
T Statistics:
P Value:
(2.52) (-2,18)
(0,03)
(0.06)
R2: 0.40, F: 4,78, P value: (0.06)
In equation (2), a high level of autocorrelation between these two variables
has been detected. Thus, we took the first differences. Also, we used
Schwarz information criterion to know the lag value of unemployment. Our
test showed that the effect of unemployment on people imprisoned is can be
seen with lag of two periods. Equation (2) also can be interpreted as
equation (1).
340
FONDAZIONE CENSIS
11873_2002
6.
Study D2: Poverty, Informal Sector, Health and Labour
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kaynak:
Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü, Türkiye İstatistik Yıllığı, 2000-2001
DİE, Hane Halkı Gelir ve Tüketim Harcamaları Anketi Gelir Dağılımı 1987
DİE, Hane Halkı Gelir ve Tüketim Harcamaları Anketi Gelir Dağılımı,1998
İSO.500 Büyük Sanayi Kuruluşu Anketi, Ağostos 1998, İstanbul, s.42.
www.tcmb.gov.tr/veri dağıtım sistemi)
Akyüz Ferhat, 1980 Sonrası Dönemde Türkiye’deki Gelir Dağılımı ve
Dengesizliği ve Yoksulluğun Boyutlarını Etkileyen Faktörlerin
İncelenmesi,Muğla Ün. Sos. Bil. Ens. Yayınlanmaış Yüksek Lisans Tezi,
2002
Bulutay Tuncer, Timur S., Ersel Hasan, Türkiye’de Gelir Dağılımı, SBF
Yayını, Ankara 1971
Süleyman Özmucur, “Yeni Milli Gelir Serisi ve Gelirin Fonksiyonel
Dağılımı:1968-1984” ODTÜ Gelişim Dergisi, Sayı 23, 1994
Tusiad, www.tusiad.org.tr
341
FONDAZIONE CENSIS

Documenti analoghi