verbi di percezione

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verbi di percezione
UNITÀ DIDATTICA 31
VERBI CAUSATIVI – VERBI DI STATO E MOTO
MAKE AND DO – VERBI DI PERCEZIONE – TRICKY VERBS
CAUSATIVI (FARE+VERBO)
La causativa è una struttura comune in inglese. Si usa quando una persona (o qualcosa)
induce un'altra persona o cosa a compiere un'azione.
Strutture causative di base
Ci sono due strutture causative di base. Una è attiva, l'altra passiva. Questi esempi usano
il verbo causativo have:
I had John fix the car.
(Ho fatto in modo che la macchina venisse aggiustata da John – l’ho fatta
aggiustare da lui)
I had the car fixed.
(Ho fatto in modo che la macchina fosse aggiustata da qualcuno. Non
sappiamo chi, perciò questa è una struttura passiva.)
La struttura causativa attiva
Questa è la struttura base della forma attiva, con alcuni esempi:
Soggetto
Verbo
Agente
causativo
Verbo
Complemento
dell'azione
Oggetto
Susan
Had
her brother
do
her homework.
The police
Had
the suspect
stop
his car.
We
Had
the carpenter
fix
our window.
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La struttura causativa passiva
Nella forma passiva, di solito non c'è il complemento d'agente. Il verbo dell'azione è al
participio passato, e il complemento oggetto viene prima di esso:
Soggetto
Verbo causativo
Complemento oggetto
Verbo dell'azione
We
Had
our door
fixed.
Susan
had
her hair
cut.
Mike
had
the windows
cleaned.
Have something done
If you 'have something done', you get somebody else to do something for you:
− She's having her house redecorated.
− I'm having a copy of the report sent to you.
− I'm going to have my hair cut.
− In informal English, we can replace 'have' by 'get'.
− We're getting a new telephone system installed.
− They will be getting the system repaired as quickly as they can.
− I got the bill sent direct to the company.
− We can also use 'have/got something done' in situations where something bad
has happened to people or their possessions. This is not something they wanted
to happen.
− John had all his money stolen from his hotel bedroom.
− We had our car damaged by a falling tree.
− I got my nose broken playing rugby.
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Altri verbi causativi
Tutti gli esempi sopra usano il verbo causativo have, ma ce ne sono molti altri. Nella
forma attiva, alcuni di questi verbi richiedono il to davanti al verbo dell'azione. Questi
sono alcuni esempi dei verbi causativi più comuni:
Verbo
Significato
Forma del verbo
Esempi
dell'azione
make
costringere
forma base
The robbers made us lie on the
floor.
[non c'è forma passiva]
get
lo stesso di
forma con to
have
I got Philip to pick me up in the
car.
She got her hair cut.
let
permettere
forma base
I'll let you borrow my bike.
[non c'è forma passiva]
VERBI DI STATO E DI MOTO
I verbi in inglese possono essere classificati in due categorie: di stato e di moto. I verbi
di moto di solito descrivono azioni che si possono fare o cose che accadono; i verbi di
stato si riferiscono invece ad uno stato o condizione che non cambia o che è improbabile
che cambi. La differenza è importante perché i verbi di stato non possono essere usati
normalmente nelle forme progressive (BE + ING).
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Verbi di Moto
Ci sono molti tipi di verbi di moto, ma la maggior parte di essi descrive attività o eventi
che possono iniziare e finire.
Ecco alcuni esempi:
Verbi di
Tipo
Esempi
Attività
She plays tennis every Friday.
Moto
Play
She's playing tennis right now.
Melt
Processo
The snow melts every spring.
The snow is melting right now.
Hit
azione
When one boxer hits another, brain damage can
momentanea
result. (Questo suggerisce un solo pugno)
When one boxer is hitting another, brain damage
can result. (Questo suggerisce molti pugni ripetuti)
I verbi di moto, come si può notare dalla tabella sopra, possono essere usati nelle forme
semplici e composte (plays, played, has played, had played) come pure nelle forme
progressive (is playing, was playing, has been playing, had been playing).
Verbi di Stato.
I verbi di stato si riferiscono a uno stato o condizione che è molto statica o immutevole.
Possono essere divisi in verbi di percezione e cognizione (che si riferiscono a cose della
mente), o verbi di relazione (che descrivono le relazione fra le cose).
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Ecco alcuni esempi:
Verbi di Stato
Tipo
Esempi
Hate
percezione
I hate chocolate.
Believe
percezione
She believes in UFOs.
Contain
relazione
The box contains 24 cans of soda.
Own
relazione
Sue owns three motorbikes.*
*Nota che non possiamo usare questi verbi nella forma progressiva; non si può dire
"Sue is owning three cars". Owning è uno stato, non un'azione.
Esempi di verbi
Verbi di Stato
Verbi di Moto
Love
eat
hate
drink
like
go
see
type
hear
read
sound
write
think (inteso come "avere un'opinione")
listen
mind (inteso come "preoccuparsi")
speak
recognize
watch
seem
say
have (inteso come "possedere")
grow
prefer
work
doubt
sleep
consist of
cook
mean
talk
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Verbs of Perception.
Set 1
Set 2
(action)
(non-action)
(non-action)
listen to
hear
sound
look at
see*
look
touch
feel*
feel
smell
smell
smell
taste
taste
taste
Set 3
Set 1 verbs indicate that the perceiver is focusing on a specific object. They
can be used in the progressive.
He is listening to the radio.
They are looking at the picture.
She is smelling the flowers.
Set 2 verbs indicate general perception and are non-progressive.
He hears a noise.
(Not: He is hearing)
They see flames.
(Not: They are seeing...)
She smells smoke.
Set 3 verbs indicate appearance. They are non-progressive.
That sounds like thunder.
(describes the object, not the perceiver)
This looks terrible.
It smells fishy.
*When feel is used to describe emotions, the progressive is sometimes used.
I feel great today.
I am feeling great today.
I feel cold today.
(physical feeling is usually non-progressive)
*See can sometimes be used in expressions in the progressive.
She is seeing the doctor.
He is seeing another woman.
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Special Usage of Certain Verbs of Perception
Some verbs of perception see, look at, hear, listen to, and feel, along with watch and
sense can be used with objects followed by other verbs (base form or gerunds, but not
infinitives).
Note the examples below:
− We heard you leave. (Okay. Emphasis on our hearing.)
− We heard you leaving. (Okay. Emphasis on your leaving.)
− We heard you to leave. (Incorrect!)
Other examples:
− I saw her go.
− Look at that man run!
− Sylvester listened to the canary sing.
− We watched them play basketball.
− We watched them playing basketball.
− Trudy can feel the wind blowing against her skin.
− Mr. Todd sensed the lion approaching.
Semantic Verb Pairs
Some verbs can be used to express an action, others to express status or
condition. These verbs often come in pairs and are usually mutually exclusive.
One is used to indicate a single occurrence, while the other indicates a situation which is or has been in existence for a long period of time.
Action
Status/condition.
I met John last September.
I have known him since last September.
(Not: I have met John since September.)
I got married in June.
I have been married for one month.
(Not: I have gotten married for one month.)
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Some common semantic verb pairs are as follows:
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Action
Status/condition
(When did you?)
(How long have you.. ?past participle?... ?)
Meet
know
Arrive
be (here)
Become
be
Graduate
be (a graduate/out of school)
Learn
know
Hear about
know/be aware of
Find out
know/be aware of
Put on
wear
Get dressed
be dressed
Get married
be married
Get engaged
be engaged
Get divorced
be divorced
Go to sleep/Fall asleep
be asleep
Fall in love
be in love
Wake up/Get up
be up/awake
Catch fire
be on fire
Test
Do and make have very similar meanings and most of you have trouble choosing
between them. Now do this quiz and try not to make too many mistakes.
Instructions: Fill the blanks with the correct form (careful here!) of do or make.
1.
I don't really know how to cook but I can certainly
an
omelette.
2.
for a living. Maybe
She's always at home. I wonder what she
she's rich and doesn't have to work.
3.
If I
the cooking, you'll have to do the dishes. Agreed?
I don't enjoy
4.
housework, but it's only once a week and I feel
very satisfied when I see everything so clean and tidy.
I would like to lend you the $100 you need, but I don't have that much
5.
money. Will $40
If I can
6.
7.
?
a suggestion, you should finish that job as quickly as
possible.
Why don't you
yourself a favour and finish the job as quickly
as possible.
8.
9.
She's a good boss. Just
John is so cheap at times. He
a good job, and she'll leave you alone.
me mad (= angry) when he
refuses to tip waiters. I always leave a bigger tip than I intended just to make
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up the difference.
10.
One advantage of eating out is that someone else
After
11.
several attempts to climb Everest, he finally accepted
defeat and became an English teacher.
I'm pleased to inform you that you all
12.
very well in your last
exam. The average mark was 82%.
If you insist on
a lot of noise, then at least close your bedroom
13.
door.
14.
He's a charitable man and
Stative and Dynamic Verbs
1 Seem.
Stative.
Dynamic.
2 Read.
Stative.
Dynamic.
3 Paint.
Stative.
Dynamic.
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the dishes.
a lot of good in this community.
4 Believe.
Stative.
Dynamic.
5 Smell (For Example "This Fish Smells Funny.").
Stative.
Dynamic.
6 Ch’ange.
Stative.
Dynamic.
7 Remember.
Stative.
Dynamic.
8 Understand.
Stative.
Dynamic.
9 Jump.
Stative.
Dynamic.
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10 Want.
Stative.
Dynamic
Qui di seguito sono inseriti alcuni esercizi su verbi particolari, i cosiddetti tricky verbs,
sul loro uso e sui comuni errori che fanno gli studenti quando li usano.
Be and Get
She was angry - a state
She got angry - a change of state
Fill the gaps with forms of BE and GET. Use one word ONLY.
1
She _____________________ angry about it for ages.
2
I could see he was _____________________ angrier and angrier with the
salesman.
3
I´ll never _____________________ used to getting up early.
4
At first she found city life difficult but she _____________________ used to it
now.
5
_____________________ you married?
6
They _____________________ married for 40 years.
7
Where did they _____________________ married?
8
I _____________________ really fed up with attention-seeking politicians at the
moment.
9
When
she
kept
asking
me
the
__________________ really fed up.
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same
question
again
and
again,
I
10 Lucas has watched Lord of the Rings at least a dozen times. He never
_____________________ fed up with it.
11 No more champagne, thanks or I´ll _____________________ drunk.
12 A: _____________________ you drunk or just stupid?
B: Both
13 After he ate that disgusting hamburger, he _____________________ sick all over
the table.
14 Can I sit in the front? I _____________________ car sick in the back.
15 The weather´s _____________________ worse and worse.
16 _____________________ well soon.
17 She _____________________ far better at tennis than me.
Believe and Think
believe - a process often about accepting as true
think
- a process often involving decision
Fill the gaps with believe and think.
1
I don't ____________________ a word of what she told me about Clare.
2
A: Sam was upset about it.
B: Yes, I can ____________________ that.
3
Leave me alone. I'm trying to ____________________.
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4
Do you ____________________ in Leprechauns?
5
Do you really expect me to ____________________ that?
6
After the Holocaust, many people could no longer ____________________ in god.
7
I need time to ____________________ this problem through.
8
Why don't you ____________________ before you open your mouth?
9
Often, whether or not you ____________________ in ghosts depends on your
cultural background.
10 I just couldn't ____________________ my eyes.
11 Look how white my sheets are. Can you ____________________ the difference?
12 What do you ____________________ of this hotel, darling?
13 Why do you ____________________ in 'an eye for an eye'? That way the whole
world would end up blind.
14 So just ____________________ about it and let me know in the morning, okay?
15 I still ____________________ of him as a little boy.
Been and Gone
Fill the gaps with either been or gone.
1
Have you ever ___________ to Thailand?
2
I can't find my stapler. It's ___________.
3
A: Hello. Is Monica there?
B: No, she isn't. She's ___________ out.
4
Have you ___________ to the post office yet?
5
I'm so upset. The cat's ___________ missing.
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6
The cat's ___________ missing for two days.
7
Kitty! Where have you ___________ ?
8
When I woke up, my money and my mobile were ___________.
9
How long has it ___________ since you were last in Madrid?
10 It's time to party. My parents have ___________ away for the weekend.
11 Blast! I've ___________ and left my gloves in the library.
12 Mary! Why have you ___________ all red?
13 I'm knackered. I've ___________ in a meeting all morning.
14 I've ___________ to Madagascar, Las Bonitas and San José.
15 A: I haven't seen Miguel for ages.
B: He's ___________ to Paris for a year on a student exchange scheme. He won't
be back until Easter.
16 When I got out of the river, all my clothes were ___________.
Care, Matter and Mind
I don't care
- you often say this with anger
It doesn't matter - you often say this with kindness
I don't mind
- you are being flexible
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A Fill the gaps with I don't care, it doesn't matter and I don't mind.
1
________________________ about Peter's financial difficulties. It's his problem.
2
A: My computer's broken.
B: We can get it fixed. ________________________.
3
Stan: What shall I make for dinner?
Anne: ________________________, as long as it's quick and you don't make a
mess in the kitchen.
4
Barry: Would you like to come up for a coffee?
Sally: Sorry. I must be getting back.
Barry: Oh well. ________________________. Another time, maybe.
5
Max: Go on. You have a night out with your friends. ________________________
staying in with the baby.
Ann: Oh thanks, darling. I really need a night out.
6
Forget him. ________________________. They are plenty more fish in the sea,
and much nicer ones than smelly Simon.
7
I'll wear a bright yellow top with a pink skirt if I want to. _________________
what people might think of me.
8
Listen! ________________________ about your boyfriend problems. Can we talk
about something else for a change?
9
________________________ if she's oversensitive. She needs to learn how to take
a joke, for pity's sake!
10 ________________________ washing up. You have a rest.
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B Collocations and idioms. Fill the gaps with care, matter and mind.
1
She hasn't a _______________ in the world.
2
It says on the box, "Handle with _______________."
3
The police arrived in a _______________ of minutes.
4
No _______________ how much money he earns, he'll never be satisfied.
5
Phew! That's a load off my _______________.
6
Bear in _______________ that you'll need to bring warm clothes.
7
I'm going out with my friends tomorrow no _______________ what.
8
I have half a _______________ to tell him exactly what I think of him.
Come and Go
1 Fill the gaps with come or go.
Everybody's going to the bowling alley, including me. Why don't you
___________ too?
I'd love to ___________ to Budapest one day.
Hi Deborah. This is Marc. I'm at Kitty's party. Why don't you ___________ ?
There's a good film on at The Apollo. Why don't we ___________ ?
Let's ___________ to the park and fly kites.
I loved Paris. I want to ___________ back there one day.
Darling, please don't go. I love you. ___________ back!
___________ and see Lord of The Rings. I recommend it.
You've been a great guest. ___________ again whenever you want.
Hi Tom. This is Tony. Why don't you ___________ round and we can watch a
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DVD.
2 Try these. Use each verb once only.
be
come
coming round
get away
going home
are back
come on
Get
get home
go out
What time did you __________________ last night? I didn't hear you come in.
Mum, can I __________________ with Charles and Sophie tonight?
__________________ here a minute. There's something I want to show you, Sugar.
__________________ out! I want to be alone.
Make sure you __________________ home in time for lunch.
Jimmy is __________________ later to play video games.
I'm stressed. I need to __________________ for a while.
What's the time? I've got to __________________ back home by twelve.
I'm __________________ now. I've had enough of this rubbish disco.
1 __________________ ! We're going to be late.
Expect, Hope and Wait
expect - is predicting what will happen
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hope
- is wanting something to happen
wait
- is a physical activity
1. Fill the gaps with expect, hope or wait.
Although I really want Valencia FC to win the match, I ___________ Real Madrid
will.
You're a liar and I ___________ I never ever see you again in my life!
I had to ___________ for the train at Charing Cross for what seemed like an eternity.
We'll just have to ___________ and see what happens.
If you ___________ me to wear a tie, you can forget it.
I haven't heard from Pete for ages. I ___________ he's OK.
The experts ___________ a crash in house prices around the middle of next year.
You ___________ a film with Sean Connery in it to be great but this was really
dreadful.
I get very annoyed when people make me ___________.
My parents ___________ me to follow Daddy's footsteps but I don't want to be an
accountant.
Never lose ___________. Determination will get you there.
Her mobile was switched off. I decided to ___________ for her for twenty minutes
and then go shopping if she didn't turn up.
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Lexical Phrases with Give, Have and Take
1. Fill the gaps with give, have and take in the correct form..
1
I _____________ Mum's advice and went on holiday to Greece after my
break-up with my partner.
2
Miguel _____________ me some sound advice about buying a new printer.
3
Granny's _____________ a big operation on her hip and is recovering fine.
4
I've been _____________ terrible problems trying to change the format of
my sound files.
5
Begonia _____________ about 150 photos when she went on holiday to
Ireland.
6
Sometimes in life you have to _____________ a risk.
7
Monica is going to _____________ us a lift to the station tomorrow morning.
8
Well, I hope you _____________ a good time at the wedding.
9
I remember Jim _____________ a terrible sore throat when he came to
Valencia to see the famous regatta.
10 I _____________ a real laugh at Doug's party last Saturday.
11 Please _____________ Mrs Pilchard my regards, would you please?
12 Don't _____________ any notice of what they say to you. They're just
jealous of your success.
13 It's time the government _____________ more interest in environmental
issues.
14 I'm going to _____________ some time off work in order to finish the book
I'm writing.
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15 I suggest you _____________ a look at that website about restoring old
furniture.
16 Why don't you _____________ Gerard a call and see if he wants to come
round for lunch?
17 She _____________ a real insight into politics and stuff like that.
18 My going-out with Clare _____________ nothing to do with you.
19 I _____________ part in three demonstrations against the war.
20 Would you mind _____________ me a hand to paint the garage door this
Saturday?
Look Like and Seem
Fill each gap with the appropriate verb in the correct form.
1
Feel
look like
smell
sound like
feel like (X2)
seem
smell like (X2)
taste
look (X2)
seem like (X2)
sound
taste like
Ingrid _______________ really Greek but actually she's from Germany.
2
What's for lunch, I wonder? Hmmm. It _______________ fish and chips.
3
Can you hear that? It _______________ a cat on heat.
4
I don't _______________ going out tonight.
5
Yeah. That _______________ a good idea to me.
6
It's clouding over. It _______________ rain.
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7
It's time to change the bag. The bin _______________ terrible.
8
She _______________ very nice.
9
She _______________ a nice person.
10
That jacket _______________ great.
11
It looks like wool and it _______________ wool but really it isn't.
12
Hellfire! Where's that dreadful pong coming from? It _______________ rotten
eggs.
13
Slurp. This soup _______________ delicious. You must give me the recipe.
14
Doesn't it _______________ great when a plan comes together?
15
This song _______________ familiar.
16
CUSTOMER: This coffee _______________ mud.
WAITER: Well, it was only ground this morning.
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Lose and Miss
Fill the gaps with lose, lost, miss, missed, or missing.
1
Oh, sorry. Can you say that again, please. I ___________ the thread of the
conversation.
2
I ___________ the fast train to Seville.
3
I got ___________ in the Barrio del Carmen in Valencia.
4
My stapler's ___________ from my desk! Who's had it?
5
My brother lives in Thailand. I ___________ him a lot.
6
I ___________ quite a lot of money on the stock exchange last year.
7
When he told me he couldn't pay me, I ___________ my temper.
8
A member of the expedition went ___________ in a blizzard.
9
In my job, I ___________ a lot of valuable time travelling between clients.
10 You've ___________ the point. I don't care about the money.
11 Sarah and Dave are ___________. Why aren't they here?
12 Take a map so you don't get ___________.
13 Oh no! My credit card is ___________ from my wallet.
14 When my hard disc died, I ___________ everything.
15 A good sportsperson knows how to ___________ with good grace.
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Remember and Remind
A The difference between remember and remind is complicated. Please look up
their definitions in a good dictionary and make notes.
Teresa reminds me of Scarlett Johansson
She reminded me to buy milk
She remembered to tell me to buy milk
I remember when you had long hair
B Fill the gaps with remember and remind in the correct form, using the model
sentences to help you.
1
I can't _____________ anything about the accident at all.
2
Have you _____________ Jack to bring his credit card?
3
I must _____________ myself to take my pills after lunch.
4
I must _____________ to take my pills after lunch.
5
_____________ me to take my umbrella, please.
6
She forgot to _____________ him about the plumber coming.
7
You _____________ me of my cousin Polly.
8
Do you _____________ the time we went to Shangri-là and had that fantastic
crab curry?
9
Sometimes Valencia _____________ me of Sydney.
10
Come on. Try to _____________ what he was wearing.
11
Those funny trousers you're wearing _____________ me of Tintin.
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12
The last thing he _____________ was ordering another drink.
Say and Tell
She said she didn't like it
She told me she didn't like it
What did she say to you?
What did she tell you?
Fill the gaps with the correct form of say or tell.
1
They _________________ on the news that everyone survived.
2
Come on. _________________ me everything.
3
You know what they _________________ about Lisbon, don't you?
4
Mummy! The teacher _________________ a rude word in class today.
5
I hate the way she keeps _________________ me what to do.
6
Richie _________________ the same thing over and over again.
7
What did you _________________ to him?
8
What did you _________________ him?
9
He gave me his email address but he wouldn't _________________ what his
phone number was.
10
He wouldn't _________________ me his phone number.
11
I thought she was my friend until I found out she'd _________________ all
my secrets to everyone.
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12
They _________________ that John's really mean with money.
13
He _________________ me I wasn't invited to the wedding.
14
She _________________ me all about her holiday in Sicily.
15
I couldn't understand a word of what he was trying to _________________
to me.
16
He _________________ me this funny story about what happened to him on
holiday.
17
He wouldn't _________________ what the problem was.
1. Completa le frasi con le preposizioni corrette dove necessario. Metti una X dove
nessuna preposizione è richiesta.
a. Excuse me, how do I get ……… the post office?
b. Can you tell me how to reach............... the Cathedral?
c. James is leaving................. London tomorrow and he is coming .................... on
Saturday.
d. What time is our plane taking............... ?
e. I usually leave................... home at 7.30.
f. Please come.................... The door’s open.
g. I often miss the bus and arrive late................... school.
h. Only authorized people are allowed to enter................ this room.
i. The best way to get to the museum is to get............... a 13 bus and get................
in front of the railway station.
j. In the afternoon I usually go.................... with my friends.
2. Scegli l’alternativa corretta.
1. What do they like doing in their free time?
a. They like to going to the gym.
b. They doesn’t like going to the pub.
c. They like listening to music.
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2. Does she have lunch at home?
a. No, she hasn’t.
b. No, she doesn’t.
c. Yes, she has got.
3. How long does it take to get to the station?
a. 3 kms.
b. It takes two hours.
c. No, it isn’t very far.
4. How often do you phone Mary?
a. We never phone each other.
b. We never phone ourselves.
c. No, we never phone.
3. Completa adeguatamente i mini-dialoghi con le parole mancanti.
1. A: ……………………………….. is that?
B: That dictionary? I think it’s Mark’s.
2. A:................................................. this boy in the photo?
B: He’s my cousin Paul.
3. A:.......................................... that girl over there?
B: She’s the new secretary.
4. A:.............................................. is this? Is it yours?
B: Yes, it’s my new watch.
5. A:..................................... Frank?
B: yes, my grandfather’s name is Frank.
6. A:.............................................. names?
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B: Jennifer and Alice. Nice names, aren’t they?
7. A:............. Tom............................................ ?
B: No, he isn’t John’s brother. He’s Richard’s brother.
8. A:.......................................... tennis racket?
B: No, it isn’t mine. I think it’s David’s.
4. Completa le frasi con una preposizione adeguata.
1 "Late... work again ?"
On.
For.
At.
To.
2 John is very good... mathematics.
At.
In.
For.
With.
3 This mushroom soup tastes... tomatoes !
Of.
After.
To.
About.
4 That's just typical... Helmut to forget our wedding anniversary.
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With.
On.
For.
Of.
5 I'm so glad I got the contract. I'm really keen... working in London.
To.
On.
For.
With.
6 I have been suffering... dizziness lately.
With.
From.
About.
Of.
7 I knew you were going to succeed. I'm so pleased... you !
With.
For.
At.
Of.
8 His wife is so jealous... him she follows him everywhere he goes !
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With.
At.
Of.
About.
9 Jeremy is so slow... typing, I'd rather type myself !
For.
With.
In.
At.
10 Yesterday I was angry... you because I had just received some bad news.
At.
On.
To.
With.
9. Scrivi una lettera a un tuo amico che vive all’estero comunicandogli la tua vita e
chiedendogli informazioni sulla sua. (usa circa 150 parole)
Dear Sean,
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
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……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
Hope I’ll see you soon,
......................................
6. Scrivi una mail a un tuo datore di lavoro accettando/rifiutando la sua offerta di
trasferimento e spiegandogli le tue motivazioni. (usa non più di 200 parole)
Dear Mr. Johnson,
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
……………………………………………………………………….……………………
………………………………………………….…………………………………………
Yours Faithfully,
………………
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7. Compila il seguente questionario.
Surname........................................................................................
Name.............................................................................................
Date of birth..................................................................................
Full address...................................................................................
Nationality....................................................................................
Family...........................................................................................
School training..............................................................................
Qualifications................................................................................
Hobbies.........................................................................................
Favourite books............................................................................
Favourite place.............................................................................
Best food......................................................................................
Best music....................................................................................
What I don’t like..........................................................................
Type of room required.................................................................
Date and time of arrival...............................................................
Type of board required (indicate one of the following):
a. full board;
b. half board;
c. bed and breakfast.
Reason for visit.............................................................................
Have you stayed at................... ?
How did you find our advertisement?...........................................
8. Scrivi in lettere i seguenti numeri ordinali.
a. 1st …………………………….
b. 3rd ……………………………
c. 8th ……………………………
d. 22nd ………………………….
e. 31st ……………………………
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f. 14th ……………………………
g. 67th ……………………………
h. 11th ……………………………
i. 80th …………………………….
9. Scrivi i seguenti numeri ordinali in cifre.
a. twenty-third ………………..
b. seventy-first ………………..
c. eleventh …………………….
d. sixtieth ………………………
e. forty-second …………………
f. twelfth ……………………….
g. ninety-sixth …………………
h. forty-fifth ……………………
i. thirty- third …………………..
10. Leggi i brani qui sotto riportati, inoltre leggi attentamente le affermazioni sottostanti
e segna con una crocetta la risposta giusta. (vero o falso?)
A customer’s complaint.
Shops are full of attractive things to buy these days. But what are we actually paying
for? I recently bought a large packet of chocolate biscuits of a brand I hadn’t tried
before. When I opened it, I found each biscuit was wrapped individually in silver paper,
then they were wrapped together in more paper, and then packed in a strong cardboard
box, which was in turn wrapped in plastic! By the time I had actually got at the biscuits,
the table was covered in paper and I wasn’t hungry any more. (This was probably just as
well, as there were only eight biscuits in the packet.) And children’s toys are even
worse. It was my three-year-old son’s birthday last week and at first he was excited to
see so many presents all for him! But at the end
of the party, when he had finally got through all the wrapping paper, cardboard boxes
and plastic bags that they came in, he was too tired to play with any of them. Some of
them were so well wrapped that he never managed to open them, and when I tried to do
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it for him, I broke my fingernails. I hate to think of the amount of money all of this costs
– and who ends up paying? The customer, that’s who!
T
F
1. The writer complains that children get too many toys
2. It is better to buy food of a well-known brand
3. The child is uninterested in his presents
4. The writer breaks her fingernails mending a broken toy
5. The writer thinks some packaging is dangerous for babies
11. Leggi la seguente lettera ed indica se le affermazioni sono vere o false.
1st July, 2005
Dear Mark,
I’m in Spain, where I’m having a two weeks’ holiday.
I’m staying at a nice camp-site by the sea, on the south coast. The weather is fantastic
here! Sunny and warm. At the moment I am on the beach, lying in the sun. The water is
clear and in a few minutes I’m going to have a swim.
I arrived three days ago and I soon made new friends – a group of french boys and
girls, also staying at the same camp-site. Last night we had dinner together at a nice
little restaurant where we had the typical “paella”. It was delicious. After dinner we
went to the beach with our guitars. We lit a fire and sang until late. We had a lot of fun.
Tomorrow I’m going to Granada where I would like to spend a few days. There I’m
going to stay at a youth hostel and visit the city. Then I’m going to come back and stay
here until the end of my holiday.
I’ll be back in Manchester on the 15th July. See you then.
Bye for now,
Jack
T
F
Jack is from Manchester.
He is in Spain for work.
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He’s spending there more than ten days.
He had a lot of fun last night.
He visited Grenada yesterday.
12. Word Order in Questions
(INTERROGATIVE +) AUXILIARY + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB
Order the words in the boxes to make questions.
Oranges like
do
You
1 __________________________________________________ ?
you have much do how
money
2 __________________________________________________ ?
you are who
3 __________________________________________________ ?
mousse my chocolate did eat you
4 __________________________________________________ ?
say you what did
5 __________________________________________________ ?
going you where are
6
__________________________________________________ ?
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car tonight borrow I your can
7 __________________________________________________ ?
ever Ios to you have been
8 __________________________________________________ ?
13. Riordina i seguenti prompts per formare frasi di senso compiuto.
a. Eat / the / always / spaghetti / Italians.
b. Help / in / men / never / house / Italian / the.
c. Early / usually / up / she / gets.
d. Since / I / known / 1995 / have / him.
e. This / sent / I / morning / her / message / a.
f. Is / situation / this / of / which / kind. (Interrogativa)
g. Plane / leaving / they / next / by / are / week.
h. Long / been / here / you / how / have. (Interrogativa)
i. Four / she / people / only / interviewed.
j. Was / that / saw / day / what / happening /nobody.
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
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14. Completa le seguenti frasi inserendo i pronomi relativi adeguati.
a. The residents ………….. ............................live in the building are lucky.
b. Malpensa 2000,................ was opened in Summer, is now full of visitors.
c. Mrs Russo.............................. flat is very wide wants to buy a bigger one.
d. The noise of the planes................. land and leave every day is astounding.
e. Stop taking sleeping pills.............................. certainly are useless for you.
f. Let’s talk of people.............. ..........................work there, inside the mine.
g. There are some families................................. live near the central station.
h. My best friend’s cousin............... car is very expensive works in a rent-a-car
shop.
i. She was talking to the lady............................ you had fallen in love with.
j. ............. is the person.................................. teacher always wears jeans?
15. Cerchia la soluzione corretta.
1. Peter is good looking. I like...
a. His
b. Him
c. Her
2. There are............. tourists in Italy this year.
A. Many
b. Much
c. A lot of
3. I have two brothers............. of them can play tennis.
A. None
b. Neither
c. No
4............... lovely dress!
A. What a
b. What
c. How
5. Is there.................... I can do for you?
A. Something
b. Anything
c. Nothing
6. They have................. money than me.
A. Most
b. More
c. Much
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7. Susan isn’t................ as her brother.
A. As clever
b. Cleverer
c. Very clever
8. He drives....................
A. Very fast
b. More fast
c. Very fastly
9. She has been studying............... 8.00.
a. for
b. from
c. since
10. We went............... beach.
a. in
b. to
c. into
11. We............... have lunch at home.
a. never
b. don’t ever
c. ever
12. Tom is more generous............... Peter.
a. of
b. by
c. then
13. She was born.............. July.
a. at
b. in
c. on
b. is
c. has
14. She............. cold.
a. are
15. Did you go out...................... ?
a. the night before
b. one night later
c. last night
16............... get up early.
a. I usually
b. Usually I
c. I use do
17............. does she live?
a. was
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b. who
c. where
18. There are............... shops.
a. little
b. few
c. much
19. I usually work.............. five o’clock.
a. to
b. between
c. until
20. Is............. Tim’s new bike?
a. these
b. that
c. those
16. Abbina le risposte della seconda colonna alle domande della prima.
1. Is everything fine?
a. I think the butler did.
2. Where does Sue come from?
b. because it’s cold and sweet.
3. Who killed Cock Robin?
c. Yes, it’s boiling.
4. Why do you like ice cream so much?
d. No, I’m afraid the soup is cold.
5. It’s hot, isn’t it?
e. A town close to where I live.
.
17. Complete with a, an or the
bizarre incident occurred when Paul Sirks was trying to get his plane going,
after it quit on landing. Sirks was trying to crank
plane took off without
propeller when
pilot. It reached 12,000 feet and flew around
for two hours. It finally ran out of gas and crashed in
bean field northwest of
Columbus.
17-year-old was arrested and charged with robbing
dressed in
bank while
cowboy outfit. According to police reports, Dustin Marshall tipped
his hat and yelled "Giddyup!" as he pointed
"cowboy-type pistol" at bank
employees. Marshall was also charged with robbing another bank six days later while
wearing
ghost mask.
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18. Grammar quiz - easy.
1. When did they eat breakfast?
A
In the kitchen.
B
In the morning.
C
They ate fast.
2. Does she want a pen?
A
No, they don't.
B
No, he doesn't.
C
No, she doesn't.
3. He was tired.
A
Yesterday.
B
Now.
C
Always
4. Where is the living room?
A
Next to the kitchen.
B
Last week.
C
Yes, it is.
5. Did they swim last night?
A
Yes it is.
B
Yes, they did.
C
This morning
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6. Who is watching the movie?
A
They watched it.
B
John was.
C
John is.
7. Is the dog large?
A
No, it hasn't.
B
No, it isn't.
C
The brown one.
8. Did she go to the supermarket?
A
Yes, she is.
B
Yes, she has.
C
Yes, she did.
9. The car is from France.
A
He was from France.
B
It is from France.
C
We have it.
10. Are the pictures ready?
A
No, we aren't .
B
No, they aren't .
C
No, we weren't .
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19. Grammar quiz– edium difficulty
1. Did he find the book?
A
Yes, he found them.
B
Yes, they finds him.
C
Yes, he finds it.
D
Yes, he found it.
2. She always reads quickly.
A
She never reads slowly.
B
She sometimes reads quickly.
C
She always reads.
D
She usually reads slowly.
3. John and Joe arrived late.
A
They never arrived.
B
He didn't arrive.
C
They didn't arrive on time.
D
He arrived late.
4. They came to the store after we left.
A
They never came to the store.
B
We were at the store.
C
They came to the store before us.
D
We saw them at the store.
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5. She told the story again.
A
She tells the story twice.
B
She told the story once.
C
She told the story twice.
D
He told the story again.
6. Although he usually drives well, he drove too fast today.
A
He always drives well.
B
He drove well yesterday.
C
He didn't drive well today.
D
He usually drives.
7. Did he sell your house?
A
Yes, I sell my house.
B
Yes, he sold his house.
C
Yes, he sold my house.
D
Yes, he sells my house.
8. Where can I get a TV?
A
You can get a TV.
B
No, you can't.
C
Tomorrow.
D
At an appliance store.
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9. Which sweater did she choose?
A
The red one.
B
A sweater.
C
Two.
D
Yes, she did.
10. They are thinking about the article.
A
Yesterday.
B
Right now.
C
Every day.
D
Soon.
20. Esercizio con il genitive sassone (livello intermedio e avanzato)
1
The gate to my garden.
my garden's gate.
my garden gate.
2
A seminar of four days.
a four-day-seminar.
a four days' seminar.
no genitive possibile.
3
Here are two of the four sons of Angela.
Here are Angela's two sons.
Here are two of Angela's sons.
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4
The Battle of Waterloo.
No genitive!
Waterloo's Battle.
5
The side of the box.
No genitive.
The box's side.
The box' side.
6
In the time of a month of three.
No genitive.
In three month's time.
In three months' time.
7
The stables of our horse.
no genitive.
our horse's stables.
our horses' stables.
8
A sandwich with ham.
a ham's sandwich.
a ham sandwich.
9
The accomplishments of Bill Gates.
Bill Gates' accomplishments.
Bill Gates's accomplishments.
No genitive.
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10
A letter of Fortnum and Mason.
No genitive!
Fortnum and Mason's letter.
Fortnum's and Mason's letter.
21. Choose the CORRECT RESPONSE
Where will the Franklins be for New Years' Day this year?
A: They will be at the house of Karl.
B: The Franklins will be in home.
C: They'll be on the beach; they go to the beach every year.
D: They shall stay home.
E: Franklins will be in the mountains this year.
22. Choose the CORRECT QUESTION
No, I won't.
A: Shall you be thirty this year?
B: Will you go Home after work?
C: Peter, will you eat some spinach?
D: Will you go to party at Deborah's house?
E: Where will you be next week?
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23. Which is NOT CORRECT?
A: When will she be back?
B: You don't have a car? I shall give you a ride to the airport if you want.
C: Don't worry, I won't go into your room.
D: She'll not be back again soon.
E: Tomorrow morning, we shall be on time.
24. Put the phrases in the CORRECT ORDER
One hundred we customers a day have will
A. one hundred
B. we
C. customers a day
D. have
E. will
25. Fill in the blank
______ you open the window please?
Certainly.
A: May
B: Must
C: Would
D: Do
E: Shall
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26. Which is NOT CORRECT?
A: Your son lives in a large American city on a lake? Ah! that will be Chicago.
B: If you you like spicy food, you will try a Mexican restaurant.
C: My daughter is two years old, and whatever you ask she will always answer
"no".
D: My old car will barely go eighty kilometers per hour.
E: You just sit right there. I'll answer the phone.
27. Fill in the blank
I'm hungry. ______ anything today.
A: I ate
B: Did I not eat
C: I haven't eaten
D: Ate
E: Have I not eaten
28. CHANGE TO PASSIVE; which is correct?
The interviewer was holding the microphone up to his mouth.
A: The microphone was being holden up to his mouth.
B: The microphone up to his mouth was being held.
C: The interviewer was, up to his mouth, holding the microphone.
D: Up to his mouth, he was holding the microphone.
E: The microphone was being held up to his mouth by the
interviewer.
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29. Put the phrases in the CORRECT ORDER
City can't you fight Hall
A. City
B. can't
C. you
D. fight
E. Hall
30. Choose the CORRECT QUESTION:
______?
Two hundred miles per hour.
A: What speed would the racing cars builded in 1950 do?
B: What speed will this baby do?
C: At what speed do you leave the office on friday afternoon?
D: How fast is this car able go?
E: How fast can this car goes?
31. Which is CORRECT?
A: Money makes the world go 'round.
B: It doesn't matter whether you win or lose, but how you are playing the game.
C: Money does talk.
D: Money aren't everything.
E: Money is root of all evil.
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32. Which is CORRECT?
A: A women's place is in the home.
B: Women: you can't live with them, and you can't live without them.
C: A womans work is never done.
D: Behind every successful man you shall find a woman.
E: Never underestimate power of a woman.
33. Which is CORRECT?
A: Takes money to make money.
B: Money doesn't grow of trees.
C: Put your money where is your mouth.
D: It's easy to be generous with somebody's else money.
E: Time is money.
34. Which are the SAME?
A. in the bag
1. certain
B. in style
2. with cruelty
C. in short
3. in trouble
D. in hot water
4. fashionable
E. in cold blood
5. briefly
35. Fill in the blank
Pablo is late; he ______ overslept.
A: should have
B: will
C: would
D: must have
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E: must
36. Verbe tense cumulative review.
1. You look really great! (You, exercise)
2. A: What (you, do)
at the fitness center?
when the accident occurred?
B: I (try)
to change a light bulb that had burnt out.
3. I (have)
the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a
new one.
4. If it (snow)
this weekend, we (go)
skiing near Lake Tahoe.
5. A: What do you call people who work in libraries?
B: They (call)
librarians.
6. I came to England six months ago. I started my economics course three months ago.
When I return to Australia, I (study)
(be)
in England for exactly one year.
7. Sam (arrive)
in San Diego a week ago.
8. Samantha (live)
for nine months and I
in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, she (live)
there when the Berlin wall came down.
9. If Vera (keep)
drinking, she (lose, eventually)
her
ob.
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10. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the Yucatan;
however, their culture (disappear, virtually)
Europeans.first (arrive)
by the time
in the New World.
.
11. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep)
all week. I hope it stops by Saturday because I want to go to
12. It (rain)
the beach.
13. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss)
the bus this morning. You (be)
late to work too many times. You are fired!
14. I am sick of rain and bad weather! Hopefully, when we (wake)
tomorrow morning, the sun (shine)
.
the Grand
15. I have not traveled much yet; however, I (visit)
Canyon
and
16. I (see)
San
Francisco
up
by
the
time
I
leave
the
United
States.
many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of
the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small.
17. In the last hundred years, traveling (become)
comfortable. In the 19th century, it (take)
America by covered wagon. The trip (be)
Things (change)
much easier and very
two or three months to cross North
very rough and often dangerous.
a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you
can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.
378
, isn't it? He (watch)
18. Joseph's English (improve, really)
American television programs and (study)
his grammar every
day since he first arrived in San Diego. Soon he will be totally fluent.
home last night, I discovered that Jane (prepare)
19. When I (arrive)
a beautiful candle-lit dinner.
20. If you (need)
to contact me sometime next week, I (stay)
at the Sheraton in San Francisco.
37. Verb Tense Final Test. Cumulative Verb Tense Review
1. When Carol (call)
last night, I (watch)
my favourite show on
television.
2. I (work)
for this company for more than thirty years, and I intend to
stay here until I retire!
3. Sharon (love)
to travel. She (go)
abroad almost every
summer. Next year, she plans to go to Peru.
4. Thomas is an author. He (write)
(write)
mystery novels and travel memoirs. He
since he was twenty-eight. Altogether, he (write)
seven novels, three collections of short stories and a book of poetry.
5. We were late because we had some car problems. By the time we (get)
the train station, Susan (wait)
to
for us for more than two hours.
379
6. Sam (try)
to change a light bulb when he (slip)
and (fell)
.
7. Everyday I (wake)
and (leave)
up at 6 o'clock, (eat)
breakfast at 7 o'clock
for work at 8 o'clock. However, this morning I (get)
up at 6:30, (skip)
because I (forget)
breakfast and (leave)
for work late
to set my alarm.
the newspaper and Kathy (make)
8. Right now, Jim (read)
dinner. Last night at this time, they (do)
(cook)
and he (read)
(do, also)
the same thing. She
the newspaper. Tomorrow at this time, they
the same thing. She (prepare)
dinner and he (read)
. They are very
predictable people!
9. By this time next summer, you (complete)
(find)
a job. I, on the other hand, (accomplish, not)
anything. I (study, still)
(work)
380
and you
in some new high paying job.
10. The students (be, usually)
they (be)
your studies and
taught by Mrs. Monty. However, this week
taught by Mr. Tanzer.
11.
Jane talks on the phone.
Bob has been talking on the phone for an hour.
Mary is talking on the phone.
Who is not necessarily on the phone now?
12.
I'm going to make dinner for Frank.
I'm making dinner for Judy.
I'll make dinner for Mary.
I make dinner for Ted.
I will be making dinner for Tony.
Who are you offering to make dinner for?
13.
Jane left when Tim arrived.
Bob left when Tim had arrived.
Tim arrived when Mary was leaving.
John had left when Tim arrived.
After Tim arrived, Frank left.
Who did not run into Tim?
14.
Jane is talking in class.
Bob always talks in class.
Mary is always talking in class.
Whose action bothers you?
381
15.
Jane never left Jamestown.
Bob has never left Jamestown.
Who is still alive?
38. Which Tense Do I Use?
1 Dad, Ana _________ an ice cream.
A wants
6 Next
week
we
_________
snorkeling.
B want
A 're going
C went
B went
C will go
2 I _________ Luis for a long time now.
7 __________ the movie?
A didn't see
A Do you like
B don't see
B Like you
C haven't seen
C Do you
3 In the summer, we __________ and go
8 I was listening to music when
swimming everyday.
somebody __________ at the door.
A sunbathed
A is knocking
B are sunbathing
B knocked
C sunbathe
C was knocking
4 Two people are sitting outside in the
9 The house is in a terrible mess.
garden."We hope you __________ this
We've got workmen in. The plumber
marvellous weather as much as we are."
__________ a new bath and shower.
A enjoy
A puts
B enjoyed
B put
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C are enjoying
5 I __________ dinner when suddenly I
C is putting in
10 I __________ here now for over
heard a strange noise.
thirty-five years.
A was cooking
A am living
B cook
B have been living
C cooked
C live
39. Subjunctive exercise
Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Remember that
negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms are possible. Three of the sentences
below do not contain subjunctive forms. Can you find them?
1. It's important that she (remember) _______________________ to take her medicine
twice a day.
2. I suggest that Frank (read) _______________________ the directions carefully
before assembling the bicycle. He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while he is riding
down a hill.
3. Mrs. Jefferson demanded that the heater (repair) _______________________
immediately. Her apartment was freezing.
4. It's vital that the United States (focus) _______________________ on improving its
public education system. What we do now will affect our country for generations to
come.
5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) _______________________ the temple
until they had removed their shoes.
6. I am not going to sit here and let her insult me. I demand that she immediately
(apologize) _______________________ for what she just said.
7. Judy asked that we (attend) _______________________ her graduation ceremony
next week.
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8. Was it really necessary that I (sit) _______________________ there watching you
the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you
repeat the scenes over and over again.
9. It is important to remember that Janice (think) _______________________ very
differently from you. She may not agree to the changes you have made in the
organization of the company.
10. It's a little difficult to find the restaurant. I propose that we all (drive)
_______________________ together so that nobody gets lost along the way.
11. The woman insisted that the lost child (take) _______________________ to store's
information desk so his parents could be paged.
12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) _______________________ her
daily fat intake.
13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the city
(allow) _______________________ to voice their concerns over the new hotel being
built on the bay.
14. She says that the government (regulate) _______________________ the airline
industry. I don't know if that is true.
15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) _______________________
after eating a large meal.
16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) _______________________ the summing
pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons.
17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) _______________________ on
sunblock immediately before you get a sunburn.
18. John insists that Sarah (invite) _______________________ to the wedding;
otherwise he will not attend.
19. I think it's an interesting fact that she (come) _______________________ from
Albania.
20. It is imperative that the world (work) _______________________ towards a
solution to global warming before the weather patterns of the world are disrupted
irreparably.
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40. Complete with a suitable preposition. (difficult exercise)
1. Jack has been living
lodgings for over 6 months now.
2. Why these questions ? What are you getting
3. I hope he's back
, my friend ?
time for the ceremony.
4. He's such a good speaker but now he's groping
5. Mr Bond instructed me to buy this car
6. There's still room for improvement
7. It should be perfect. I went
8. Take no pity
words.
any price.
your work.
the book.
me. I only have myself to blame !
9. If I'm sure ? No I'm not sure. I have this
hearsay.
10. A person with his record has got much to answer
11.
my mind or
.
my opinion mean the same.
12. If there's one person I can be hopping mad
it's him.
41. Simple Future / Future Continuous
1.
Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us?
Marcus: He (wait)
for us when our train arrives. I am sure he (stand)
on the platform when we pull into the station.
Sandra: And then what?
Marcus: We (pick)
Michael up at work and go out to dinner.
2.
Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry (watch)
drinks, Beth (dance)
(complain)
TV, Sam (make)
by herself, and Thad
about his day at work.
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Robin: Maybe, this time they won't be doing the same things.
Ted: I am absolutely positive they (do)
the same things; they always
do the same things.
3.
Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who (wash)
all of
those?
Jack: I promise I (do)
them when I get home from work.
Florence: Thanks.
Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks of
sparkling clean dishes (sit)
in the cabinets.
4.
Doug: If you need to contact me next week, I (stay)
at the Hoffman
Hotel.
Nancy: I (call)
you if there are any problems.
Doug: This is the first time I have ever been away from the kids.
Nancy: Don't worry, they (be)
fine.
5.
Samantha: Just think, next week at this time, I (lie)
on a tropical beach in
aui drinking Mai Tai's and eating pineapple.
Darren: While you are luxuriating on the beach, I (stress)
out over
this marketing project. How are you going to enjoy yourself knowing that I am working
so hard.
Samantha: I 'll manage somehow.
Darren: You're terrible. Can't you take me with you?
Samantha: No. But I (send)
Darren: Great, that (make)
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you a postcard of a beautiful, white-sand beach.
me feel much better.
42. Test yourself!
Your teacher should invent a question the answer of which you student have to choose
among the following ones. It’s a creative test for tutors and a suitable way for students
to test themselves at best. Alternatively choose one of the statements below if you find it
correct. Your teacher must help you!
A – GENERE DEI SOSTANTIVI
1 girl 2 son 3 niece 4 waitress 5 brother
B – PLURALE DEI SOSTANTIVI
1 coats 2 women 3 chimneys 4 ladies 5 videos 6 feet 7 lives 8 boxes 9 kilos 10 tomatoes
C – PRONOMI PERSONALI SOGGETTO
1 Essi,They 2 Essa, It 3 Noi,We 4 Ella, She 5 Io, I 6 Lei,You 7 Voi,You 8 Essa, It
D–VERBO ESSERE: INFINITO/PRESENTE SEMPLICE: FORMA AFFERMATIVA, NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA
1 ‘s 2 are 3 aren’t –’re 4 ‘m not –’m 5 isn’t – ’s 6 ‘re 7 ‘re
1 Are your eyes blue?
2 Is Mrs Williams a good teacher?
3 Are you Canadian?
4 Am I late?
5 Are we friends?
E – RISPOSTE BREVI
1 I am. 2 they aren’t. 3 it is. 4 you are. 5 I’m not.F – INTERROGATIVI
1 How are you?
2 When is the English lesson?
3 Where is the bag?
4 Who is the French teacher?
5 What is it?
387
G – AGGETTIVI DIMOSTRATIVI
1 This car 2 That car 3 These students 4 Those students 5 That man
H – ARTICOLO INDETERMINATIVO
1 an 2 a 3 a 4 An 5 a 6 an – an 7 an – a
I – ARTICOLO DETERMINATIVO/ARTICOLO INDETERMINATIVO
1 C 2 C 3 C 4 NC Pasta 5 NC Mathematics 6 C 7 NC Uncle John 8 C
A – AGGETTIVI QUALIFICATIVI
1 C 2 NC These books are heavy. 3 NC This is a nice cake. 4 C 5 NC Is that a nice
cake? 6 C 7 C
B – ALCUNI USI IDIOMATICI DI TO BE
1 ’s cold – ‘m
2 Are... in a hurry?
3 ’m
4 How much is – ’s
5 ’m hungry 6 ‘re wrong
7 Are... thirsty?
8 How old is
C – C’È/CI SONO
there’s – There’s – Is there – There are – Is there – there isn’t – There are – There’s –
There are – There’s
D – PRINCIPALI PREPOSIZIONI DI STATO IN LUOGO (1)
1 c) – 2 a) – 3 b) – 4 a) – 5 a)
Among – above – near – next to – opposite – in the middle of – behind
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E – AGGETTIVI QUALIFICATIVI. C’È/CI SONO.
PRINCIPALI PREPOSIZIONI DI STATO IN LUOGO (1)
Next to – There are – There’s – Is there – on
A – AGGETTIVI POSSESSIVI
1 My/Our – his 2 your – my 3 their 4 Her 5 your 6 our 7 their
B – VERBO AVERE: PRESENTE SEMPLICE
1 ‘s got 2 ‘ve got 3 ‘s got 4 haven’t got – ’ve got 5 ‘ve got – ’s got 6
haven’t got – haven’t got 7 hasn’t got
C – RISPOSTE BREVI
1 A: Has the hotel got a swimming pool? B: No, it hasn’t.
2 A: Have we got your address?
B:Yes, you
have.
3 A: Has John got blue eyes? B:Yes, he has.
4 A: Have the children got homework today? B:No,
they haven’t.
5 A: Have you got an electric guitar? B:Yes, I have.
D – PRONOMI POSSESSIVI
1 Ours 2 his 3 mine – Yours 4 hers 5 theirs 6 mine 7 Mine 8 his 9 ours
E – GENITIVO SASSONE
1 B: It’s Denis’s.
2 B: It’s the children’s.
3 B: It’s Dave and Helen’s.
4 B:They’re Sue’s and Jill’s.
5 B:They’re the boys’
389
F – VERBO AVERE: PRESENTE SEMPLICE. RISPOSTE BREVI. AGGETTIVI
POSSESSIVI. GENITIVO SASSONE
I haven’t got – her – my – Your – I have – Susan’s
1
A – SOSTANTIVI NUMERABILI E NON NUMERABILI
1 N 2 NN 3 NN 4 NN 5 N 6 NN 7 N 8 NN 9 N 10 NN
1 are – They’re 2 is 3 is – are 4 is – It’s 5 is
B – AGGETTIVI E PRONOMI INDEFINITI: SOME/ANY/NO
1 a 2 any 3 any 4 some 5 no – a 6 any 7 some 8 any 9 any
1 any – some 2 no – any 3 any – any 4 some – any 5 any – some
C – MOLTO/MOLTI CON AGGETTIVI E SOSTANTIVI
1 very 2 many 3 much 4 very – very 5 a lot of 6 much – much 7 many 8 a lot of 9 very
1 There are many people…
2 There’s much wealth…
3 The police have much evidence…
4 There is much unemployment…
5 There are many good reasons…
D – POCO/POCHI CON SOSTANTIVI
1 a little 2 a few 3 little 4 Few 5 a few 6 little 7 few 8 a few 9 little 10 few.
4 Not many people are interested in astronomy.
6 Unfortunately I haven’t got very much patience.
7 There aren’t many foreigners here.
9 Sandra hasn’t got much homework.
10 Mr Gleason hasn’t got many business appointments this week.
E – POCO CON AGGETTIVO
1 isn’t very 2 aren’t very 3 aren’t very 4 I’m not very 5 aren’t very.
390
F – L’ORA
a) It’s thirteen minutes past six in the morning.
b) It’s half past ten at night.
c) It’s (a) quarter to ten
d) in the morning.
e) It’s midnight./It’s twelve o’clock at night.
f) It’s (a) quarter past four in the afternoon.
g) It’s five (minutes) past five in the afternoon.
h) It’s twenty-two minutes past seven in the morning. h) It’s midday./It’s twelve
o’clock in the morning.
i) It’s ten (minutes) past twelve in the morning.
j) It’s eight o’clock in the evening/at night.
1 It’s at half past nine. /It’s at nine thirty.
2 It’s at twenty-five (minutes) to one. /It’s at twelve thirtyfive.
3 It’s at ten (minutes) to two./It’s at thirteen fifty.
4 It’s at half past three./It’s at three thirty.
5 It’s at (a) quarter to seven./It’s at six forty-five.
G – LA DATA
a) The second of February two thousand and two.
b) The nineteenth of August seventeen eightynine.
c) The thirty-first of November nineteen sixty-seven .
d) The eighth of May nineteen thirty-two.
e) The twenty-third of March twelve ‘o’ nine.
f) The seventeenth of January two thousand and one.
g) The sixth of September sixteen fifty-three .
h) The fifth of October nineteen seventy-five.
i) The eighteenth of December two thousand and five.
j) The ninth of April eighteen sixty-seven.
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A – IMPERATIVO
1 Buy 2 Clean 3 Don’t talk 4 Make 5 Don’t take 6 Don’t eat 7 Don’t laugh 8 Put 9
Don’t worry 10 Go.
B – CAN: VERBO MODALE USATO PER INDICARE CAPACITÀ (TEMPO PRESENTE)
1 Jeremy can drive.
2 Gordon can play the guitar.
3 Ben, Jeremy and Gordon can swim.
4 Gordon can’t drive.
5 Jeremy and Gordon can’t paint.
1 Who can play the guitar?
2 Can Ben, Jeremy and Gordon swim?
3 Can Jeremy drive?
4 Can Jeremy cook?
5 Who can paint?
C – FORMA IN -ING
1 jumping 2 swimming 3 referring 4 travelling 5 crying 6 commenting 7 beginning 8
skiing 9 admitting 10 cutting 11 sleeping 12 playing 13 putting 14 making 15 dying 16
doing 17 closing18 preferring 19 cooking 20 lying.
D – PRESENTE CONTINUO
1 What is Stephanie studying at university? She’s studying Marine Biology.
2 A: How are your parents?
E – MUST: VERBO MODALE USATO PER ESPRIMERE UN DOVERE/OBBLIGO
O UNA PROIBIZIONE (TEMPO PRESENTE)
You must park your car in the car park.You mustn’t park it in front of your holiday
home.
392
You must leave all valuables in our safe.You mustn’t leave valuable objects in your
home.
You mustn’t use our bathroom towels on the beach.
You mustn’t make any noise after midnight.
You must tell the receptionist if you break anything.
You mustn’t keep animals in the home.
You must wear a swimming cap in the swimming pool.
You must vacate your holiday home by eleven a.m.
A – QUESTION WORDS: HOW/WHEN/WHERE/WHY
1 Where does your son go to school?
2 When are the elections?
3 How are you?
4 Why don’t you like Jonathan?
5 How do you make duck à l’orange?
6 When does Kevin see his friends?
7 Why haven’t you got your coat on?
8 Where do you want to go this evening?
9 How do you spell your surname?
10 Why isn’t Susan coming on Saturday?
B – PRONOMI E AGGETTIVI INTERROGATIVI: HO/WHAT/WHICH/WHOSE
1 Which 2 What 3 Whose 4 Who 5 What
1 Who lives in that house?
2 Who do you live with?
3 Which biscuits do you prefer?
4 What happens next?
5 What does that factory make?
C – PRONOMI PERSONALI SOGGETTO
1 her 2 it 3 him 4 me 5 us 6 them 7 you 8 it 9 them 10 you
393
A – STRUTTURA DELLA FRASE
1 I want to look at the dresses in that shop.
2 Richard climbs trees easily.
3 That garage usually has a number of second-hand cars.
4 My neighbour’s dog often barks all night.
5 You must drive carefully through residential areas./You must drive through residential
areas carefully.
6 Do you know where John is?
7 What is the date today?
8 Susan always behaves properly.
9 Can you tell me how much that jumper is?
10 You always talk on the phone loudly./You always talk loudly on the phone.
B – PRONOMI RELATIVI – SOGGETTO, OGGETTO E DI POSSESSO (1)
1 That’s the girl who/that gives me a lift to work in the mornings.
2 Here is the letter which/that you are expecting.
3 Sally Wenders is a designer whose clothes cost a fortune.
4 I like those plates which/that you are putting in the dishwasher.
5 Those are the people next-door who/that are American.
6 What is the name of the girl who/that works with you?
7 There is a bank in the centre which/that has a cash
point.
8 Where is the tie which/that I always wear with this jacket?
9 Chuck Little is a singer whose songs are very controversial.
10 What time is the programme which/that I want to see?
C – BOTH… AND/NEITHER… NOR/EITHER… OR
1 I’m free both on Monday morning and Wednesday afternoon.
2 Do you eat both fish and meat?
3 The children are both tired and hungry.
4 Buy both some oranges and some apples.
5 Terry’s got both a motorbike and a moped.
394
1 I’m free either on Monday morning or on Wednesday afternoon.
2 Do you eat neither fish nor meat?
3 The children are neither tired nor hungry.
4 Don’t buy either (some) oranges or (some) apples.
5 Terry’s got neither a motorbike nor a moped. Both – neither – Both – Neither – both –
both – either.
A – FORMAZIONE DEGLI AVVERBI DI MODO
1 That policeman was terribly brave.
2 Sheila thanked her uncle nicely for his gift.
3 Why don’t you listen carefully?
4 I’m sure there must be a way to do this logically.
5 Diana lifted the chair easily.
6 Dad is extremely angry with you.
7 Unfortunately Susan is seriously ill.
8 That man was riding his bicycle dangerously without lights.
9 It was raining heavily when I went out.
10 The thieves looked in all the drawers and cupboards systematically./The thieves
looked systematically in all the drawers and cupboards.
B – COMPARATIVO DI MAGGIORANZA: AGGETTIVI E AVVERBI
1 longer than 2 more convenient than 3 warmer than 4 heavier than 5 fatter than 6
healthier than 7 more easily than 8 more interesting than 9 more talkative than 10 more
convincingly than
C – COMPARATIVO DI UGUAGLIANZA: AGGETTIVI E AVVERBI
1 The children’s bedroom is as spacious as our bedroom.
2 The cheese sandwiches aren’t as expensive as the ham sandwiches.
3 Sophie is as old as Daphne.
4 Jonathan doesn’t study as hard as Brian.
5 A small cake is as fattening as three biscuits.
6 The eighteenth century painting isn’t as valuable as the seventeenth century painting.
395
7 This crate is as heavy as that crate.
8 Derrick doesn’t smoke as heavily as Nigel.
9 The bus station isn’t as far as the train station.
10 The blue jumper is as large as the white jumper.
D – SUPERLATIVI RELATIVI DI MAGGIORANZA: AGGETTIVI E AVVERBI
1 the shortest 2 the most amazing 3 the most casual 4 the most annoying 5 the most
easily 6 the biggest 7 the most frightening 8 the most comfortable 9 the tallest 10 the
hardest.
E – COMPARATIVI E SUPERLATIVI IRREGOLARI: AGGETTIVI E AVVERBI
1 the next 2 the farthest 3 farther than 4 more beautifully than 5 further 6 the oldest 7
elder/eldest 8 the latest 9 later 10 better
A – PASSATO PROSSIMO SEMPLICE
1 I haven’t seen Spielberg’s latest film.
2 David has eaten all the biscuits!
3 Have you phoned for an ambulance?
4 They have built a block of flats opposite our house.
5 We haven’t finished our homework.
6 Have you met Mr Kirke?
7 I have bought a new pair of shoes.
8 The dustmen haven’t collected the rubbish.
9 Have the local county council decided to close the public library?
10 I have passed my driving test.
B – PASSATO PROSSIMO SEMPLICE E AVVERBI DI TEMPO
1 We haven’t been to Winchester before.
2 I have never thought of changing my job.
3 My parents have moved recently.
4 We haven’t had breakfast yet.
5 Has Peter ever failed an exam?
396
6 The Jennings have seldom invited us to their house.
7 Have you taken the dog for a walk yet?
8 We have often seen a fox at the end of the garden at dusk.
9 Has Simon just got up?
10 I have always liked Latin American dancing.
C – CONTRASTO PASSATO PROSSIMO SEMPLICE/PASSATO SEMPLICE
had – offered – accepted – has always wanted – Have you seen – have been – haven’t
had – has dyed – was – saw.
D – PASSATO PROSSIMO CONTINUO
1 Have you been cooking 2 has been crying 3 have been protesting 4 haven’t been
dieting 5 have been worrying 6 It has been raining 7 has Steve been sulking 8 have been
playing 9 hasn’t been eating 10 has been working
E – PASSATO PROSSIMO SEMPLICE E PASSATO PROSSIMO
CONTINUO CON FOR/SINCE
1 A: How long have the Wilkins been breeding setters? B: They have been breeding
them for three years.
2 A:How long have you been in your present job? B: I have been in it since last year.
3 A:How long have you been waiting for us? B: I have been waiting for you since nine
o’clock.
4 A: How long have we known Paul? B:We have known Paul for about eight years.
5 A: How long has the village been holding its annual fête? B: It’s been holding the fête
since the nineteen-sixties.
6 A: How long have you liked scuba diving? B: I’ve been doing it since I was twenty.
F – PASSATO PROSSIMO SEMPLICE, PASSATO PROSSIMO CONTINUO,
PASSATO SEMPLICE
Have known – have been talking – has emerged – has shown – was – measured –
continued –carried out – compared – has risen.
2 Punti per ogni risposta corretta. 16 punti in totale.
397
A – MODALI ED ESPRESSIONI CHE SI USANO PER FARE UNA PROIBIZIONE:
MUST NOT/CANNOT
Visitors mustn’t pick… Visitors mustn’t picnic… Visitors mustn’t bring… Visitors
mustn’t disturb…
Visitors mustn’t light…
You can’t pick… You can’t picnic… You can’t bring… You can’t disturb… You can’t
light…
B – MODALI ED ALTRE FORME VERBALI CHE SI USANO PER ESPRIMERE
UN DOVERE O UNA NECESSITÀ: MUST/HAVE TO/HAVE GOT TO/NEED
1 a) Must 2 a) must 3 b) had to 4 b) will have to 5 a) must.
1 I need to go to the dentist’s for a check-up.
2 Why did you need to see the headmaster yesterday?
3 Do you need to cook a meal at lunchtime every day?
4 I need to clean the windows.They’re filthy.
5 John needs to study this afternoon. He can’t go out.
6 Do we need to get a visa to go to Canada?
7 We needed to stop at the service station last night because we were tired.
8 Did you need to wait long for an appointment?
9 The coach driver needs to have a rest every two hours. The journey is very long.
10 We need to buy a new fridge.The old one is broken.
C – MANCANZA DI DOVERE/NECESSITÀ: MUSTN’T/DON’T HAVE TO/
HAVEN’T GOT TO/DON’T NEED TO
1 b) Mustn’t 2 a) don’t have to 3 b) mustn’t 4 a) don’t have to 5 b) mustn’t 6 b) mustn’t
7 b) mustn’t 8 a) haven’t got to 9 b) mustn’t 10 a) doesn’t have to don’t need to worry –
I need to buy – don’t need to come – do we need to be – need to be – do I need to pick
up – need to go – mustn’t tell – mustn’t park – need to park.
A – CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE
1 Would – send 2 would prefer 3 would understand 4 would like 5 Would – take
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B – CONDIZIONALE PASSATO
1 I would have come 2 would have invited 3 would have postponed 4 would have
installed 5 would have been
C – PERIODO IPOTETICO: TIPO ZERO
1 have – have to 2 has – is 3 attacks – can 4 cuts out – overheats 5 pass – rains
D – PERIODO IPOTETICO: 1° TIPO
1 go – will see 2 ’ll enjoy – visit 3 will be – leaves 4 will be – don’t call 5 see – I’ll give
6 isn’t – will sack 7 leaves – will move 8 will do – go 9 go – ‘ll see 10 I get – ‘ll leave
E – PERIODO IPOTETICO: 2° TIPO
1 spoke – would be 2 had – would apply 3 knew – would resign 4 could – wouldn’t
change 5 recycled – wouldn’t need 6 would look – cut 7 would break – climbed 8 would
feel – went 9 didn’t know – would believe 10 would spend – won.
F – CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE, CONDIZIONALE PASSATO, PERIODO
IPOTETICO
TIPO ZERO, PERIODO IPOTETICO 1° TIPO
Wouldn’t have been – get – ’ll move – make – will sell – don’t ask – have – will be –
ask – come – give – need – is – would be.
G – PERIODO IPOTETICO: 1° TIPO E 2° TIPO
Will be – ’ll feel – say – will be – finds out – will sack – were – would try – told/tell –
would reflect/will reflect.
A – VOLERE CHE + CONGIUNTIVO
1 Carol wants Mrs Burt to heat the dinner.
2 Carol wants Steve to take his medicine.
3 Carol wants Christine to study history.
4 Carol wants Mrs Burt to water the plants.
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5 Carol wants Steve and Christine to clean their shoes and make their beds before they
go to school in the morning.
B – ‘I WISH + WOULD’
1 I wish he wouldn’t eat so much.
2 I wish Sheila wouldn’t spend hours in the bathroom.
3 I wish Jennifer wouldn’t talk on the phone for hours.
4 I wish Nigel would pay attention to the lesson.
5 I wish you/he would drive more carefully.
C – COSTRUZIONE DI I WISH + PASSATO SEMPLICE/PASSATO CONTINUO/
COULD
1 I wish I had a moped.
2 I wish John could come this weekend.
3 I wish it weren’t/wasn’t raining
4 The young people of the town wish there were/was a disco or a cinema nearby.
5 Fiona wishes she could sing. She wishes she weren’t/wasn’t tone deaf.
6 The boys wish Trevor weren’t/wasn’t, coming with them too.
7 Sally wishes she didn’t have red hair and freckles.
8 We wish we could ski today.We wish it weren’t/wasn’t snowing heavily.
9 I wish you weren’t always rude to my friends.
10 He wishes he could speak German.
1
43. Present perfect simple and progressive (continuous)
1. Complete the following sentences with a suitable tense for the verbs put
between brackets. Choose either a present perfect simple (e.g. have worked)
or a present perfect progressive (e.g. have been working).
2. George
and he still
3. Research
400
(to dig) holes in the ground for more than two hours now
(not find) a mole.
(to show) that most internet surfers are women.
(to know) her all these years and never ever have I been bored
4. I
with her company.
5.
I
(to plant) three new trees in my garden this morning.
(never ask) me if I had the right qualifications.
6. They
7.
Scientists
(to do) research on that illness but still
(not find) anything yet.
8.
I
(to use) this car intensively for the past 10 years, it
(to
run) about 200 000 km.
(to decide) to give the project one more month to
9. The meeting
prove itself.
Verb Tense Final Test
Cumulative Verb Tense Review
1. When Carol (call)
last night, I (watch)
my favorite show
on television.
for this company for more than thirty years, and I intend
2. I (work)
to stay here until I retire!
3. Sharon (love)
to travel. She (go)
abroad almost every
summer. Next year, she plans to go to Peru.
4. Thomas is an author. He (write)
He (write)
mystery novels and travel memoirs.
since he was twenty-eight. Altogether, he (write)
seven novels, three collections of short stories and a book of poetry.
5. We were late because we had some car problems. By the time we (get)
to the train station, Susan (wait)
for us for more than
two hours.
401
6. Sam (try)
to change a light bulb when he (slip)
and (fell)
.
up at 6 o'clock, (eat)
7. Everyday I (wake)
o'clock and (leave)
(get)
breakfast at 7
for work at 8 o'clock. However, this morning I
up at 6:30, (skip)
breakfast and (leave)
for work late because I (forget)
8. Right now, Jim (read)
to set my alarm.
the newspaper and Kathy (make)
dinner. Last night at this time, they (do)
She (cook)
and he (read)
the same thing.
the newspaper. Tomorrow at this
time, they (do, also)
the same thing. She (prepare)
dinner and he (read)
. They are very
predictable people!
9. By this time next summer, you (complete)
(find)
a job. I, on the other hand, (accomplish, not)
anything. I (study, still)
10. The students (be, usually)
taught by Mrs. Monty. However, this week
taught by Mr. Tanzer.
11.
Jane talks on the phone.
Bob has been talking on the phone for an hour.
Mary is talking on the phone.
Who is not necessarily on the phone now?
402
and
in some new high paying job.
you (work)
they (be)
your studies and
12.
I'm going to make dinner for Frank.
I'm making dinner for Judy.
I'll make dinner for Mary.
I make dinner for Ted.
I will be making dinner for Tony.
Who are you offering to make dinner for?
13.
Jane left when Tim arrived.
Bob left when Tim had arrived.
Tim arrived when Mary was leaving.
John had left when Tim arrived.
After Tim arrived, Frank left.
Who did not run into Tim?
14.
Jane is talking in class.
Bob always talks in class.
Mary is always talking in class.
Whose action bothers you?
15.
Jane never left Jamestown.
Bob has never left Jamestown.
Who is still alive?
Reading Comprehension 1 (PET)
Visit Angkor Wat
Siem Reap is a small town near the world famous temple of Angkor Wat. The town is
charming and worth exploring, with some fine examples of Khmer and French colonial
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architecture set among the more modern developments. Nowadays, visitors are flocking
in, using it as a base for visits to the nearby temples.
A Carved City
From the 9th to the 14th centuries, when Europe was still struggling out of the Dark
Ages, the Cambodian Empire of Angkor covered most of present-day Cambodia, Laos,
Vietnam, and Thailand. The heart of this empire during the 12th century was the ancient
capital of Angkor Thom, near present day Siem Reap, the site of the world’s largest
temple complexes, which were rediscovered in 1861.This spectacular city was built
over 30 years under the reign of King Suryavarman II (1113-1150). The area covers
about 400 square kilometres and is full of the finest examples of Khmer art and
architecture. Tourists are always amazed at the scale of the place.
In Angkor Wat you will find more than 100 stone monuments and temple buildings,
each of which contains countless statues, sculptures and reliefs that have weathered
extremely little over the last 800 years. To see the whole thing can take several days.
The most important temples to visit in the area are Angkor Wat, especially at sunrise or
sunset; Angkor Thom, the remains of the capital; Ta Prohm, a palace overgrown by
jungle; and Bayon.
Getting a visa
Visas are required to enter Cambodia. You can obtain one on arrival at Siem Reap
International Airport for $20, and 1 passport photo is required per person. You will also
need another passport photo for the Angkor Temple Entrance Pass. Please ensure you
take comfortable walking shoes, light clothing and plenty of water to drink as it is very
hot there. The most commonly accepted currency in Cambodia is the US dollar.
Questions
Q1 - Most people visit Siem Reap because of the temples in the area.
True
False
Q2 - In the 9th to the 14th centuries, Europe was more advanced than Cambodia.
True
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False
Q3 - Angkor Wat was the capital of the Cambodian empire.
True
False
Q4 - It took many decades to build the capital.
True
False
Q5 - The stonework of Angkor Wat is in poor condition today.
True
False
Q6 - It'll take a couple of days to see everything.
True
False
Q7 - Dawn and dusk are particularly good times to visit Angkor Wat.
True
False
Q8 - You must get a visa before flying to Siem Reap.
True
False
Q9 - You will need a couple of passport photos.
True
False
Q10 - The US dollar is widley accepted in Cambodia.
True
False
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Just Married
Considering their wedding cost over $20,000 and took a year and a half to organize, you
would be surprised to hear that Richard and Victoria Hammond now intend to forget it.
Well, almost.
"It was a wonderful wedding, an unbelievable day," says Victoria. "But we have so
much we want to do together now, we are both looking to the future." Her husband,
banker and amateur race driver Richard, agrees. "Both our minds are now fixed firmly
on the future. I'll never forget our wedding ceremony or the reception we had at a cliffside hotel afterwards, but there's so much we want, so many hopes. Our marriage is so
much more important than the wedding."
"At the moment, we are still living with my parents," explains Victoria, "so our first
wish is to find our own place. We intend to start looking for a new house with all the
modern conveniences in the suburbs in the new year." Both Victoria and husband
Richard have a lot of siblings. Do they intend to add to the extended Hammond family?
"We plan on having two or three children ourselves," Richard tells me. "Victoria is just
wonderful with children and I can get 3 years paternity leave from my work, which is
just perfect."The young couple has just returned from a two-week honeymoon spent in
an authentic Scottish castle. Both the newly-weds are big travel lovers and Richard
hopes this will continue. "I would like to go travelling as much as possible together.
Travelling with someone else is such a sharing experience. I think it's sad to experience
all the wonderful places in the world and have no-one else there." Victoria also has
another great travel ambition that she might have to do alone. "I have always been
fascinated by safari and my real wish is to go on safari. Richard has no interest in
wildlife though."And what about the marriage itself? In a world with such a high
divorce rate, how do Richard and Victoria hope to avoid all the problems that beset so
many other couples? Richard explains thoughtfully that "our ambition is to always talk
to each other. If you stop communicating, what chance do you have?" His wife goes
along with that completely. "I hope that we can speak about things, but also not expect
everything to be easy. I think many people expect the wedding to be the end of getting
to know each other. I think it's the start."
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1. Victoria and Richard have been married for about a year and a half.
True
False
2. They got married in a dramatic location.
True
False
3. The wedding was expensive.
True
False
4. Their first ambition is to find a house to live in.
True
False
5. Victoria wants an old fashioned house.
True
False
6. They both have many brothers and sisters.
True
False
7. Richard can temporarily leave his job to look after his children.
True
False
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8. Richard and Victoria have identical tastes regarding vacations.
True
False
9. Richard hopes to make talking an important part of their marriage.
True
False
10. Victoria thinks she now knows Richard sufficiently well.
True
False
The hardest language
People often ask which is the most difficult language to learn, and it is not easy to
answer because there are many factors to take into consideration. Firstly, in a first
language the differences are unimportant as people learn their mother tongue naturally,
so the question of how hard a language is to learn is only relevant when learning a
second language.A native speaker of Spanish, for example, will find Portuguese much
easier to learn than a native speaker of Chinese, for example, because Portuguese is very
similar to Spanish, while Chinese is very different, so first language can affect learning
a second language. The greater the differences between the second language and our
first, the harder it will be for most people to learn. Many people answer that Chinese is
the hardest language to learn, possibly influenced by the thought of learning the Chinese
writing system, and the pronunciation of Chinese does appear to be very difficult for
many foreign learners. However, for Japanese speakers, who already use Chinese
characters in their own language, learning writing will be less difficult than for speakers
of languages using the Roman alphabet.
Some people seem to learn languages readily, while others find it very difficult.
Teachers and the circumstances in which the language is learned also play an important
role, as well as each learner's motivation for learning. If people learn a language
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because they need to use it professionally, they often learn it faster than people studying
a language that has no direct use in their day to day life.Apparently, British diplomats
and other embassy staff have found that the second hardest language is Japanese, which
will probably come as no surprise to many, but the language that they have found to be
the most problematic is Hungarian, which has 35 cases (forms of a nouns according to
whether it is subject, object, genitive, etc). This does not mean that Hungarian is the
hardest language to learn for everyone, but it causes British diplomatic personnel, who
are generally used to learning languages, the most difficulty. However, Tabassaran, a
Caucasian language has 48 cases, so it might cause more difficulty if British diplomats
had to learn it.Different cultures and individuals from those cultures will find different
languages more difficult. In the case of Hungarian for British learners, it is not a
question of the writing system, which uses a similar alphabet, but the grammatical
complexity, though native speakers of related languages may find it easier, while
struggling with languages that the British find relatively easy.
No language is easy to learn well, though languages which are related to our first
language are easier. Learning a completely different writing system is a huge challenge,
but that does not necessarily make a language more difficult than another. In the end, it
is impossible to say that there is one language that is the most difficult language in the
world.
Questions
Q1 - The question of how hard a language is to learn is relevant to both first and
second language acquisition
True
False
Q2 - Portuguese is definitely easier than Chinese
True
False
Q3 - A Japanese speaker may well find the Chinese writing system easier than a
speaker of a European language
True
False
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Q4 - The Hungarian alphabet causes problems for British speakers
True
False
Q5 - Hungarian is the hardest language in the world
True
False
Q6 - Hungarian has as many cases as Tabassaran
True
False
Q7 - Many British diplomats learn Tabassaran
True
False
Q8 - The writer thinks that learning new writing systems is easy
True
False
Reading Comprehension 2 (FCE)
Reality Television
Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents
unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features
ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described as a form of
artificial or "heightened" documentary. Although the genre has existed in some form or
another since the early years of television, the current explosion of popularity dates
from around 2000.Reality television covers a wide range of television programming
formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning
programmes produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki no
tsukai), to surveillance- or voyeurism- focused productions such as Big Brother.
Critics say that the term "reality television" is somewhat of a misnomer and that such
shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with
participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in
certain ways by off-screen handlers, and with events on screen manipulated through
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editing and other post-production techniques. Part of reality television's appeal is due to
its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations. For example, on the ABC
show, The Bachelor, an eligible male dates a dozen women simultaneously, travelling
on extraordinary dates to scenic locales. Reality television also has the potential to turn
its participants into national celebrities, outwardly in talent and performance programs
such as Pop Idol, though frequently Survivor and Big Brother participants also reach
some degree of celebrity. Some commentators have said that the name "reality
television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the
genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other
special-living-environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format
of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment, creating a
completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically
select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and
settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of
Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word
"reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality
TV. It really is unscripted drama."
Questions
Q1 - In the first line, the writer says 'it is claimed' because
They agree with the statement.
Everyone agrees with the statement.
No one agrees with the statement.
They want to distance themselves from the statement.
Q2 - Reality television has
Always been this popular.
Has been popular since well before 2000.
Has only been popular since 2000.
Has been popular since approximately 2000.
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Q3 – Japan
Is the only place to produce demeaning TV shows.
Has produced demeaning TV shows copied elsewhere.
Produced Big Brother.
Invented surveillance focused productions.
Q4 - People have criticised reality television because
It is demeaning.
It uses exotic locations.
The name is inaccurate.
It shows reality.
Q5 - Reality TV appeals to some because
It shows eligible males dating women.
It uses exotic locations.
It shows average people in exceptional circumstances.
It can turn ordinary people into celebrities.
Q6 - Pop Idol
turns all its participants into celebrities.
is more likely to turn its particiapants into celebrities than Big Brother.
is less likely to turn its particiapants into celebrities than Big Brother.
is a dating show.
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Q7 - The term 'reality television' is inaccurate
For all programs.
Just for Big Brother and Survivor.
For talent and performance programs.
For special-living-environment programs.
Q8 - Producers choose the participants
On the ground of talent.
Only for special-living-environment shows.
To create conflict among other things.
To make a fabricated world.
Q9 - Paul Burnett
Was a participant on Survivor.
Is a critic of reality TV.
Thinks the term 'reality television' is inaccurate.
Writes the script for Survivor.
Q10 - Shows like Survivor
Are definitely reality TV.
Are scripted.
Have good narratives.
Are theatre.
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Fonetica
Now that you are able to speak and understand English at best, try to match the words
below according to their sounds.
Receipt
-repeat -beat-concrete -meadow
Mint-hint-pint-picture-victory
Ceiling-phoenix-foe - people-piece
Women
-private-business-biscuit-bury
Jeopardy-maid-thames-friend-said
Journey-word-earth-clerk-burn
Calm- laugh-clerk-mare-bark
Brook- come-does-blood-flood
Century-sanctuary
Lessico specialistico
Leisure time
Amusement/Fun = divertimento.
Holiday = vacanza.
Trip = gita.
Travel = viaggio.
Journey = lungo viaggio.
Picnic = scampagnata.
Wood = bosco.
Seaside = mare.
Country = campagna.
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Collina = hill.
Mountain = montagna.
Cinema/Movies/Pictures = cinema.
Theatre = teatro.
Museum = museo.
Monument = monumento.
City = città grande, metropoli.
Town = città.
Village = paese, villaggio.
Path = sentiero.
Rock = roccia.
Cliff = scogliera.
Castle = castello.
Family
Mother = madra.
Father = padre.
Mum = mamma.
Dad = papà.
Uncle = zio.
Aunt = zia.
Brother = fratello.
Sister = sorella.
Cousin = cugino/a.
Grandfather/grandpa = nonno.
Grandmother/granny = nonna.
Son = figlio.
Daughter = figlia.
Godfather = padrino.
Godmother = madrina.
Stepfather = patrigno.
Stepmother = matrigna.
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Parents = genitori.
Relatives = parenti.
Ancestors = antenati.
Bride = sposa.
Groom = sposo.
Bachelor = scapolo.
Spinster = zitella.
Widow = vedovo/a.
Married = sposato/a/e/i.
Father-in-law = suocero.
Mother-in-law = suocera.
Brother-in-law = cognato.
Sister-in-law = cognata.
Son-in-law = genero.
Daughter-in-law = nuora.
Weather
Sun = sole.
Rain = pioggia.
Wind = vento.
Fog = nebbia.
Storm = tempesta.
Mist = bruma.
Dew = rugiada
Snow = neve.
Ice = ghiaccio.
Thunder = tuono
Flash = lampo.
Cloud = nube.
Whirlwind = tromba d’aria
Avalanche = valanga.
Earthquake = terremoto.
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Snowslide = slavina.
Tide = onda.
Waterquake/seaquake/tsunami/tidal wave = maremoto.
Twister = tornado.
Hurricane = uragano.
Typhoon = tifone.
Wet = umido.
Fine / nice = bello.
Bad/poor = brutto.
Stuffy = afoso.
Dry = secco, asciutto.
Lousy = pessimo.
Good = sereno.
Changeable = variabile.
Weather forecast = previsioni atmosferiche.
Shops and jobs
Baker = fornaio.
Butcher = macellaio.
Florist = fioraio.
Grocer = droghiere.
Greengrocer = fruttivendolo.
Tailor = sarto.
Hairdresser = parrucchiere.
Waiter = cameriere.
Customer = cliente.
Shop assistant = commesso/a.
Housemaid = domestica.
Bank clerk/employee = bancario.
Accountant = contabile.
Doctor = medico.
Surgeon = chirurgo.
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Lawyer = avvocato.
Trader = commerciante.
Life guard = bagnino.
Builder = costruttore.
Taskmaster = capomastro.
Cook = cuoco.
Manager = direttore.
Chairman = presidente.
Secretary = segretario/a.
Mayor = sindaco.
Warden = vigile, guardiano.
Policeman = poliziotto.
Fireman = pompiere.
Sailor = marinaio.
Newsagent = giornalaio.
Paper shop = edicola.
Stationer = cartoleria.
Journalist = giornalista.
Library = biblioteca.
Bookshop = edicola.
Bookseller = libraio.
Teacher = insegnante.
Dean = preside di facoltà.
Headmaster = preside di scuola.
Architect = architetto.
Writer = scrittore.
Novelist = romanziere.
Poet = poeta.
Playwright = drammaturgo.
Singer = cantante.
Actor = attore.
Dancer = ballerino.
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Clown = pagliaccio.
Tumbler = acrobata.
Nurse = infermiere/a.
Chemist = farmacista.
Vet = veterinario.
Manual worker/workman = operaio.
Craftsman = artigiano.
Farmer = contadino, fattore.
Barmaid = barista.
Bricklayer = muratore.
Plumber = idraulico.
Painter = pittore, imbianchino.
Carpenter = falegname.
Driver = autista
Pilot = pilota.
Footballer = calciatore.
Master of ceremonies = presentatore di spettacoli di varietà.
Announcer = annunciatore.
Housewife = casalinga.
Judge = giudice.
Company director = amministratore, direttore generale.
Merchant = mercante, commerciante, commerciale.
Salesman = commesso viaggiatore.
Smith = fabbro.
Shoemaker = calzolaio.
House and forniture
Flat = appartamento.
House = casa home = casa (personale).
Building = costruzione.
Attic = soffitta.
Cellar = cantina.
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Canteen = mensa.
Loft = attico, mansarda.
Cottage = villetta, villa.
Castle/Manor = castello.
Mansion = palazzo.
Floor = piano, pavimento.
Downstairs = pianterreno.
Upstairs = piano superiore.
Staircase = scala, scalone.
Ladder = scala a pioli.
Lift / elevator = ascensore.
Kitchen = cucina.
Bathroom = bagno.
Bedroom = camera da letto.
Sitting-room = salotto.
Dining-room = sala da pranzo.
Hall = atrio.
Court-yard = cortile.
Garden = giardino.
Window = finestra.
Roof = tetto.
Ceiling = soffitto.
Wall = parete.
Door = porta.
Threshold = soglia.
Rug = zerbino.
Carpet = tappeto.
Table = tavolo.
Chair = sedia.
Armchair = poltrona.
Cushion = cuscino (per divani, sofa, ecc).
Pillow = guanciale.
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Painting = quadro.
Sofa = divano.
Lamp = lampada.
Wardrobe = armadio.
Cupboard = credenza.
Fridge = frigorifero.
Cooker = fornelli.
Washing-machine = lavatrice.
Dish-washer = lavastoviglie.
Cutlery = posate.
Fork = forchetta.
Knife = coltello.
Spoon = cucchiaio.
Ladle = mestolo.
Pan = pentola.
Oven = forno.
Dish = piatto.
Glass = bicchiere.
Drawer = cassetto.
Table-cloth = tovaglia.
Napkin = tovagliolo.
Towel = asciugamano.
Bottle = bottiglia.
Sink = lavello.
Basin = lavandino.
Shower = doccia.
Mirror = specchio.
Comb = pettine.
Brush = spazzola.
Tooth-brush = spazzolino.
Coat-hanger = attaccapanni.
Tin opener = apriscatole.
421
Scale = bilancia.
Jug = caraffa.
Pitcher = brocca.
Trolley = carrello.
Coffee-pot = caffettiera.
Corkscrew = cavatappi.
Saucepan = casseruola.
Lid = coperchio.
Larder = dispensa.
Scissors = forbici.
Micro-wave oven = forno a microonde.
Cloakroom = guardaroba.
Bowl = ciotola.
Cruet = oliera.
Cup = tazza.
Tea pot = teiera.
Tray = vassoio.
Ash-tray = posacenere.
Television set = televisore.
Bed = letto.
Bulk-bed = letto a castello.
Clock = orologio.
Alarm-clock = sveglia.
Curtain = tenda.
Shelf = scaffale.
Night-table = comodino.
Bath-tub = vasca da bagno.
School
Desk = banco, cattedra.
Blackboard = lavagna.
Chalk = gesso.
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Classroom = aula.
Caretaker = bidello/a.
Teacher = insegnante.
Director = preside.
Rucksack = zaino.
Satchel = cartella (scolaro).
Briefcase = cartella (documenti).
Case = astuccio.
Pen = penna.
Pencil = matita.
Cutter = taglierino.
Stitcher = cucitrice.
Rubber = gomma, cancellino.
Penknife = temperino.
Felt-tip = pennarello.
Book = libro.
Text = testo.
Exercise-book = quaderno.
Paper = carta, foglio.
Ruler = righello.
Compasses = compasso.
Photocopier = fotocopiatrice.
Bell = campanella.
Toilet = gabinetto, toilette.
Food and restaurant
Recipe = ricetta.
Salad = insalata.
Fruit = frutta.
Meat = carne.
Ham = prosciutto.
Sausage = salsiccia.
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Cheese = formaggio.
Egg = uovo.
Vegetables = verdure.
Veal = vitello.
Lamb = agnello.
Soup = minestra.
Rice = riso.
Mushroom = fungo.
Noodles = pasta all’uovo tipo tagliatelle.
Pumpkin = zucca.
Oil = olio.
Aceto = vinegar.
Garlic = aglio.
Pepper = pepe.
Onion = cipolla.
Artichokes = carciofi.
Aubergines = melanzane.
Cream = panna.
Whipped cream = panna montata.
Tomato = pomodoro.
Chicken = pollo.
Sauce = salsa.
Bacon = pancetta.
Steak = bistecca.
Scrambled eggs = uova strapazzate.
Hard-boiled eggs = uova sode.
Fish = pesce.
Lobster = aragosta.
Herrings = aringhe.
Squids = calamari.
Anchovies = acciughe.
Tuna = tonno.
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Clams = vongole.
Prawn = gambero.
Shrimps = gamberetti.
Seafood = frutti di mare.
Trout = trota.
Cod = merluzzo.
Eel = anguilla.
Octopus = polpo.
Swordfish = pescespada.
Raw fish, meat = pesce, carne crudo/a.
Shark = pescecane.
Plaice = platessa.
Salmon = salmone.
Smoked = affumicato.
Sweet and sour = agrodolce.
Boiled = bollito.
Roasted = arrosto.
Butter = burro.
Baked = al forno.
Grilled = alla griglia.
Stuffed = ripieno.
Almonds = mandorle.
Skewered = spiedini.
Braised = stufato.
Stewed = in umido.
Steamed = al vapore.
Duck = anatra.
Pork = maiale.
Beef = manzo.
Cutlet = braciola.
Rabbit = coniglio.
Chops = costolette.
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Liver = fegato.
Veal escalope = fettina di vitello.
Meat rolls = involtini di carne.
Loin = lombata.
Poultry = pollame.
Meatball = polpetta.
Game = selvaggina.
Stew = spezzatino.
Turkey = tacchino.
Meat pie = tortino di carne.
Spicy = piccante.
Fried = fritto.
Carrot = carota.
Cabbage = cavolo.
Cereals = cereali.
Cucumbers = cetrioli.
Beans = fagioli.
Fennel = finocchio.
Wheat = grano.
Lettuce = lattuga.
Barley = orzo.
Potato = patata.
Peppers = peperoni.
Pea = pisello.
Rocket = rucola.
Celery = sedano.
Mixed pickles = sottaceti.
Courgettes = zucchine.
Mature = stagionato.
Cake = dolce.
Biscuits = biscotti.
Chocolate = cioccolata.
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Pudding = budino.
Candies = caramelle.
Custard = crema.
Tart = crostata.
Ice-cream = gelato.
Dessert trolley = dolci al carrello.
Jam = marmellata.
Chestnuts = castagne.
Pastry = pasticcino.
Lemon = limone.
Orange = arancia.
Strawberry = fragola.
Blackcurrant = mirtillo.
Water-melon = cocomero.
Apricot = albicocca.
Peach = pesca.
Pineapple = ananas.
Apple = mela.
Pear = pera..
Cherries = ciliege.
Raspberries = lamponi.
Fruit salad = macedonia.
Tangerine = mandarino.
Blackberries = more.
Grapefruit = pompelmo.
Plum = prugna.
Grapes = uva.
Basil = basilico.
Mint = menta.
Chilli pepper = peperoncino.
Parsley = prezzemolo.
Sage = salvia.
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Stock cube = dado da brodo.
Flour = farina.
Honey = miele.
Salt = sale.
Sugar = zucchero.
Soft drink = bibita.
Wine = vino.
Beer = birra.
Coffee with milk = caffelatte.
Juice = succo.
Seasoned = condito.
Not overcooked = al dente.
Well-done = ben cotto.
Tasteless = insipido.
Rare = al sangue.
Frozen = surgelato
Minced = tritato.
Sparkling = frizzante.
To set the table = apparecchiare.
Order = comanda bill = conto.
Cover = coperto.
Menu = menù.
Change = resto (di denaro).
To reserve = prenotare.
Receipt = ricevuta
Season = di stagione.
Small change = spiccioli.
Special dishes = specialità.
Invoice = fattura.
Service = servizio.
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Frasi al ristorante
Good day Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to our restaurant.
Good day, Mr Newman, welcome back.
You can give me your coat, I will take it to the cloakroom.
How many of you are there?
Did you make reservations?
I reserved the usual table for you.
There is a beautiful table in the corner.
Would this one in the corner be all right?
We’ll prepare a table for you right away.
I am sorry, all the tables are taken at the moment.
The table will be ready for you in half an hour.
If you wish, you can take a drink at the bar while you are waiting.
Please follow me.
Here are the menu and the wine list.
Have you already decided?
May I help you with some suggestions?
Do you prefer meat or fish?
What would you like for appetizer/main course?
Our dish of the day is really special.
Leave it to me, you’ll be satisfied.
I’m sorry, this dish is not available any more.
Enjoy your food..
May I take the plates?
There is a ten-minute wait for the...
Would you like one or separate bills?
Our cellar is well stocked..
Would you like wine by the carafe or by the bottle?
This wine is corked.
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Means of transport
Train = treno.
Plane = aereo.
Bus = autobus .
Car = auto.
Bike/bicycle= bicicletta.
Motorbike = motorino.
Ship = nave.
Boat = barca.
Cab/Taxi = taxi.
Truck.
Lorry = camion.
Vessel = vascello.
Chair lift = seggiovia.
Cableway = funivia.
Tube/Subway = metropolitana.
Ambulance = ambulanza.
Hearse = carro funebre.
Scooter = monopattino.
Steam-boat = battello a vapore.
Steamer = piroscafo.
Ferry-boat = traghetto.
Body
Head = testa.
Heart = cuore.
Mind = mente.
Brain = cervello.
Eye = occhio.
Eyebrow = sopracciglio.
Forehead = fronte.
Tooth = dente.
430
Mouth = bocca.
Nose = naso.
Ear = orecchia.
Neck = collo.
Nape = nuca.
Cheek = guancia.
Chin = mento
Tongue = lingua.
Throat = gola.
Face = viso.
Lash = ciglia.
Hair = capelli.
Body
Head = testa.
Heart = cuore.
Mind = mente.
Brain = cervello.
Eye = occhio.
Eyebrow = sopracciglio.
Forehead = fronte.
Tooth = dente.
Mouth = bocca.
Nose = naso.
Ear = orecchia.
Neck = collo.
Nape = nuca.
Cheek = guancia.
Chin = mento.
Tongue = lingua.
Throat = gola.
Face = viso.
431
Lash = ciglia.
Hair = capell.
Chest = torace.
Bust = busto.
Breast = petto.
Back = schiena.
Arm = braccio.
Elbow = gomito.
Hand = mano.
Finger = dito.
Nail = unghia.
Thumb = pollice.
Liver = fegato.
Stomach = stomaco.
Lung = polmone.
Belly = pancia.
Kidney = rene.
Waist = vita.
Hip = anca.
Groin = inguine.
Leg = gamba.
Thigh = coscia.
Ankle = caviglia.
Kneel = ginocchio.
Calf = polpaccio.
Foot = piede.
Heel = tallone.
Toe = dito (del piede).
Rib = costola.
Spine = colonna vertebrale.
Vein = vena.
Skin = pelle.
432
Complexion = carnagione.
Clothing
Shirt = camicia.
Skirt = gonna.
Dress = abito da donna.
Suit = abito da uomo.
Apron = grembiule.
Tie = cravatta.
Socks = calzini.
Stockings = calze da donna.
Shoes = scarpe.
Bra = reggiseno.
Slip = mutanda.
Pettycoat = sottoveste.
Gloves = guanti.
Fur = pelliccia.
Coat = cappotto.
Raincoat = impermeabile.
Trainers = scarpe da ginnastica.
Trousers = pantaloni.
Belt = cintura.
Belts = bretelle.
Gown = vestaglia.
Night-dress = camicia da notte.
Pyjamas = pigiama.
Buckle = fibbia.
Zip = cerniera.
Jumper = pullover, maglione.
Boots = stivali.
Flip-flop = sandalo infradito.
Slippers = pantofole.
433
Hat = cappello.
Tuxedo = smoking, abito da sera.
Underwear = biancheria intima.
Cap = berretto.
Feather = piuma.
Buttonhole = asola.
Button = bottone.
Collar = colletto.
Cuff = polsino.
Scarf = sciarpa.
Jacket = giacca.
Vest = giubbotto.
Sweater = maglione.
Training suit/track suit = tuta da ginnastica.
T-shirt = canottiera, maglietta sottopelle.
Girdle/corset = busto.
Heel = tacco.
Glasses/Spectacles = occhiali.
Sunglasses = occhiali da sole.
Handkerchief = fazzoletto.
Bag = borsa.
Colours
White = bianco.
Black = nero.
Pink = rosa.
Red = rosso.
Blue = blu, azzurro.
Yellow = giallo.
Green = verde.
Brown = marrone.
Grey = grigio.
434
Orange = arancione.
Violet = viola.
Crimson = cremisi.
Purple = porpora.
Gold = oro.
Silver =argento.
Punctuation
Punctuation is the system of symbols (., ! -: etc) that we use to separate sentences and
parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark".
The Value of Punctuation
Summary of Punctuation Marks
Mark Name
Example
.
full stop/period
I like English.
,
comma
I speak English, French and Thai.
;
semi-colon
I don't often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.
You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the
:
colon
contract.
-
hyphen
This is a rather out-of-date book.
In each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in
—
dash
youth hostess.
?
question mark
Where is Shangri-La?
!
exclamation mark "Help!" she cried. "I'm drowning!"
/
oblique/slash
Please press your browser's Refresh/Reload button.
435
"
quotation marks
"I love you," she said.
'
apostrophe
This is John's car.
I went to Bagkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for
()
round brackets
two weeks.
The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them
[]
square brackets
{}
braces
French] had been released.
One
...
happy
customer
wrote:
"This
is
the
program...that I have ever seen."
ellipsis
Verb combination (Infinitive vs -ing form)
A. -ing and infinitive (1): verb + -ing form or infinitive
1. Verbs followed by -ing form
Avoid
Consider
Delay
Deny
Dislike
Enjoy
Finish
Can’t help
Involve
Justify
Like (=enjoy)
Look forward to
Mind
Miss
Postpone
Practice
Risk
Suggest
Can’t stand
Carry on
Put off
We delayed launching the product because of technical problems.
I look forward to meeting you next week.
I don’t mind staying late.
I really enjoy travelling abroad.
436
best
Note. In the expression look forward to, the word to is a preposition. Prepositions (e.g.,
in, on, at, with, from, etc.) are always followed by the -ing form rather than infinitive.
2. Expressions bellow are followed by the -ing form
It’s a waste of time/money...
There’s no point (in)...
It’s no use...
It’s (not) worth...
It's not worth repairing the camera. It would be cheaper to buy a new one.
3. Verb followed by to + infinitive
Afford
Agree
Arrange
Attempt
Claim
Decide
Demand
Deserve
Expect
Fail
Guarantee
Hesitate
Hope
Learn
Manage
Neglect
Offer
Plan
Prepare
Pretend
Promise
Refuse
Seem
Tend
Threaten
Train
Want
Would like
He has arranged to meet the visitors at the factory
We were very unhappy with service they had provided. We refused to pay them.
The company is taking on a lot of new staff. They plan to extend their researches in a
new area.
He was angry about the way company had treated him. They threatened to stop his
project.
437
4. Passive forms
There are passive forms of the -ing form and the infinitive. The passive form of the -ing
form is made with being + past participle (e.g., being done):
Everyone likes being congratulated when they have worked hard.
The passive infinitive is formed by to be + past participle (e.g., to be done):
She expects to be promoted soon.
5. B. -Ing and infinitive (2): verbs and objects
Verb + object + infinitive
There are a number of verbs that can take a direct object and to + infinitive.
common examples are:
Advise
Allow
Ask
Enable
Encourage
Force
Invite
Order
Persuade
Remind
Tell
Warn
The lawer advised me to read the contract carefully.
The negotiators persuaded the union to accept the pay deal.
The court ordered the company to pay compensation.
The fall in demand forced us to cut production.
They invited me to speak at the conference.
6. Reporting what people say .
Many of the words listed above can be used to report what people say .
"Could you come back later?" he asked me.
He asked me to come back later.
The verb warn is usually used with not to do:
He said, "Don't put all your money in one company"
He warned me not to put all my money in one company.
438
7. Make and let.
The verbs make and let are followed by an object and the bare infinitive (e.g., go,
work, see):
− we use make to talk about something we have to do (but don’t want to do)
She wanted to go home, but her boss made her stay until the work was finished..
− We use let when we talk about being given permission for something.
My boss let me have the afternoon off to go to my sister’s wedding.
− The verb help can be followed by an infinitive with or without to
Could you help me (to) put these boxes in the van?
8. Verbs of perception.
The verb of perception (see, watch, notice, hear, listen, feel) are followed by bare
infinitive or by -ing form (present participle).
If we want to say that we heard or saw the whole action from beginning to end, we
usually use bare infinitive.
I saw him sign the cheque.
If we want to say that only saw or heard part of the action, we use -ing form
I saw the consultant waiting in reception.
(I saw consultant. He was waiting in reception.)
C. -ing and infinitive: changes in meaning .
9. Verb + -ing or infinitive?
Some verbs can be followed by either -
I sent and I can remember now that did
ing form or the infinitive and the
it.
meaning of the verb changes. Here are
some common examples:
I remember sending them the cheque.
I remembered to send them the cheque.
I remembered, and then I sent it.
439
I will never forget meeting the President.
I met him, and he impressed me.
I won’t forget to give her your message.
I have made a note of it, and I will give
it to her when I see her.
We have stopped dealing with that firm.
We used to deal with them, but we don't
deal with them any more.
At 12.00 we stopped to have a break.
We stopped for a break.
I regret saying that I was not interested
I said I was not interested in the work,
in the work.
and I now think that was a bad mistake.
I regret to say that we will not be able to
I am sorry that I have to say this.
give you a contract.
If the printer doesn’t work, try turning
Do this and see what happens.
everything off and then starting again.
I will try to negotiate a better deal.
I will make an effort to do this.
This advertisement needs redesigning.
This advertisement needs to be redesigned.
We need to increase productivity.
It’s necessary to increase productivity.
10. Like and would like
When the verb like means enjoy, it’s followed by the -ing form. However, the
expression would like (want to) is followed by the infinitive.
I like going abroad on marketing trips. (I enjoy this.)
I would like to go more often.(I want to go more often.)
We can also use prefer and would prefer in the same way.
I prefer working at home to working at the office. (I enjoy this more.)
440
11. To + -ing or infinitive?
The word to can be part of
Object to, an objection to
Be used to, get used to
In addition to
Respond to, a respond to
infinitive (I want to see
you). However, in the
following examples, to is
a preposition, so it is
followed by the -ing form:
look forward to
React to, a reaction to
Mixed examples.
There is nothing wrong with the photocopier. It just needs servicing.
We need to look at this proposal very carefully before we make a decision.
I’ll make a note in my diary so that I will remember to send you information you need.
I am not sure if I have met Mr. Martino, but I remember hearing his name.
Espressioni idiomatiche in inglese.
English Aphorisms, Proverbs & Idiomatic Expressions.
Abbreviazioni:
o.=one; s.o.=someone; s.th.=something; q=qualcuno
Never look a gift horse in the mouth
A caval donato non si guarda in bocca
You can lead a horse to water, but you Puoi offrire delle possibilità a qualcuno
can't make him drink
ma non puoi obbligarlo a sfruttarle
From the horse's mouth
= Dalla fonte più autorevole
A wink is as good as a nod (to a blind
horse)
Get on one's high horse
A buon intenditore poche parole [Lett. Una
strizzatina d'occhio vale quanto un cenno
col capo...]
Darsi grandi arie/inalberarsi
441
Horses for courses
= [Si sceglie] il cavallo a seconda dell'ippodromo (cioè l'elemento, normalmente una
persona, più idoneo alle circostanze)
The willing horse does all the work
A picture is worth a thousand words
Actions speak louder than words
Il cavallo generoso finisce per fare tutto il
lavoro
Un'immagine vale mille parole
Le parole contano meno dei fatti/
Dal dire al fare c'è di mezzo il mare
Chi accetta elemosine non può scegliere
Beggars can't be choosers
[=O mangiar questa minestra o saltar dalla
finestra?]
No man is an Island... [John Donne]
Nessuno è un'isola a sè
The more the merrier
Più si è, meglio è (lett. "più si sta allegri")
Too many cooks spoil the broth
Essere
in
troppi
è
deleterio
(lett. "troppi cuochi rovinano il brodo")
Out of sight, out of mind
Lontano dagli occhi, lontano dal cuore
Absence makes the heart grow fonder
La lontananza fa intenerire il cuore
Look before you leap [Aesop]
Procedere
con
(lett. "Guarda prima di buttarti")
He who hesitates is lost
Chi esita è perduto
More haste, less speed
Più ci si affretta, e meno veloce si va
Time and tide wait for no man
Lett. "Il tempo e la marea non aspettano
nessuno"
Patience is a virtue
Dai tempo al tempo
Around the clock
24 ore su 24
Forewarned is forearmed
Uomo avvisato è mezzo salvato
Well begun is half done/
A good start is half the battle
Start from scratch
cautela
Chi ben comincia è a metà dell'opera
Cominciare da zero
There is none so deaf as he who will not Non c'è peggior sordo di chi non vuole
hear
442
sentire
If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall Quando un cieco guida un altro cieco, tutti e
into the ditch [Matt. 15:14]
He can't see the wood [or forest] for the
trees
A stitch in time saves nine
Practice makes perfect
Least said, soonest mended
It's no use crying over spilt milk
due cadranno in un fosso
È troppo vicino ai dettagli ed ha perso la
prospettiva (lett. "non vede la foresta a
causa degli alberi")
Un punto (di cucitura) fatto in tempo evita
di doverne fare nove
Vale più la pratica che la grammatica
Meno si dice [in collera ecc.], più facile è
riparare ai danni
Non serve piangere sul latte versato
Laugh and the whole world laughs with Se ridi, tutti ridono con te; se piangi, piangi
you; cry, and you cry alone
da solo
He who laughs last, laughs loudest
Ride bene chi ride ultimo
Have the last laugh
Ridere per ultimo
You can't judge a book by its cover
[= Un giudizio superficiale non è affidabile]
(Be all) at sixes and sevens
In disordine; in disaccordo
What goes up must come down
Ciò che sale deve ridiscendere
Fair exchange is no robbery
I baratti non sono furti
The pen is mightier than the sword
La penna è più forte della spada
Might is right
La forza ti da ragione
Possession is nine-tenths [o nine points] of Possedere una cosa è già quasi averla per
the law
diritto
Necessity is the mother of invention
Il bisogno aguzza l'ingegno
There is no honour among thieves
Honesty is the best policy
Cleanliness is next to godliness
Have a bee in one's bonnet (about...)
Neanche fra di loro i disonesti mantengono
la parola
L'onestà è la miglior linea di condotta
La pulizia è quasi importante quanto la
religiosità
Avere una fissazione (circa...)
(Have) bats in the belfry/have a screw= essere pazzi [lett. avere pipistrelli nel
443
loose
campanile/ una vite svitata]
Be a shingle short
Essere matto [lett. mancare di un'assicella]
Be one sandwich short of a picnic/ Essere matto [ci sono molte variazioni su
one brick short of a load...
questo tema]
Put all one's eggs in one basket
Puntare tutto su una carta sola
Keep a foot in both camps
Tenere un piede in due staffe
Discretion is the better part of valour/
[He] who fights and runs away lives to La prudenza è la miglior parte del coraggio
fight another day
People who live in glass houses shouldn't
throw stones
È pericoloso criticare gli altri quando si è
criticabili/
Chi è senza peccato scagli la prima pietra
[Carry] coals to Newcastle
Portar vasi a Samo; fare cosa inutile
Teach one's grandmother to suck eggs
Dare consigli a chi ha più esperienza di noi
Don't count your chickens before they Non contare su ciò che non è ancora sicuro/
hatch
Mai dire gatto se non ce l'hai nel sacco
Don't cross your bridges before you come = Non bisogna fasciarsi la testa prima
to them
d'essersela rotta
Burn one's bridges
Bruciarsi i ponti alle spalle
Travel broadens the mind
Viaggiare ti allarga gli orizzonti
Charity begins at home
La carità comincia a casa propria
Buy a pig in a poke
Comprare alla cieca/la gatta nel sacco
You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's Lett. "Non si può fare una borsa di seta
ear
dall'orecchio di una scrofa"
Be all ears
Essere tutt'orecchi
Be wet behind the ears
Essere neofita
Eavesdroppers
hear
no
good
themselves
Home and dry/Home and hosed
It never rains but it pours
444
about Chi origlia non sente parlare bene di se
stesso
[Lett. "rincasato e asciugato/riscacquato"]
Aver compiuto l'obiettivo
= Piove sul bagnato (lett. "se piove,
diluvia")
To rain cats and dogs
Piovere a dirotto/a catinelle
Let the cat out of the bag/spill the beans
Svelare un segreto/Vuotare il sacco
Put the cat among the pigeons
Provocare trambusto
Make a cat laugh
Far ridere i polli
There's no room to swing a cat
Non c'è spazio per rigirarsi
A cat may look at a king
Curiosity killed the cat
[- satisfaction brought him back]
[=Le differenze sociali non devono costituire una barriera invalicabile]
La propria curiosità uccise il gatto [- la
soddisfazione (della curiosità) lo riportò in
vita
Litigare ferocemente [Kilkenny è in Irlanda
Fight like Kilkenny cats
e gli irlandesi sarebbero litigiosi – figuriamoci i loro gatti...]
Rub s.o. up the wrong way [i.e. like a cat]
Put s.o.'s back up/Get o's back up
A dog in the manger [Aesop]
Lisciar q. contropelo; prendere q. per il
verso sbagliato
Offendere q/offendersi
Uno che impedisce agli altri [animali] di
mangiare cibo a lui inutile
A dog-eat-dog world
Un mondo senza pietà
In the doghouse
In disgrazia
= Le abitudini acquisite nel tempo difficil-
You can't teach an old dog new tricks
If you lie down with dogs, you'll get up
with fleas
Every dog has his day
Every man has his price
Can the leopard change his spots?
mente si cambiano
= Se dormi con i cani, ti beccherai le pulci
= Ognuno avrà il suo momento di gloria/successo...
Non c'è nessuno che non possa essere comprato
= Il lupo perde il pelo ma non il vizio
445
When in Rome, do as the Romans do
Paese che vai, usanza che trovi
All roads lead to Rome
Tutte le strade portano a Roma
Rome was not built in a day
Roma non fu fatta in un giorno
Go Dutch
Fare alla romana; pagare ciascuno per sé
Double Dutch
Take French leave
Be tarred with the same brush
Birds of a feather flock together
Linguaggio incomprensibile; turco, arabo
(in senso fig.)
Andarsene
alla
chetichella
[I
francesi
dicono: "filer à l'anglaise"!!]
[Lett. "incatramati con lo stesso pennello"]
Avere le stesse caratteristiche
Gente dello stesso stampo sta insieme/
Dimmi con chi vai, ti dirò chi sei
One swallow does not make a summer
Una rondine non fa primavera
Kill two birds with (the) one stone
Prendere due piccioni con una fava
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush Una cosa certa vale due cose aleatorie
The early bird catches the worm
First up, best dressed
Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man
healthy, wealthy and wise
First come, first served
= Chi dorme non piglia pesci
[Quando i ragazzi di una famiglia avevano i
vestiti in comune]
[Consigli gratuiti!]
Chi prima arriva è servito per primo
[cf Chi tardi arriva male alloggia]
Finders keepers[, losers weepers]
Chi lo trova se lo tiene[, chi lo perde piange]
Two heads are better than one
Due teste valgono più di una
Have o's head screwed on
There are no flies on him
A fly in the ointment
To have one's cake and eat it [too]
446
Avere la testa sulle spalle/Avere il cervello
a posto
È un tipo in gamba
Un piccolo difetto che sciupa tutto [Lett.
una mosca nell'unguento]
[Lett. Tener il dolce e mangiarlo] =Aver la
botte piena e la moglie ubriaca
A piece of cake
There's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the
lip
Between [o 'Twixt] the devil and the deep
blue sea
The Devil finds work for idle hands to do
[Un compito ecc.] estremamente semplice
Lett. Molte cose possono andare storto fra il
bicchiere e la bocca; = fra il dire e il fare c'è
di mezzo il mare
Fra l'incudine e il martello
Lett. Il diavolo trova del lavoro per le mani
disoccupate
Out of the frying-pan into the fire
Dalla padella nella brace
Fight fire with fire
Combattere con gli stessi metodi
There's no smoke without fire
Non c'è fumo senza arrosto
Capire che è vicina una fine infausta
See the writing on the wall
[V. la storia del re Baldassar, Daniele cap.
5]
Bring home the bacon
Save s.o.'s bacon
[Lett. Portare a casa la pancetta] = Guadagnare
Salvare q.
All work and no play makes Jack a dull =Tutti hanno bisogno di evasione ="Il
boy
lavoro senza gioia fa della vita una noia"
What's good for the goose is good for the Lett.: Ciò che fa bene all'oca, fa bene anche
gander
al maschio dell'oca.
To cook s.o.'s goose
Conciare q per le feste
He can't say boo to a goose
È timidissimo
Kill the goose that lays the golden eggs
A wild-goose chase
A chicken (pop.)
Play chicken with s.o.
Uccidere la gallina dalle uova d'oro; sacrificare la fonte certa di un guadagno futuro
Un'impresa inutile
Fifone/vigliacco
Sfidare qualcuno nell'essere l'ultimo a prendere azione evasiva (per evitare una colli-
447
sione)
A turkey (U.S.)
Un insuccesso/fiasco; un modello/esemplare
difettoso
Talk turkey with s.o.
Parlare chiaro (o di cose serie)
Go cold turkey
Smettere di colpo [di fumare/drogarsi...]
The last straw [that broke the camel's back] = La goccia che fa traboccare il vaso
= avvalersi della facoltà di non rispondere
To plead the Fifth Amendment
[Il 5° emendamento alla costituzione USA
consente di non rispondere se si rischia di
autoincriminarsi.]
= Il peggiore degli scemi è quello vecchio
There's no fool like an old fool
[Sottointeso: perchè oramai dovrebbe avere
più buon senso]
A fool and his money are soon parted
Waste not, want not
Uno stupido ed i suoi soldi si separano
presto
Il
risparmio
è
il
miglior
guadagno
[Lett. Non sprecare, e non sarai bisognoso]
Cut o's cloth according to o's pocket/ Fare
il
passo
secondo
la
gamba/
Cut o's coat according to o's cloth
Commisurare le spese alle entrate
Keep the wolf from the door
Tener lontana la miseria
A wolf in sheep's clothing
Un lupo in veste d'agnello
A babe in the woods
Un ingenuo
On Shanks's pony
= A piedi [shank=stinco, gamba]
[He hasn't got] Buckley's chance [of...]
[Non ha] alcuna chance [di...]
The life of Riley
La vita agiata
Hobson's choice
= Nessuna scelta; o questo o niente
Buggins' turn
Promozione per anzianità (e non per merito)
Bob's your uncle
Sei a cavallo
Rob Peter to pay Paul
For Pete's sake...
448
Fare un debito nuovo per pagarne uno
vecchio
=Per l'amor di Dio...
A miss is as good as a mile
To damn with faint praise
[Se si manca l'obiettivo, per un pollice o per
un miglio, è sempre mancato]
= Lodare in maniera talmente tiepida che
sembra piuttosto una critica
To call a spade a spade
= Dir pane al pane
To mind one's Ps and Qs
= Comportarsi al meglio.
To dot one's Is and cross one's Ts
= Scrivere (o agire) in maniera puntigliosa.
To a T
= perfettamente [es. "imitate someone to a
T"]
=Un'istruzione di base [una rappresenta-
The three Rs
zione
scherzosa
di
"readin',
writin',
'rithmetic"]
Easy come, easy go
To make a mountain out of a molehill
Better safe than sorry
Ciò che si guadagna facilmente, si perde
anche facilmente
Fare d'una mosca un elefante.
È meglio stare sul sicuro che doversi pentire
dopo
All that glitters [o "glistens"] is not gold
Non è tutt'oro quel che riluce
Any port in a storm
In tempo di tempesta, tutti i porti sono buoni
When my ship comes in
Quando diventerò ricco
Red sky in the morning, the shepherd's
warning
Red sky at night, the shepherd's delight
Every cloud has a silver lining
It's always darkest before the dawn
Rosso
di
sera,
bel
tempo
si
spera
Rosso di mattina, brutto tempo s'avvicina
Non tutto il male vien per nuocere [Lett.
Ogni nuvola ha un contorno d'argento]
L'ora più buia è quella prima dell'alba
Non tutto il male vien per nuocere [Lett.
It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good deve essere un vento veramente cattivo che
non torni utile a qualcuno.]
Give s.o. a piece of one's mind
Dirne quattro a qualcuno
Steal s.o.'s thunder
Rubare un'idea a q.
449
Avere un interesse personale/Tirare acqua al
Have an axe to grind
proprio mulino (U.S.)
Avercela/Avere delle questioni aperte [con
qualcuno] (Aust.)
If at first you don't succeed, try, try, try
again
Se non ci riesci subito, continua a provarci
Put one's best foot forward [Curioso:
perchè non "better", poichè abbiamo due Fare del proprio meglio
piedi soltanto?]
My foot!/My hat!
Put one's foot in it/Put one's foot in one's
mouth
Un corno! Un accidente!
Fare una gaffe
Put one's foot down
Dire "ora basta!"
Fall on one's feet [cioè come un gatto]
= Trovarsi in una situazione fortunata
Get cold feet
Prendersi paura
The boot is on the other foot/The tables are
turned
Give s.o. the boot/the sack
Have itchy feet [lett. "avere i piedi che
prudono"]
La situazione è rovesciata
Licenziare q.
Sentire il bisogno di viaggiare
Footloose [lett. "a piede sciolto"]
Vagabondo [aggettivo]
Well-heeled [lett. "ben tallonato"]
Ricco, benestante
Dig in o's heels
Impuntarsi
Be on o's toes
Essere svegli/pronti a intervenire
Tread on s.o.'s toes
Pestare i piedi a q.
Be on one's/its last legs
Essere spacciato/consumato/agli sgoccioli
Pull s.o.'s leg
Prendere q. in giro
Drop one's bundle
Lasciarsi andare [cioè perdere la grinta]
Roll up one's sleeves
Rimboccarsi le maniche
Pull up one's socks
Darci sotto
Put a sock in it [i.e. in o's mouth]/Stare zitto
450
Hold one's tongue
At the drop of a hat
Subito
Keep it under your hat!/Mum's the word!
Acqua in bocca!
To talk through one's hat
Ragionare coi piedi/Dire delle fesserie
È garrulo [Secondo la leggenda, chi bacia
He could talk the leg off an iron pot/ una pietra particolare del castello di Blarney
He has kissed the Blarney stone
in Irlanda diventa loquace, come molti
irlandesi]
Blarney
Sow one's wild oats
Save for a rainy day
Look after the pence and the pounds will
look after themselves
A penny saved is a penny earned
A bad penny
Linguaggio adulatorio/di poca sostanza
[Lett. Seminare avena selvatica] Dar sfogo
ai bollori giovanili
Risparmiare per i tempi difficili
Il risparmio incomincia dal centesimo
Lett. Una lira risparmiata è una lira
guadagnata
Una persona inaffidabile
Una bicicletta storica con una ruota grande
Penny-farthing
davanti ed una ruota piccola dietro [un
farthing era un quarto di un penny, quando
un penny valeva ancora qualcosa...]
Spend a penny
Andare al gabinetto [a pagamento, una
volta]
The penny dropped
Finalmente si capiva
Penny wise, pound foolish
Tirchio con i centesimi e prodigo con le lire
Lett. Se ci sei dentro per un penny, tanto
In for a penny, in for a pound
vale rischiare una sterlina = quando si è in
ballo, bisogna ballare
[You may] as well hang for a sheep as for a Dovendo essere impiccati, tanto vale che sia
lamb
per una pecora piuttosto che soltanto per un
451
agnello
Kick the bucket/Fall off one's perch/Turn
up o's toes
Tirare le cuoia; morire
Under the weather
Malaticcio; alticcio
To be on the ball
Stare all'erta/essere "svegli"
Put two and two together
Tirare delle conclusioni
Two's company, three's a crowd
In due ci si fa compagnia, in tre si è in
troppi
Take s.th with a pinch of salt
Non credere appieno a q.c.
Turn over a new leaf
Voltar pagina [in senso fig.]
Take a leaf out of s.o.'s book
Seguire l'esempio di q. [togliere una pagina
dal libro di q.]
Crocodile tears
Lacrime di coccodrillo
Like looking for a needle in a haystack
Come cercare un ago nel pagliaio
An apple a day keeps the doctor away
Una mela al giorno leva il medico di torno
Upset the applecart
Disturbare gli equilibri/creare problemi
Jump on the bandwagon
Mettersi dalla parte del più forte; salire sul
carro del vincitore
Beat about the bush
Non venire al punto; menare il can per l'aia
[Go at something] hammer and tongs
= intensamente
Rough and ready
= Approssimativo; basilare
Go walkabout
A rolling stone gathers no moss
Andarsene a fare un giro [anche fig.], come
gli aborigeni australiani (nomadi)
Pietra smossa non fa muschio; chi cambia
continuamente non fa fortuna
Smell a rat
Sospettare un tranello; mangiare la foglia
I smell a rat!
Gatta ci cova!
Sell like hot cakes
Andare a ruba
A bed of roses
Un letto di rose (fig.)
Be on easy street/in clover
Vivere nel lusso
The gravy train
Sinecura, mangiatoia [lett. treno dal sugo di
452
carne]
Money doesn't grow on trees
Time is money
Throw good money after bad
I soldi non crescono sugli alberi [quindi non
sono da sprecare]
Il tempo è denaro
Sprecare
altri
soldi [nel
tentativo
di
recuperare i primi]
Be born with a silver spoon in o's mouth
= Essere di famiglia ricca
The wooden spoon/the booby prize
= Il premio per essere arrivati ultimi
Cup of tea [fig.]
Cavallo di battaglia; argomento prediletto
It's not my cup of tea
Non è pane per i miei denti
Stick out like a sore thumb
Essere fin troppo evidente
To be all thumbs
Essere goffo
Have green fingers
Avere il pollice verde
Keep o's fingers crossed
Incrociare le dita
Once in a blue moon
= Ogni morte di papa/vescovo
Bark up the wrong tree
Blow one's top
See red/grow hot under the collar/ fly off
the handle
=Sbagliare
obiettivo
[Lett. Abbaiare sotto l'albero sbagliato]
Arrabbiarsi
[come
l'esplosione
un
soccombere
al
vulcano]
Arrabbiarsi
Like a red rag to a bull
Alquanto provocatorio
Paint the town red
Folleggiare
=Meglio
Better dead than red
di
morire
che
communismo
[Espressione comune durante la Guerra
Fredda.]
Be caught red-handed
A red herring
Essere colti con le mani nel sacco/in
flagrante
Un elemento fuorviante [Lett. Un'aringa
rossa]
453
A red-letter day
Un giorno campale
A white elephant
Una cattedrale nel deserto
Senti chi parla!/da che pulpito viene la
The pot calls the kettle black!
predica
[Lett.: La pentola dà del nero al bollitore]
A different kettle of fish/A horse of a
different colour
A pretty kettle of fish!
A watched pot never boils
Un altro paio di maniche
Un bel pasticcio!
Pentola
guardata
non
bolle
Il desiderio rende lunga l'attesa
Have a close shave
Scamparla bella; cavarsela per un pelo
Make s.o.'s hair stand on end
Far rizzare i capelli a q.
Let one's hair down
Rilassarsi, lasciarsi andare
Split hairs
A stick-in-the-mud
A friend in need is a friend indeed
A fair-weather friend
Bury o's head in the sand
mai/
Essere pignolo, cavilloso [Lett. "spaccare i
capelli"]
Individuo arretrato, che non si aggiorna
Al bisogno si conosce l'amico
Amico della buona sorte [inaffidabile]
Chiudere gli occhi alla realtà [fare come lo
struzzo]
[Little] children should be seen but not I bambini possono farsi vedere ma non farsi
heard
A feather in o's cap
sentire
Un segno d'onore; una vittoria ecc. riconosciuta
Be at each other's throats
Stare in lotta (fig.)
Be at daggers drawn (with...)
Essere ai ferri corti con...
[Have s.o.] over a barrel
[Mettere q] in difficoltà, a svantaggio
Bury the hatchet/smoke the pipe of peace
Fare la pace [come gli indiani]
Have a chip on o's shoulder
Aver voglia di litigare; portare rancore
A chip off the old block
Figlio dello stesso stampo del padre
454
Give s.o. the cold shoulder
Rub elbows with...
Trattare q. con freddezza
Essere in confidenza con...[es. persone
importanti]
Bend over backwards (to help)
Farsi in quattro (per aiutare)
Tip of the iceberg
La punta dell'iceberg
Break the ice
Rompere il ghiaccio
Pull the wool over s.o.'s eyes
Ingannare q
Dyed-in-the-wool
Inveterato; impenitente
Get out of the wrong side of bed
Essere imbronciati
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder
Beauty is only skin-deep
È l'osservatore che giudica se una cosa è
bella o meno; tutti i gusti sono gusti
= Superficiale; cioè, è la sostanza che conta
Bisogna essere disposti a soffrire per
No pain, no gain
raggiungere l'obiettivo [cf. Chi bello vuol
venir, un pochino deve soffrir]
Nothing ventured, nothing gained
Chi non risica non rosica
Chi non risica non rosica [Lett. Chi è di
cuore pavido non ha mai conquistato una
Faint heart never won fair lady
bella donna]
Slow and steady wins the race [Aesop]
Chi va piano va sano e va lontano
Win hands down
Stravincere
Sit on o's hands
[Know something] like the back of one's
hand
Non fare niente (per aiutare); non muovere
un dito
= Intimamente, come le proprie tasche
Familiarity breeds contempt
Confidenza toglie riverenza
With no strings attached
Senza condizioni/vincoli
Jack of all trades, master of none
Man Friday/girl Friday
Uno che sa fare un po' di tutto, ma niente
bene
Assistente tuttofare
[v. "Robinson Crusoe" di Daniel Defoe]
455
Strike while the iron is hot
Battere il ferro finchè è caldo
Ad ogni costo (Lett. Con mezzi leciti o
By fair means or foul
illeciti]
All's fair in love and war
In amore e in guerra tutto è lecito
Fair's fair
Ciò che è giusto è giusto
Tit for tat
[Rendere] pan per focaccia
Do
as
you
would
be
done
by/
Do unto others as you would have them do Fa agli altri quel che vorresti fosse fatto a te
unto you
You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours = Una mano lava l'altra
Due neri non fanno un bianco/La miglior
Two wrongs don't make a right
vendetta è il perdono
Last but not least
Hide
o's
light
Ultimo ma non meno importante
under
a
bushel Lett. Mettere la lucerna sotto il moggio
[see Matt. 5.15 etc.]
To be up the creek (without a paddle)/
up a gumtree [Aust]
In hot water
Hit s.o. for six
It's six of one and half a dozen of the other
= Tenere celate le proprio virtù
Trovarsi nei guai
Nei guai
Sbalordire; stracciare
[colpire la palla per sei punti nel cricket]
È praticamente la stessa cosa; se non è
zuppa, è pan bagnato
A baker's dozen
Tredici
Throw in the towel
Rinunciare, ritirarsi [come un pugile]
Till the cows come home
A lungo
By the skin of o's teeth
Per un pelo
Keep o's eyes peeled/skinned
Tener gli occhi ben aperti
Get under s.o.'s skin
Irritare q
Be thin-skinned/Have a thin skin (fig.)
Essere molto sensibili/permalosi
It's no skin off my nose
Non mi riguarda; me ne frego
On the nose
Puzzolente
456
Have one's nose out of joint [about...]
Essere scontento [di...]
Danneggiare se stessi pur di far male ad un
Cut off o's nose to spite o's face
altro
Lett. Tagliarsi via il naso per fare dispetto
alla faccia
Keep one's nose to the grindstone
Lavorare sodo
Look down o's nose at s.o.
Guardare q dall'alto in basso
A hop, step and [a] jump/A stone's throw
Un tiro di schioppo
Head over heels....[in debt, in love etc]
Disperatamente, irreparabilmente
Love all, trust none
Ama tutti, fidati di nessuno
Have a soft spot for s.o.
Avere un debole per q.
Have/get a swelled head [Curioso, perchè il
participio passato sarebbe normalmente Montarsi la testa
"swollen"]
A1 at Lloyds
In perfette condizioni [prima classifica delle
navi]
Send s.o. to Coventry
Dar l'ostracismo a q.
Know which side o's bread is buttered on
Sapere a chi/che cosa si deve il benessere
Bread and butter
(Fonte del) guadagno di base
The proof of the pudding is in the eating
Quello che conta sono i fatti, non le parole
Bite off more than one can chew
Fare il passo più lungo della gamba
Bite the hand that feeds you
Mostrarsi ingrato
Essendo stati morsi [danneggiati]una volta,
Once bitten, twice shy
Stick to one's guns
la seconda volta si sta cauti = Il gatto
scottato teme l'acqua fredda
Mantenere la propria posizione; tener duro
To be hoist with one's own petard Restar vittima delle proprie macchinazioni;
[Lett. Saltare in aria con il proprio petardo] darsi la zappa sui piedi
Full of beans
It's like getting blood out of a stone
Pieno
di
energie
[U.K./Australia]
[Essere] contaballe [U.S.]
È come cavar sangue da una rapa [=
457
estremamente difficile]
Blood is thicker than water
Il sangue non è acqua
The English Titles
The
titles
Miss
and
Mrs.
are
both
abbreviations of the word mistress. The
missis (or the missus) is a dialectal or
informal term for one's wife, or the mistress
(female
head)
of
a
household.
The
pronunciation (MISS-iz, MISS-is) reflects
an altered pronunciation of mistress.
The word mistress had many meanings in
Middle English, some of which are still
familiar today: female head of a household,
goddess,
sweetheart,
occupation,
teacher,
expert
and
in
some
governess.
Basically, mistress referred to a woman who
had expertise, power, and control. But it was
also used as a title of courtesy when
addressing an unmarried or married woman.
The sense to which you refer, the 'other
woman; the woman who occupies the place
of wife' came into English about 1600.The
abbreviation or shortened form miss was
first used in 1645 (in John Evelyn's Diary)
to mean 'a concubine; a kept mistress'.
About twenty years later, Samuel Pepys first
used the term as a capitalized title before the
name of a girl or unmarried woman. Around
the same time, John Dryden first used Miss
as a term of address. There are also
examples in which it referred to a female
baby.
458
The abbreviation Mrs. was first used in
1615 before the name of a married woman,
as it is today. However, to confuse matters,
it was also the abbreviation of mistress in all
the many senses of that word, and it also
distinguished an unmarried woman from a
child:
"Mrs.
Veal
was
a
maiden
gentlewoman." (Daniel Defoe, The History
of Colonel Jack)
The male equivalent of mistress was master,
which meant, among other things, 'male
head of a household'. In the 16th century,
master
changed
to
mister
and
the
abbreviation Mr. arose to identify a man but
not his marital status. So it appears that the
uses of Mr. and Mrs. were somewhat
parallel until the 19th century. At that time,
Mrs. began to refer only to a married
woman.
Many people have wondered about the
abbreviation Ms. It may be a blend of Miss
and Mrs.
If you address to a man, while talking, you
have to say Sir, while if you address to a
woman, you say Madam.
When you talk to somebody about a man or
a woman, you say a gentleman, a lady.Es:
Excuse me Sir, can You give me some
information?
Please, Madam, sit down on the bench.
There was a kind lady coming towards me.
The gentleman you saw yesterday in Oxford
459
Street is my father.
Communicative Function Examples
Language has many functions. Look at the following chart which lists
common reasons to communicate and examples of phrases to teach.
460
Function
Example
Agree
OK
Announce completion
I'm all done.
Apologize
I'm sorry.
Ask for confirmation
Is that ok?
Ask for information
Where is it?
Ask for something
Can I have a cookie?
Assert ownership
Give it back.
Assert position
My turn..
Compliment
That's pretty.
Depart
Bye
Describe
A big blue train
Disagree
No way
Express anticipation
I can't wait.
Express appreciation
Thank you
Express confusion
I don't understand.
Express pride
I did it.
Get attention
Look at me
Get help
Help me.
Give information
It's over there
Greet
Hi
Invite to join
Do you want to play?
Offer to help
Can I help you?
Question certainity
Are you sure?
Reject
Go away
Reply
Yes & no
Report internal events
I'm sick
Request action
Tickle me
Request to join
Can I play?
State don't know
I don't know.
Sympathize
Oh that's too bad
User manners
Please
Warn
Watch out!
SOCIALIZING
Step 1
In English there are not many rules to follow in order to sound formal or informal.
The choice of first names rather than Mr or Mrs X is the first distinction. When you
meet someone for the first time you say:
− How do you do?
− Nice/pleased to meet you.
461
To which you can reply:
− How do you do?
− Pleased to meet you too.
− If the situation is very informal you can say:
− Hi. I’m Jane, nice to meet you. – I’m Sarah, hi! Nice to meet you too.
When you greet someone you have already met before, you may say:
− Good morning/afternoon/evening. These are the most formal greetings but you
can use "Good morning" with people you know well without sounding
detached.
− Good morning, John. Did you sleep well last night?
− Good morning, Mrs Hancher. I’m sorry I’m late!
− You can use "Hello" in all situations while "Hi" is rather informal.
Step 2
When you leave you may choose between the following farewells: "Goodbye!" or
"Bye!" or even "See you later".
You can add "Have a nice day" or "Have a nice week-end" if you are speaking to a
friend or a colleague and answer "Thank you, same to you".
"Cheerio" is a very informal way of saying goodbye.
You say "Goodnight" only before you go to bed.
This is what you say on different happy occasions:
− "Happy birthday", on someone’s birthday;
− "Happy or Merry Christmas" and "Happy Easter" just before or on
Christmas or Easter Day;
− "Happy New Year" on New Year’s Eve and at the beginning of the year;
− "Cheers!" when you have a drink with someone and want to express good
wishes;
− "Good luck!" to wish someone well before an important test;
− "Congratulations!" and often "Well done!" to someone who has just succeeded
in doing something.
462
Formulaic Expressions
To express greetings, farewell, thanks, or apologies, we use a wide range
excuse
of FORMULAIC EXPRESSIONS. These may consist of a single word or
me
of several words acting as a unit. Here are some examples:
thanks
bye;
thank
goodbye;
you
hello;
thanks a
farewell;
lot
hi;
sorry
so long.
pardon
Some formulaic expressions express agreement or disagreement with a previous
speaker:
yes, yeah, no, okay, right, sure
INTERJECTIONS generally occur only in spoken English, or in the representation of
speech in novels. They include the following:
ah, eh, hmm, oh, ouch, phew, shit, tsk, uhm, yuk
Interjections express a wide range of emotions, including surprise (oh!), exasperation
(shit!), and disgust (yuk!).
Formulaic expressions, including interjections, are unvarying in their form, that is, they
do not take any inflections.
NATIONALITIES
− Country: I live in England.
− Adjective: He reads English literature.
− Noun: She is an Englishwoman.
463
COUNTRY
ADJECTIVE
NOUN
Africa
African
an African
America
American
an American
Argentina
Argentinian
an Argentinian
Austria
Austrian
an Austrian
Autralia
Australian
an Australian
Bangladesh
Bangladesh(i)
a Bangladeshi
Belgium
Belgian
a Belgian
Brazil
Brazilian
a Brazilian
Britain
British
a Briton/Britisher
Cambodia
Cambodian
a Cambodian
Chile
Chilean
a Chilean
China
Chinese
a Chinese
Colombia
Colombian
a Colombian
Croatia
Croatian
a Croat
the Czech Republic
Czech
a Czech
Denmark
Danish
a Dane
England
English
an Englishman/Englishwoman
Finland
Finnish
a Finn
France
French
a Frenchman/Frenchwoman
Germany
German
a German
Greece
Greek
a Greek
Holland
Dutch
a Dutchman/Dutchwoman
Hungary
Hungarian
a Hungarian
Iceland
Icelandic
an Icelander
464
India
Indian
an Indian
Indonesia
Indonesian
an Indonesian
Iran
Iranian
an Iranian
Iraq
Iraqi
an Iraqi
Ireland
Irish
an Irishman/Irishwoman
Israel
Israeli
an Israeli
Jamaica
Jamaican
a Jamaican
Japan
Japanese
a Japanese
Mexico
Mexican
a Mexican
Morocco
Moroccan
a Moroccan
Norway
Norwegian
a Norwegian
Peru
Peruvian
a Peruvian
the Philippines
Philippine
a Filipino
Poland
Polish
a Pole
Portugal
Portuguese
a Portuguese
Rumania
Rumanian
a Rumanian
Russia
Russian
a Russian
Saudi Arabia
Saudi, Saudi Arabian
a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian
Scotland
Scottish
a Scot
Serbia
Serbian
a Serb
the Slovak Republic
Slovak
a Slovak
Sweden
Swedish
a Swede
Switzerland
Swiss
a Swiss
Thailand
Thai
a Thai
The USA
American
an American
465
Tunisia
Tunisian
a Tunisian
Turkey
Turkish
a Turk
Vietnam
Vietnamese
a Vietnamese
Wales
Welsh
a Welshman/Welshwoman
Yugoslavia
Yugoslav
a Yugoslav
Note: We use the + nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with a plural verb, to
refer to all people of that nationality:
− The Chinese are very hard-working.
− The Spanish often go to sleep in the afternoon.
Preposition Collocations with BE.
Be absent from
Be absolved of
Be accepted as/to
Be according to
Be accused of
Be accustomed to
Be acquainted with
Be adamant about
Be addicted to
Be affected by
Be afraid of
Be after
Be alarmed at
Be aligned with
Be (all) set for
Be amazed at/by
Be an authority on
Beangry about/at/with
Be annoyed at/with
Be anxious about
Be appropriate for
Be armed with
Be around
Be arrested for
Be ashamed of
Be associated with
Be astonished at/by
Be at it (again)
Be attached to
Be attracted to
be back (from)
be bad at
be bad for
be banned from
be based (up)on
be behind (schedule)
be bent on
be biased about
be big on
be blamed for
be blessed with
be bored with
be bound for
466
be capable of
be carried away
be caught up in
about/with
be centered around
be certain of
be charged with
be classified as
be clear about
be clear to
be clever at
be close to
be cluttered (up) with
be a combination of
be compared to
be compensated for
be composed of
be comprised of
be concerned
about/with
be confident of
be confused about
be congratulated
for/on
be connected to/with
be conned into
be considerate of
be considered for
be content with
be contrary to
be convenient for/to
be convinced of
be convicted of/for
be coordinated with
be covered with
be crammed into
be crazy about
be credited with
be criticized for/as
be dedicated to
be delighted with
be dependent (up)on
be devoted to
be different
be disappointed
from/than
about/at/in/with
be discriminated
be disgusted with
be crowded with
be discouraged about
against
be disillusioned with
be disqualified for
be disposed of
be distinguished from
be divided into
be divorced (from)
be done with
be down
be down on/with
be dragged into
be dressed (up) in
be drunk with/on
be east of
be elected as/to
be eligible for
467
be embarrassed about/at be encouraged by
be entailed in
be engaged to/in
be entrusted with
be envious of
be equal/equivalent to
be equipped with
be estranged from
be evicted from
be excited about
be expelled from
be faithful to
be faced with
be familiar with/to
be famous for
be fanatic(al) about
be fascinated with
be fed up with
be filled with
be finished with
be fired for/from
be followed by
be fond of
be for the sake of
be fraught with
be free from/of
be friendly to/with
be frightened by/at
be full of
be glad to
be good at
be good to
be gone to/with
be grateful for/to
be guilty of
be half-hearted about
be hailed as
be happy about/with
be hard on
be headed
be hired as/for
be furnished with
for/to/toward
be hitched to
be immersed in
be imposed (up)on
be impressed by/with
be in
be in accordance with be in agreement with
be an indication of
be an issue of
be in back of
be in bed with
be in cahoots with
be in charge of
be in common with
be in conjunction
be in contact with
with
be in control of
be in danger of
be in exchange for
be in favor of
be in front of
be in honor of
468
be in hope(s) of
be in love with
be in need of
be in on
be in place of
be in possession of
be in proximity to
be in reference to
be in regard to
be in response to
be in return for
be in search of
be in store for
be in sync with
be in tandem with
be in the habit of
be in the middle of
be in the midst of
be in the vicinity of
be in time for
be in touch with
be in trouble with/for
be in tune with
be incensed with
be inducted into
be inferior to
be infested with
be informed about
be innocent of
be insecure about
be insistent (up)on
be interested in
be into
be involved in
be irritated at/with
be isolated from
be kind to
be knowledgeable
be jealous of
be kind of
about
be known as/for
be labeled as
be leery of
be left of/with
be less than
be limited to
be located at/near
be mad at/about
be made of/from
be married to
be a matter of
be the matter with
be mean to
be meant to
be a measure of
be mindful of
be named as/after
be next to
be nice to
be notorious for
be north of
be nuts about
be lower than
be more than
469
be obedient to
be oblivious about/to be obsessed with
be obvious to
be off
be okay with
be on
be on behalf of
be on the brink of
be on the edge of
be on the verge of
be on time for
be on to
be on top of
be open about/for/to
be opposed to
be opposite from
be oppressed by
be out
be out of
be out of concern for
be out of contact with
be out of sync with
be out of touch with
be outraged about
be outspoken about
be over with
be parallel to
be partial to
be patient with
be a pattern of
be pegged as
be perturbed at/about
be pleased with
be polite to
be popular with
be praised for/about
be precious to
be preoccupied with
be prepared for
be prohibited from
be promoted to
be provided with
be proud of
be psyched about
be punished for
be put off by
be qualified for
be a question of
be ready for
be regarded as
be related to
be relevant to
be relieved of
be remembered for
be rescued from
be reserved for
be responsible for
be retired from
be rid of
be rife with
be right to
be riled up (about)
be roped into
be satisfied with
be saved from
be scared of
be selected as/for
be sensible about
be separated from
be rude to
470
be set on
be shocked at
be short of
be sick of/about
be a sign of
be similar to
be soft on
be sorry about/for
be sort of
be south of
be specialized in
be spoken for
be startled at
be strange to
be a stranger to
be stressed out about
be stuck on/with
be stunned at
be subject to
be sufficient for
be suitable for
be superior to
be sure of
be surprised at/about
be suspected of
be suspended from
be a symbol of
be taken aback by/at
be taken in by
be tantamount to
be tapped as/by
be terrified of/with
be there for
be a threat to
be through with
be ticked off about
be tired of
be tuned (in)to
be to the left of
be uncalled for
be under arrest
be under fire for
be under investigation
be up against
be up front with
be up in arms about
be up on
be up to
be upset about/with
be uptight about
be used for
be used to
be useful to
be valued as/at
be vindicated of
be wary of/about
be west of
be whipped into
be wiped out
be with it
be with reference to
be with respect to
be worked up about
be worried about
be wrapped up in
be wrong with
be to the right of
for
471
AGGETTIVO COMPARATIVO
SUPERLATIVO
Only one syllable, ending in E.
Add -R:
Add -ST:
Examples:
wider, finer,
widest, finest, cutest
wide, fine, cute
cuter
Only one syllable, with one
Double the
Double the
vowel and one consonant at the
consonant, and
consonant, and add -
end. Examples:
add -ER:
EST:
hot, big, fat
hotter, bigger,
hottest, biggest,
fatter
fattest
Only one syllable, with more than
Add -ER:
Add -EST:
one vowel or more than one
lighter, neater,
lightest, neatest,
consonant at the end. Examples:
faster
fastest
Two syllables, ending in Y.
Change Y to I,
Change Y to I, then
Examples:
then add -ER:
add -EST:
happy, silly, lonely
happier, sillier,
happiest, silliest,
lonelier
loneliest
Two syllables or more, not
Use MORE
Use MOST before
ending in Y. Examples:
before the
the adjective:
modern, interesting, beautiful
adjective:
most modern, most
more modern,
interesting, most
more interesting,
beautiful
light, neat, fast
more beautiful
472
How to use comparatives and superlatives
Comparatives
Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences
with THAN, or you can use a conjunction like BUT. Examples:
Jiro is taller than Yukio.
Yukio is tall, but Jiro is talle..
Superlatives
Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative
sentences usually use THE, because there is only one superlative.
Examples:
Masami is the tallest in the class.
Yukio is tall, and Jiro is taller, but Masi is the tallest.
Verb Tense Overview with Examples
Simple Present
Simple Past
Simple Future
I study English every day.
Two years ago, I studied
If you are having problems,
English in England.
I will help you study
English.
I am going to study English
next year.
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Future Continuous
I am studying English now. I was studying English when I will be studying English
you called yesterday.
when you arrive tonight.
I am going to be studying
English when you arrive
tonight.
473
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
I have studied English
I had studied a little English I will have studied every tense
in several different
before I moved to the U.S.
countries.
Future Perfect
by the time I finish this course.
I am going to have studied every
tense by the time I finish this
course.
Present Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous
Continuous
I have been studying
I had been studying English I will have been studying
English for five years.
for five years before I
English for over two hours by
moved to the U.S.
the time you arrive.
I am going to have been
studying English for over two
hours by the time you arrive.
The Infinitive without to after auxiliaries/modals
CAN
He can run very fast.
COULD
As a boy he could run very fast.
MAY
I may fly to Africa this summer.
MIGHT
I might fly to Africa this summer.
MUST
I must go now.
MUSTN'T
You mustn't smoke here.
NEEDN'T
You needn't go.
SHALL
We shall sing a song.
SHOULD
We should sing a song.
WILL
She will cook a meal for his birthday.
WOULD
She would cook a meal for his birthday.
474
After to do:
Do
I don't know.
After the following expressions:
Had better
You had better clean up your room.
Would rather
Susan would rather study for her exam tomorrow.
Would sooner
I would sooner read a book than watch this film.
Why not
Why not ask your neighbour for help?
Why should we
Why should we go by car?
Why should we not
Why should we not go by car?
After verbs of perception + object (action has finished)
Feel
She feels the rain fall on her face.
Hear
I heard Peter sing a song.
Notice
Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree.
See
They saw him climb up the roof.
Watch
He watched the thieves steal a car.
After let + object:
let
Sandy let her child go out alone.
Mother let her daughter decide on her own.
let's
Let's go for a walk through the park.
After make + object:
make
She made Peggy and Samantha clean the room.
475
English-Italian false friends
False friends are two words (from two different languages) that look similar or the
same, but have different meanings. There are many false friends between English and
Italian, here are the most common:
actually = in realtà currently = attualmente;
−
addiction = dipendenza / assuefazione, sum = addizione;
−
annoyed = seccato / infastidito, bored = annoiato;
−
argument = discussione / litigio, subject = argomento;
−
ass = asino / = fig. somaro / sciocco, ace = asso;
−
bald = calvo, courageous = baldo;
−
barracks = caserma, shack = baracca;
−
brave = coraggioso, good / clever = bravo;
−
camera = macchina fotografica, room = camera;
−
canteen = mensa, cellar = cantina
−
casual = informale, chance / coincidental = casuale
−
code = codice, tail = coda;
−
cold = freddo, hot = caldo;
−
college = università, boarding school = collegio;
−
comprehensive = esauriente, understanding = comprensivo;
−
concurrence = coincidenza / concorso di eventi, competition = concorrenza;
−
confidence = fiducia, intimacy = confidenza;
−
convenience = comodità, profit / cheapness = convenienza;
−
corpse = cadavere, body = corpo;
−
cucumber = cetriolo, watermelon = cocomero;
−
definitely = certamente, ultimately = definitivamente;
−
delusion = illusione, disappointment = delusione;
−
dependant = familiare a carico, employee = dipendente;
−
diffidence = timidezza / ritrosia, distrust = sfiducia;
−
discomfort = disagio, distress = sconforto;
−
disgrace = vergogna / disonore, misfortune = disgrazia;
−
editor = redattore / curatore, publisher = editore;
−
educated = colto, polite = educato;
476
−
−
eventually = alla fine, possibly / if necessary = eventualmente;
−
fabric = tessuto, factory = fabbrica;
−
factory = fabbrica, farm = fattoria,
−
fame = fama, hunger = fame ;
−
familiar = intimo, family = della famiglia;
−
finally = alla fine, at last = finalmente;
−
front = facciata / parte anteriore / fronte = militare, forehead = la fronte,
−
gracious = clemente / misericordioso, pretty = grazioso;
−
horse = cavallo, bear = orso;
−
ingenuity = ingegnosità / inventiva, naiveté = ingenuità;
−
inhabited = abitato, uninhabited = inabitato;
−
injury = ferita / lesione, insult = ingiuria;
−
insulation = isolamento, sunstroke = insolazione;
−
janitor = custode / portiere, parent = genitore,
−
large = grande, wide = largo
−
lecture = conferenza, reading = lettura
−
library = biblioteca, bookshop/ (Am) bookstore = libreria
−
luxury = lusso, lust = lussuria;
−
magazine = rivista, warehouse = magazzino;
−
mare = cavalla, sea = mare;
−
mess = confusione / disordine, mass = messa;
−
morbid = morboso, soft = morbido;
−
noisy = rumoroso / chiassoso, boring = noioso;
−
notice = avviso / annuncio / cartello, news = notizia,
−
novel = romanzo, short story = novella;
−
palace = palazzo / reggia, building = palazzo;
−
pane = lastra di vetro, bread = pane;
−
parent = genitore, relation / relative = parente;
−
patent = brevetto, driver's license = patente;
−
plain = chiaro / semplice, flat = piano
−
possibly = forse, if possible = possibilmente;
−
preservative = conservante, condom = preservativo;
477
−
presumption = supposizione / congettura, conceit = presunzione
−
proper = appropriato / caratteristico, one’s own = proprio;
−
retribution = castigo, pay = retribuzione;
−
romance = storia d’amore, novel = romanzom;
−
sale = vendita, salt = sale;
−
sensible = sensato / percepibile, sensitive = sensibile;
−
storm = temporale, flock = stormo;
−
taste = gusto, key = tasto;
−
testimony = testimonianza, witness = testimone;
−
to advertise = pubblicizzare, to warn = avvertire;
−
to apprehend = arrestare, to learn = apprendere;
−
to attend = assistere / seguire / frequentare, to wait = attendere;
−
to avert = allontanare / evitare / distogliere, to warn = avvertire;
−
to license = dare una licenza / autorizzare, to dismiss / to sack = licenziare;
−
to magnify = ingrandire, to praise = magnificare;
−
to pretend = fingere / simulare, to claim = pretendere;
−
tub = vasca da bagno, pipe = tubo;
−
vacancy = vuoto / posto vacante, vacation = vacanza;
−
vest = canottiera / maglietta / giubbotto, dress = veste;
−
vine = vite, wine = vino;
−
voluble = loquace, fickle = volubile.
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
Definition of suffix.
A suffix is something which goes at the end of a word.
It usually a group of letters such as -less or -able
The suffix usually changes the meaning of the word - or it makes a new word.
EXAMPLES:
− hope hopeless;
− change changeable;
− help helpful.
478
USE
Sometimes adding a suffix changes the spelling of the original word.
You can work out the meanings of long words if you can spot prefixes and suffixes.
You can have more than one suffix - as in hope+less+ness.
Here are some more common suffixes - plus what they mean:
− ism often turns a verb into an abstract noun, as in 'baptise' becomes baptism.
− It can do the same for nouns, as in 'hero' becomes heroism.
− ment means 'a condition' or 'a result' - as in govern + ment = government.
− ly often turns a noun into an adverb or adjective, as in 'hour' becomes hourly,
and 'mother' becomes motherly.
− Able means 'worth', as in love + able = loveable, or 'worth loving'.
− Less changes a word into its opposite, as in 'hope' becomes hopeless.
− Ness means a 'state', 'condition, or 'quality', as in kind + ness = kindness.
− Ing creates a present participle out of a verb, as in swim + ing = swimming.
− Ish means 'having the character of', as in self + ish = selfish.
− Ous creates an adjective, and means having the quality of, as in adventure +
ous = adventurous.
Prefixes and suffixes can be added to the same word.
Here's an example which creates one of the longest words in the English language:
Anti-Dis-Establishment-Arian-Ism.
Here's the word with the prefixes and suffixes shown:
Anti-Dis-Establishment-Arian-Ism.
It means 'Opposition to the idea that the Church should cease to be formally
recognized by the State'. Phew!
NB! suffixes SOMETIMES change the root word.
479
Definition of prefixes.
A prefix is something which goes in front of a word.
It usually a group of letters such as pre- or sub- or anti-,
The prefix usually changes the meaning of the word - or it makes a new word:
− satisfied dissatisfied;
− spelling misspelling;
− necessary unnecessary .
USE
A prefix never changes the root word to which it is attached.
You can work out the meanings of long words if you can spot prefixes and suffixes.
Some prefixes such as mega- and hyper- are often used in casual speech:
− "My pal's got this mega collection of CDs!"
− "My mum's been hyper all morning."
It's OK to use them in speech - but don't use them in formal writing.
Here are some more common prefixes - plus what they mean.
Anti- means against - as in anti-clockwise, or going in the opposite direction to
The fingers of a clock.
Auto- means self - as in automatic, when a machine controls itself.
Bi- means two - as in bilingual, or speaking two languages.
Tri- means three - as in tricycle, which is a bike with three wheels.
Bio- means life - as in biography, which is a written account os somebody's life.
Ex- means out of - as in expire, or to breathe out.
In- means not - as in infidel, or somebody who does not believe in a religion.
Dis means not - as in disagree, or not agreeing with somebody.
Inter- means between or among, - as in inter-city, or a train which
Travels between two cities.
Mono- means one or single - as in monorail, a train which operates on a single rail.
Poly- means many - as in polysyllable, or a word with lots of syllables.
Pre- means before - as in prefix, something which goes before a word.
480
Ante- means before - as in ante-room, a small room leading to one which is more
important.
Mega- means large or big in number - as in megabyte, or a million bytes, or a
thousand kilobytes.
Hyper- means beyond or excessive - as in hypercritical, or very critical, especially
of small faults.
NB! prefixes NEVER change the root word
Verbi Irregolari Inglesi
INFINITIVE
SIMPLE PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
Abide
Abided/Abode
Abided/Abode
Arise
Arose
Arisen
Awake
Awoke
Awoken
Be
Was/Were
Been
Bear
Bore
Born/Borne
Beat
Beat
Beat
Become
Became
Become
Befall
Befell
Befallen
Beget
Begot/Begat
Begot(Ten)
Begin
Began
Begun
Behold
Beheld
Beheld
Bend
Bent
Bent
Bereave
Bereft
Bereft
Beseech
Besought
Besought
Bespeak
Bespoke
Bespoken
Bestride
Bestrode
Bestridden
481
Bet
Bet
Bet
Betake
Betook
Betaken
Bid
Bade
Bid/Bidden
Bind
Bound
Bound
Bite
Bit
Bit
Bleed
Bled
Bled
Bless
Blessed/Blest
Blessed/Blest
Blow
Blew
Blown
Break
Broke
Broken
Breed
Bred
Bred
Bring
Brought
Brought
Broadcast
Broadcast
Broadcast
Build
Built
Built
Burn
Burnt
Burnt
Burst
Burst
Burst
Buy
Bought
Bought
Cast
Cast
Cast
Catch
Caught
Caught
Chide
Chid
Chid/Chidden
Choose
Chose
Chosen
Cleave
Cleft
Cleft
Cling
Clung
Clung
Clothe
Clad
Clad
Come
Came
Come
Cost
Cost
Cost
Creep
Crept
Crept
Crow
Crew
Crowed
Cut
Cut
Cut
Dare
Dared (Durst)
Dared
Dealt
Dealt
Deal
482
Dig
Dug
Dug
Do
Did
Done
Draw
Drew
Drawn
Dream
Dreamed/Dreamt
Dreamed/Dreamt
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Drive
Drove
Driven
Dwell
Dwelt
Dwelt
To Eat
Ate
Eaten
To Fall
Fell
Fallen
To Feed
Fed
Fed
To Feel
Felt
Felt
To Fight
Fought
Fought
To Find
Found
Found
To Fit
Fit
Fit
To Flee
Fled
Fled
To Fling
Flung
Flung
To Fly
Flew
Flown
To Forbear
Forbore
Forbirne
To Forbid
Forbade
Forebidden
To Forecast
Forecast
Forecast
To Forego
Forewent
Foregone
To Foresee
Foresaw
Foreseen
To Foretell
Foretold
Foretold
To Forget
Forgot
Forgotten
To Forgive
Forgave
Forgiven
To Forsake
Forsook
Forsaken
To Forswear
Forswore
Forsworn
To Freeze
Froze
Frozen
To Get
Got
Got(Ten)
To Gild
Gilt
Gilt
To Gird
Girt
Girt
483
To Give
Gave
Given
To Gnaw
Gnawed
Gnawn
To Go
Went
Gone/Been
To Grind
Ground
Round
To Grow
Grew
Grown
To Hang
Hung/Hanged
Hung/Hanged
To Have
Had
Had
To Hear
Heard
Heard
To Heave
Hove
Hove
To Hew
Hewed
Hewn
To Hide
Hid
Hidden
To Hit
Hit
Hit
To Hold
Held
Held
To Hurt
Hurt
Hurt
To Inlay
Inlaid
Inlaid
To Keep
Kept
Kept
To Kneel
Knelt
Knelt
To Knit
Knit(Ted)
Knit(Ted)
To Know
Knew
Known
To Lay
Laid
Laid
To Lead
Led
Led
To Lean
Leant
Leant
To Leap
Leapt
Leapt
To Learn
Learnt
Learnt
To Leave
Left
Left
To Lend
Lent
Lent
To Let
Let
Let
To Lie
Lay
Lain
To Light
Lit
Lit
To Lose
Lost
Lost
Infinitive
Simple Past
Past Participle
To Make
Made
Made
484
To Mean
Meant
Meant
To Meet
Met
Met
To Misgive
Misgave
Misgiven
To Mislay
Mislaid
Mislaid
To Mislead
Misled
Misled
To Miscast
Miscast
Miscast
To Mislead
Misled
Misled
Misspelled/
Misspelled/
Misspelt
Misspelt
To Mistake
Mistook
Mistaken
To Misunderstand
Misunderstood
Misunderstood
To Mow
Mowed
Mown
To Misspell
To Offset
Offset
Offset
To Outbid
Outbid
Outbid
To Outdo
Outdid
Outdone
To Outgrow
Outgrew
Outgrown
To Outrun
Outran
Outrun
To Outshine
Outshone
Outshone
To Overbear
Overbore
Overborne
To Overcast
Overcast
Overcast
To Overcome
Overcame Overcome
To Overdo
Overdid
Overdone
To Overdraw
Overdrew
Overdrawn
To Overeat
Overate
Overeaten
To Overfeed
Overfed
Overfed
To Overgrow
Overgrew
Overgrown
To Overhang
Overhung
Overhung
To Overhear
Overheard Overheard
To Overlay
Overlaid
Overlaid
To Overrun
Overran
Overrun
To Oversee
Oversaw
Overeen
To Overset
Overset
Overset
485
To Oversleep
Overslept
To Overspread
Overspread Overspread
To Overtake
Overtook
To Overthrow
Overthrew Overthrown
To Partake
Partook
Partaken
To Pay
Paid
Paid
To Put
Put
Put
To Quit
Quit
Quit
To Read
Read
Read
To Rebuild
Rebuilt
Rebuilt
To Recast
Recast
Recast
To Relay
Relaid
Relaid
To Rend
Rent
Rent
To Repay
Repaid
Repaid
To Reread
Reread
Reread
To Reset
Reset
Reset
To Rid
Rid
Rid
To Ride
Rode
Ridden
To Ring
Rang
Rung
To Rise
Rose
Risen
To Run
Ran
Run
To Saw
Sawed
Sawn
To Say
Said
Said
To Shed
Shed
Shed
To Shit
Shit/Shat
Shit
To Shut
Shut
Shut
To See
Saw
Seen
To Seek
Sought
Sought
To Sell
Sold
Sold
To Send
Sent
Sent
To Set
Set
Set
To Sew
Sewed
Sewn
486
Overslept
Overtaken
To Shake
Shook
Shaker
To Shear
Sheared
Shorn
To Shed
Shed
Shed
To Shine
Shone
Shone
To Shoe
Shod
Shod
To Shoot
Shot
Shot
To Show
Showed
Shown
To Shrink
Shrank
Shrunk
To Shrive
Shrove
Shriven
To Shut
Shut
Shut
To Sing
Sang
Sung
To Sink
Sank
Sunk
To Sit
Sat
Sat
To Slay
Slew
Slain
To Sleep
Slept
To Slide
Slid
To Sling
Slung
To Slink
Slunk
To Slit
Slit
To Smell
Smelt
To Smite
Smote
To Sow
Sowed
To Speak
Spoke
To Speed
Sped
To Spell
Spelt
To Spend
Spent
To Spill
Spilt
To Spin
Spun
To Spit
Spat
To Split
Split
To Spoil
Spoilt
To Spread
Spread
487
To Spring
Sprang
To Stand
Stood
To Stave
Stove
To Steal
Stole
To Stick
Stuck
To Sting
Stung
To Stink
Stank
To Strew
Strewed
To Stride
Strode
To Strike
Struck
To String
Strung
To Strive
Strove
To Swear
Swore
To Sweep
Swept
To Swell
Swelled
To Swim
Swam
To Swing
Swung
Infinitive
Simple Past
To Take
Took
To Teach
Taught
To Tear
Tore
To Tell
Told
To Think
Thought
To Thrive
Throve
To Throw
Threw
To Thrust
Thrust
To Tread
Trod
To Typeset
Typeset
To Unbend
Unbent
Unbent
To Unbind
Unbound
Unbound
To Underbid
Underbid
Underbid
To Undergo
Underwent
Undergone
488
To Undersell
Undersold
Undersold
To Understand
Understood
Understood
To Undertake
Undertook
Undertaken
To Underwrite
Underwrote
Underwritten
To Undo
Undid
Undone
To Uphold
Upheld
Upheld
To Wake
Woke
Woken
To Wear
Wore
Worn
To Weave
Wove
Woven
To Wed
Wed
Wed
To Weep
Wept
Wept
To Wet
Wet
Wet
To Win
Won
Won
To Wind
Wound
Wound
To Withdraw
Withdrew
Withdrawn
To Withhold
Withheld
Withheld
To Withstand
Withstood
Withstood
To Wring
Wrung
Wrung
To Write
Wrote
Written
489

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