PRINCIPLES OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Anno accademico 2016/17

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PRINCIPLES OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Anno accademico 2016/17
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Programma
PRINCIPLES OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
ELISA NUTI
Anno accademico
CdS
2016/17
CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA
FARMACEUTICHE
254CC
3
Codice
CFU
Moduli
PRINCIPLES OF
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
Settore
CHIM/08
Tipo
LEZIONI
Ore
21
Docente/i
ELISA NUTI
Programma (contenuti dell'insegnamento)
Diagnostic Imaging: an introduction. History of medical imaging. Electromagnetic radiations, electromagnetic spectrum and diagnostics, the
different medical imaging techniques, isotopes (stable and radioactive). Radioactive decay. Contrast agents. X-ray Imaging: properties of Xrays, production of X-rays for medical use, fluoroscopy, computerised tomography (CT). X-ray contrast agents: barium sulfate, iodinated
contrast agents (some examples, chemical structures and indicated use). X-ray contrast agents: efficacy, toxicity and practicality of contrast
agent solutions. Median Lethal Dose (LD50), Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), Diagnostic Index (DI). Viscosity, osmolality and presence of
additives. Industrial Production of radiocontrast agents: current process for iopamidol synthesis. Ultrasound Imaging (US): high-frequency sound
waves, the piezoelectric transducer, the US imaging applications. US advantages, 2D-scan, 3-D scan, Doppler ultrasound. US contrast media:
classification and properties. Clinical Applications of US Contrast Agents in Cardiology and in non-cardiac imaging. Examples of US contrast
agents: Perflutren and Sonovue. Nuclear medicine imaging: PET and SPECT. Structural vs. functional imaging, Emission vs. transmission
tomography, radioactive decay law, activity and half-life. PET scanner: possible geometries. Coincidence detection: types of events. Data
acquisition and data representation, image reconstruction. Basic scheme of a cyclotron. PET radiotracers. Acquisition modality: static and
dynamic. Nuclear Imaging: common radionuclides in imaging, planar scintigraphy, PET and SPECT. Radionuclide production, cyclotron and
nuclear reactor. Radiotracers for SPECT and scintigraphy. Technetium-99m production, Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals (Tc-99m
medronate, Tc-99m mebrofenin, Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin, Tc-99m exametazine, Tc-99m pentetate). Indium radiopharmaceuticals
(In-111 chloride and In-111 pentetreotide). Iodine radiopharmaceuticals. PET radiotracers. Fluorine-18 production, PET radiotracers
preparation, synthesis of [18F]-FDG, synthesis of [18F]-FDOPA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): principles of MR experiment, relaxation
process (T1 and T2), MRI equipment. Contrast agents in MRI (gadolinium, blood pool agents). New approaches in MRI: molecular imaging
(some examples), multi imaging technique (PET/MRI). Preclinical tests for contrast agents. Preclinical efficacy tests, proof of concept in animals.
Preclinical toxicology tests, toxicity of Gd-complex, toxicity of iodinated contrast agents. Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Tests. New approaches to
imaging: molecular imaging targets, probe for molecular imaging.
Ultimo aggiornamento 31/05/2016 10:51
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