1883 April 13th

Commenti

Transcript

1883 April 13th
•
APRIL
13, 1883.
THE ENGINEER.
WHAT NITRO-GLYCERINE I S.
of oxygen; but these two gases have a very feeble
UNFORTUNATELY nitro-glycerine enJ·oys .ust now an affinity for each other, while, on the contrary, the carbon
1
and the hydrogen have intense affinities for oxygen. On
unenviable notoriety. The words are in all mouths, and t he lt>st provocation, therefore, the oxygen leaves the
nitro-glycerine is discussed in every circle. In another nitrogen, which, set free, ceases to be a liquid, and
place ~e have said something concerning the t~ffects which becomes a gas, while intense heat is produced, which volatitt can produce, and the proper method of destroying i t. lises and b reaks up the other compounds, and augments
W e propose here to explain what nitro-glycerine is, in such enormously the pressure of the escaping gases. Those
a way that our non-chemical readers may understand who are familiar with the experiments of Pictet, on the
what this thing is to which appertain such deadly attri- liquefaction of gas, know how intense is the cold and how
butes.
enormous the pressure required to liquefy even a small
Nitro-glycerine is produced by mixing nitric and quantity of such a gas as nitrogen, but this liquefaction has
sulphuric acids with glycerine at a low temperature. The been accomplished in the explosive by chemical affinity ; and
impor tant agents are the glycerine and the nitric acid. the moment this affinity is destroyed, the chained force is let
. The sulphuric acid appears to do little save attract to loose-we know with what result. Now, it will be seen
itself any water whicn may be present in the glycerine that nitro-glycerine ought to be a powerful explosive, for
or the nitric acid. I t is well known that sulphuric acid in it no less than three molt>cules of N 0 1 take the place
has a strong affinity for water, and it is this characteristic of three atoms of hydrogen, as will be seen at a glance if
which renders it useful in this connection.
we reproduce the two formulre here.
Glycerine is
Nitric acid is prepared by treating nitrate of potash- C 3 H 8 0 3 ; nitro-glycerine is C 3 H 5 N 3 0 9 ; the carbon
saltpetre-or nitrate of soda wi tll sulphuric acid-oil of remains unaltered ; and three atoms of hydrogen have disvitriol. The salt petre is placed in a kind of still, the appeared. In their stead we find three atoms of nitrogen,
sulphuric acid is added ; the retort or still is heated an~ oxy~en rises fro~ 3 to 9. Nor d?es nitro-glycerine_ fail ~o
cautiously, and the nitric acid rises in the form of vapour, sattsfy the expectat10ns that we mtght form concerrung 1t.
which is condensed and collectE'd for use. It can be It is the most powerful explosive known. As will be
purified and concentrated by redistillation with a quan- gathered from the following figures, there are two classes
tity of sulphuric acid. Nitric acid is one of the most of explosion- the first is known as detonation, the second
corrosive acids known. In chemical notation its formula as explosion:First-class.
is HN 0 3 • That is to say, it is composed of one atom
SP.cond-class.
D etonated.
each of hydrogen and nitrogen and three atoms of oxygen. I
G
d
Expl~dcd.
. .. 4 "3 l
It~ _known as hy~ic ni_trate and as aqua_fort~. Its com- ,
G:~~7to~ ::· ::: ... ... 3 ::: ::: ::: . .. 6•46
pos1t10n was first mvesttgated by CavendiSh m 1 ?85, but
Nitro-glycerine
... ... . .. 4 ·8 ... ... . .. . . . 10"13
1t seems to have been known to the old alchemtSt.<l, It Here we see that taking gunpowder fi red in the ordinary
279
at the Whitehall Club, when the explosion took place at
the Government Offices, the plate-glass windows being
blown outwards into the street, not inwards into the house.
STEEL F IRE-BOXES.
IN January last a paper was read by Mr. Fernie bef~>re the
Institution of Civil Engineers on "Mild Steel for the Fireboxes of Locomotive Engines," a subject of much importance
to rail way engineer:J and to the builders of boilers of the
locomotive type, whether for locomotive, portable, or fixed
engines, or for marine purposes. Neither the paper,
however, or the discussion upon iL added much to the
prt>viously existing information ou the subject, nor did it
show why American locomotive engineers had adopted
mild steel for this purpose so much more extensively
and more successfully than those in England. M r. Fernie
roundly upbraided English locomotive engineers for
moving so slowly and unsuccessfully in the matter; and
came to the conclusion that it was because they had not
enough courage,ingenuity,or enterprise to command success.
In one passage in particular be told English engineers a
little of his opinion on this subject; and by negative statements insisted on the positive disadvantages, mental and
otherwise, under which he considered they laboured. With
very slight alterations, so as to make it read as was intended,
this passage runs thus:-" There is, unhappily, in England,
Government control to hamper or interfere with railroad
en~ineers, both in regard to the material which they employ
and their designs. They are not at liberty to exercise
their ingenuity in construction, disposition, strength, and
choice of materials, and the competition between rival com·
panies is so small, that the whip has to be held over rail-
THE LONDON AND NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY'S S.S. VIOLET.-(For clu~-iption au page 292.)
possesses the property of producing explosive compounds
with great freedom, its energy being due principally to the
nitrogen which it contains; and it is worth notice that, as
has been pointed out by Kempshead, although apparently
possessing nothing but negative qualities, it in combination forms part of the most powerful and active substances
known, as, for examples, nitric aci<l and ammonia, the
extremes of acidity (and alkalinity. It is a constituent,
too, of strychnine, morphia1 and prussic acid, and is a component of all valuable foods.
With the characteristics of glycerine all our readers are,
no doubt, famil iar. It is found on most toilet tables, and
in every family medicine chest; it is used as a lubricant, and
a mixture of glycerine and water isemployedfor chargingthe
dash-pots or cataracts of certain arc lamps. It is a slightly
sweet, smooth, clear, syrupy liquid, almost tasteless, and
nearly devoid of odour. It will, no doubt, surprise many
of our readers to learn that it is an alcohoL It can be
obtained from all solid animal and vegetable fats, and from
most oils. It is freely produced when an oil is treated
with an alkali-saponified-in presence of water. It is
made in stearine candJe factories, and can also be obtained
from old soap lye. It is best produced pure by beating up
an oil or fat with about half its weight of water into an
emulsion. This is then pumped through a coil of iron
piping heated to the temperature of meltin~ lead, the rate
of pumping being such that the mixture ot oil and water
will occupy about ten minutes in traversing the coil. The
1luid which comes out from the worm quickly separates
into two portions, glycerine lying at the bottom. The supernatant oily liquid being drawn off, the glycerine remains,
nearly pure. I ts formula is C 3 H 8 0 3 •
Nitro-glycerine is made by adding nitric and sulphuric
acids to glycerine. Unfortunately, no skill whatever is
required to produce the required explosive, only a
knowledge of one or two simple facts; but skill is
required to produce nitro-~lycerine pure enough to be comparatively safe. F or obvtous reasons we must decline to
say how it can be rendered pure ; and lest our younger and
less cautious readers should undertake the manufacture
for themselves of a few drops or other small quantity, for
the sake of experiment, we decline to give the proportions
of acid and glycerine which must be used; and we may
add that it is quite pos.<Uble to make a non-explosive
mixture apparently nitro-glycerine, and that, lacking a
knowledge E>f the details of manipulation, the man who
wants to make it will be pretty certain to fail-on the
whole, a very fortunate circumstance.
Nitro-glycerine is a brownish, smooth, oily liquid,
and a. deadly poison. I ts formula is C 3 H .s N 3 0 9 • Its
explosive force is d ue to the unstable nature of the compound. W e have in most explosives carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen to begin with; to these have been added-by treatment with nitric acid-a certain portion of nitric peroxide, N0 9 , that is, one atom of nitrogen and two atoms
way as 1, it will detonate with four and one-third times
more force, and detonated nitro-glycerine is 10·13 times
more energetic than fired gunpowder. As to the a.ctual
dynamic power or potential energy possessed by 1 lb. of
each of five well-known explosives, the following table
gives the facts:Gunpowder
...
Gun-cotton... . . .
Nitro-glycerine . . . . . .
P icrate of potash
Chloride of nitrogen.. .
. ..
...
.. .
...
.. .
. ..
.. .
...
F oot -tons per lb.
. . . . .. 480
. . . . . . 716
. . . . . . 1130
. . . . . . 536
. . . . .. 21G
Chlorine possesses some of the properties of nitrogen as
regards the production of explosives, which are, however,
so unstable that they are unknown out of the laboratory,
as, for example, chloric peroxide Cl Oi. It is obtained by
acting on fust>d chlorate of potash with about t wo-thirds
of its weight of sulphuric acid. It is at ordinary temperatures a gas, but a slight increase of pressure or a freezing
mixture condenses it into a fearfully explosive red liquid.
Chlorous anhydride is a yet more dangerous compound.
Chloride of nitrogen is produced by passing chlorine
through a solution of ammonia. Not more than a few drops
at a time have been experimented with, for it detonates if
blown on or touched with a feather. It is believed that
the celebrated scheme of Lord Dundonald for destroying
Sebastopol from a balloon durinO' the Crimean W ar was
based on the notion that it would be possible to produce a
couple of gallons of chloride of nitrogen, serid it up in a
balloon, and drop it in the heart of Sebastopol, when it
would explode with the shock and wreck everything.
Apart from the impossibility of doing anything of the
kind, we may say that the chloride of nitrogen would have
proved very ineffective. It would not do half asmuch ~eneral
mischief as the sameweightof gunpowder, but its local action
would have been very intense. Thus, a drop of it exploded
on a table, will suffice to shatter the leaf of the table, but
the actual work which it would perform in raising a weight
or propelling a shot from a gun would be insignificant.
All that concerns the exact mode of operation of explosives is still involved to a certain extent in doubt. It is
impossible to do more than collect the products of combustion and assume from them that certain chemical changes
have taken place, but there is no satisfactory evidence that
we can follow the whole chain of events. I t is only known
that the mechanical action of all explosives depends on the
sudden conversion of an element lrom a solid or liquid
state into that of a gas with an enormous augmentation of
bulk. It is worth notice, moreover, that every explosion
is accompanied by two distinct effects, first, the violent
repulsion of the air from a given space, which may be
regarded as the pl'imary effect ; the highly heated gas
quickly cools, a partial vacuum is formed, and the air
r ushes in from all sides to fill it. This produces the
secondary effect, which may be confounded with the first.
An admirable example of the secondary effect was supplied
ways in E ngland to compel them to adopt improvements.
I nventions are not quickly examined or tested and rejected
or adopted, and none of the railways have experimental
officers, whose whole work it is to test or experiment on
new materials or inventions. With antiquated rust or
shackles, trammeled by official forms or traditions, the
EoO'lish engineer accepts any-say his grandfather's-type
of bridge, machine, boiler, or engine as the best thing that
can ever be made, and which he slavishly copies and hands
down to his successor ; he accepts materials from manufacturers who refusetoadoptthemoremodernimprovements.
Conservative in the retention of what is best and most
suitably adapted for h is work he certainly is, but with
this conservatism, there is no desire to excel, and none to
receive, as the fruits of his ingenuity, the substantial
rewards which the most maligned patent laws in the world
give to its inventors."
N ow this was a very hard sayin~, and though English
engineers may be obtuse in some things, Mr. Fernie should
remember that some at least may be sensitive, and may
feel hurt at the disagreeable comparison he draws between
the engineers of the two cotmtn es, and the way in which
those on this side ara handicapped. These engineers were
not, however, present during the discussion, or at any rate,
did not show t~at the picture Mr. F ernie had drawn would
lead them to pack up and haste to the West, where they
could do exactly as they chose, where they would have noGovernment control, and where they could shake off the
rust and shackles, and open their eyes. Some of them
however, did gently hint that the bold author might have"
told them something new-something more than that
American master mechanics had succeeded with steel fireboxes because they had made very large numbers of them
and used thin plates. Mr. Fernie was not there, however
to reply to the discussion, and so, perhaps, was lost the"
posticriptal sting of new and clenching facts. .As it was
he did not show why American engineers have succeedel
and wlty English engineers have failed. The latter, w~
believe, are ready to learn, but they cannot gain much by
being told that t hey have not been successful while others
have. It would have done a great deal more good to have
told them something of the character of the early failures
of steel in fire-boxes in America, and then of the precautions and modifications adopted from time to time toprevent these failures. It could not have been that such
information did not exist, for we have only to turn to the
reports of the American Master Mechanics' Association tofind records of many of the troubles and trials through
w~ich _engineers have gone in order to arrive at anythmg like success. From a perusal of these reports, which
have been publisht>d by our excellent contemporary, the
Rail;·oad Gazette, it does not appear that failure or success
have been altogether dependent upon the characteristics
of the steel, or on the relation between elastic and ultimate
tensile strengths and ductility, but rather on the way in
28G
THE ENGINEER.
APRIT.
13, 1883.
which the steel bn.s been employed, so that it is not be- Fowler, amongst others, have large numbers of steel boxes usual head. The flanges of the rail are not notched, but the square
cause the Eng lish engineer "accepts materials from in successful use. The t e mperatures in theee fi re-boxes washers of the fang bolts are placed chock up against the ends
manufacturers who r efuse to adopt the more modem never, however, reach those in a locomotive fire-box, and of the fish-plates, so as to prevent the rails "creeping" down
improvements," that be bas failed. Nor does it appear f or this reason alone greater length of life may be the inclines ; the gauge is one metre. The carriages, which were
supplied by the Railway Carri~ge Company, Oldbury, are on the
from the specimen specification for mild steel plates as expected ; but there are indications that builders of this American system, with seats placed longitudinally and a central
used in the Philadelphia. railway, as given by Mr. Ft~rnie, class of engine will make some effor ts to secur e combustion gangway through the cars. From the end platforms convenient
that the steel is any better than that which is made in this under very high temperatur es as a nother means of securing steps afford the means of descent to the station platform!', which
country. The following is the whole of the specification increased economy of fuel, for it is pointed out that this is are 9in. only above rail level. The engines, which were supplied
referred to :one of the causes of the high duty of good locomotives.
by Messrs. Manning, Wardle, and Co., Leeds, are tank engines
We may mention that though some English locomotive with six wheels coupled, cylinders 1O~in. diameter, 18in. stroke;
All specifications for boiler and fire·box steel heretofore issued are
hereby annull~.-d, and superseded by the fvllowing :-1st. A careful engineers 01ainta.in that copper boxes are, o wing to their the only peculiarity about them is that arrangements are proexamination will be made of every sheet, and none will be t·eceived long life, as cheap as steel <'an be, not a few bave been and vided for turning the exhaust steam into the ta.nk when plUlsing
that show mechanical defects. 2nd. A test stl'ip from c:>ach sl1eet, are trying s teel plates for fire· boxes on a consider able through the tunnel, in order to keep the atmosphere as pure as
taken lengthwise of tho sheet, and wi~bout annealing, should have
possible.
a tensile strength of 55,000 lb. per square inch, and an elongation scale. Of course Mr. Fernie will not b elieve thus, as so
The engineers were :He~srs. Wells-Owen, and Elwes, MM. l nst.
of 30 per cent. in section, originally 2in. long. 3rd. Sheets will little bas been made public by the locomotive engineers C. E., of Westminster, who were represented in Malta by Mr. G.
not be accepted if the test shows a tensile strength less than concerned , they prefer to keep the matter quiet, and will
50,000 lb., or greater than 65,000 lb. per square inch, nor if tho elon- let something more be known when they have achit>ved J. Burke, A.M. Inst. C.E., as resident engineer.
gation falls below 25 per cent. 4th. Should any sheets develope success, which can only be assured a fter years of tests.
defects in working, tbcy will be rejected. 5th. Manufacturers
NEW TROOPSHIP FOR INDIA.
must send one test strip for each sheet-this strip must accompany That some fire-boxes have r un, as stated by Mr. Fernie,
ON the 15th November last was floated out of the building dock
the sheet in every case-both sheet and strip being properly over 400,000 miles, and in one case over 500,000 miles, is
stamped with the ma1 ks designated by this company, and also an indication of what m ay be expected of them, and it of Messrs. Laird Brothers, Birkenhead, a new I ndian troopship,
which was named the Clive by tLe Countess of Sefton. The Clive
lettered with white lead to facilitate matching.
also shows that though a copper fire-box will average has bel'n constructed from designs prepared by 1\Iessrs. Laird
From the r ecords to which \Ve have referred, and from 500,000 miles, it is not n ecessarily the cheapest.
Brothers, on the iuvita.tion of the Viceregal Govl'rnment in India,
Mr. F ernie's paper also, it appears that it may be stated
and submitted to the approval of th6 authorities there and at the
India·office, who, in conjunction with the Admiralty, gave them
generally that though the same steel may be used throughvery careful consideration. The Clive bas accommodation for G40
out a box, it bl'haves differeutly in difl'erent parts, so that
•
THE MALTA RAILWAY.
military officers and men, 137 ladies, servants, soldiers' wives and
it is not so mnch the s teel that bas to be considered, as the
TnR Malta. Railway, which was opened for traffic on Feb- children, and 140 followers, in addition to a. crew of 166 officers and
disposition of the steel, the form of the box, and the ruary 28th, is one of which some account will be found inte· men, all told, or a total complement of 1083 persons; or, when
nature and origin of the strains which are g radually set resting. It is about 6~ milea in length, and extends from the occasion requires, she will carry 130 horses, for which special
up and result in cracks. It is the result of long expe- middle of Vallttta, the chief port of the ibland, to Citta Yecchia fittings are provided. The vl'ntilation-so important a matter in
rience that by far the larger proportion of f ailures are in or Notabile, the ancient capital, and the traditional residence of vessels carrying large numl-ers of passengers, especially in tropical
obtained by means of large side ports and scuttles, and
the side sheets, the number of these fai!ures on one St. Paul du ring his abode oa the island. Although so short, the climates-is
trunk wAys frocn the upper deck abo ve the level of the poop
railway, extend i ng over a period of several years, being railway possesses several features of interest, both in the nature and forecastle to each space below deck, with tube ventilators and
about thir·ty-seven to two of tube and door plates and of the works nnd the circumstances under which they have been cowls for carrying off the heated air, and abo by an arrangement
one in the crown plate!.'. The cracks have in m ost instances constructed. Casual visitors to Malta are apt to corue away with of tubl's th1ough which the foul air will be d rawn by means of fans
taken place when the boilers were cold; some after being the impre~sion that. the island is a mere rocky and barren appen- worked by steam, or by the current induced by the heat passing up
dage to the great harbours and naval and military E.'St.'\bli3bments, the funnel, which is double. The dimensions of the vessel arecold c rack when lighting up anew, and some have of which Valletta is the nucleus, and surprise has even been ll'ngth,
300ft.; breadth, 45ft. Sin. ; depth in hold to upper deck,
cracked with aloud r eport when a st&.y was being caulked. expressed that railways ~hou ld be wanted in the island at all. .As a 25ft. Gin.; tonnage-builders' measurement- 3003 tons; groes
It is also observed that in almost all cases the cracks take fact, however, much of the soil of Malta is extremely fertile. and measurement, 2730 tons. The mean load draught is 16ft. Gin.
place or commence towards the centre of the side sheets, the density of the population is quite exceptional, as will be The engines are a pair of direct·acting inverted cylcnder compound
engines, to indicate 2000 indicated borse·powE.'r. The cylinders are
and at from 6in. to l2in. above the fire-bars.
seen from the following comparative table : 48in. and 84in. in diameter, and have a stroke of 4ft. The
These, and the fact that thin plates last longest, tend
Isle of
Isle of
boilers are cylindrical, four ia number, to work at 75lb.
to the suggestion that in these large boxes the beating is
Wight.
Man.
Malta.
pressure, and proved to 150 lb. The Clive is constructed partly of
Area
in
sqUAre
mUP.s
.
.
.
.
.
.
164
.
•
227
.
•
95
more severe about the central portions of the plates just
iron and partly of steel. She has three dtcks, with poop and
Population . . . . . . . .
56,< 00 . . 55 000 • • lSS 000
above the fire, than at the margins and corners, the result
forecastle connected by sidebouses, which give uninterrupted
Population per equaro mile . .
SU . .
242 . .
1,400
communication from stem to stern for working the ship, and afford
)flees of rallway con stru<-tcd . .
841 . .
4S~ . .
6!
being that ditfereutial expansion takes plaee, and this difPopulation por mileo! roil way..
1600 . .
1264 . .
21,000
convenient stowage for boats and other necessary fittingP, and is
ference is greater as the plates are large r. From this it
not unlike the five large Indian troopers, one of which, the
follows that if the margins of t h e plates and corners are Of the total population of Malta, about 100,000 are directly Euphrates, was built and engined by Messrs. Laird. There is an
generally at a slightly lowe r temperature than the central served by the railway, or about 16,000 per mile of line. Valletta inner water-tight skin, forming a double bottom, and there are
parts, then compressi,•e strains will be set up in the central proper is situated on a high narrow tongue of land which divides numerous water-tight bulkheads, five of which are carried to the
parts and corret-ponding tensile strains in the margins, the tbe Orand Harbour from the Quarantine Harbour. An im- upper deck, and the remainder to the main deck, and all cart'fully
sign gradually changing from plus to minus as i t is taken po~>ing rampart and ditch separate Valletta from the suburb of fitted, where necessary, with water·tigbt doors. Water ballast
Floriana, which lies at the root of tbe tongue.
Outside
be carried in the compartments of the double bottom to trim
f rom centre to margin. Now this compressive strain on Floriana is another line of rampart and ditch, which cuts off the can
the ship as coals or stores are consumed. She has a straight stem
the centre of the plate must result in one of two things, communication with the main land. .As the High·street-Stmda and elliptic stern, with show galleries, and is rigged as a
either the plate must buckle a little to relieve itself of the Reale-of Valletta is the centre of all life, business, nnd amuse- barque and has one funnel. On Wednesday morning the Clive left
strain, or it must be compressed under that strain ; and ment in Malta, it was essential to place the terminus of the rail- tbe .Alfred Dock, Birkenhead, for a series of trials1 commencing with
full-power trials over the measured mile, in whicll the performance
con sidering the high temperature to which the central way there, opposite the Opera House-see Fig. 5.
of ship and engines considl'rably exceeded the contract requireparts of the plates are raised and the way in which they
Military and topographical conditions alike required that the ments, showing a speed of nearly 13! knots, instead of 12 knots,
are closely stayed to the outer shell, it ia most likt>ly that level of the rails at th~~us should be some :l5ft. below the with 2300 indicated horsc·power, against 2000 indicated horsethis compressive strain gradually causes a flo w of the level of the street, hence it was necessary to design an under- power. 'l'he (:xact time taken on the four runs was as follows:material until the strain is reduced to equality with its ground terminus-see eng1-n"vings, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, page 288.
Time.
Spcoi.
The
booking-office
ana
waitin!·rooms
are
on
the
street
level,
min. sec.
Knots.
resistanc:e. This m ay be supposed to go on until, within
First
run
..
..
..
..
..
fl
10
..
..
..
••
.•
11 Gt:l
certain limits, the strains resident in the plates as due to whence steps conduct to tbe' underground platforms. These
Second run .. . . .. .. . . S 63 .. .. .. .. .. 15 451
last
are
lighted
part1y
by
gas,
and
partly
in
the
daytime
by
the
'J hird run .. .. .. •. .. 5 18 .. .. .. ..
11'821
differential expansion a re eliminated, the limit being the
light from the enO. of the tunnel. station, which opens on the
Fourth run .. .. . . .. .. 8 4S . . .. .. .. .. 15 789
mechanical equivalent of expansion by beat of the mate- escarp of the main ditch of VaUetta, probably the mo.st imTrue mean speed 19·491 knots.
4
rial.
In this state, then, the plate might be expected posing military obstacle to a!!sault in all Europe.
After this several t rials were made to test the handiness of the
to r e main free from cracks so lon~ as it was kept
Tne main ditch is crossed by timber via<luct of four spans vessel, so important for the special service of going from port to
hot, and for a g reat length of time 1t would do so, as of 22ft. 6in. each, and one of 38ft., at the end of which-that is, port round the seaboard of india, both in steering and in stopping
is proved by the fact that the average mileage of the ~t the countP.rscarp of ~be main ditch- the line becomes single, and starting the engines practically at a moment's notice. '£here
boxes of ninety engines given by Mr. Fernie reached anfl ~nterif another tunnel 913 yards in length, by \Vhich it iS were on board l\Ir. .Abercrombie Jopp, Director·Ceneral of Stores,
lndia.-office; Commander 'Walter Powell, who commands the Clive
220,000 miles.
When, howeve r , the plates cool down conducted through and under the succession of fortifications and Lieutenant J. Rocastle Finney; Mr. Lam borne, chief engi~
and r each a uniform temperature, then the r ange of lying between the main ditch and the outside of Floriana. The neer, and othl'r officers of the I ndian marine; ll!r. T.
contraction of the margins of the plates being less than tunnel is ,.ven~ilated at frequent intervals by the shafts which Dodd, inspector of shiP._S building by contract, and l\lr.
that of the centre, a tensile strain is thrown on the central were used (or its constr uction. The alignment of the tunnel Butler, of the engineers department, Admiralty; Messrs.
part which is proportional to the compression which h as was settled after m'uch consideration, iu order to meet, as far as Barnes, William L:lird, Henry Laird, R. R. Bevis, and
On Thursd~y week the trial .consisted of steaming for
taken place while b ot. This with new a nd ductile plates possible, the requirements of the military and civil authorities, o.thers.
which was no eaay matter, a tunnel directly through the out- &lX. hours .at full boiler power, and thts was accomplished most
may not at first have effect, but a f rer long exposure to a works of an important fortress being almost unprecedented. It satiSfactorily at a speed of over 13 knots, the engines working
high temperature on one s ide and water on the other at was subsequently discovered t hat an ancient subterranean reser- throughout at seventy.two to seventy-four revolutions, and
developing about 2200·borse powu, the boilers giving an abunclant
some low er temperature, there is no doubt that the steel voir- the position of which had not been previously knownloses some of its capability of w ithstanding the strains set would be intersected by the propt>sed line. In order to avoid supply of steam with easy firing, the coal used being Nixon's
navigation steam coal. On this occasion, besides those officially
.up in it in the manner described.
this reservoir without altering the general alignment of the present on Wednesday, the Earl of Sefton and three sons and
The m ost obvious suggestion for a means of overcoming, tunnel, it was decided to go round i t, and so the tunnel has the others interested in thfl Clive joined the party, who embarked
cr rather preventing, the compress ion above referred to, is rare feature of a double S curve in the middle of it. The about nine o'clock, and returned to the moorings about seven
that the plates might be slightly buckled, corrugated, or delicate operation of setting out this peculiar alignment under- o'clock in the evening. The Clive is now practically ready for
channelled between the stays. The latter bas been done as ground was successfully accomplished by the resident engineer, service, and will shortly leave Birkenhead, and may be expected
be a most succeuful and useful addition to our means of trans·
d escribed in our impression for t he 23rd August, 1878. so that the headings met with a difference of about lin. only. to
porting t roops in our Eastern seas.
This, however, bas not been sufficiently successful to At half a mile from the terminus there is a second underground
station for Floriana.-see drawings, Figs. 6, 7, and 8. At this
warrant its repetition, for although the shallow channel- point the rails are about 90ft. below the s11rface of the ground.
N A \'.\J, ENGJ~ERR AI'PO~TltEN'r.'!.-The following appointments
like vertical corrugations secured some tlexibility in the The long stairs necessary to ruch the platform are arranged so have
been made at the .Admiralty :-Alfred Waters, cbief engineer,
plates, or gave i t some bendin~ freedom in a horizo ntal as to make the descent and ascent as easy as poSBible. The line to the I ndus, for sel'vice in the Agamemnon; Nicholas Meaden and
direction, it increased the r igid1ty in a vertical direction, here is eingle, and spa~e for the platform is provided by in- Elijah Thomas, engin('ers, to the Indus, for service in the
and h ence t h e plates cracked as much as before corruga- creasing the span of the arch forming the roof of the tunnel on Agamemnon.
TH& I NSTITCTION o•• l\l.ECBANIOAT. ENGTNEEBS. -An ordinary
tion, but generally in horizontal lines or lines commencing one side only. At 4.7 chains the line crosses a ditch and enters
meeting of this I nttitution took place on W Pdnesday afternoon
horizontally. This would follow as a result of strains set a short tunnel 33 yards long, crosse11 a second ditch, cuts general
and yesterday morning, and the annual dinner of the I nstitution took
up in manner referred to above, and a little consideration through the co11nterscarp, and at 54 chains emerges on the glacis place on W ednesday evening at the Criterion. The attendance
will show that freedom for slight flexture is necessary, n ot of the outer fortifications. The tunnel is constructed on a was good on Wednesday afternoon, when an interesting paper on
only in one, but iu all directions i n the plane of the plate. falling gradient-towards Notabile-of 1 in 72. Thence to the strength of shafting when exposed to torsion and end thrust,
}~or this purpose i t might therefore be su~gested that fire- at miles the gradients are generally level, but from 3! miles to by Professor A. G. Greenhill, was read and discussed, and a paper
Ford
box p lates abould be stamped between d1es, so as to give the end of the line is almost a continuous ascent, beginning at on modern methods of cutting metals was read by ll!r.
1 in 66, increasing to 1 in 50 for the greater part of the dis- Smith. A discussion on this paper comm~nced on ' Vednesday,
them a series of concentric corrugations, ~omm encing with
tance and terminating by a short piece of 1 in 40 up to the and was concluded yesterday morning, the proceedings being
a small boss at a b out the centre of the plate between four entrance of the Notabile terminus, which is level. There are brought to a close by the reading and discussion of a paper on imstay h oles. This nt:ed not be done over the whole plate, intermediate stations at Floriana, Hamrun, :Miaida, Birchircara, provements.~ the manufacture of coke, by llfr. J. J ameson, the
but only over something like half i ts area, for it is shown Balzan, Lia Attard, and San Salvatore, with passing places at paper deacnbmg the system we recently illustrated. We shall
by experience that the cracks do no not take place so H amrun and Birchicara.. The central depot is at Hamrun, refer at greater length to some of the papers in another impression.
?t~ATLOCK RATB W ATRRSUPPLY.-CaptainRobt. C. T. Hildyard,
readily in the smaller end plates as in the big side plates where engine and carriage sheds are provided.
an mspector of the Local Government Board, held an inquiry at
Land ~ing very valuable and reluctantly parted with, advan- Matlock Bath, on the 4th inst. with respect to an application from
where heating is not so uniform, and whe re the flexibility
or the relief due to the r ounded corners is less per unit of tage has been ta.kAn of the circumstance that the cuttings are the Local Board of Matlock Bath, and Searthin Nick, for sanction
area of the plate as a. whole. Instead of the small circular almost entirely in rock to form the en1bankment with hand- to borrow the sum of .£60H for the purchase of the undertaking of
corru gations, the plate might be impressed with small p!lcked pitched slopes of ! to 1, the more regularly shaped t he Matlock Bath Waterworks Company, and for the execution of
shallow r ectan gula r buckles, one in each epace comprised atones bt'ing selected for the outside, and the interior of the works of water supply. In the year 1881 Messrs. G. B. Nichola
and Sons, enginel'rs, of Handsworth and London, were called in
within the area b ounded by four stay holes, the concave bank filled up with rubble. The train consequently presents by the local board to re~ort upon a scheme for water supply, and
the curious appearance of r uuning along th~ top of a wall. The
s ide of the buckle being pla<'ed next the fir e.
permanent way consists of a Yignoles steel rail weighing 4.5lb. to value the company s works. Their valuation a mounted to
A s a lready suggested, this s ubject is one which is not alone to the yard, fish-jointed, secured to the sleepers at the ends and £1763. The company's engineer, Mr. 0. H . Roper1 of Dudley,
interesting to locomoti ve engineers.
Portable and semi- middle of each rail by fang bolts, and at intermediate sleepers v.alued the works at £2759 7s. 6d., and in March, 188~, an arbitra·
portable engine builders a re d aily becoming m ore interested by dog spikes. The fang bolts have tbeir nuts on the top of the t1on was held, Mr. Wm. Batten, C. E., as umpire, whose award waa
£190710s. Messrs. Nichols and Sons estimate the cost of conin the use of steel f or fire-boxes, and already Messrs. Davey, ftange of the rail, so as to avoid opening out the road for scre w- structing
new works, and extending the present source of supply,
Paxman, and Co., Messrs. Garrett and Sons,ar d MessnJ. J obn ing up; the dog t~pikes are cylindrical, with blunt ends and the at £4077 3s. There was no opposition to the application.
a
,V.
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THE ENGINEER.
APRtL 13, 1883.
281
T H E I T A L I A N I R 0 N C L A D L E P A N T 0.
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I N our impression for March 23rd we described at some length to say here that she is 400ft. 6in. long, 72ft. 9in. beam, and will
the Lepanto, a sieter ship to the Italia, and the laat of Italy's carry four 100-ton guns in two breastworks arranged as shown.
four great ironclad ships. We give above an illustration of the She is expected to indicate 18,000-horse power, and to attain a
ship, which will make her peculiarities clear to our readers. We speed of 16 knots. She is propelled by twin screws, driven each
have already desc.r ibed her so fully t hat it will only be necessary by t wo independent engines with three cylinders.
NEW FIXED SERVICE TO THE CONTINENT.
THE travelling and commercial public of E ngland and France
will have noted with considerable interest t he recent announcements that Sir Edward Watkin, on the part of the SouthEastern Railway Company, together with representatives of the
Chemin de Fer du Nord, have definitely arranged the conditions
of a new fixed daily express service between London and Paris
1Jia Folkestone and Boulogne. We have already given in TRB
ENOINBIR drawings and d escript ions of a deep-sea barbour, now
think much too sanguine. At the present time, as is well
known to continental travellers by this route, the South-Eastern
Railway Company lands its passengers at a quay which is high
and dry at low water; and the first consideration was how to
deepen the harbour so that the steamers might get alongside at
any state of the tide. A scheme was submitted to the French
Government by which a. landing stage would have been thrown
out from the Quay Napoleon, A, to a point Bin the harbour,
where it could easily be deepened, the stage to be further con·
the channel G between the piers. The new landing stage
will be built up to a level with, and form an integral
part of, the Quay Napoleon, so that trains will,, as here·
tofore, run alongside the steamers, but at some e~g~t yards
increased distance. It will accommodate two boats With ease,
and its erection, as also the whole accompanying works, will take
place under t he immediate superintendence of M. Guilla.in, t~e
engineer appointed by the French Government. The total estt·
mated cost of the improvements is 1,200,000f., being 400,000£.
for the landing stage and 800,000!. for dredging. The former
item will be paid by the South-Eastern Railway Company,
whilst the French authorities will bear the latter.
Probably the most difficult part of the undertaking will be
the removal of the bat'S H I outside, since there is a constant
tidal deposit of sand, not to mention t he serious silting which is
invariably found to follow storms from the south-west, the pre·
vailing wind quarter. Yet, without the successful prosecution
of this work, the other improvements would be u seless, for
even now no vessel with more than 5ft. draught can, with
safety, cross the bar at low water, despite eighteen months'
incessant hydraulic dredging. Indeed, had it not been for this
latter work, Boulogne would of late have been inaccessible for
large craft, except on the top of the tide. This is to be
accounted for by the fact that the breakwater, which forms a.
principal feature of the deep-sea harbour scheme, has been
carried just far enough to divert the sand which was formerly
deposited on the shore K on to the bar H ; an ultimately con ·
soling inference being that, when completed, the new jetty will
so further influence the set of the tide as to throw the sand
quite out to sea.
The progress of this scheme will be followed with exceptional
interest, more especially by residents in Boulogne, on account of
the diversity of opinion between the engineers and sbipmasters
who know the port well-aperto crult. The latter, whilst
acknowledging the great advantages of the project, object that
t he work of reducing the bare will prove herculean, and will
cost fabulous sums if attempted before the harbour works are
completed; whilst the former claim that, as the bars have not
prevented navigation-thanks to the two dredgers constantly at
work on them-during the year 1882, when south-west storms
were uncommonly prevalent, it is more than probable this obstacle
will be considerably reduced during the approaching summer. So
may it be. With a train service at once opeu to improvement,
but quite up to European average, and a fleet of swift commo·
dious steamers at theit· disposal, it remains only that t hese com·
panies should make their inter-metropolitan traffic a "fixed "
one to render it comparatively perfect.
JOCHOMSEN'S SELF-ACTING FEED-WATER
REGULATOR FOR STEAM BOILERS.
THE apparatus illustrated by the accompanying engraving, and
invented by Mr. N . Jochumsen, of H artington-terrace, Barrowin-FurneBS, is constructed for r egulating the supply of feed·
water to land boilers, and is uot applicable to marine boilers, on
account of a float being required to work it ; but this is of lees
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importance, a.s marine boilers are always under the immediate
aupe~ion of the engineer on d~ty, whereas those attending to
land boilers often have other duttes to fu11il, causing a. dangerous
ne~lect! or at the. ~~ a very irreSU;)ar supply of feed-water,
which 18 not only mJunoua to the boiler itself, but also to its
economical working. A continuous feed pump is connected to the inlet E, from
which the feed water is dia·
charged either through the
ordinary chl!ck valve B into
the boiler, or through the
overflow valve C and outlet H
back to the supply tank. This
is regu)ated by means of the
equilibrium valve A A 1, which
is connected to a float in the
boiler. To prevent the equili·
brium valve being acted upon
by any pressure from the
boiler, which a float would not
be sufficiently effective to
overcome, it is necessary that
the feed valve and overflow valve should at all times be
equally loaded. This is attained by connecting tbt> over8ow
valve to a small piston D of the same area a.s the feed valve B,
the piston being acted upon by the pressure in boiler through
opening F .
The annexed sketch shows an arrangement for a. float which
the inventor holds to be the moat effectual. The float consiats
of a hollow ball-copper or other suitable material-of large
diameter, attached to a long lever inside the boiler, and a spindle
leading through a stuffing gland to the front of the boiler, whe~
-
in course of construction at Boulogne, which will have sufficient
depth of water to receive, at any time of the tide, large vessels
resorting to it a.s a port of refuge or as carrying paasengers
travelling between England and the Continent. But that vast
scheme cannot, under the most favourable conditions, be com·
pleted under ten years, which is the rauon d'Ut·t of the above
proposal to arrange an " interim fixed service " to supersede the
prese.n t inconvenient and confusing "tidal " traffic.
The improvements neceBSary to this end at Folkestone were
described at length in TBB ENOINBER of November 17th and
December 22nd, 1882, a.n d are being ca.nied out at the present
moment.
The adaptation of Boulogne Harbour to a regular daylight
service, however, presents much greater difficulties, but it is
thought they may be overcome by August next-a prophecy we
ehould be glad to see fulfilled, but which cautious observers
nected by e. swing bridge with the West or Capeeure Pier C;
but it was objected by the local authorities that this would
seriously interfere with the entry and exit of shipping to and
from the floating dock D. Subsequently a plan for the lateral
extension of the quay into the port was adopted, and the preliminary works are in vigorous prosecution. To cut away the
bed of the harbour immediately contiguous to the quay would
endanger the foundation of the latter. To avoid this a wooden
stage F will be erected adjoining the quay, at the outer side of
which the bed may be safely cut to a maximum depth of lOft.,
which will give a draught ample for the purpose contemplated.
The structure will be built on piles, and will measure 600ft. in
length by 23ft. in width, with upper and lower platforms for
landing passengers or goods a.t high or low water. Powerful
dredgers are to immediatelY commence excavating the alluvial
deposit and soft substrata. of the harbour bed, as well as
rH E
APRIL
E N G I N E E R.
13, 1883.
~--~-----~==================================~==~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~b~~~~~·~·b~
l~a:n~y~~k~n~o~w~n~th~a~t~~~f~to:r~t~h~~~b~ra~k~e~h~~:a~o~n~c:e~b~e:en~a~p~p~li:eJ~a:n~d~t~h=e~v:~~u~u:m
-uil'b ·
1
th
g 1ator a shawl of the same kind, leaving no colour ut green
·t 'd. • exbaUllted, a considerable tim e must olapso before another atore of
282
VlSI
0
abor t levor connects it to the eq l num va vo ~n ere u
. where .. bout you l'll"ke a detour of tho pond to the oppost e 81 ct,
t rom •Northamptoo Ju nction
m
front
of
the
..
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..
t
•be
toptnos
power
can
bo
created.
Tho
distance
The apiDdle,.; p:wing t h roug h • t u ffimg
g13D d8
"nd
scleo'l.tlg
.."' t>me tree easy to climb,b at once go
up lo ': n" no t'1mo to tho atation 111
. on Iv •12 c I1ams;
.
h o vi\Ouum was ex h r.uated at the
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made
..
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ft
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boiler and o.JJJo through t lle top 0 £ " 10 regu a ..or, may
branch, r.uc.l place your bead 1\mong t (' upper ~ 8' " {'
Junction, and th e trm o waa too abort for another efficient ono to
very llght, aay about Jin. diameter, to prevent any unoeCC88ary 10 tho operation. The treca are n ot over f)()ft. high, aml rom yo~l bo ro-obtained, even with tLe large ejector. When a dri ver aeee
friction.
perch tho wbolo country acorns one level shoot of Pl!ro l~a.veefin
a
15in. or ltiin. of vacuum indicated upon his gaugo, he ie likely to
0
tlirectione. The wind should bo blowing from tho dtrectiOn · yUr be induc('d to think he baa o. powerful brake available, but &.t the
coat to givo tho b eat results. You havo not long to walt.
p 1
t h fi ·' - to h'
t tb t l
bt ·
I· I
como
tho
birda,
aingly
and
in
platoons,
until
tho
ontiroi'iOO
a.ro
back
aat
momon
o
DWI
t8
coa
a
10
can
o
am
a
11g 1 vacuum
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
.. At'too. II you have a noocl II('DBO of bumo_ur, you upon his gauge, and yet n ot have enough power in tho brake oylin[We @ not /l.old. our1dvu rupomiblt ;or tAt opinion~ of our
to tile field Or ,_
.,
b 1 k Jo e dere to even bring the blocks in conto.ct with the wheela. Tho
will
enJ·
oy
yourself.
the
whole
o.fl'air
•cemH
ao
very
roue
I c1
l' .
. b b ff
t
t p t k
t p·
u
df ·' L'
1
corrcqxmdcntl. J
Ba atock-aly, very aly! The birds intently g~zo at .tho bo.r"? ess coltslor. w1t
u er 8 op! 1\ or s ewe 1er, ura oru, 1verpoo
ba: and coat totalJy oblivious of your pre~cnco m tbe1r very ~rmlst. Leeds, o.n<l NorthamtJton are all duo to tho same cauae, namely,
DESTR UCTIO N 0 1<' rnE rum AT NICE OY 1-'lltE.
t a win fs stirred but they noat {n 81 Jenco at all olovat1ons- tho ineffioienoy of the "two·minuto" brake.
No
Sut -Tho pier at Nice wa.s commenced about three years ago from witbfn lOin. of y~ur faCP. to 500ft. in height. ~boy croaa each
L eicester, April lOth.
CLFliR!'IT E. STUETTON.
from 'tho dca1gna of 1\lr. Brunlecs, of \Vcstminator, and of Mr. other's )lt\ths, oscillo.te from aide to aide through o. diBtance of m?ro
l\lcKcrrow. 'l'bt1 work is of an intcrc11tin~ unturo, and n~t only on than tho diamotcr of the pond, tJaU up and down, but al~vny• ":lth
Sm,- I noticed in your last issue juat a abort intimation of thia
account of ita being the first promPoaJe pter on tho Oontment, but alow movomentll ns though eaoh bini was bent on ge~t1ng a v1c~v very serious accident. Permit me to t ell you that I WB.tl onoof tbo
a lBo on a ccount of ih aome wha.t unusual design. . It consults of a of tho enemy r:om every possible direction. 1'~ey w1ll ~cop t~1~ pasaengrrs in this train. On arrivnl at Northampton tho "patent"
vacuum brake would not act, and our train ran through the stope,
8 hort j~:tty, level with the Promenade ~ea. Ang~n1s, an~ faces tho up for two hours, and then all at o~ce l?andemo01um seta~ agam
H otel dot Anglo.~. and at the end or th\8 JOtty Ia the }ll('r·h~c.l •. or thei r wings bcr.omo activo, an~ With 1~1n~m erable flopp1Dga, an. or Axed buffers, and made a bole in tho end of tbe station. It
unueually large area, and upon which wu erected a lnrge bml~~ng scoldings, aud complaining& w1~h no hm~t, they settle to tbc1r was a vrry aerioUB afl'Air, and might have bren worao. I jumped
of handsome exteri or, surmounted by turrets and cupolas. Iho nests and pay oo further attcnt1on to the mtruder.
out at once, and asked wha t was up. There tho driver stood, aa
building contained a theatre, restaurant, ca£6, and. other rooms,
No'w I diBlikc very much to .bo an am~teur, and would .ah~ays b e wbito as 11. aheet, saying that he bad 15in of vacuum. What be
a nd above some of these W&JI o. second promenade. . B ?low tho a scientific ex pot t did not gnm ne~es~1ty order. other~LSe, but I was tho bettt>r for that I don't know; will somebody t ell me! All
promenade lcvc>l the construction is of the usual desenpt1on, a~d cannot escape the conviction that th1B .~~a quest1on ~b1cb calls for those on th e platform aaid, "Why tho block& were clear off tho
conaiata of caat iron acrew pilea c~nn.rcted by w:ought tron latt1ce ita Hettloment upon no scientific P.TC0\810~ of any k10d. whatov~r.. wheels as you ran through ! " There was at once a groat queation
girders and tic-rods. I n th o buildmgs cast 1ron columns and What is the question? Su.bstantaUy t~tsj as 1 undontan~ 1t · ra~ed ns to whether a machine called an injector was used. If, u
uprighte were very cxt('nsiv('ly used, connected by wr ought Iron Can a bird float in £reo a1.r upon. motion eas,. expanded ~mga, I was told, thia makes a very great roaring no~e, I can speak posigt.rdera. Tho veranda.h encircling tho building 'Yas •mp~orted by while tho a.ir ia in mot1on, wtthout. fall~g, and w1thout tively as to ita being used nellrly all the way from tho railway
oaat iron column11 of an extremely Ll\ndsomo and hgb~ ?eslgn. T~o being wafted to tho 1ear with the movmg .atr? What aro tho junction to tho station. You may alao bo intrrcsted to know that
remainder conaisted of wood, painted .with o. compoa1t1on ~ re~ust facts ? You o.ro in a lcvol country, whore 1t wo~ld bo hard to on the 30th of Ill arch I left St. Pnncrl\s at 4. 20 p.m., our train
tho eff('ot tho aol\ a1r would othcrw1se have bad upon 1t. 'I be find an elevation of land of more than 20ft. above ttdc-wat er along being d rawn by engine No. 1566. When I expected to g!'t out at
interior of tho theatre waa painted with ubeatos paint, and tho one hundred miles of coa•t and where over ten thousand 1\cres all St. Albans, our bro.ke failed, and my trBin ran rigbt pl!.at tho
entire work required merely to be painted au~ glazed to ~c com· around you tho water standt1 a few inches doe}J in tho rainy eeason station, platform, signal-box, &c. , and had to set back for ua to got
ploted. During tho regatta last week ~bo pubhc wns ndm1ttod to over tho whole surface. The salt sea br('e~e comea to you ~t the out.
A. F. E. RIOiiAllOt;ON.
the pier, and o.pprovo.l of its construct10U and comfort wo.s loud rato of t('n miles an hour from the gulf a milo away as st c>ad1ly M
London, S.W., Aprilllth.
and general.
.
tho pouring of water over a milldam. Against that. breeze y~u ace
On Wednesday last, at 5.30, as tho ~vor~men were on tho p omt five hundred birds, weighing about 8 lb. eMh, 6ft. m ~lar dimcn·
Stn,-1 beg to inform you that on April 3rd I rode from
of leaving for the day, smoke was seen ISBumg from on(\ of tho left· aiona, and with o.n expanded wing surfo.ce o£ about a1x or se':on St. Pancraa to Northam pton by the very t rain which ran into the
hand dom08, and in a few moments it was ~lear tho.t the wh?lo of squnro feet, coming towards you; and you .cannot detect a wmg stops. '!'here has been a CJUOPtion raised whether tho brake blockl
buildines at loMt were doomed. Indeed, m .leas than t~n mmutea movement in the whole group. They come w1th all rates o.f sl?ecd, touched the wheels or not. I dirl not feel any brake action, and
the ont1re woodwork was in o~mc>s, the extmctcura bcrng us~leea from that of 1\ Hlow walk for a man to a movement o.ut~trtp~lug a those wbo saw tho train said the blocks did not touch the wheell.
to check their progrCBs. From tho intense h.eat the wrought tron racehorse They will paaa directly over your eyes w1tb1n lOin. of
April 11th.
W. TO~ILtN.
girdcra of tho buildings now commenced to gJVe way, nod they fell your fi\Ce: You mi~ht sf\y that the air w~s defl~ctcd u~wnrd by
with great force and noise upon .th~ .screw piles and girders be~ow. th e tree tops · but b1rds can bo seen 500ft. lllgh do1ng precl8ely t he
JlELOlA.N NA.lL RUIJS.
By 11 ix o'clock several very pnm1t1vo hand l?umpH had arnved same thing a~ those 1\t th e lowest level. 1.' boy can be s':en m all
Srn,- As it may be of value to your readers to know wbat the
{.rom various parts or tho town, and tho att~ntton of the firemen positions, from below, from thfl r oar, fro!'" ~bo front, Fldeways,
was dircctec.l to saving the short strct~h of p1er. between tho . shore obliquely at all angles aud when they d1p wto the ponc.l space B elgian nail manufacturers think of the varioua brands of Belgian
and tho bead. I n about two ho11r8' t1me nothllljt was atand10g of they can be seen fro~ above; and during tho whole time not a nail rods, I hereby give you traDBlation of a certificate from the
the buildio~s but some of the columna, and tho stght p~eaented, by stroke upon the air blloll been v~iblo. Then, all at once, tbc.y !l'anagor of th ~ ~elgian ~oil Hod Manu~acturera' Sy~di~~~ •howt beae is CUI'lOUB in the ('Xtreme. Some of the short gmlors, 12ft. change aU tbia, and beat the ai~ vigorously; and. the change IS IDlf tho quantities supplied by each na1l rod maker rn 1~ to tho
by 18io., remain intact, but tho majority o£ .tho othera bavo conspicuously apparent. I s.ubm1~ that th e unasal8ted seDBes are ot\11 makers in B elgium only. As nobody can have a better know·
ledge of tho rea l intrinsic value of these bran<U than the local nail
become a. sbapeleBB mass. ~ven thoao of great we1gh~ and strength entirely competent to deal With tbu sort ~r p~enomeJla. .
.
makers, I think the figurea io the subjoined document form a
are tw~ted into every concetvable ahape. The cast 1ron columna,
I could go on detailing evidence of th1s kmd to at\ mdrf~.01 te valuable guide to buyers of B elgian nail rods genoraUr. 1'ho said
square in section, have in many instances cracked through the extent, but it would be Ullelcss. Ono case such at~ tho above \8 ns
certificate ~ lying open to insP.cction at my office. H. SEEGER.
cold water having played upon thom, but several of th em have
concluaive as rnany would be.
.
:&lineing-lano, London, Aprilllth.
actually bent several inches out of tho prrpendicular, and aro
That my theory of fitgbt ns set forth in the paper publ~hed m
quite a atudy. Tho contractors for the works are Messrs. Eckeraly TllP. ENC:INitKn of March 2nd , ~ impregnable, I am convinced. The
Nail rods delivered to tho Belgian nnll manufacturera duriog tho year
and Williams, of \yeatminster, by whoso courtesy I am able to air acts just in the way J,>Ointed out upon the wing surfaces. It can 1882. Tho following aro tho mnkca :Kilos.
T ODII Ct . (2~.
send you these part1oulars.
act in no other way. Gtvon th e inclined surface and th e moving
Socl6t6 Anouymo des ~·orgos d'Acoz . .. 1107149 .. 1170 16 ~
During the fire great feo.r was entertained for the s~fety of the elastic air and it ia simply inconceivable that any other effect could
.,
do St Fiocro tSohfer) . . . . . . 6!10'011
640 5 :J
H otel dee Angla~. The wind wasfortunately S. E. at the tlll~e, und !lot be produ;ed. What I mean is this, that the. air in p~ssing along
du Lion IJolgo .. .. .. .. .. 106'861 .. 104 6 2
due S l'l1eBB1'1l Williams and Eckersly rendered cvc1·y pos81ble lUlll&~­ tho inclined surface is compressed, that there \8 more a1r below th e
"
doe Laml nolrs do Chntolet . . . . 90'669 . . 80 0 0
ance 'and mu~h sympathy is expn:ssed that this beautiful building surface than there is above, tl1nt ~he air in expand~g at tho instant
::
do I' AIIIJt.uco
.. .. .. .. .. 78'811 .. 77 12 2
f ell ~o eAsy a prey, when one or t'!'o ~ood engines would probably of passing the rear edge of tho wmg, forces the wmg upwards nn~l
K.Uos 212:1'117 T 2091 6 1
have saved it. If no damo.ge IS tound to be done b elow. tl_le forward s. Th~ is evident from the nature of the case. ExperiTho quantities dollvored by tho Soclct.O d'Acoz aro by far tho moat 1m·
promenade level, it may be possible to open it to the pubhc m ment will prove that th e upward and forward forcing of the rear
porto.nt, f\6 tho ordors for tho homo trndo aUpulato gonorally by proforonco
time for next season.
edge by the expanding clastic air overcomes tho entire fr~ction of this apocilll brand, with 1\D oxtra prlco.
The works are insured for 2,000,000f. in the Mctropol and th e imJ'ingio~ current. It will further prove that ther~ 18 a c~r­
The undersigned, maul\ger of tho llelgian NaU Rod lfanuli\Cturore
Paterno! Insurance Com panies. Tho cause of tho fire is un- tain nn~lo of Inclination at which a flat surface of certam defimte Synd!cnto cortftlos thoso figures to bo oxRct.
known.
T. S.
Charlorol 20 th January, 18S3.
(Signed) 0. L. D& S.ur.
proport1ona can be presented to moving ai r in which a very large
Seen
Mr. Uo SAn, aubtcribod
Nice, Ap ril 5th.
part of the total force of the ~d ~ill be expended in r e.sisting nbovo, for 'tho legniiMtion of tho alguaturo or L.
FooLOII, Aldormao.
gravi ty and a very small part m forc10g the surface a long w1th the
Acoz, the lOth April, 1683.
THE l',R.OULEM Ob' l~LlOll'£,
current; this amall part being more than neutralised by the thrust
Sw - In the matter of my paper on tho u )£light of Sailing of tho expanding air. The sum of these forCOB in nct1on presents
TONNAOg AND TUE L OAJ}· LINt.:.
Birds:" a word of cxvlanation may not be am.iea.
.
the phenomena of .tho flight .of soar!ng birds nn.d make~ G.rti.fioial
B ear in mind that but small a~tcmpt wa• made to d etail my Oi~ht entirely possible. I w1ll detail my expenme.nte 1£, m your
Sm -Tho recent diacussion at the Institute of Naval Architect•
experiments, upon which tho theory .of tlight, aa I unde~atand \~, opmion, their publicatio~ woul~ prove ueeful. I. t~mk they woul.d appea~·s to have afforded but little, if al'!y, 1\saistanco i~ tho way ~f
i.a baaed. I hall no in tention or JDaking the pa.pel' pubhc when It show that the Aeronnut1cal Soc1ety of 01·cat Br1tam stopped tbctr determining a tonnage law and the fixmg of a load· hne; ~ut thlll
wu written but '>rfpared it for a few persona whom I knew were exertions near a vital point.
J. LANOASTRR.
desirable goal ia not far off, if, as the .se~retary ~f .the L1.verpool
tmng to ~mpliab artificial flight in impossible ways, and I have
Reg~try of Shipping states, " tho unarum1ty of op1010n wh1ch now
335, Wabash Avenue, Chicago.
only lately rP&.lised that my diacoveri¢& are tantamount to a solu(We shall be very pleased to receive further communications from prevails among ship own ers in favour of a percentage of spr.~e
tion of the problem of a\!rinl no.vigation.
buoyanor. basis for fixing loa?-.linea, ~ most re!'larkable." For th11
Mr. Lancaster.- Eo. E.)
1 •id nothing about the uae of glaeses which were UJI('d on
necessarily involves ascertammg the t otal d•aplace!Dent up to a
various occaaiona, but never with any valuable results. For some
line beyond which the veBBel would founder, then fixmg a load-lme
llKLICAL
OEARINO.
purposes macnifying glasaea are indispensable, but not for tho
below, dividing such displacorncnt into two parts, tbat above
Sm,-Our attention has been drawn to some correapoudcnco in representing 20 or 25 per cent., a nd that below 80 or 7!5 per cent.
1twJy of the rpet~oda of sailing bird~. For instance, I convoyed
to tho wil.drrue• of Florid&. a •"'am engine of 8-borse power , recent numbers of your paper respecting he~cal tooth g~ring, a~d of the whole displacement.
.
.
which bad a fiy.Whcel of 4ft. in diaJJ)cter. It waa act up under a we shall bo glad, as our name has been mtroduced, tf you wtll
Now if shipowners agree, so far,, aa to the ~xmg of aload-linl', what
abed on tho beach of Sara.ota Day, where the buzzards were allow us to state the facts of the case eo far as th ey concern us, should hinder them from accophng th e d1apll\cement below euoh
plentiful 1 could atand within 20ft. or tho wheel, and at .the and to corrrct some of the statements which have been made in the load-line as t onnage for fiscal purposes? It is not necessary that a
aame distance over my head would be haU-a-dozen of tb cao btrds matter.
fiscal ton should be th e same as a displacement ton. .A fiacal t~n
The idea of making spur wbeelB with the double helical t ooth is, might represen t if necessary, three or four displacement tone, m
floating in the wester n breeze. Upon looking at the wbeol with
t he naked eye I eould eaaily dete,minP- whethe1· it was in motion aa has been stated, not new, but wu not carried out in this country order that the r'ates and taxes should not exceed in amount the
or at rest. There was n o clo'ubt about tbat question whatever, and on any large scale until we took it up. The first wheels wo made payments made under the> prcar·nt system. Such a tonnage ~aw,
if I bad used a glaea which gave any .different t estimony from that with th ese teeth were made in July, 1879, and in September, 1880i with load-line fi xed by tho owner, would solve many voxat1oua
of the unaaaisted vision, I ehould have diatrusted tho iDBtl ument. we supplied to tho Mersey Steel and Iron Compan~ . for ~heir rai matter& and enable owners to earn moro by their vesselB than
d1amet~rs, they ca~ do under t~c present syete~: Vessels with half poo.fl'
Juat eo with the birds. On caatinr my eye upwards, I saw 20ft. mill, a pair of these wheel&, lOft. 2;fin. o.nd 4.ft.
above me an object Gft. across by about Ht. wide, viz., a buzzar d 8;fin . pitch, 24! in. broad over ftangea, which were put to work with- and other like contr~vances for avotdmg assc~sment .would d~­
with expanded winga. I could aee it as plainly as I saw th o wheel. out delay, th~ bci~g, so far as we know, t h e first pair sup~~lied to apJX'ar, and no longer disgrace the mrrcant1lo marme of th11
I oould count every wing fcatb~r aga.inst a background o£ bright no ironworks 1n th1s country. In October , 1880, we supp ted the country.
b b'
sky, and any movement of one part of the animal could be at once same company with some mitre wheels w1th this tooth, these, we
W ben orcll:ring a now vessel, t he owner w~uld t oll t. o 8 Ill·
d etected. A glass magnified the bird but in no instance did it believe, being tho first pair of mitre or bevel wb('elB ever maue, builder that be wanted a veuel to carry a certam dead we!ght at a
enable me to aeo any movement not visible to th(' naked viaion. either h ero or in America, with the double helical tooth. Wo alao certain speed and a certain :lraugbt of wa t er. These :~qutremonta
It was interesting to look through a good glass at a man-of-war supplied the West Cumberland Iron and Steel Com pany with 1\ would enable the scientific builder to fulfil such condttiOilll at the
hawk sailing in ciroloa at an elevation of a mile, but it to.ught no patr of th ese wheel&, 5ft. 5Ain. and 5ft. 2~in. diameters, 71\-in. minim11m cost and in place of empirical rules for scantlings of the
piteb, 22-;tin. over flanges, in F ebr uary, 1881, o.nd before the date detail parts of the structure, a formula for measuring a. standard
leuon.
No description of mine could convey to a stranger any adequate named by your correspondent, ~rr. Wheeldon,, had aupplied a ~on­ strength of structure for universal application might be adopted.
conception of tb a bird life in Southern Florida. I waa there for siderable number of wheela With double h elical teeth to vanous Above this structure which might be callcc.l the ship proper, t wo or
five yean con tinuouely, and witnessed many scenes among its ironworks in thi11 country. W e have marie up to the present tim e three deoka might b~ added where stability of ship proper would
feathered llenizena, which lJresumo.bly few p ersona have ever seen. over 1500 of these wheels for all purposes, some in steel o.nd some admit, and thus;great capacity or c.overed·in apace for pasaengera or
in iron, many of very large pitch, and up to 22ft. diameter.
I will r elate one which ll!ems conol uaive of the whole matter.
light cargo obtained not reckoned Ill any way as tonnage, and con·
P . R. J AOKJ:lON ANn Co.
The bi.rd known in tho vernacular of the l egion as t ho Go.nnot
8 equcntly not taxed. The adoption of such a tonnage meaa~e­
Salford Rolling Mills, 1\lanehestor, April lOth.
b~ ita ~ree(lin~ aca~on in March. I t .weigh~ about~ lb., hae short1
ment for fiscal purposea would free the .owner from muc~ voxat1oua
Wide Wlngs, glistcmng rcu eyes, straight bill, partmlly palmatca
intel'fereucc and enable ships to be built of greater fre1ght-carry·
f ee t, a.nd beautiful pluma$e. I t chooses a pond tilled with low
ing power t~ outlay in first cost than ia obtainable under tho preaent
'r
ilE
NORTUAMPTON
ACCIDENT.
cvt>rgr~ten bushes for neatrng, where its eggs can be se<'n by the
system of fiacal tonnage.
SHll' Sunv&von.
Sm, -l n your last impression I notice a abort account of the
buahel if one will brave the alligators, frogs, snakes, lizards, and
London, April llth.
accident
which
took
place
at
the
Midland
station,
Northampton,
other poasible reptiles, a nd wade in after them. On approaching
TTIE CllANN.BL '£U NN Et.
the place, the long necks of the birds onn bo acen stretched to the on Tuesday, the 3rd inat., in consequence of tho Clayton twoSm,- In your latest article on the above11ubjcct you oak b~w, in the
utmost over the surface of th e four or five acres of pond, with their minut e brake failing t o stop a train when required.
:&1a.y I be p ermitted to supplement what you have said with even t of the tunnel being successfully made, are tho t~tuna to be
gliatening eye• fixed intently upon you. AB you get nearer, sudd enly tho whole company vaul ta into the air with very vigorous the following particulars :- The special exprca11 was due to l eave propelled? You mention-only to d~m~s a, unaat~factor)'­
wing motion indeed, and scolding with a pandemonium of ener~y. St. Pancr&JI at 10.38 a. m ., aud cona~tod of engine and tender, three alterno.tivea-fireless locomotivea, com,preued ~1r looomo·
There are probably 500 birds, and up th ey go, so inten t on babbling No. 805, fitted with ateo.m brakee, six bogie carriagca, and a van, ~ives and electricity. May I venture to inqutro what 1nau}>01'8bl~
that t heir movements are quite unsteady, but they manage to or equal to thirteen ordinary vebicl<'& ; thcae.were fitted throughout objecrloion prevents the mention of the olu method-adapted ~t
ucend in four or five minutes some 100ft. or 200ft. above the eur- with the Clayton brake. Tho train was slackened by signals at all modern improvements-of rope haulage? What practioa1
rounclini pine trees, which compeae the woods filling th o coun try. Horton- the le.st station-and again at Northampton Junction, the difficulty would forbid tho attempt to em ploy an on.dleas ateel r?pe,
H ero anotb('r impulse takct them, and they suddrnly stop their brake working well upon both occl\sions. On ar~ival at the plat- arranged for traffic in both directions eimultaocoualy, a.nd dnven
wing motion and their in harmonioWI aqul\wking, and a dead calm form it was n ot iced by the passen gers in th'l train that the brake by powerful stationary engine• at each end of the tunnel ?
"'
April
lOth.
_
__
_
R.
M.
,.,,
ensuea. Round and round they go in circles of 100ft. in diameter, was pot taking any effect, and many p11rsons standing a 1tbe station
on wings aa seemingly rigid as a board-S\ performance fnll of to their surprise saw the brake blocks upon tho can i.agll4 " clea.r
exquisite grace and beauty, which I never tiro of witnC:a.ing. They away from t he wheola." The re5ult was that the train cnnm into
IT ill now generally boh.oved thfl.t t!J o o .overnment id BVOllt to
k eep thia up for about fifteen minutes, when one by on!.' they dis- very violent colliaion with a parcel van, .No. 51, wbich vo.s
a.ppear from tho tccno, until you nro loft with the reptiles of the ataoding a few yards from the buffrr atops. S? grea.t was .. uthotise the Dock Comvan y to 80 amcntl1ta oharter 8fl to e.nablc
pond 1.10le t Pnanta of the pla~. .Now ie your time for act1on. tho force that tho stops were "moved 12ft. and tho end it tp substitute o. wood9n dock for the pro{>OBed.,,.tOitlt d~klat
Rang your ceat on a bush, and place your hat above it, in sight of the carriage shed knocked into th e amoking-room of the War· St. Johu'a, N ewfoundland. The Colonia and I ndta sar• : - ltlr.
from th e pond. Slip ou a pair of overalls of green colour, the wick Arms Hotel. The danger of th e "two-minute" brake bas Simpson, the Amr rican patentee o~ the woollen c~ o d~~k, bu
ex~t shade of the pine Ira vee, and envelope your head and body in been very frequently p ointed out in your columna, and it ia well a rrived there for the purpose of taking the matter 1n hand.
J
u4m.
--
•
APRIL
13, 1883.
RAILWAY MATTERS.
THE ENGINEER.
283
NOTES A.ND MEMORANDA.
MISCELLANEA.
I N F rance a Commission bas been o.ppoiutc:d to consider the
TIIK production of gold in Australia seems to have diminished
various questions and evidence relating to the purchase and work- considerably since 1875, when tho mines y ielded 1,068,418 ounces.
ing of railways by the State, and it seems that at present evidence In 1876 tho qu an tity sank below a million ounces; that is to
is very much against the efficient, economical working of tho rail- to !IG3,760 ounces. In 1877 the figur e fell to 809,653 ounces; m
ways by the State, and generally that private ownership is much 1878, to 758,040 ounces; nnd in 187!) to 758,!).17 ounces. The year
m ore r ll'ective in sec11riug for tho public the greatest tl'avelling 1880 showed a slight improvement, as t ho yield rose to 839,121
ounces; and 1 1 wn.s still better, with 8.58,146 ounces; although
facilities.
TlUG railway scheme so long talked of in British Honduras is the quantity was far abort of a million ounces.
Tug R-egistrar-General's retur n for the week ending ll1arch 31st
likely at last to be realised, the executive having taken tho matter
warmly in hand.
Surveyors for the preliminary wol'k were shows th:\t the annuo.l rate of mor tality in that week in t wenty e xpected in the colony in about thr ee mouths' time. The Coloniu eight great towns of England and Walea averaged 29'2 per 1000 of
and I ndia says the local journals exprct great results from the first their aggregate population, which is estimated at 8,620,975 persona
endeavour to open up the resources of this fruitful colony, which in the midolle of this year. I n London 27H births and 2148 deaths
wore r esistered, or 16 'lii births and 12 '8 deaths every hour. Allowh~We hitherto been almost undeveloped.
T HE Braithwaite and Buttormere Railway Bill, which was to be ing for mcrense of population, tho births were 30, and the deaths
considered by a Selret Committee of the House of Lords, was on 262, above the average numbers in the corresponding weeks of the
1\londay withdrawn by the promoters. The object of the Bill was last ten years.
Pnov&sson PALM 1Kill devised a process for silvering glass by
t o carry a railway for minrrnl traffic along the ~bores of Lake
D erwent water, umlcr Cntbilla, and up BoiTowdale from end to end mel\ns of tho reducing action on the sal ts of silver, which is said to
t o the 11ummit of H onister Pass, the professed aim of the promoters have the all vantage of producin$ a very brilliant metallic deposit.
b eing to convey slntP.s from q uarries at the top of the pass to When into o.n ammoniacal solutron of nitrate of silver is poured,
B raithwaite station, on the Keswick and Cockermoutb line. The first a little caustic potash, and then a few drops of glycerine, the
l andowners through whoso property the line was projected were r eMuction begins at once; and this action is accelerated if ether or
alcohol be added to the mixture. A moderate heat and dar kn rss
unanimously opposed to it.
A BJo:PORT by Colonel Yelland has been published on the collision nre said to increase tho brilliancy of the precipitate, and darkn ess
that occurred on the 5th l •'ebruary ncar the A B signal-box, also favo11rs the adbea10n to the mirror of the deposit.
AT a recent meeting of the Boston Society of Natural H istory,
London Bridge, on the South-Eastern Railway, brtween o. down
train of empty carriages proceeding from Charing-cross to the Dr. 1\l. E. Wads worth gave tho r esults of some observ~tions, made
Brickla.yers' Arms yard and an up passenger train from Tunbridge in 1871-73, upon thr effect of atmospheric action in indurating the
W ells-Brighton stl\tion- to Cannon-street. Two passengers wrre friable S t. Peter's a.nd Potsdo.m sandstone in Wisconsin . This
injured. Colonel Yelland says: - " I hold that it is not crcrlitable effect, the now American journal, Science, says, was quitP strongly
to a u impor~ant railway company like the South-Eastern RAilway marked upon the exposed surfaces, resulting in indmation, the
Company, not fair to the passengers whom they carry, or just to partial obliteration of the granular structure, thP formation of conthe servants whom they employ, to have tumed out a pa-ssenger cretions, and even of quartz crystals; while the covered portions
train to run from Tunbridg~ Wells (Brighton) 11tation to <:annon- of the same blocks and slabs retained the usual friable character.
street station with one hand brake on a second-class carriage to a.
AT a recent meeting of the Paria Academy of Scien ce, 1\Ir. III.
train equivalent to nine ordinary carriages, independent of tbe Lippman l>roposcd to measure tbe resistance of a column of mercury
hand brake on the tendr.r of the en~ c."
by several methods. One is to r evel vo a coil inside of a bobbin
A REPORT bas been made by the Board of Trade on the Uull and which carries a current passing through the resilstance to be
Lincoln Railway BiU. By this Bill it is proposed among other measured. The current induced in the revolving coil is opposed to
wor ks, crossing the river Humber by 1\ viaduct botween Hesslt> the differencr uf potential at two points in th e resistance to bo
Cliff in Yorkshire, and Barton-upon-Humber in Lincolnshire, of measured. The condition of equilibr1um i, ?' = 2 ,. n 0 S, where n
t he following dimensions, viz. :-(1) Ono span, GOOft. wide, with a is the velocity of rotation, S the distance between tho points of
h eadwo.y of !)Oft. above high water of ordinary spring tides; (2) contact, and C a constant of the bobbin. The author gave an
two spans, each 250ft. wide, with a headway varying from 89ft. to experimental mrthod of findingS', the value which S would assume
86ft. Gin. above bigb water of ordinary spring tides ; and (3) if the bobbin w~re extended to infinity in both directions. The
thirty-t wo spans, each 1:JOft. widr, and with a headway varying value of C for such a bobbin is 4~, d being the distance between
from 86ft. to 46ft. above high water of ordinary spring t ides. The
B oard of Trade have caused inquiries to be made o.s to the naviga- two tllrD8 of the wire.
tion now carried on above the ~>ite of the proposed bridge. and are
I N concluding a valuable paper on steam-raising watera, published
advised that if tb e navigable span is constructed with a hea dway in th~ "Journal " of the :Sooietr. of Chemical I ndustry, Mr. W.
of not less than 90ft. above the level of high-water spring tides, l vison 1\'Io.eadam, F. I. C., says : - 'Olarke's process, tho addition of
there will be an available headway of 105ft. at the probable time milk of lime, is suitable, but the apace required for settling is
of t ide when largo vessels, bound up or down tbP rivor, would pass against tho genernl adoption of tho method. 'rhe addition to the
t he site of the bridge, and consequently that by taking down the fectl-watPr of caustic soda, or, still better, of soda ash, and at the
UJ>per masts of a few of tho largest vessels, th e trad o will scarcely, same tirne raising the temperature by utilising waste steam or beat,
if a t all, be interfered with. Tho Board of T rade aro further would be bo111:~ficial in most cases, care being take-n to afterwards
advised that n.s :~ot the site of the proposed bridge the navigable settle or filte1· th e watrr. Soda nsb was first recommended in tho
channel of the r iver i3 liable to change its position from natural columns of tho Timu of March 11th, 186 1, by lllr. Peter SpenO<',
causes, the company should be bound at all times to kerp the of the Manchest er Alum Works, who says: - ' For every boilrr 2lb.
river bed u nder the broadest opening in the bridge, and the of soda nsh- a.n article easily procured at l~d. per lb.-is every rlay
navigo.ble channel on each side of it, leading from the fo.irwa.y of given to the stoker. 'l'his he ()~solves in~ bucketful of cold water ,
the river to the said opening, clc:\r, and of a sufficient depth of :\nd puts the solution into the water supply for the boilers. This
water.
he docs as part of his impt'ro.tive daily duties, and the consequence
THE rrport of the Illinois State Commissioners of Ua.ilroads for is that now not tho slightest corrosive action takes place, an Mldi1882 shows that Illinois bad a. larger mileage than a.ny other tional ad vantage being that no orust is cve1· for med in my boiler,
in tho Americo.n Union. I t seems that during tho year t\ll the limo salt that forms these crusts be-ing also destroyed by tho
endin~ June 30th, 1882, there were constructed in the State of alkaline solution. •"
lliinolB 493 miles of main track road, not including side tracks, &c.
THR decline in th o Uuited Kmgdom in the total number of
T he total mileage now, in round numbers, is ns follows :-lllain
track, 85H miles ; double track, 3!) 1 miles ; and side-ways 1527- puddling furnaces during the last fe w ycau has been considerable.
t otal, 10,463 milrs. 1'his vo.st extent of line is in the bands of The figures issued by th o Mining Record Office show tbat in 18()0
forty-seven corporations, whose toto.l gross income for the year was the total numbrr of puddling furnaces in the United Kingdom was
3462; in 186-1, 633 ; in 18() , 5!)03 ; and in 1872, 73U. '!'be latter
189,352,977 dola. Out of thi'J amount 52,782,002 dols. wo.s from
passengers, 126, 7li7,839 dole. from freight, and 9,802,235 dols. from was the greatest number returnrd in any ono year. I n 187'1 tho
number had declined to G803, and 1877 it rose again to 7159. Tho
other sources. In English money th e income from tho Illinois
railroads for last year amounted to no less a sum than £38,000,000. total number of f11rnnccs returned for 1882-6296-is 101 1~ss than
that for the preceding year. T he number of furnaces in actuo1l
In 1881 the gross income was 176,073,259 dols., or about £35,2 L5,000. operation
at the end of 1882 was 81 1 less than that returned for
A vast proportion of this o.mount was nls? fro!D freight. Tho intho corre~ponding date in 1881; but of these a good many had
crease m 1882 was 13,279,718 dole. It 18 p omtcd out, however,
probably been working over a Ol't·tain part of tho year. This is,
that many of tho coml?anies have rxtGnded their linea, which mdeed, mado tolerably evident by tbe greater production or 1882.
largely o.ccounts for tho rncreased earnings, and the great increase
Assuming that 10 per cent. of the furnaces constructed are usually
of earnings made in the last few years is owing to increased mile- out of work for purposes of rrpair, &c. - which is tho calculation
age, and largo intereHts acquired and never before reported to the
generally accepted by the trade- it would appt>ar that of the
Commission The gross earnings from Illinois business amounted remainder 21 per cent. of the furnaces were inoperative on account
t o 56,3!)6,287 dob., of which 14,921,184 dols. was from passengers,
of the conditron of trade or changes in methods, and of that pro39,085,484 do b. from freight, t\nd 1,48!J,618 dols. from other sources. p ortion probably two-thirds will not again be lighted up.
The total expenses and taxes paid in Illinois was 37,628,705 dols.,
THE Registrar·Gencral's r eturn for tho week ending February
an d t he aggrrgato gross profit on Illinois business 1,876,!);j8 dols.
The returns of the various corporations r eporting show a balance 21th shows that the annual rate of mortality in twenty-eight great
applicable to dividends, a fter deducting disburaements for working towns of En~land and Wales averaged 22'7 per 1000 or the aggreexpenses, taxes, interest, rentals, and extraordinary expenses, of gate p opulation, which is estimated at 8,620,975 p ersons in the
28,912,847 dols., against 35,743,065 dols. for the year 1881, and middle of this year. The six places in which the rates of mortality
32,061,76R dole. for the year 1880. During th4 year 1 2 th r re bas were the lowest were Brighton, D erby, Plymouth, Bristol, P o1tsbeen a gradua.l reduction of passenger rates upon all tl1o lines. moutb, and Salford. I n London 2759 bit·tba o.n<115iH deaths, or
Three years ago tho average passenger· ta.riff was 3·28 cents per 9 25 deaths every hour,. wrre registered. Allowing for increase of
mile, but in 188 1 it was reduced to 2'68 cents, and in 1882 still population the births excee<1e1l by 10, whereas the dPatbs were so
further to 2·51 cents. This represet'ts a considerable saving to the many as 2!J!J below tho average number of tho corresponding
weeks of the lo.st ten years. '!'he annual rato of mortality from
passenger public in the course of two years.
all causes, which had been equal to 21'7, 21'5, and 20·1 per 1000
I N a report un a collision on the 2lst February, b<:twcen :1. down
an d an up passenger tro.in ~tt Stony-street Junction. as both in the three preceding weeks, was that woek 20·5. During tho first
eight weeks of the cur rent ?,Uorter tho death rato averaged only
trains were on their way to the Cannon-street station of the South20·!1 per 1000 against 2!l·G, 23'7, and 26·!), in the corresponding
Eastern Railway; and of a sub:~e 111ent collision between some
vehicles 1\t the rear of tho up pas,enger train which were thrown periods o( the tbreo yeara 1880, 1 1, and 188:2. I n Grrnter
London !HSS births and l!J3t clcatha wore r egistered, equal to
off tho rails by tho first collision, and fouled tho adjacent up line
of rails in front of the engine of 1\nother up pa~songer train, which annual rates of 36'i) and 20·2 per 1000 of tho population. Tho
death rato was thus cr1ual to about n·:; per hour tn a population
was also running to words Cannon-street station on nno.tbt·t· line l I
rails, and was r un into b~ the en gino of this aeconcl up tr .lin, of ~bout five miiHoM.
kr the last mc,.tiu~ of thu Chemical ~ocioly Mr. T.. T. Wright
Colonel Yoll:\nd says: ' Tho South-I<:astcrn Hail way l'o111pa.ny
docs not p roviclo its pMs<•ngCI' trnins with r~ proper nmount of 1·catl n paper on "'J'h<' Estl111ntion of I fycl rn::;cn l-lulphiclc anti
brake power, but I am nfrnid tbnt it i~ hopclc~s to rxpcct tlmt <..:arbonic Anhydride i 11 Cc,al Ga~." The nutbor p1·cfers tbc followall railway companies will turn out all thcit• pa.sscng~>r train3 ing method :-Tbccrudo coal 'ins, clticJ ancl freed from ammonil\ by
fitted with continuous brnkcs throughout tl.e1r whole length pn&Sing through phosphoric ncul, is p!ls~orl through two wei~hcd U
until ~he law on the. subj ct is altered, a~rl a severe penalty tubes, tbe first ch1lrged with I'Oughly powdered cupric phosphate in
author1scd for thus Wllfnlly 1\nd unnecessnnly endangcrmg tho ono leg anrl calcium chloride in the othrr, the sccon•l containing
p ublic safety. Cannon-street station was evidently intended in Rl) ln limo-slightly moi11tcued by exposure to th e air for nbout
t ho firat instance as a terminal st-ation for the City, but it has eighteen hours- and calcium chloride. The increnlle of weight in
been converted into n. rnct·o road station, and I believe it to be the the first gives the 11ulphuretted hyd rogrn in the second the cat bonic
very wor'St in th o kingdom . Thoro nrc eight or nino linea of r.uhydrido. The copp11r phol<phnto i'( prepnrc,d thus :- 2 lb. of
railway, indeponclent of cross-over roads, on th o bridge over tho ordinal y phosphatl· of soda nrc di~go)vrd in l gallon of water, nn•l
Thames a t tho south end or the station, and any passenger tnin 2~ lb. of cupric sulphate in 1 ~ gallons of water. 'l'he two solu ~; v'1S
either in the not of entering or of leaving that station must cross a re vigorously stirred to~ether, the precipitate washed by de can t3.tion,
those l ines of railway on the level, and except for tho security anrl dried nt 100 deg. C. Phoaph:\te thua prcpnr,d nlHOI bs hydrogrn
which is obtained from tho interlocking or tho pomts and signals sui pbide vory perfectly. Before u&ing tho o.b~01'ption tubeM t hr( o
by preven ting signalmen from making mistakes, the station woulcl cubic feet of clean dry CO!\ I gGn nr>J pa.ssc•l throuc;h to "Ra.turate"
not be workahlc. I t would avpenr that no less than 37!.1 trains the r eagcnt11. The '"""' clurio~ th" ab.!lorption RhoulJ be pl.•sed at
run in to this station and that 371 trni ns run out or it, making up :1. tho rate of i to ~ ~ cuoic fout per hour. Tho total qunntiry must
total of 750 trnins pa.ssin~ over the Cannon-street bridge, exclusive va1·y with tho iln1mrity in tho gas. Tho Num of the hydrogen
of empty enginc11, and thtB number docs not include fifty-nine up solpbido nnd ca.rbunic anhydride, thus cstimntcd, is a! way a
trains nod 73 down trl\ins which run between the Borough Market greater than the number obtnincd by nbso1bing these gases
and Cannon-street west j11nction. Tho compru·ative freedo m from simultaneously in ont~ U tube charged with soda lime. A 6in.
accidents and collisions speaks volumca in favour of the great care U tube charged with cupric r.hosphate will absorb twenty ~rains of
and atten tion with which t he company's officers and servants must, hydrogen sulphide. A similar si?.cd U tube, charged w1th ao<1n.
aa a r ule, work thi11 traffic. B etween 10 and 11 n.m. no leas than limo, will absorb pot·fcctly eighteen grains of carbonic anhydride.
thirty-one t1·ains run in t o Caunon-streot and tbirty -tivo out of it, Dr. Armstrong suggested that some acetylon m ight bo absor bed by
tho cupric phosphate,
•' intervale, in aome inatanccs, of leas than two m inutes a11nrt."
sar,
Tu ~-:nE
is but one nickel mine in the United S tates now in operation. It is situated in Lancaster county, Pa. It is 200ft. deep,
and bas been worked seventeen years. 'l he demand for this metal
is rapidly increasing. Croppings of nickel are found also in
Mndtson, I owa, and Wayne collDtica, Missollri. I n t he States th e
r efined metal is worth 3 dols. a po11Dd.
~T. bas bee'? ~ugges~ed that as tht> officials an d a part of th e
Brrt1sb. ~ssocratton will go to Cana~a for i ta 1884 meeting, that
the B rrtrsh part, or tho home-stay mg part of t he Associa tion,
should elect a. temporary staff to or ganiae a m eeting somewhere in
the U nited Kingdom, for the benefi t and amusement of t hose wh o
will not be prepared, or who d o not feel disposed to brave the
ocean voyage.
ON Tuesday a fternoon, Messrs. Robert T homp son an d Sons,
Sunderland, launched an iron screw &teamer, tho K ingscotc, built
to the order of Mr. Edward Ecclea, Newcastle·on-Tyne of t he
following dimensions :-Length, 220ft.· breadth, 32ft.; and depth,
15ft. Gin. Tho vessel is specially built for mnking q11ick r et urn
p assages in balla:~t. H er engines are 110-borso power , by Messrs.
R. and , V, Hawthorn, of Newcastle.
Tug pr oject of a canal brtween Tchemavo<1a and Kuatendji baa
been revived at Bucharest, and meets with the support of the
Liberal pa.pen, especially the Romamtl, I t is sta ted t hat there
are l!:nglisb capitalists ready to find t he necessary fllDcls. I n
Bucharest a }>ohtical argument has been found for undertaking the
work- namely, that by tho canal R~umania would make her self
independent of tbc resolutions <>f the Confer ence, and possess an
outlet of her own to t ho sea.
GENEitAL FOOTE, United States 1\Iiniatcr to <:orea , h as r ecently
been on a mission to P ana ma, a nd after inspecting the c.·mal ho
reports tha t a considerable amoun t of work baa been dono. Tho
surf~co of tho ground on the line of the canal bas been removed
from ocean t o ocean . T ho company hns a large number of digging
machines at work, and the earth is being rapidly cut away. Bu t
there has brcn great sickness and mortality among t he workmen,
who are principally Jamaica negroes.
THE E ast I ndian mail, r un weekly by contract with the Brit ish
Govct nmcnt between B ologna and :Brindisi, the whole length of
the peninsula, can ied 1l!i:> passengers from :Bologna t o Brindisi in
1881, and 1027 from B rindisi to Bologna-an average of 22·2 and
19 ··J through passengers per train. The numbe r of employ es was
66,016, or, r emarks the Ame1 ican Railroad Ua:.ctle, very nearly
12 p er mile, against 4 ·8 per mlle in this country. Tho average
wages per year was 214 dols., against 46() dols. in t his country.
1'JJ& Co11ncil of the Socirty of Arts have appointed a com mitt ee
to consider tho quest ion of prevent ing collisions a t sea. T he work
of the committre will be confined to a consideration of t be best
means of preventing colli11ions in fogs. The committee will be
glad to receh·e any information on this subject from persons wh o
h ave given their attentiou to it, or to consider any proposals
having for their object tho prevention of such collisions. All such
communications should be Mldress~d to the secretary of the Society
of Arts, John-street, Adelp hi.
THR prospectus is issued of the "Electric Motor Syndicate," to
ba form ed for th e pur_P,OBO of acquiring the electro-motive engine
patents of 1ll. Dcsu6 1'. l'iot and Mr. J . .MacDonald for electric
tricycles. ln pointing to the cost of power by the electro-motor
and by t.ten m engine, a 2-horse engine is compared wi th a 2-horse
power motor. 'l'bo cost of 2-horao power by the steam r ngine is
given at lld., by tho motor 2 ·3d. This steam engine, which coats
5d. pet· horse-power per lcour, ought to be put into a museum of
culiositics, and it would br interesting to know what was the
source of the electricity which worked the electro-motor for 115d.
per hour. Was thiH generated by an engine coating 5d. per horaepower per hour?
'fil E decline of production of llnisht!cl iron in 1882, in SCJuth
Wales, as shown by the r<:port of the British I ron Trade Attociation, is attributable to the fact that two of tho lorgest wor ka tberu
ceased to manufacture wrought iron in 18t!l, having taken up the
manufacture of steel imMnd. By this step H!> puddling f11rnaec·s
bavo been disused. A third wc.1 k8 in South Woles was cntirdy
dismantled in 11:!82. Only h\elve Weleh works arc now engaged
in this branch of manufacture, ago.in&t t birty a few years ago.
Tho iron produced in the P rincipality mainly takes t he form of
coko bars for the manufaclurt: c•r tin plnlPs ond iron rnils. Of t br
latter, tbe aggrega t e make in 1882 was only 4G,978 tons, against
118,177 tons in 1881, the difference being 71,19!! tons.
A llRl'ORT just iBBued by the borough survc) or of B ir mingham
shows that during the (>Rst ycar 129,268 cube yArds of mud wer e
a rreskd by the Birmmgbam, Tame, and Rca District Drainage
Board in the roughing, and 71,507 in tbc new tanks, making a
total of 200,7:)5 yar ds cube, or a n average of 650 yards per day.
Fifty-six acres of land were used for digging in the mud, and a.ttho
liming sheds 4662 tons of lime were used for precijJitnting p·1rposes.
The main conduit, which ia 8ft. in diameter, nnd 2~ miles in lengt h ,
for c:>n \·eying the sew ago to the nowly-acquired far m lands, is
nearly completed ; and considerable progress bas been made in
draining and Ja.ying out portions of the farm lands, aa well as in
tho diversion of Btl·eamB, formation of roMis, and the erection of
farm buildings.
A NOTADLE mechanic has recently passed from nmongst us by
the death, at tbo East End of London, of lllr. George W hite, loam
mould ~>r. Originally l earning h is t rade in tbe cstablish mr u ts of
l\l audslay and Seaward, he early develop~d unusual abi!Hy nnu
juclgmc.nt in the difficult art of loam moulding, and becoming
foreman at the Canal I ronworks, ~lillwall, London, he continuecl
for many years to produce a succcuion of castings of unrivalletl
excellence. 1\lr. Wbite continued at his dutira for nearly &ix ty
yoars, and it was only within a few weeks that he wa.~ persuadNl
reluctantly to yield to his growing wrn kn<.ss and take rPat. Hie
position at the Lead of his trade v. as universally ncknowlulgcd, and
ho has died l'atcemed a nd lamcnt(•d, at the ogo of scv<nty-scvt>n,
H o was buried o.t lliord on Tbureday, th e 5th April.
Tue model theatre of Briinn is illuminat(d by elec!ricity, uncl
also p rovided with an dcctricalsafdy npJ arntua, ·lcdM cl l•y I:CJbu t
LangblOuff llMilaucl, for U·C i:1lhc ncnt<'f fl1c 1,1tnkiloc; out. J:y
mtn11n of an elccll o-magn(>t, th~ incombi!Bllblc em tain between U.o
Rtng<' nntl awlitorium i~ :~llowcc\ 1 o fnll; tl c v~lvrs of wl\tcr )'il'l''i
arc OJ•I!ned, so n'l to disc! tar~'' t(lpi• Ub 'oh1nt1 ~ l•f "r.t<r on Vklilll •
p.nh of the buil!lit1;:: cxtro. doous n:c ope nul, oncl Vlntilaton> a~t·
cl'l•trl. All these actions nrc efhctcJ 1 y n key·board, vut in !he
mo~t C'lnvcnicnt place, hu\'ing fi1•c pu•ltts luhdlrd to corrcPponcl,
whi!c tho 6ixth \1 01kR nil fi,·c at onor, and moy Cl'en be madr 1o
come into acti uu automnlically, hy rnl'nns d a. 'CIY combust1b!o
wick or fusible metal attacl·m<.nt. 1'1~ t~·n c r y~t• m tu bc1 1\
tric d at Y1cnn:~o. 'l'he w<~otor pipe !ill an:;c m1 nt moy l·e ~llCCCtltful,
but tho incomhu,tihlc cutlain wna found tv be urd< ~s in tho reteiJt
B er lin Stat e Thcro.tre.
StKCJ> the OJ N1ing of th r new prumwa•lc n~ thr rn11t. rn <.I ll c.f
Urighton tl.e \\' t ~>t Pin IM hcrn A.lmo"t tl, H. I t<ol. To mo k,• it
o9ain attractive it i11 plu[WHd to build a huge stluct ulc at tho end
ot the pier, fo1mh q~ o. lu11g t c·e hcnd to ir, the bt>ild:Hg to be a
Kurunl. A J;ill is pa~>il;: Lhrllu~h l'~dintnrnt fCJr I he }ll:rvoso
ut•opposcd. Its ol\pen;tlucture is etotn \1ar~tl to tha u::till d,c.k of a
Iorge ship, on '' lilc.:h \\Ill be enct~1l nJics' ~nloons, gentl.:mcu's
saloons, billiol(l-rooms, ~moking :mel 1calling-rooms, tlrawiug,
music, ancl concrrt-roome, n genua! dining ball a nd saloon, baths,
a.nd other aids to comfort and atnu!.ement. Visitors will thus be
enabled to spend the whole day nt sea, and be able to "get CJff"
when they feel so inclined. Underneath the main deck will bo
vario11a ()('acriptions of bntbe. Above the moin dccl: it is proposcc\
to erect a hul'ricanc dcckl wh ich will form an extensive promenade,
fitted with wind screens, ~cab, a.ntl a wninga. The wurka will b~
carried out under the direction of Ml'. ~ugeniWJ B irch, C.E.
284
THE ENGINEER.
APRIL
13, 1883.
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285
THE ENGINEER.
APRIL 13, 1883.
A U T 0 M A T I C W A T E· R-W H E E L G 0 V E R N 0 R S.
CONSTRUOTED BY ~1R. H. J. H . KING, NEWI.'tiARKET, STROUD, OLOUCESTERSHIRE.
TBB problem of accurately regnlating the speed of water·
wheels and turbines presents great difficulties which in pra.ctioo
it is impoeaible to completely overcome, exoopt by means of a
sovernor which ~pplies a brake when ~he wheel run.s too fast, and
1fice ver1<'1. This system, however, IS wasteful of water, and
ahould only be resorted to in caaes when there is always a
surplus, or where great a.ccura.cy in speed is of importance. The
difficulty of obtaining perfect regulation of speed arises from
two causee :-First, from the fact that a heavy sluioo or "shut "
can at best be but moved slowly; and secondly, because the
water which is already in the bucketa of the wheel cannot be
dealt with except by a brake. This is a factor which makes an
overshot whee~ imposaible to regulate perfectly, except bra. bra~e
governor. It IS, therefore, best when the water power m a mtll
i.e supplemented by a. steam engine, to couple the water-wheel and
engine toguther, as by so doing a greater regularity of speed may
be obtained, and a greater amount of power may be got from the
water. It is obvious that to obtain the maximum power from
the water when the water-wheel and engine are coupled
together, all the wate.r should go on the \Vheel at the maximum fall, and none run to waste over the weir till the full capacity
of the wheel is reached. As, however, the water supply of most
streams varies very much, being influenced by the requirementa
of the mills above and other caUSM, it follows that to maintain
the water at weir level, a constant adjustment of the "shut"
must take place, which, ii done by a man, occupies a great deal
of time, and in practioo is seldom ii t~ver satisfactorily performed.
The governor illustrated in Fig. 1 has been designed automatically to meet the above requirements, it being regulated by the
level of the water in the mill stream. The other-Fig. 2- regu·
late& the speed of a. wheel when not coupled with an engine, this
being effected by a movement of the shut in proportion to the
work to be done. Referring to
Fig. 1, which is called the float
governor, 1 is a cog • wheel,
which has a handle in one
arm, this wheel taking the place
of the ordinary shut handle.
It acta also as a double
ratchet wheel over which the
pawls 2 and 3 reciprocate
very slowly. These pawls are
kept out of gear by the seg·
ment ring 4-which is shown in its oontral position-eo that
neither pawl acta on the wheel, which is now free to turn by hand
in either direction and put water on or off in the usual way.
The ring 4 is attached to float 6 through the medium of a
toothed wheel and sector, and as t he float rises and falla the
ring will be turned accordingly in opposite directions, so that if,
after the water wheel is star ted, the water should fall, the top of
the ring will move to the right, and the pawl 2 will begin to turn
the wheell-engaging from one to sixteen teeth each strokeand wind the shut gradually up till the original water-level is
restored. If, on the other hand, the water should rise, the
pawl 3 will come into action and the shut will be lowered and
more water put on. The handle 8 is for locking the ring in ita
central position and keeping the pawls clP.ar when the wheel is
turned by hand. An important feature in this arrangement is
that the shut will be moved either fast or slow in pro:>or tion to
the rise and fall of the float. In aome cases it bas been found
necessary where there is not water enough to drive the water
wheel alone, during certain times of the day, to use a specinl kind
of ratchet olutch, whioh insures tbnt the water wheel shall
always assist the engine when it is able to do so, but which alao
•
insures that the water wheel can never be driven by the engine.
The speed governor, Fig. 2, is designed for regulating the
speed of water wheels nnd turbines when working alone. I t i.e
in many respects similar to the float governor, the only difference
being that the cam 6 is regul11.ted by the governor balls, through
the medium of the lever 11 and the rod 8, instead of the float;
7 is the shaft which is attached to the shut. The wheel 9 is for
throwing the governor out of gear when the shut geta wide open,
otherwise the strap driving the governora would be thrown off.
It is turned by the acroll on the ratchet wheel, and is so set that
the arm 10 is lifted by it just before the shuts gets wide open.
This stops the pawl 5 from acting on the ratchet wheel and
opening the shut wider. A bell may be attached to call ntten·
tion to the fact that the shut is wide open, and that the governor
can no longer keep up the speed if the supply of water should
further diminish. The great feature of this governor is that ita
rate of correotion is proportional to the error to be corrected, as
one to any number m ore teeth may be engaged at each stroke
of the pawl. It should also be noticed that the error in speed
" 'ill continue to be corrected till it is eliminated, which is not
the case with the ordinary centrifugal governor.
HORIZONTAL ENGINES ON WROUGHT IRON BE DPLA TES.
MESSRS. HAYWARD TYLER AND CO., LONDON, ENGINEERS.
·.
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•
•
••
•
•
;
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....
.!'
•
•
•
.
0
•
••
...... ...
.. . -·
•
..
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#
.Tn illustration showa one of a claaa of engines which is
being made by MeaiJ'II. Hayward Tyler and Co., of Whitecross·
ltreet, London, eepecially for foreign nnd colonial work, where
machinery baa to be transplanted long distances either by sea or
land. It i.e ICal'Cely neoeeaary to point out the great advantages
poueeeed by wrought iron bed pl11.tea where machinery is expoled to rough usage in transit, owing to their greater lightne88
and the abeence of dangt~r of breakage. In Messrs. H nyward
Tyler and Co. 'a engines of this class the details nre all similar
to their atandard horisontal engines, and the erection is all by
accurately planed aurfacee, suitable blocks being rivetted to the
wrought iron girders for this purpose. Thus no difficulty ia
experienced in pu~g together on arrival. These engines are
built either singly or in pairs, and in sizes from 9in. cylinders
upwards, both high-presaure and condensing. The engine shown
in the engraving ia fitted with Rider's patent automatic variable
expansion.
•
-
•-·
,"' •
•
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••
• c
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•
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ateel jacket, waa fired at a 9in. wrought iron plato at Shoeburyneu.
The ahot weighed 85 lb. The calibre ia G·Sin., the velocity waa
~bout 1400ft. The p~ojectile passed clean throu$h .the plate. Thia
u a very good result mdeed, for the calculated lim1t of perforation
is under Sin. The ateel jacket did ita work well. MajorGeneral Scratchley ia ahortly expected to be home from
Australia and to be present at the trial of tbeae projectiles
against steel-faced platea, which is the particular work for
whicb they al'e designed, being intended to furnish the SO-pounder
PALLISER I MPROVED SHOT,-On Thursday, April 5th, a Palliser converted Palliser guns at Melbourne and Sydney with tho mean•
improved projectile for tho SO-pounder gun, of chiUe<l iron with of attacking armo\U'·olad veaaela,
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I
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THE ENGINEER.
286
APRIL
13, 1883.
=-=================-==- -===========:---==
hill
also
runs
on
tho
inaido,
whilo
the
car
dc11cending
the
hill
proinduced
currcnt11
in
the
coro
of
tho
annaturo.
Take
0
R,
such
TilE TRANSMISSION OF POWER BY ELECceeds by gravity on tho outside linea. 1-'rom t ho bruahes tho
that g~ repr entll tho ollicienoy of tho m!lchioc. This, current ia tak<'n to a commutator workul by a lever, which
TRICITY AND THE PORTRUSH RAILWAY.
0~ Wcd ocsd~y,
Ttaru~miallaon o£
April 11th, 1883, a paper was re~d on (1) "The
Power hy Electricity" and (2) " The P ort rush
Electrical Hail way," by Mr. Alexander SiemeM nnel Eel ward Illlp·
kin,on, D.He., of which we give an abstract.
1'he authora bf'gan hy rr•fl'rring to ''"isting dectlical mil ways,
and went on to lliiCU~I the qucttion of the trausmi'lbion of power,
illu,trating thcit r"mat k' by mo.lcls. Fmst, there was an ortlin~ry
centrifugal p tmp ella win]( watu from the tank bt-low, fotcing it
through thc tube, mad returning it agnin to the tank. Tho 11ump
w.u work'!d by a str.\p from a Stetncua' machine, used as a motor,
anti the current was obtained from t\ somewhat larger mncbine,
which is ordinarily uaetl for lighting the hall of the Rociety of
Arts, but which, £or the present, hntl been taken for the put·poac of
experiment. Now let the pump be elisconnccted, nnd replaced by
tho very 8mnll motor working the sewing machine. It waH impor·
tant to obsorvo that the snme gencra.tor was used in both cases,
and that neither its speed nor any othor· of its conditions had been
altered, oxco\•ting only the pull on the driving strnp; but that, in
tbo cns.o of t 10 pump, probably about n·horse power of useful work
was beang done, while an the oaao or tho sowing m~chinc, pot·ha/>s
t',,-horso power. Now, without stopping the ~ewin~? machme, t 10
whole of the forty Etlison incandescent lamps requtred for lighting tho t'oom were connrctcd with the generator. Tho sowing
macbino still performed its ~'<,- horso power of work, while
from the snme generator and tho same lcadmg wires about ::i-horse
power \\all omployetl in lighting tho room. Theae illustrations
would be suflicient to ahow, in the firat place, that when once we
havo electrical maina of sufficient capacity carried from central
atationa to our houses, how simplo a mattor it will be to combine
lighting with tlomeatic operations, nnd even the larger operations
required for purposes of trade; and, in tho second place, that each
motor of a seraca placed in parallel circuit performs the work
required of it independently of all the othcr1, and independently
of the generating machine, provided only that the 'enerator is
capable of producing tho power it is called upon to furn11h.
This second point the author then explained by the aid of a
diagram of an electrical hoist, deaigned by Dr. John Hopkinson,
and made by Mesara. Siemens Brothers. The electrical pe.rt consists of an ordinary Ds aeries dynamo, fitted with reversing gear
for revoraing the direction of the current and the lead of the
bruabea, and conaequently the direction of rotation of the machine.
In the mean position, both pairs of bruahes are lifted from tho
commutator, allowing no current to pass. The dynamo runs at a
high velocity an(l consequently is conn<>ct<>d by spur gear to the
lifting axle, lo diminish the Rpeed of lift and increase the leverage.
On this axle a chain pull11y ie 11 tted by moans of a special friction
clutch 1 which need not now be explained. The clutch automatically nnlds tbe weight attached to tho chain, 1\8 soon as the
d{namu ia at?}Jped. Having COU,Pled up tho leads to the t~rminals
o the maohme, and hung a W(·aght of 1 cwt. on the cham, start
the dynamo, meaauro roughly the apced of lift, and by means of
the electro-dyoamomoter the current pa~aing through the dynamoWctgbt.
Speed.
Current.
1 ewt.
t!t. por sec.
9 nm~ros.
Now let tho attached weight be doubled without altering any other
conditione, and again measure the apeed and currentWeight
Spcod.
Current.
2 cwt.
2 t.ft per ace.
1S am~ros.
It would bo observed that with tho he~vier weight the Bp('ed bad
diminished and tho current increased.
Secondly, ~~~ would again put on tho weight be bad in the first
o.xpcritn('nt, but insert a r~11iatanco in the leading wire. Again
measuring the curr('nt noel tbo 11pecd, we> haveWolllht.
f:p1.'<.'<1.
Current.
1 cwr.
2rt. p11r. aoc.
!l nmpllrcs.
Tb('y would a<o that the current was exactly the same as before•
while the apoed had dimini11hed. Taking again the double wdght.
and leaving the resi~tanco inserted, we ltav,._
Wo'ght.
Speed.
Current.
:! OWL.
Ht. per seo.
18 IIDIJ.iircs.
Again the same current as th <>y hnd before with the double w!light,
but a eliminiahc,lllpeed. From Utr.so <'XJll"rim~uts it was clcal' that
for n giv1•11 luad th1: ou1 ron t n mil ina coustrmt, whatever tho speed
ma.y bl.', anel I hat thll BJHWd Jtlinclpally depends upon tlw resistancu through which the currc.:ut pa~sca
Three conclusions aa·o to bo drnwo , which are the fundamental
principles of tho thc.ory of tbo electrical transmission of powor.
(1) Tbe motor, as a mAchine, is entirely independent of tho
generator, and mu1t bo dl'8igncd for tho pDrticular work it baa to
do without reference to the generntor. (2) The current dependa
U..{>Oil the load on tho motor, and uf.on no other thing wbatover.
(3) Tho apeed doponda upon tbo E.l\ .F. of tho generator, and tho
total resistance in tho circuit of tho machines. If t he mains which
aupply tho current to the motor be maintained at a constant
potential, and the motor bo aeparntoly excited, or have permanent
magnet&, the speed i8 proport1on~l to the potential of the tnain,
leas the losa of potcnt1nl uuo to tho resistance of tho armature.
AI a practical corollary, the generator must be designed to givo tbo
current required of it by the motor, and E.l\1. F. sufficient after
allowing for fnll of )>Otential through the resistance of the maine,
to give tho requietto speed. Keeping these points in view, it is
eaay to dceign a combination of machines for performing any
particular work, and to calculato exactly the efficiency of the
combination, and to account for tho various losses that occur.
Now let 111 put ~hcao ~onsideratio.na in: a mathematical form.
The tint problem 18 :-Gaven a maan watb a constant E.M.F.
denoted by E, to conatruct a dynamo machine, drawing its current
from tho main, to work with a given load L, and at a given numIll
y~
0
s>
Q
H
0
her or revolution• n par minute. Lc~ ua mcke ueo of tho cbarac·
terlatlo ourvc1, uacd by lJr. J. Hopkinton, Vr. Frvllcb, IU. 1\larcel
Depru, and othere. Tako 0 .e, 0 v u an ax it of co·ordioatea,
alo"i 0 p, out off 0 M, 1 l'prollntlng the Jo: l\1.1<'. of the main in
volta. Now 1 he make• a of each typo ot drnamo machine know
ap]Jroximatdy the pereentngo of enrrgy thor mnohin~s abaorb in
producing tho nccoaanr~magnotio aehl. Take o. point N in 0 .M,
euch thst the ra~io
l\i is equal to this percentage. Again, it is
g
known that n. dynamo la not an abaolutrly perfect machineJ but
that a certain amount of energy is wasted io tho friction ot the
bearing•, and of tho bru.ahea against the commutator, and also in
in tho ca~e of tho Sicmcna machine, i1 at least 00 per cent.
From 0 .r cut off 0 I r, such that the rectanglo 0 H It' H
rl'prrsenh th<> power required from tbl' motor expressed in
\· atb. 'lltu1 0 J ( i¥ the current passing through tho motor,
mcMure•l iu atn}wn•a, nut! ll l ' is the inverse Kl\l.F. The proper
motor, thl•n•fv1 <>. i1 that elynnt•lo which, when running nt the given
numbrr of n \ olu tion• 11 p<>r minutC', bas a cbaractea is tic curvo
p~ 11iug thtougl• the point P . The total efficiency is evidently the
rat:o of tlto aol:mglu 0 H 1t' R to tho rectangles 0 H M' M, which
1
is equal to 11 J:,: ; the electrical <lllciency is lllll\PL' = ':·, tho rl\tio
11 1\1
1.,
of tho invone E.l\l. F. of tho motor to tho E. M.F. of tho main.
The energy spent in magnetis~tion is mrasurod by P N l\11\1', and
the tnng!!nt or the angle P N l\1' represents tho resistance of the
armature and magn\;h.
Tho seconel prohlom ia :- Oiven n. motor requiring o. certain
cunont and electro-motive forco for the work it hns to do, to
con11t1 uot a 11uitahlo g~:ncrn.tor, tho diatnnco between tho machines
being roprcs<.>nted by an olectl'ical resistance H. measured in ohms.
Ll't 0 1' 1,'- Fig. 2- bo the ohn.raoteristic curv<· of the motor, wbon
l'tmning at tho rt''luircd speed; P 1\[ tltll clectro·motivo forco in
Ill
y~
0
>
t.l
---------::::=:::-~ r. J
•
N ~====~~­
Rr-----------~~------------~:.
,
AMP ~"" RC::;
~0~---------------------------H~--~~~
volts, and 0 H tho current in amp~res. Let R' be the sum of the
resistances of tho motors, and
of tho conductor. Draw P N
perpendicular to 0 y, n.nd make the angle P N M' having its tangent ll(Jual toR'; ~ben M' H represents tho difference of potential
between tho termmals of the generator. Produce H 1\1 to Q, so
that ~~ is tho ratio of the energy expended in producing tho
n.
%
magn?tic field to tho tot~l energy of th? machi.ne ; then the gene·
rn.tor as thnt dynamo wbacb, when runmng at tts proper speed has
a characteristic curvo passing through the point Q.
The oleclirical efficiency of the combination is the ratio
~ ~. i.r., tbo ratio of
the E.l\l.F. of the motor to tho E.M. F. of
tbo generator, which, if tho mocbinca arc Rimilar, is equal to the
ratio of their speeds. Tbe energy converted into beat in the wires
of the machine, and in the conductor, is N P Q S, and the total
etlicicucy of the combination is the ratio of the electro-motive
force multiplied by tlte product of tho efticienciea of the two
machines, conaillcrell separately. The conductor connecting the
two mnchilll'll hM been COnsidered to be perfectly insulated. Of
courso thie ia not ptncticnlly attained, but l will not now collJiider
the point particularly, as it has very recently heeo discussed from
an aualytical point or \"iew by Dr. 0. J. Lodge.
Dr. 1 lopkinaon then described tho P ortrush Railway. In the
summer of 1881 l\lr. W. A. 'frnill, Into of B.l\l. Geological Survey,
suggested to Dr. Siemens that tho line betwc~::u }Jortrusb 1.\nd
Bushmills, for which pn.rliameutnry powers bad bern obtained,
" ould Le ~uitnble in many respects for electrical working, especially
ng thrro wn'labuudnnt \\1\ler power available in the neiKhbourbood.
Ur. Siomlllll at Ot•CO t'uinccl in the undertaking, which hns been
carried out umlcr hiMt il'ection. Tho lino extends from l'ortrUBh,
tho terminus of tho n~Hast and Northern Counties Ua.ilway, to
Uushmills in tho DuHh Valley, a distance of six miles. For about
half a mile the line passu& down tho principal street of l'ortruah,
nnd bas an oxteoaion along tho Northern Counties Railway to the
harbour. For tho rcat of the di8tance the rails are laid on tho senaide of tllo county 1·oad, and the head of the rails being level
with tho ground, a foot-path is formed the wholo distance, separated from th'l road by a kerbstone. The lino is
single, and has a gauge of 3£t., the standard of the exl.stiog narrow
Jaugo linea in Ulster. 'l'be gradients are exceedingly heavy, being
m parte as steep aa 1 in 3!). 'l'ho curvea are also in m!\ny cases
very sharp, having neceeant ily to follow the existing road. TLe:ro
are five paning places, in addition to the sidings at the termini
and at tho carringo depOt. At tho Buabmills end the line is
laid for about 200 yard1 along the street, and ends in ~he m~rket·
place of tho town. It is intended to connect it with an electrical
railway from Dervock, for which parliamentary powers havenlready
be('n obtained, tb us'completing the connection wi tb the narrow gn uge
ayetem from Ballymcna to Lnrne and Cushendall. About 1500 yards
from the end of the lino thoro is a waterfall on the river Buab,
with an available head of 21ft., and an abundant supply of water
at all seasons of the year. Turbines nre now being erected, and
the necessary works executed !or employing the fall f~r working
tho generntang dynamo machmes, and the current wall be conveyed by means of an underground cable to the end of the line.
or the application of tho watl'r power, it is unnecessary to speak
further, as the works are not yet completed. For the present tho
line is worked by a small steam engine placed at the carriage depOt
at tbe Portrusb end. Tho whole of the coustructive works have been
designed and carried out by Mr. Traill, assisted by Mr. E. B. Price.
Tho syatom employed may bo described as that of the separate
conductor. A rail ofT-iron weighing 19lb. to the yard is carried
on wooden poata, boiled in pitob, and placed lOft. apart, at n
(liatanco of 22in. from tho illlltdo rail, and 17in. abovo the ground.
This rail comes close up against the fence on the side of the road
thu• forming an additional protection. The conductor ia connected
by :m u~dorground .cablo to a 11ingle shunt wound dynamo mnchinl'
placed m . the engmo abe~, ~nd worked by a small agricultural
atenm oogano of about 25 mdacatcd horso·power. Tho cunC'nt ill
conveyed from tho conductor by means of two springs, made of
steel, rigidly h~ld ~Y two steel ~ars placed one a~ each end of the
car, nnd proJecting about Gan. from the 11do. Sinco the
conducting l'ail is iron, while tho brushes are &tt:>el, tho
we;u- of tho latter is exceedingly amnll. In dry weather they
require tho rail to bo slightly lubricated; ic wet weather tbe water
on the 11urfnco of the iron provides nll the lubrication required.
The double brusbe11, placed nt tho extremities of the car, enable it
to bridge over the numeroua aap:s, which ncel{'unrily interr~pt tbe
contluotor to allow cart wo.ye Into the fi~lda 11nd common• ailJoin·
lng the thoro. On o. diairam the car wu ehown pMelng one of
theae gap•; the front brueb had broken contact, but einoe the back
l ruab waa atill touching the rail, tbo current bll& not been broken.
B.Core tho bnok bruah lenvea the conductor the front brush will
havo ag11in risen UJlun it, so that the curront is novtor interrupted.
There nre two or tlneo gaps too brolld to bo bridgfd in this way. In
th <.>ao oases tho driver will break the current before reaching the gnp1
the momentum of the cn.r onrrying it the JO or 12ynrds lt must travel
without power. Tho current is convoyed unclor the gaps by moana
of nn insulated copper oablo carried in wrought iron pipes, placed
at a doptb of 18m. At tho passin' places which are situated on
inclines, the conductor tnkos tlle ins1do, nnd the co.r ascending the
switches resistance frnmea placed under the cl\1', in or out, u mny
be draircd. The Bllme lever nltera the position uf the lmuhc• on
tbo commutator of tbe dynamo machine, reversing the dil!:ction of
rotation in t ho mi\J\ncr shown by the electrical hoist. Tho
current is not, na it were, turned on full suddenly, but ))Mies
through the rcsi.atauces, which oro afterwards cut out in pnrt or
altogether, according as tbr driver dr&ires to run at part 11pecel or
full speed.
From the 1lynnmo, the> current is conveyed through the axleboxes to tho 11\ICII, thenco to the tire1 of the wheels, and finally
back by the rnile, which aro umnau latecl, to the generating machine.
Tho conductor is laid in lengths of about 21ft., tho lengths being
connected by fish-plates nnd also by a double copper loop securely
aoldercd to tho iron. It is alto necessary that the rails of tho
ncrmanont way should bo connected in a. eimUnr manner, as tho
ordinal'y 11eh-platc8 give o. very uncertain elP.ctrical contact, and tbe
earth for lnrgo ou1n ·nt11 is altogether untruitwortby as n conductor,
t!1ou,b, no doubt, materially reducing tho total reaiatanco of tho
CII'C\IIt.
The dynamo machine is placed in tho centro of the car, beneath
tho floor, o.nd through intormediato spur goar dri ves by a steel
chain on to ono axle only. Tho reveraiug Ievere, nnd a lao tbo levCt'l
wol'king tbo tnccbnnicnl brakes, a.ro connected to both ends of tbo
car, ao that tho driver can always atand at tbo front and bavo uninterrupted viow of the rails, which is of course essential in tbe
caao of a line laid by the side or tho public road. Tile care aro
first nnd third-olasa, aomo opened an() aome covered, and aro constructed to hold twenty people, exclusive of the driver. At preaent
only ono is fitted with a dynamo machine, hut four moro machines
arc now being conatructed by 1\le&Jirs. Siemens Brothers, ao that
bcforo tho beginning of the heavy summer traffic five cara will be
ready; and ainco two of these will be fitted with machines capable
of drawing a second car, there will bo an available rolling atock of
seven cars. It is not intended at present to work electrically the
portion of the lino in tho town at Portru.ab, though this will probably bo dono hereafter, and a portion, at least, of the mineral
traffic will bo loft for the two steam tramway engines1 which wero
obtained for the temporary working of the line pendmg the completion of tho electrical arrangements. The author then proceeded
to put into n form auitable for calculation the principlea which 1llr.
Siemena hl\d Ulustratrd in a graphic form more convenient for the
purposes of explanation, and then to abow how these principle8
bad beon applied in tho present case.
In determmin~ the proper dimensions of a conductor for railway
purposes, Sir Wtllinm Thomson's law should properlr apply. But
on a lino, where the gradients and traffic nrc very arregular1 it is
clifficult to estimate tl1e average current, and tho desirability of
having the rail mocbanically strong, and of such low resistnnco that
tho potential shall not vary very materially throughout ita lengtbl
becomes more imj>ortant than tbe economic considerations invofvoa
in Sir William 'l' lomson'a law. At Portrush the resistance of a
mile, inoludiog the t·eturn by earth and the ground raila, ia actually
about 0·23 obme. If calculated from the section of the iron it would
bo 0'15 ohms, the difference boing accounted for by the rceiste.nce
of the CO(>per loops, n~d occasional iml?erfec.t c~ntac~s. The
olectro-motavo force o.t wb1ch tho conductor as maantamed 18 about
22n volta, which ia well within the limit of perfect safety assigned
by Sir William Thomson 1.\nd Dr. Siomcna. At the same time the
shock received by toucbinj; tho iron is sufficient to be unpleasant
anti benco is ~ome protectaon against tho conductor being tamper~
with.
Vonsider a oar requirin~ a given constant current, evidently the
maximum lose duo to resiJtnnce will occur when the car is at the
middl" point of the line, 1\nd will then be one-fourth of the total
resi.stnuce of tho lin(', providt.!d the two extremities nro maintained
by tho generators nt the samo potential. Again, by integration,
tho mean resistance can be shown to be one-sixth of the resistance
of the line. A~plying thcso figures, and aasuming four care are
running, rcquirmg 4·hono powt-r each, the loss due to resistance
docs not excetd •J per cont. of the power developed on the can; or
if ono car only bo runnin~;, the loll& ia less than 1 per cent. llut in
Mtual practice at Portrush even tbeie estimates are too higll, as
tho generators nro placed at the bottom of the hills, nnd tho
mitldlo portion of tho lino is more or less level, hence tho minimum
current is required when tho resistance is at its mo.ximum value.
'fbe insulation of the conductor has bern a matter of coWJidorablo difficulty, chiefly on account of the moastnesa of tho climate.
An insulation hoe uow, however, been obtained of from 500 to
1000 ohms J>Cr milo, according to tho state of tbo weathe1) by
placing a co.p of insnlite between the wooden posts and T-1ron.
H ence the total leakage cannot oxceed
2·5 amp bres, representing a lou of
three-fourths of a horso-po.wcr, or
under 5 per cent. , when four cars arr
running. But apart from these figurea 1
they havo bncl materiAls for an actut.l
comparison of the cost of working tho
line by elec:tricity and steam. Tho
steam tramway engines, temporarily
employed at Portrush, are mado by
Messrs. Wilkinson, of Wigan, and aro
generally collJiidcred as satisfactory as
any of the various tramway engines.
They have a pair of vertical cyliodora
Sm. diameter, and Ut. stroke, anll
work at a. boiler prCllsure of 120 lb.,
I
the total weight of the engine being
I
7 tons. The eleclirical car, with which
I
I
the comparison is made, has a
t
dynamo weighing 13 cwt., nod tho
tare of tho car is 52 cwt. Tho
steam en~nea aro capo.blo of drawing a total load of about 12 tons
up tho b1Jl, excluding the weight of the engine; the dynamo over
6 tons, excluding its own weight; hence, weight for weigh~ the
dynamo will draw fivo times as much as the steam engine. nom
actual oxpllriencc, tho steam engine, taking an average over a week,
costs:J!., 8. d.
Driver's wages .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 10 0
Cleanor'a do... .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
0 12 0
..
Coke, liSt cwt. at 26&. por ton ..
.. .. .. .. .. s 13 ll
0 11 1 lfl\ Jon at 8s. 1d.
. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 3 1
Tnl1ow, 4 lb. nt Od. . . . • . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 •• 0
Wa.ak', Sib. n.t 2d.
. . . • •. ..
.. .. .. .. 0 1 4
l)cprcclntlon, 16 per cent. on .£750 .. ..
.. 2 s 9
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Tho diltance run wns 312 miles. Also, from actual experience,
tho electrical car, drawing a accond bobind it, and hence providing
Cor the Mmo number of pasecngora, consumed 18lb. of coke l•tlr
milo run. Hence, calculating tbe cost in the anmo way, for a
di1tauce run of 312 miles in a week :Wagc11 ot stoker ol atatio1W7 Oil gino
Ooko, ~~ owt. ot 1161. t'er ton • . . .
Oll, 1 ~rnlloo 11t b. 1d.
•
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wn.t.o. 4 lb. o.t 2d. . . . . . . . .
R •· d.
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0 8 1
Uoprcol.. tton oo •tntton&ry ongloo, 10 por cent. on }
.:aoo. 11a. Gd.
£ oo, l,!.l ea. 10d.
..
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Uoprootatlon ot olectrlcnl opplrnt\18,
ToWl . .
1~
o
0 8
I')
• 0 4
por cont. on
. . 6 10 1
aavlng of ovor 25 per cent.
Tho total mileago run is very amall, on account of tho light
trnflio eorly in the year. H eavier traffic will tell very muob in
favour of tho electric car, as tho lou due to leue.ge will be a much
smaller proportion of the total power devoloped.
A
•
•
APRIL
13, 1883.
THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.
0~ TUE SUMMIT·LE\'EI,TUNNEL OF THE BETTWSAND FESTINIOG
RA I LW,\Y.
.AT the ordinary meeting on the 3rd of April, Mr. Brunlees
president, in the chair, the paper read was " On the Summit-levei
'l'unnel of the Rettws and Festiniog Hail way," by 1\Ir. William
Smith, l\1. I nst. O.E.
The author stated that the object of thU. railway was to afford
more d~r~ct communication between the slate-producing district
of Fest1mog and the home markets. The line commenced at
Bettws-y-Coed, traversed the vallPy of the river Conway for about
one mile, and then followed the valley of tbe river Lledr. It next
passed under the mountainous ridge between Carnarvonabire and
Merionetbshire in a long tunnel, ran along the Dinas branch of
the Festiniog narrow gaugt~ line and terminated at Blaenau
Festiniog. 1'be total length wns about twel ve miles, and, except
at tho stations, tho line was laid with a single way. Tbt>. summitlevel tunnel was 38GO yards in length. It was carried out by the
staff of the Loudon and North-Western Railway Company, tho
greater part of tLe rem~indot· of the works being executed by
contract. The tunnel works comp• ised the sinking of three shafts,
the dri ving of eight beadings, and opening them out to the full
size of the tun~el. Tbe rooks perforated consisted of very bard
members of the metamorphic systt:m; and it was stated that at
the so\ltb end, m passing under the ' Velsh Slate Company's
works, great care was necesaary, and a strong casing or lining was
required to sustain tho heavy weights abo"e and around. The
tunnel bad an ascending gradient from the north end of 1 in 660
for a distance of 0110 mile and o8·4 cbninst followed by a. level
portion at the summit of 0'75 chniu, ana then a descending
gradient of 1 in GOO for a distance of a6 chains to the south end.
It was 18ft. Gin. in height and 16ft. Gin. in width. The deepest of
the three shafts slightly exceeded 143 yards, and all were rectangular, 12ft. by 6ft. , with the longer side in the direction of the
line of the tunnel. Tho winding machinery comprised, at each
sha~t, a bo_iler of the locomotive . t,rpe, two s~a~l high-pressure
engmes, w1th spur wheel and pilliOn and wmding drums; the
latter were 6ft. in diameter, and tbe whole could raise a gross load
of 30 cwt. at 8ft. pe1· second. Tho timber bead-gearing carried
two pulleys, each 8ft. in diameter, anu was fitted with Walker's
detaching book to prevent over winding. The ropes were of steel
wire, the breaking st1ain being 20 tons. Five air compressors
were constructed to compress, to a pressure of 50lb. per square
inch, sufficient air to supply sL't rock-boring machines at each
face. The compressor steam generators were second-baud boilers.
The pipes for conveying the compressed air to the workings were
of wrought iron, of 3~in. bore to the bottom of the shafts, and of 2~iu.
bore from thence to the face of tho workings. Sup~rfluous water
was raised to the surface from a sump at the bottom, from two of
t he shafts by a wrought iron vessel, attach ed to the under side of
t he cage, which fille<.l and emptied itself automatically; but at the
other shaft water was in excess, and a force pump had to be
employed. The shafts were mainly sunk by band labour. Tbe
author then proceedP.d to describe at length the drill carriages for
supporting the machines, the drilling machines themselves, and
the modes of actuating them. At the north end of the tunnel an
experimental drill carriage was employed, in conjunction with
electric firinjt, with tho view of taking out, as one large bending,
t he full sect1on of the tunnel; but for want of success in electric
firing it was eventually abandoned, and the St. Gothard type of
carriage and machine was substituted. It was equipped with six
I ngersoll drills, fitted with automatic feed. At the south end a
small drill carriage was constructed, suitable for an advanced
heading only, and provided w1th six Burleigh drilling machines
with band feed. At tbc six intermediate faces the carriages were
of the type adopted at the St. Gothard tunnel, with l'llackean
drilling machines, four at each face, driven by compressed air.
Two forms of drill points were used, the chisel single-cutting edge
for solid rock, and the cross point for j )in ted rock. With regard
to the workings at the bottom of each shaft, o. top beading was
driven in the first instance. Driving the advanced heading comprised three distinct operations, namely, boriog the boles at the face,
charging and firing, and removing the d(l,,·is. Of the various
explosives used, cotton powder or tonite answered well for the
removal of rocks in unconfined places; but dynamite and lithofracteur were tho moijt effectual in th<' advanced beadings.
The advanced bending was 8ft. square, and usually required from
fifteen to thirty boles about 3~ft. deep, a nd from lin. to 2in. in
diameter, to remove a complete slice off the face. The operation
of the drilling machines mountl"d on the carriages was then
described, a speed of 300 to 500 strokes per minute being attained;
also the method of charging th<' holes and firing by hand, which
was somewhat different to tbat ordinarily pursued. Following in
the wake of the advanced beading in the top of the tunnel was the
removal of the two sides. This was done principaUy by hand
labour, and changed the section of the opening from a square to a
semicircle. The excavation of the lower portion was etfected by
driving a gullet along one side of about half the width of the
tunnel to the full depth, leaving the other half for a roadway.
The remai ning portion was then attacked, partly by hand partly by
machine drills at various points. The author next referred to the
progress made at each of the shafts and beadings, from which it
appeared that the average upon the whole of the eight faces
a mounted to ll'09ft. per week. The total quantity of water
finding its way into the tunnel was about 100,000 gallons per day.
The total cost of the tunnel and three 11hafts complete, including labour, plant, materials, and sundr1cs, was .£302,850, divided as
follows, vi7.., labou•·, £203,000; plant, £2:>,630; and matetials and
sundries, £74,220. Allowiog as a credit the half cost of the pl:mt,
which it wne assu med might eventually be realised, the reduced
cost would be £75 per lineal yard; and taking the whole cubical
contents of rock and other substances actually removed, the cost
per cubic yard was £2 Ss. 10d. The tu1mel was opened for public
traffic on the 22nd ot July, 187!).
STEEL CRUISERS FOR TilE UNITED STATES
NAVY.
IT is proposed to add three steel cruisers to the American navy.
lli. Secretary Chandle1· issued on the 1Gth ult. the following
notice to tho parties interested :-The Naval Appropriation Act,
of March 3rd,1883, provides that in case the three steel cruisers nod
despatch boat autbori.Bed by law shall be built by contract, pro·
posala shall be invited from "all American shipbuilders whose
shipyards are fully equipped for building or repairing iron and steel
steamships, and constructor• of marine engines, machinery, and
boilers." All American shipbuilders and constructors of marine
engines who may desire to b1d for the construction of such vessels
are requested to communicate immediately with the Navy Department, etating the facilities furnished by their establishments for
doing the required work.
Wll. E. 0HANDL£B, Seoretary of the Navy.
The followin g come from the Naval Advisory Board:Naval Adviaory Board, Washington, Maroh 9th, 1883.
Sir,-ln conformity with the Department's letter of the 2nd
ult., the Naval Advisory Board has the honour to submit the
following general featuree, which it considers as essential requieites to be introduced into the design of the SOOO ton cruisers:The prinoipal dimension& of the hull should be : Length
between perpendiculars, 270ft.; extreme breadth, 42ft.; mean
draught 16ft. 6in.; displacement in sea water 2950 tons.
The ship ahould have an opon or single deck with poop and
forecaatle.
THE ENGINEER.
The battery* should consist of nine 6in. rifles, two of which
should have a. direct h~ad fire, and one a. direct stern fire. P orta
and guns should be so arranged as to admit of fighting five 6in.
guus in either brond11ide.
An allowance of 28 tous ~thould be made from the weight of
ordnance for machine guns, tot·pedoes, and electric gear.
In the opinion of the Board wood casing and metal sheathing
are neither necessary nor desirable, and hence the Board recom·
mends that they be not fitted.
The bow should be of a modified ram shape, and whilst not
intended to develope full ram power, it should possess a greater
strength than is applied to ordinary types of unarmoured cruisers.
A double bottom should extend throughout the entire space
occupied by the machinery and transverse coal bunkers.
It is the opinion of the Board that a steel deck, 1~in. in thickness, should be fitted over the space occupied by tbe boilers and
machinery, the outet· edges to be about 4ft. below the load line.
'rho magazinPs and shell-rooms should be enclosed by watertight bulkheads, and covered by a protective fiat ~in. in thickness.
To have no main projecting keel, but bilge keels extending well
fore and aft.
The vessel should be barque-1·igged to topgallant sails. Tho area
of the plain sail should not exceed 12,600 square feet.
All main water-tight transverse bulkheads to c:ottend to upper
deck.
To have a complete system of drainage, consisting of two large
main drain pipes, one on either side of the vertical keel in the
double bottom, nnd connected with a stand box in each main compartment, which shall contain valves and sluices open by rods ll"d
to the gun deck.
Tbo valves in the d1'11ins to be so arranged that water can be
drawn from each compartment, and the full pumping powEr concentrated on any compartment.
Sluice "alves and water-tight doors in all water-tight bulkheads,
including coal bunkers, shall be arranged to work both from below
and from tho berth deck.
1'h<> ships should have single screws, operated by horizontal
cylinder engines placed in separate water-tight compartments
beneath, and thoroughly protected by the ateel deck.
The boilers should bo cylindrical, and 'vith internal fuma-:es.
To be in at least two distinct groups in water-tight compartments.
The draught should be forced by means of n closed fire-room, a
pressure o.bo,·c the atmosphere to be maintained in it by means of
blower'!.
I n all other respects it is considered that the vessel should conform to the requirements specified in the accompanying printed
circular.
Very respectfully, your obedient servants,
H. W. S HUVELnT, Commo. U.S.N., President of Board.
liEN iir STKII:liS, Naval Architect, Member.
lllt EHH Oon\'&Lr,, :Marine Engineer, Member.
ALF.X. HF.NJ>F:lt!iON, Chief Engineer U.S.N. , Member.
J. A. HowRLL, Commander U.S.N., Member.
Er>WART> W. VEnr, Lieutenant U.S.N., Member.
F. L. F EnNALn, Naval Constructor, U.S.N., Member.
HoN. , V, E. 0JJANDLEII, Secretary of the Navy.
NA \'\' OEPAr.T3tENT.
Naval Advisory Board, Washington, March !>tb, 1883.
The Naval Advisory Board, being desirous of obtaining plana or
designs of unarmoured cruiser11, herewith suggest the general features of the 3000 ton vessels authorised to be built, in accordance
with the provisions of the act of Congress of August 5th, 18 2,
for the ~tidance of parties desiring to submit plans. The Board
wishes 1t understood, however, that these dimensions need not bo
rigidly adhered to.
P rmcipal dimtnsions.-Leogth between perpendiculars, 270ft.;
breadth, extremt', 42ft.; mean draught (excluding keel~, 16ft. Gin.
Displacement, in sea watl"r, not less than 2750 tons, nor more
tbnn 3000 tons.
1\IaAimum speed of 14 knots in smooth water, and a maintained
sea speed of 13 knots.
H eigh t of port sill above L. W. L., 9ft. Gin.
Height of port sill above gun deck, 1ft. Sin.
Spr·ing o£ longest gun deck beam, 4~in.
H eight in cl<'ar on berth deck, 6ft. 6in.
To be built with a double bottom for a length of not less than
that occupied by boil<"rs, engines, and coal bunkers.
All principal transverse bulkheads to extend to the upper deck,
thoroughly water-tight.
The boilers nnd machinery, so far as practicable, to be protected
by coal and a steel deck, or otbPr suitable means.
Tbe bunker capacity to be at least flOO tons of coal.
Tile magazines and shell rooms to be protected by a steelarmoured deck, or othur means.
1'he vessel to be divided into as many water-tight compartments
as possible, and each compartment to be fitted with drainage
arrangements.
The battery to consist of not more than nine Gin. B.L.R., two
of which to have a forward and one a direct stern fire.
1'be wardroom to contain not less than six state rooms on each
~tide. Steerages to contain 600 superficial feet.
To be provided with 11tenm steering appuatus, steam capstan,
and steam ventilators.
Provisions for 230 men for ninety days, and water for twenty
days.
I nformation as to tho weight of provisions, anchors, cables, &c.,
can be obta.inPd on application to the Bonrd.
The weight of 170 tons must be reserved for ordnance, nod the
ship shall be piorc!'d for n broadside battery of not less than five
guns on n ~ide, with such additional ports ns may be designated
hcrea.ftpr,
The materials of construction to conform to the law in every
respect.
Memoranda ?'elating to the enginu, boilel's, and all thei1· appw·tenancu) p1·oposed /01· the steam macltirtCI'!I /O?' an indicated ltOI'SI!·
power o; 3500 or MOI'C.
Enginc8.-T o be a single screw, and the space allotted for the
engines and their appurtenances, steam pumps-a.nd circulating
and air pumps if separate- will be about 31ft. Gin. in length,
between the athwnrtship hulkbcads, and includE's sufficient passage
way aroun tl both ends of engines. Such width of the vessel as is
necessary may be utilised for tb.is macbinef}':, lea ving t~e large~t
pouible nmount of coal on each 81(1e. The be1ght above 1r.ner skin
of vessel to water-line will br about 13ft. in order to ke~p this
machinery below that })Oint. If a vertical or any othPr form of
engine be proposed in which the machinery extends above the load
watPr-linc, the plan must show tho method and extent of protection agn~st injury from shot. 'Fhe height o~ ~haft above_the
inner skin w1ll be, at centre of engme space, suflic1ent to adm1t n
stroke of piston of not leu than 42in. Each cylinder used is to be
fitted with an independent expansion gear having an easy adjust·
ment, varying from one-quarter to three-quarters of the stroke.
The cylindera are to be fitted with ate~rn jac~ete. There art' to be
two independent aurfaoe condensers, otrculattng the water through
tho tubes, eaoh condenser having ita own separate pumpsL.&o., and
capable of maintaining a vacuum of 26in. of mercury. T.ne screw
will be fixed, and have a diameter not exceeding 17ft., with such
length, pitob, number anJ form of blades ae may be deemed beat
to obtain the requiaite apeed. The main crank shaft will be separate and interoh ange~ble for each cyli?der, with in~ermediate
coupling•, and of " bu1lt up " steel forgmga. There will be two
ordmary ol~tch gears. for disengaging the prope~er shafting, one
coupling w1th tho engme. sbaf~, an~ the other w1t~ the af~er or
screw shaft. I n connect1on w1tb thulatter there will be a su1table
• Tho Board reserves tbo arrongomont and character of tho battery for
futuro consideration; tho wolght of ordnance not to exceed 170 tone.
287
friction arranf,ement to secure the screw from revolving w~en
"coupling up, • which may be necessary at sea. . The rcvers~g
gear to be operated by steam, and of approved d~1gn_. A ma:me
governor is deairable, if applied without comphee.t10n and 1n a
practical manner.
There shall be. fitted the nc:cessnry ge~r
operated by a pair of llmall stea~ cybnder~ .for turnmg the mam
engines for adJustment, &c. SUitable proVISIOns are to be ~ad~ to
admit of the convenient removal of crank shafts and other prmc1pal
working part!!.
Bollcn-There will be not less than two independent fire-rooms
for the boilers, and superheaters, if proposed; the total len~h
occupied by boilers not to exceed 63ft., and a width of 29ft. ~m.,
and admitting a tliameter of boiler not exceeding 11ft. The boilers
are to contain an effectivA grate surface of about 400 square _feet,
and a heating surface of about 10,000 square feet. There Wlll be
two smoke pipes, fitted with telescopic arrangements, raised 9:nd
lowc1·ed by small steam engines. Each boiler is to be fitted wtth
the necessary connections for its independent use; the stop valves
to be operated from outside the boiler compartments. The necessary ventilation, &c., requisite for a. full supply of air to the firerooms are to be provided for a forced combustion. The proposed
plan and arranj:(ements to be fully shown. A suitable steam ashhoiater is to bo fitted to ench fire-room. The fire -rooms to be so
arranged as to have a width of !)ft. bl"tween the furnaces. To each
group of boilers, on each side of vessel, is to be fitted a duplex
steam pump of requisite capacity for sup~lying the ~arne, in ad_dition to the feed pumps proper. There will also be m the engme
compartment two largo steam pumps arranged in usual manner
for fire and other purposes, hn:vi.ng suitable bilg~ ~~nections
leading from all parts abaft engme bulkhead. A d1stillmg apparatus of approved form to be fitted with a capacity to supply
3000 gallons per diem. The total wpight of the steam machinery,
including water in boilers and in condenser, with shafting, propeller, and all appllrtenances and spare machinery, will not exceed
638 tons. It is to be understood that the requirem~nts of the Act
of Congress, under which the designing of this machinery is
authorised, shall be fully complied with in relation to any patented
design o1· articlo used. All details of the engine~, boilers, and
their appurtenances shall have the strength proportioned to a safe
and continuous working pressure of 90 lb. of steam above tho
atmosphere. The accompanying blank form of general _dimensions proportions, &c., to be filled in and forwarded w1th tho
plan;, together with au . inventory of the principal wei~hts of t~e
most important parts, w1th locat10n of c~ntres of grav1ty of s~1d
weights. Tbl" general plans accompanymg any proposed des1gn
shall be in sufficient detail and with figured dimensions to enablo
working plans to be made from the same. It will be required that
all parts of the machinery shall be of the beat material and firstclass in workmanship and fi nish.
R. W. SHUJ•'ELnT, President Naval Advisory Boanl.
THE CHIEI!' OITIES O~' EonoPB. - Recently there have been
compiled from official and late sources, statistics of population for
some of the principal cities of Europe, from which 1t appears that
there are ninety-two towns in Europe to which the term city can
properly be applied, that have a total population of more than
1<>.!'.t200; but there are only four cities that posses& more than
1,VVIJ,OOO inhnbitants. These four are London, with 3,832,440;
Paris, with 2,225,910; Berlin, with 1,222,500; and Vienna, with
1,103,110. Of the other capitals, St. Petersburg possesses 876,670;
Constantinople, 600,000: Madrid, 367,280 ; Buda-Peath, 360,580;
Warsaw, 33!1,340; Amsterdam, 317,010; Rome, 300,470; Lisbon,
246,340; Palermo, 244,990; Copenhagen, 234,850; Munich,
230,020; Bucharest, 221,800; Dresden, 220,820; Antwerp,
200,000; Stockholm, 168,770; Brussels, 161,820; Venice, 132,830;
Stutgardt, 117,300. In addition to these, Moscow contains
611,970 ; Naples, 493,110; Hamburg, ·110,120; Lyons, 372,890;
Marseilles, 357,530; Milan, 321,840; Florence, 169,000; Cologne,
144,770; Frankfort, 136,820; and Houen, 104,010.
TRIAL TRIP Of' S.S. 1\lALOK.-Ou Thursday last this vessel,
belonging to tho PPraian Gulf Steamship Company, London, was
taken on her trial trip. Sbo is 250ft. long by 34ft. Gin. beam, and
is cn.pable of carrying about 2500 tons dead weight of car~o. She
is built on the spar deck rule to the highest class of Lloyd s. He1·
'tween decks are specially ventilated for the conveyance of pilgrif!~S·
The vessel is fitted with four hatchways, and all nccommodat1on
for quick despatch of cargo. Steam steering gear amidAhips, and
nccommod~tion for a limited number of saloon passengers.
The
machinery consists of engines with 3lin. and 62in. diameter
cylinders, having a stroke of 42in. The boilers, two in number!
arc passed by the Board of Trade to !>Olb. workin~ pressure an<J
are made of steel. On the trial trip this vessel attamed a speed of
11~ knots, being partially loaded with cargo.
Both bull and
machinery have betn built by 1\Iessrs. Wigbam Rioharclson, of
Newcastle-on-Tyne, under the supermtendence of l'llr. J. F.
Flannery, consulting engineer, FeJtchurcb-street, London; this
being the third vessel for the P ersian Gulf S.S. Company.
LIJDBICATrON.- A subject which docs not generally receive
the attention it deserves was brought before the members of
the lllancbester A~tsociation of Employers, Foremen, and
Draughtsmen, at their meeting on Saturday week, in an interesting paper 1ead by 1\lr. J. Veitch Wilson, on the lubrication of ordinary bea1 ings and of bearings and faces subject to the action of steam. Mr. Wilson tlealt with tl.e question in an exhaustive manner. With regard to ordinary bearings under no1 mal atmospheric conditions, he laid dow n
that tho lubricants to be employed should po~seu the following es~en ti al properties: They must not gi,·e off inflammable
vnpour under 330 deg. rah.; they o1ust not net upon the metals
with which they come in contact, uor oxidU.e, which tended to
spontaneous combustion and clogged the roacbinery; they must
have body adapted to the work to be done; their boiling point
must bo sufficiently high to prevent evaporation n.nd securo
durability, and their frerzing point must be low enough to ensure
regularity of feed from the oil cups and convenience in handling.
As the result of numerous experiments, he had become convinced
that mineral oils were, if used alone, unsatisfactory lubricants;
but bearing in mind the fact that mineral oils could now be
obtained in every respect as safe as the finest animal oils, and that
the admixture of mi neral oil with animal or vegetable oils
neutralised the acidity in the one case and the acidity and oxidis·
ing tendency in the other, be was of opinion that the safest, most
efficient, and most economical lubricants for all manner of bearings
were to be found in a judicious mhturc of :mima.l or vegetable with
good mineral oils. With 1egard to cylinder lubricants, the peculiar
conditions were the liberation of natural acids from vegetable and
animal fats by the action of steam and heat, the action of these
acids on the cylinders, and the evidence that in these acids
were constituent parts of all animal and vegetable fats and oill;
they could not be removed by any pro~s of refining. One of tho
lubricants largely in usc was tallow, but that thill was the cause of
considerable injury to the engine cylinder:s be had abundant evi·
dtnce to prove. From the maes of evidence he had collected upon
the eubject_, he was convinced that if care wert~ exercised in the
aeleotion or the oil, and equal care in itt preparation and application, hydrocarbon oil would be found thoroughly eftioient u a
cylinder lubricant, absolutely barmleu and muob more economical
than tallow. Sometimes a emall percentage of vpgetable or
animal matter was added, in order to Increase the lubricatlnc
propertlee, and in his experience this had always been attended
with favourable reaulta. Hot-air enginee might be lubricated on
the same principle as steam cylinders, but ga.a engine. preeented a
new and epeeial feature, aa in their ease the lubricant was not only
aubj eot~d temporarily to the intense beat of the explosion, but also
came in direot contact with the flame, and wa.a liable to bo car·
bonised thereby. If, therefore, vegetable or animal oils and fata
were objeotionable in steam cylinders, they were much more ao in
the cylinders of gae engines,
•
•
288
T HE ENGINEER.
-
THE
APRIL
13, 1883.
M A L T A R A I L W A Y,
HJ!iSSBS, WEl,LS-OWEN AND GERVASE ELWES. 1\BU.O.E •• WESTMINSTER, ENGINUBS,
(IW
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FIG. 2. PLAN
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FIG. 4- . SECT ION ON
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APRIL
13, 1883.
FOREIGN .AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF THE ENGINEER.
P ARIS.-Madamo Bovv•Ao, RIU de la. Banqut.
BE RLIN.-A.emm and Co., 5, U11Ur- <Un L-inden.
VI E~'NA.-Mesen. GEROLD and Co., Boohdln'1.
LE l PSIC.-A. Twurnsn£R, Boohdler.
NEW YORK.-Tac WJLLI.SCR and Roo£1lS Nzws CoxPANV,
S1, Bukmaa-atrut.
TO OORRESPONDENTS.
* • * I n order w avoid trouble and conjtuion, we find it MUu ary w
inform oorrupon<knts that letters of inquiry a.ddreued to th~
publict and intended fm• inm·tion in thil column, mmt, in all
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writer w himse(f, and bea1·ing a ld. poatage stamp, in order that
aMUers 1·eceived by us 1MY be forwarded w eMir destination.
N o notice toill be taken of comnn~nications which do not comply
with thue inst1'uctions.
*** W e ca.nn~t undertake w retur1t drawings or 'MnmcrifJts; 1oe
muat tMrefore 1·cquut con·upondenta to keep COJ>ics.
*•* A U letters intended for inse1·tion in THlil ENGIN Etm, O?'
containing quutions, must be aecO?npanied by the name and
a.ddreu of tM 'loriter, not necessarily for publication, but as a
proof of good faith. No notice whatever wiU be ta/..en of
anonymom communications.
·
M. B.-There ia no rule for IJie 1ceigllt of mgine foundation•. Tile Juavi~·
they are the better. It~ a quut«m of j!r1t COli.
F. 0. F.- We have not at prutnt any {Ur/Jier in/~>rntation on IJie at rae·
tion of turpmtint, ruin, d:c., from 1&ood rifuae.
Vlcroa.-...(ny one 1eho plea.au may callllimatlf a civil mgineer cmd put C. B.
after h~ na.mt without inC1lrring a nv pmalty 1ehatn·er. There ~ 110
uamina.tion, or rt~lrallon, or prortcution. Of count, n.o one haa a right
to IJie tiUt unltu he il qual\!Ud, but that il, no doubt, quite a ltcond4ry
comidtration. .Milappropriation 1Ullally holDtrer bt!Jtll ridie1lk.
H . C.- We cannot tell 1ellat il IJit JYrOper width for your band until 1ee
kncnc tlte tpted at "Which it l'Uitl. But, a~~umin!J that IJie mgint being
ncmlina.lly of 20../toru po~eer indicalu 40·hor•e pov:er, IJie band ought not
to be ltu/Jian 12in. wide, and tcould bt none IJie 1&0l'te if another inch.
Nine inchu ~ too 114rTOlo fo•· ccmJfortablt 1corHng ttnlul tlu ~]>ted at tohic/i.
it rtlltl ~ compa.T(otit·cly hiqh.
J. P. T.- We are not aure that ••oiled jo~ll art nuult by aay Bnglilll jlru~ of
iTO?~ n14mifacturer• no1o. The Butttrl(!t Comvany did make them for 1nany
~teart, ancl 1714Y pouibly do 10 yet. Tllty are IJie 111011 likely. The Moor
lron"WO'i'h Company ntacle a ftlo tome !fC<Irl ago, but hare long Iince d~·
conti11tucl. Bolck01o, Yaugha11, antl Co , Limitecl, of Mitldlubrough, madt
a quantity in llttl10!71t year• ainC1', but ha~e al1o di$continv.rd The rolled
jo~t haa come to be rtcogn.~ed aa a Btl{fian tptciaUty, tcllich t11e Btlf/l~ll do
not inUrfo·e 1citlt. Yot~ toilt be able to ott IJicm. of Btlgio.n mantifacture
(t'Om Mtllrl. Mtaauru Bro1., oj Lombctll, Ol' M. T. Shaw and Co.,
Ccrnnon·•trut, B.C.
SOLENOIDS.
( To IJie Editor of The Engineer.
SIR,-Thoro Ia In ovory aolonold n point where tho suction of tho coli
on tho Iron core wlll oolnnco a given elastic reelatance. I shall be oblllled
to a n y reader who will glvo me a rule for calcull\ting the position of this
ELECTRON.
point..
London, Ap ril ll th.
AIR CONDENSERS.
(To IJie Bdilor o( The Engineer.)
Sm, -I shall feol obliged If any of your correspondents will favour me
with particulars of their oxperionco with surface condensers in which air
la the p rincipal cooling modium, water bel.ng employed only to a limited
exten t, whero It 1s acarco, or dear.
J. J.
Manchester, April lOth.
SUBSCRIPTIONS.
TlB E.No iNnR cal\ be llcul, by order, from any Nli>I4Qtnt in totDI\ tw wuntry
a.t Uat vanoua railtDay atatiotu: tw it ca!'! if preferred, be n~pplkd direct
~ eM offi« on eM foUMng term~ (paia. i!\ culvan«) .~
Ho.JI-yearly (intlt«ling dololblt number•) . • . . . . £0 a a. 6d.
Yearly (indt«li11g ttDO dololble 11umbera) . . . . . . £1 9t. Od.
lf credit ouur, an utra claarge of ttDO lhillingl a.nd ~e per a.nnum t#ill
bt lll4dt. Tac ENOllnlCR ia regiltered for Cran~miuion abroad.
Clc>C/1 CGIU IIW biflding To ENGINEER Volume, prict 21. 6it. ta.c\.
A QOmpldt 1d of Ts & E Nonrcn can be hcul on a-pplication.
Foreign 8ub~eriptio»~ ftw Thin Paper Copiu toill, u11tiljurthtr notice, be
received at the ratu given below :-Foreign Subacribtra paying in advance
at Uae publ~ed ratu wiU receive Til& ENOIN"&CR tDukly and poll-free.
Slolbacriptionl atnt by Po•t-o.fflce order mull be aecompanw by lettn- OJ
cul11ice to IJie Plolblilher. Thick Pa.per Copiu ma.y bt had, if vriftrred, at
incl·eaatd ratu.
R emitta11te by Poat·o(Jtee Order. - Auetral.la, Belgium, Brazil, British
Columbia, Britlah Guiana, Canada, Oape of Good Hope Denmarlc,
Gibraltar, I taly, Malta, Natal, Netherlands,
E gypt, France,
New Brunswick, No oundla.nd, Now South Walee, New Zealand,
P ortugal, Roumanla, Switzerland, Tasmania, Turkey, United States,
West Coast of Africa, West Indies, Cyprus, £ 1 16e. China, Japan,
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Remitta11te by Bill i n Lofldon.-Auatrla, Buenos Ayres aud Algeria,
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Chill, £ 1 168. Borneo~, Ceylon, J ava, and Sl.ngaporo, £ 2 08. 6d. Manilla,
H auritiUI, Sandwich .ules, £2 6s.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
• • • Tilt eharge for Advertiaementl of fov.r linu a.fld ufldtr il three lhilling1 ;
(or twry t w linu q/Ur1Da.rdl 011t •hilling and rizptnu; odd linu are
ehargtd 011t allilling. The line averagu aevm worda. Whtn a" cul1<'trlllt·
mmt t~UMVru a" iflth tw mMe IJie charge il Ul\ allilling1 per iflth. All
ringle culvtrtiatmtntl {r&m IJie country muat bt aeeompa.nicd by a. polt·ojJiu
ONkr ill pa.~t. A lUma.lt culvertilemmta toill In inatrttd wiUa aU
JYrattical regularity, but rtgulllrity cannot be gWlranlttd ill a.nl' I'Uch eau.
.(U e:~:ecpt wckly culvertilemmtl are taken rlolbject to IJiil condihon.
Advertleement.a cannot be Inserted unl ess Delivered before S ix
(}()nn"!l•
o 'clock on Thursday Evenlne In each Week.
Ldttrl rtla.ting to .(dvtrl~tme~tl a.fld eM P ublillling Depa.rtmmt oj/Jie
JHIJICT arc to be culdruatd to IJie Plolbliahtr, Mr. George Leopold Riche; all
oelltr latera to bt culdrtued to 1M Bditor of To ENOl~>~, 16S, Strand.
MEETINGS NEXT WEEK.
TlB llf&TmTriON or CIVIL E N'OrNUit.S. - Tueaday. April 17th, at 8 p.m .:
Ordinsry meetinlc. Paper to bo dtacuased, "The Introduction of lrriga·
tion into Now Countrlos, aa Illustrated in North-Eastern Colorado,"
by Hr. P. 0' Moara, M. I nat C. E. Tbunday, April 19th, at 8 p.m . Speclal
meeting. Fifth looturo "On tho AppliCAtions of Electricity"-" Elec·
trictty Applied to Exploalvo Purposes," by Professor F. A. A'bol, C.B.,
F. R.S., B on. M. Inat.. C.E.
Ts& OLSVJt.LA.N'D lN&TITOTION OF ENOIN'&IRS.-Monday, April 16th, at
7.80 p.m .: (1) List of olllCtione slnco last meeting. (2) P aper" On tho
S&lt Deposita of Middiesbrougb, and tho Modo of Winning them," by
Kr. T. H ugh Bell, in tho abeoncu of Mr. I. Lowthlan Bell1 who 1s on tho
Continent. (8) Dlaouaslon on the above. Through tue Invitation of
Heaara. Boll :Brothers, Limited, a vlalt will be mnde to the Salt Works on
tho Saturday following.
TH.C 'M CTEOROLOOIOAL 800IETY.-Wedneeday, April 18th, at 7 p.m., the
following papera wUl be read : - " C1rrua and Cirro-Cumulus," by the
R on . F. A. Rollo Ruaaell, M.A.t F. M.S. ''Notes on Waterapouta; their
Ocourronco and Formation," Dy Hr. George Attwood, Assoc. M. Inat.
C. E ., F.G.S. "Record of Bright Sunahl.no," by Ml'. W. W. Rundell,
F.M.S. "Noto on Wl.n d, Cloudlnou, and Halos; also on Results from
a Rod.lor'e Barograph," by Mr. Edward T. Dowaon, F. M.S.
Cllmoo.u. BooiCTY.-Thunday April 19th, at 8 p m.: Ballot for the
election of F ellowe. Paper to be road, " Note on an Apparatus for
Fractional Dlatillation undor Rodu<*l Pressures," 'by Mr. L. T. Thorne.
Soomn o r ARTS.-Mon day, April 16th, at 8 p.m.: Cantor Lectures
"The Decorative Treatment of Metal in A.rchitecture," 'by Mr. Oeorge H.
Birch, A R. I B.A. Lecture III.-lronwork, continued-Germany, Augs·
burg and Nuremberg, fifteenth and elxteonth centuries; England,
eeventeoDth con tury. Load-H ow used; IU"tiatJc treatment of the
middle agee ; Ita capabWtles. Concluelon-Tbe use and abuse of metal
work : m Odern bronze work; the decorative treatment of the metals, aa
appUed In these daye; our failures and auocoeaes. Wednesday, Ap ril 18th.
at 8 p m .: El.jthteenth ordlna.ry meeting, ''The (}()vernment Patent Bill,"
by Mr. B . Trueman Wood, B.A., Secretary of the Society. Mr. Rich11rd
B. Wet.ter, Q.O., will prosldo. F rid11y, April 20th, at 8 p.m.: Indian
Section, " Tho Filherios of India," by Burgeon-General Francis Day. Mr.
Andrew Cueell will proelde.
DEATH.
On tho 16th Fob. lnst, nt Shanghnl, suddenly, of h eart diseaso, Mr
LLOYD MACDONALD Huo~JV...t.. C. E. , of tho Sbangbai Public Works, only
1unhin~ eon of tho Rev. J . w. C. H ughea, l i.A., late Consular Chaplain
Ql Corfu, and tho la.to Hrt. H ughel, aged 80,
TH E E NGINEER.
THE ENGINEER.
APRIL 13, 1883.
DYNAMITE PERIL.
FIVE yeara ago we made reference to an extraordinary
and not very pleasant pamphlet, entitled "A Plot to Burn
London." The title page of this anonymous b,·oclwrc
further described its contents as " A Revelation and Warning for the Times.'' H is impossible not to be struck with
the simila rity which exists between the diabolical scheme
described in this pamphlet, and the plan on which the
recent dynamile conspiracy appear to have been conducted. The only substantial difference consists in the
circumstn.nce that t he original "plot 11 had refer~>nce to
petroleum instead of niLro-glycerine, and coutenfplated the
simultaneous ouLburst. of a number of incendiary fires,
instead of au outbreak of explosions. By this substitution
of terms, the account given in a daily paper of Tuesday
!ast corresponds to a singular extent with the words of the
pamphleteer. Thus we are told :-" I t was seemingly proposed to place in different parts of London- in ob3cure
lodgings in some places, in coffee-house lodgings, in
private and public hotels, and other places, quantities of
nitro-glycerine." Further, our contemporary states, "there
was to be no consideration given to nationality or creed
in the matter ; but on an appointed day, and at a
particular hour, the machinery was to be set in motion
for simultaneous destruction in different parts of the
metropolis."
In the " plot" of the pamphleteer it
was proposed to make extensive use of hotels, which
were distinctly specified, in addition to which "several
lodging houses in t he immediate vicinity of Finsbury·
sq_uare" were included in the line of operations, togeLher
w1th others. Some of our readers will remember the
astute device of the" petroleum kettle," which contrivance,
together with the petroleum itself, was to be concealed in
the portmanteau which each of the a::tive agents was to
have with h im on entering upon his apartments. At the
proper time the "bachelor's kettle," filled wiLh petroleum,
was to be put over the flame of a spirit lamp, and certain
arrangemen~ having been duly perfected, the affair was to
be left to take its course, the design being that the kettle
should boil over and set fire to the furniture, the door of
the room being secured iu such a manner as to preclude
its being readily opened. From half past four to a quarter
past five on the afternoon of L ord l\layor's day, was
the time appointed for the consummation of the scheme.
Fortunately-as the story went-at the last moment the
project was abandoned, a message being received from the
chief conspirator s.<tying1 "Do not move yet." But in a
closing address " To the Reader," the writer of this Battleof-Dorking narrative expressed his conviction that there
existed in the world, and even in L ondon itself," hundreds
of men capable of constructing plots far more deadly, and
far less likely to break down through treachery of one of
the conspirators, than that which he had portrayed."
That a plot, even worse than that of the "petroleum
kettle/' bas been really organised against the security of
thA metropolis, is now beyond dispute. The pamphlet to
which we have referred was ostensibly written to show that
the Metropolitan Fire Brigade ought to be strengthened,
so as to give L ondon the protection which it required
against the risk of an overwhelming conflagration. The
writ~r deC'lared that his object was "to stimulate that
movement which has at length been undertaken hy
patriotic meu to increase the power of Londoners to deal
with the ever present danger of fire." It was for the same
reason that we drew attention to the burden of the narrative. Its moral was obvious; but it is only in the
present session of P arliament that we find the Metropolitan
Board seeking power to go beyond the narrow limits of a
halfpenny rate in order to provide a Fire Brigade which
shall give t o London that defence which its enormous
aggregation of human beings and of wealth unquestionably
dema.nds. A new peril now presents itself, against which
the Legi3lature has launcheu an Act of Parliament, of which
the urgency was so distinctly felt that the Bill was rushed
through both Houses in a single night and received the Royal
Assent the next day. Had not anew and powerful explosive
come within reach of the disaffected, it is quite possible
that the agency of fire, rather t han of explosion, would
have been employed by the miscreants who are now
happily coming within reach of justice. Society is profoundly impressed with the terrific force which bas been
lately seized by evil hands. But while the force is un·
doubtedJy great, and while the mischief to be apprehended
is sufficiently serious, it is not clear that it w ill answer all
the expectations of the conspirators, or verify all the
apprehensions that are entertained concerning it. Fear·
fully violent and ciangerous wit hin a limited sphere, and
under c.er taio conditions, nitro-glycerine yet fails to compass all t he purposes which fiendish malice would desire.
It is worth while to look calmly at this terrible foe to our
present peace, and see what is the actual extent of
the mischief it is calculated to inflict. A " Plot to Blow
up London " has been announced; but London is more
difficult to blow up than to burn. A couple of hundredweight of nitro-glycerine is a fearful cargo, and would
cause t remendous damage. The noise and confusion would
strike terror into thousands, and many buildings not
actually launched into the air would be thrown into a heap
of ruins. A box of gunpowder would be far less terrible
in its effects, and yet a large proportion of the energy
possessed by the nit ro-glycerine would be practically
thrown away. That is to say, if all the force appertaining
to the nitro-~lycerine were presented in the form of gunpowder, constderably more ruin would be wrought among
surrounding buildin~ On this point it may be as well to
adduce a little practical experience.
Considerable excitement was created in the summer of
1881 by the discovery of sundr y "infernal machines 11
concealed in the cargoes which arrived at Liverpool from
America. Each machine was a metallic box fitted with a
clockwork arrangement, and containing about 2 lb. of
TDE
289
lignin-dynamite. Colonel Majendie and Major Ford, in
their last annual report under the Explosives Act of 1875,
state that the experiments which they afterwards conducted
wit h one of these machines against a masonry structure,
"showed that the machines were not nearly so destructive
as was poptrlarly supposed." The force of the explosive
was tried upon a brick building erected in the Plumstead
marshes, and the efrect of one of the Liverpool machines
proved to be "absolutely insignificant, 1' The experiments
conducted by Colonell\Iajendie and his colleague, as well
as some of earlier date by the Royal Engineer Committee,
were considered to prove that "the effect of s mall charges
of dynamite and similar explosives upon masonry str uctures is essentially locaL" The results would necessarily
vary according to the relation between the charge employed, the strength of the building attacked, the area
presented by the structure, and the position selected for
the charge. " But," it was added, "any general, or even
partial, destruction of a public building, or of a substantial
dwelling-house, could not be accomplished except by t he
use of very much larger charges of dynamite and similar
substances than could usually be brought to bear without
attracting observation ; and the effect of a single ' infernal
machine,' containing a. few pounds of explosive, would be
structurally insignificant." The explosion at the offices of
the Local Government Board may apparently be considered
as showing the maximum effect which is to be expected
from such a charge of dynamite as can be readily exploded
in a public thoroughfare. The local effect was intense,
the stonework close at hand being pulverised, while the
general structure of the building stood firm.
The '' iews thus expressed are in substantial agreement
with those which have been put forward by Sir Frederick
A. Abel, who observes that while the shattering and
splitting effect of dynamite and gun-cotton upon bard rock
is much greater than that of gunpowder, yet, in quarrying,
the rock is not generally thrown off by them to the same
extent as by the less violent agent. Dynamite has sometimes been employed to fissure the rock, and afterwards
large quantities of gunpowder have been poured into the
crevices, by the explosion of which enormous masses of
rock have been removed. In submarine demolitions i t bas
in like manner been found that when iron-built ships have
to be destroyed, the lifLin~ effect of large charges of gunpowder is advantageous m clearing the framework and
other parts which have been shattered, but not actually
removed, by tbe more violent class of explosives. It is a
curious fact that even gunpowder can be made to approximate in its character to the nitro-glycerine compounds, if
it be fi red by means of a powerful detonating fuse. If
this plan be adopted, it becomes no lon~er necessary
for the gunpowder to be closely confined, but it
shares with the dynamite class the property of
displaying great force when placed merely in contact
with the material to be destroyed. It is this quality of
force, independent of confinement, which makes nitroglycerine compounds so available for evil purposes. The
clockwork arrangement is also dispensed with by the use
of a n acid which is set free to eat its way through a few
thicknesses of paper, until it reaches a chemical compound
which detonates, and thereby starts the explosive with
which it is in contact. Some time ago Sir F. Abel stated
that the mechanical force exerted by the explosion of
nitro-glycerine is fully equal to that developed by the fulminate of mercury. Yet this does not. adapt it for all
purposes. Comparing dynamite aud gun-cotton with gunpowder, we a re told that "in military operations, where
great displacing action is required, gunpowder has the
undoubted advantage." This is really what the" dynamite
army" would desire in carrying out their designs for the
destruction of L ondon. But as the conspirators are obliged
to act furtively, they have resorted to a fiercer and less
cumbrous agent than ~unpowder. If the nitro-glycerine
seized by the police in Southampton-street was intended to
form the basis of one explosion, and if it was arranged that
similar quantities should be fired in Southwark and elsewhere, the effect must needs have been tremendous, supposing the fiendish programme to have been successfully
carried out. The deafening nature of explosion would itself
constitute a moral effect of a very intense description.
The smashing of brickwork and masonry, the crash of
falling buildings, and the general uproar and confusion,
would create a scene of the most fearf ul nature, inevitably accompanied by an extensive sacrifice of human life.
Yet even 2 cwt. of nitro-glycerine, despite its terrible
energy, would fail to accomplish all the desolation which
writers have generally predicted concerning it. T he
most reasonable conclusion is that the force let loose
would demonstrate its energy chiefly by the complete
destruction effected within a comparatively narrow area.
So far everything would be practically annihilated, and t he
force thus superfluously expended would happily detrac~
from what may be termed the carrying power of the
explosive. But after eliminating all that is due to mere
panic the case is bad enough, and it is well that P arliament has been aroused to take decided measures against the
malignant plotters who are threatening the peace and
safety of unnumbered homes.
T U E ENERGY EXPENDED IN PROPELLING .A BICYCLE.
IN the 28th volume of THE ENGINEER we published an
elaborate investigation by Professor Rankine of the cause
of the stability of bicycles. He did not consider t he subj ect too insignificant. Since Rankine wrote the number of
bicycles bas increased tenfold, and a. new, and in many
respects far more ingenious machine, t he tricycle, bas come
into existence. The manufacture of these road carriages
has become an important branch of trade; and it is not
easy to see the end. The bicycle appears to be falling otT
in favour, while its rival with three wheels daily becomes
more popular. There is a very keen demand, too, wholly
unsupplied at present, for a tricycle wh ich can carry propelling gear, working by stored-up power in some f orm, or
even by steam. Two causes have contributed to stop
progress in thi$ dircctio 1 Ouc is the oppressive nature of
the 1egal restrictions ou tite use of ste:tm on common roads,
the steam tricycle being confot.mded with the traction
•
engine, with which it has really nothing in common ; and
the other being the belief that electricians will supply
Flomething b etter t han steam. W e aro disposed omselves
t o believe that the period is not now far oft' when electrical
t ricycles will be as easily obtained as the ordinary tricycle
i~ now. T he one tbiog wanted is a secondary battery.
'Ve bad recently reason to point out that too much must
not be expected ; and we s howed that a c!U'r iage which,
w hile carrying four people could also carry a store of ener~y
sufficient to propel i t for a whole day, is not likely to oe
obtained. But i t is quite another matter to construct a
carriage which woulJcontaina very useful storeof eneray. On
the level or going down bill this store wou ld not be d r:wn on,
but it would become available to help the rider when much
wanted. Every tricyclist knows how welcome would be the
ser.vices of a secondary battery ready to help him at a pinch.
It ts, ?~ course, pos3ible- for all things seem possible in
electrlClty-tba.~ a battery may be produced which will be
small and light, and yet will givEJ out enough energy to
drive a little carriage for ty or fifty miles. B ut while the
world is waiting for t his, it would be well content to have
the half loaf which, according to the old adage, is better
than no bread. U nfortunately, howewr, as will be seen
f ur t her on, the half loaf is as yet to be had only under very
objectionable conditions, which go far to render it worse
than useless, save under special circumstances.
In dealing with this subject hitherto there has been a
plentiful lack of information as to the power required to
propel either a bicycle or a tricycle. This ignorance need
exist no longer. Dr. Stoney, F.R.S., and Mr. G. Gerald
Stoney, of Dublin, have followed in a sense Professor
Rankine's example; or rather, they have contributed
another chapter t o the literature of pedo-motor carriages.
In the J an nary num ber of the scientific translations of the
R oyal Dublin Society will be found a paper by Messrs.
Stoney " On the E nergy Expended in Propelling a
Bicycle." Without engravings we coulJ not explain satisfactorily the method devieed by Messrs. Stoney of meaaurin~ the power expenlled by the rider. The machine used
was tnat known as the '' Xtraordinary." The feet of the
rider do not act directly on the crank pins, but on treadles
secured to pend ulous levers, the object b eing to keep the
rider further back, and prevent the possibility of his being
pitched over the machine-a common and dangerous accident-should the dl'iving wh~l encounter a stone or other
ob~tacle of some dimensions. This type of machine lent
i tself readily to the wants of t he investigators, and Messrs.
Stoney contrived in a ver y simple and ingenious way to
register in a species of indicator diagrams the force
exerted by the rider.
The results obta.ined are, to
say the least, remarkable. It h as long been kno,vn
that men with no pretentious to excessive strength
or power of endurance could perform astounding
j ourneys on bicycles. ' 'Several ride~," say Messrs.
Stoney, "of exceptional strength and endurance, have
travelled considerably more than 200 miles in one day
along common roads ; anothE'r has twice maintained an
average speed of more than twenty miles an h our along a
prepared path for a whole hour ; another h as ridden from
Laud's End to John o' Groat's house, a distance of almost
1000 miles, in thirteen da.ys, averagin_r more than seventy·
six miles a day. These astonishing feats have been accomplished on bicycles, and the tricycle does not fall far
b ehind. A tricycle bas been ridden 150 miles in one day,
and hundred mile journeys on both classes of machines
have become frequen t." W e may add that to run a distance of twenty or thirty miles with a tricycle is no uncommon feat for men who could not walk half the distance
without being knocked up. It is not too much to say that
the bicycle has increased the locomotive power of the
ordinary man at least three-fold if \Ve toke distance alone
into consideration. It has at least doubl(:d h is speed. .As
for the young and active, it has trebled their speed and
augmented the d istance they can travel five to one. There
ought to be sQme reason for this remarkable efficiency ; and
it was to find out its cause that M essra. Stoney did what
they have done. The results obtained go to show, not that
the bicycle reduces the power expended in a given time,
but that, on the contrary, it increases i t, without at the
same time inducing fatigue; and this Dr. Stoney very properly attributes to physiological as well as mechanical
causes. It is well known that a man rowing under the
best conditions cannot for any time exert more than
about one-eighth of a horse-power, or 4125 foot pounds. .According to R ankine, t he g reatest power
is exerted by a man when he climbs a ladder, and,
getting into a bucket on a rope over a wheel, causes it tp
d escend by his weight, pulling up a loaded bucket at the
other end of the rope. In this way a man can expend
energy at the rate of 72·5 foot-pounds per second, or 4350
foot-pounds per hour, or ·133 of a horse-power- less than
one-seventh. But the averaae p erformance on level
ground of a bicyclist gives bet;een a seventh and a sixth
of a horse-power. W e may compare, for exam ple, the
4350 foot-pounds per minute given by Rankine with the
fo1lowing figures. On a wet, gravelled path up 1 in 160
the coefficien t of resistance at 9 6 miles per hour was <'ir,
and the energy exerted 21,800 lb. per mile, or, per minute,
3500 ; but a t 11·7 miles an h our the coefficient rose to
~\;in. and the energy expended 40,500 foot-pounds per mile,
equivalent to no less than 7900 foot-pounds per mmute, or
to nearly one-fourth of a steam engine horse·power. I t is
worth while to compare the p erformance, however, with
actual horse-power, which is about tbree·fourths of that
assigned to it by Watt, or say 430 foot-pounds per second,
or 251800 foot·pounds per minute. The power exfended by
the b1cyclist was therefore more than one· fourth o that of a
horse; and if we bear in mind that a horse moving at nearly
twt>lve miles an hour has little energy left t o pull a load,
it will be seen that the excellence of the performance of
the man came out still more prominently. The average of
sixteen experiments, particulars of which are supplied by
Dr. Stoney, give 6350 foot-pounds as the normal perf ormance of a bicyclist under very varying conditions of
road, wind, and inclination. In a second series of experiments, made in summer, the average of fifteen gave 5100
foot-pounds as the performance of the rider. . The co-
APitrL 13, 1883.
T H E E N G I N E E B.
290
efficient of resistance varied very much ; on a hard, dry,
gravelled path, down 1 in lGO, at speeds of 7, 10·4, and
L~'<3 miles :lll hour, t be coellidents of resistance were c;'--;,
.',and . ;. 1 ; fro1n which it :tppc:tnl that. they au.ament
very rapidly with lht' speed. it is uot easy lo strike an
avemge of resistance of much v.dtH'. J>rofessor Htoney,
bowe,•er, gives it at about ,',.
The experimeuts '~t're
varied in different ways, and other appnratus were devJ!led
and used to check the first result; but in all c~es the
figures closely approximated, and the average energy
expended may be put down at 35,< 00 foot-pounda per
mile. This may be taken to represent the expenditure of
energy wh ich would suffice in a long journey over good
roads, and wiLhout exceptionally heavy bills. Hills, be it
observed, cease to be compensatory as soon as back pedaling on the brake b ecomes necessnry; anrl to prevent this
no hill with a greater inclination than about 1 in 3;;
ought to be traversed, otherwi:'4e the euergy expended in
going up is greater than can be utilised iu coming dowu
•
agam. •
We may well ask with Dr. Stoney bow are w~ to account
for the enormous efficiency of a man working a bicycle.
Dr. Stoney'tJ answrr appears to be the only one po~ible.
'' 'l'be real comparison to be made is not so much a comparison of the feats accomplished with tho energy
expended, as with the fatigue incurred; and this in riding
a bicycle is small, not only from the mechanical efli ciency
which tbe foregoing experiments show the machine to
possess, but also for other reasons. Part of these a1e
physiologic;~). The rider is seated on the machine, and
thus relieved from what is the chief source of fatigue
in walking- the weight of his own body on his limbs.
H e is in the posture best adapted to the healthy play of
the vital organs in the chest, and the constant slight movement of the muscles of the t t·unk ·contributes to this
healthy play. Again, while the arms perform some of the
work, the principal part is relegated to the most powerful
muscles in the body- those of the leg. It is also material
to observe that these limbs are left very unusually f1·ee in
their movements, and that the choice of what l~n gth of
stroke he will employ, what force he will exert, and at 'vhat
speed he will move his limbs, are left to the rider, who can
adjust those details to what best suit his own body."
Dr. Stoney also credits the exhilaration produced by rapid
movement through the air with some of the results he bas
recorded; but wbile this may do something for moderate
distances, we cannot accept it :L:S proved that it can do
much. \Ve have this peculiarity in bicycle riding, that
only one principal set of muscles, those of the lower
limbs, are used energetically, and those muscles are spared
th e duty of carrying the weight of the body. lf we
compare the work done on a bicycle with that expended
in rowing, it will be seen tbat in the latte1· case
although tbe weight of the body is supported, all the
muscles of the body are, to a considerable extent,
employed, but those of the lt'gs least of all, and
the work they do is expended in holding the boat back,
or directly til rusting her astern. If it were possible to row
with the feet while the hands laid bold of the stretcher,
the resu lt wou ld possibly be n.kin to that obtained with
the bicycle, and it is worth considering whether the water
velocipede may not be susceptible of such improvements
that the paddle-wheel or the screw wo• ked by the foot
may beat oars wo1ked by band. P erhaps someone w bo has
tbe t ime and opportunity may carry out experiments in
this direction.
Before conclud ·ug, we would warn our readers that they
must by no ruean:J conclude that an expenditure of energy
of 4000 foot-pounds or so per mile will suffice for an
electrical or any other form of mechanically moved road
carriage. The battery and motor are not likely to weigh
less than the man, and we have then virtually two bicycles
and men to provide power for. It would not be safe to
calculate on less than 80,000 foot-pounds per mile, or for
t en miles 800,000 foot-pound::~ net Going down bill there
would be no demand on this, and we may suppose that
levels and pedal power and hill together would represent t wenty miles of a thirty-mile trip, leaving ten
miles up which the assistance of the motor would be
needed. At first sight it appears that the aid
given by the motor would be very great, but it
must not be forgotten that the rider must propel all
the extra weight for at least ten miles; he cannot take this
off and put it on at pleasure, and thus it becomes a question, whether under any circumstances, what may be termed
auxiliary power can be of servic~. This cannot be
answered until all the conditions are known. T hus, for
example, a man living in a valley might find it much to
his advantage to carry a few pounds of battery, which would
suffice to help him over the surrounding highland; while it
is evident t hat in a level country the game of carry ing even
40 lb. or 50 lb of battery would uot be \vorth the candle.
F or these reasons it seems to be pretty clear that it will be
best to provide sufficient power to do all the driving at a
moderate speed, and on levels, and t hat the rider shall
exer t bimsE'lf to help the machine up hills, and to augment
its pace. In this way the man will be auxiliary to the
motor, instead of the motor being auxiliary to tbe mau, a
distinction which will be found on examination to be one
with a difference.
flOW TO
U~MAKE
NITRO-GLYCERINE.
Now that webavebeenmadesointimatelyacquainted with
the private, surreptitious, and illegal manufacture of nitro~lycerine in our very midst, it behoves us to see what
means can be taken to effect its destr uction, when quantities such as we recently heard of fall into our hands. The
coftin-like box seized 10 Southampton-street, Strand, contained nearly 200 lb. weight. I t was sent off d uring the
night to W ool wicb, and taken to the Royal Laboratory
Department. Tbe staff of the chemical establishment are
too familiar with explosive comP.ounds to feel nervous in
the presence even of such a v1llainous agent as nitroglycerine; but there were circumstances which rendered
desirable as speedy a removal as convenient of the
obnoxious visitor. One of these circumsta.nces was the
insecurity of · the envelope, which allowed the nitro-
glycerine continually to escape; and the other, which
was of more consequence, was a suspi<'iOn that the
compound had been manufactured by inexperienced
hands, that it had been impel"fectly cle.wsetl of acid ,
and that it was therefore impure and especially liable
to spontaneous expiosion. The fact of its having borne
the jolting of the train from Bir mingham, and the rattling
of the cab over the stones from London, showed that if
easy of detonation, it must have had concussion sufficient to
have produced it ; but it was 11evertheless decided to place
it out of harm's way as soon as possible. It was conveyed to
the Home Office magazine, in the Plumstead Marshes, about
three ruiles from the Arsenal gate, and immersed in water.
-·omeone suggested to throw it into the r iver, but the professional reply was that it would sink in a cohesi ve mass to
the bottom, and perhaps be detonated by the keel of some
ship. There was too much of it, it was thought, t o be exploded except by the tedious process of removing it in small
quantities to remote places, and the only feasible plan, it
was said, which presented itself, was to sprinkle it over the
land. Once absorbed in the earth it would soon be resolved
by nature into its constituent elements, and simply serve
as manure to the land. However, on W cdnesday the
nitro-glycerine was destroyed on Woolwich Marshes. It
was mixed with sand to form a species of dynam ite. It
was distributed in the form of a gigantic cross and ignited,
but it burned with difficulty, and about 25 lb. of the mixture exploded with great violence, fortunately injuring no
one. The event will cause more care than ever to be taken
in dealing with nitro-glycerine, and probably put an end
to the system of destroying it by burning it.
But what man bas made man can also unmake. Gun-cotton,
or pyroxy lin, is a ~i milar body to nitro-glycerine, and the
cotton or cellulosE' from which i t has been made can be
re-obtaiued by several simple chemical met.hods. Strong
potash ley di~solve~ gun-cotton rapidly, especially if heat ed
t o 70deg. Cenl., with formation of ammonia, nitrous acid,
oxalic acid, ~md other acids. The alkaline soluliou reduces
an ammoniac:\! solution of silver, and bas, in fact, been
used for silvering mirrors. A solution of potassic sulphhydrate, especially if mixed with alcohol, reproduces
the original harmless cotton, with for mation of potassic
nitrate and a little ammonia. Ferrous sulphate exerts a
similar reducing action, likewiRe reproducing the original
cotton-see tbe results anived at by BC:champ. Guncotton placed in contact with sulphuric acid and metallic
mercury gives off its nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide;
and so it is likewise with nitro-glycerine. T his body,
when mixeJ with fuming hydriodic acid, decomposes below
100 deg. Cent., yielding ~lyceri ne and pure nitric oxide, as
was observed by Dr. Mills. I ta ethereal solution is decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen gas with copious deposition of sulphur-for details see the papers of De Vrij.
Then again, nitro-glycerine, wben heated with aqueous
solution of potash, is decomposed, with formation of
glycerine and nitrate of potassium, as has been shO\lll by
R ail ton.
OJ H 6 (N 0 ~ ) 3 OJ +3K H O =C 3 H 8 0 3 +? KN 0 3 •
It is even stated, on the authority of Professor G. C.
Foster, whom we have always regarded as a physicist,
that Dr. Mills found nitro·glycerine, kept for a fortnigh t,
no longer explosive when struck, but showed no signs of
decomposit ion or chemical alteration. If it were so, all cause
for anxiety at the present time would be at an encl. T his
statement can hardly be correct, although it is made
in Watt's " Dictionary of Chemistry." Nitro-glycerine
was first used as a mining n.gent by Dr. A. Nobel, a
Swedish engineer, in 1864. I t solidifies at a temperatw·e
prol.lably as high as 8 deg. C.-56 deg. F.-and the friction
of the frozen particles is very apt to give rise to explosion.
A ten·ible story was told about fifteen or sixteen years ago,
of a llJioer in the Hartz M cuntains who was seen to begin
to break up a block of frozen nitro·glycerine with a.
hammer, when everything vanished.
Nobel found
that tbe danger of accidental explosion of nitro·glycerine may be obviated by mixing it wiLh wood spirit,
which renders it non-explosive by percussion or by heat.
When required for use, it may be reco,•ered by adding
water to the mixture, which reprecipitates the nitroglycerine. According to . Kern, it explodes with maximum violence at262 deg. C.; nt187 deg. C. itmerely gives
off red f umes, and at 294 deg. C. a very slight explosion takes
place. 1'be blasting oils of commerce are usually mixtures
of trinitro·glycerine with tho mono and dinitro·dE'rivatives. F c,r the analysis of these products, F. H ess, who is
a g reat authority on these matters, employs a modification
of Dumas' combustion process, the mixture of the oil with
cupric oxide being placed in a long combustion tube, and
protected by a screen of tin-plate during the expulsion of
the air in the tube by the stream of carbon dioxide, and
the combustion regulat.ed as far as possible, so that the
successive portions of the finely·div ided blasting oil may
be brought to the temperature required for combustion
only by the action of rad iant heat. A simpler, and at the
same t ime very exact method, is to treat the blasting oil
with alcoholic potash, whereby it is exactly decomposed
into ~lycerine and potassium nitrate, in which t.be nitrogen
may be estimated by the usual methods. This is Hesss'
method. According to Sauer and Ador, on the other
hand, the amount of nitrogen obtained by the latter
method is always too low. By Dumas' method they
obtained from dynamite cartridges 1 ·35 to 18·52 per cent.
of nitrogen, answering to pure dinitro-glycerine, whereas by
decomposition with alcoholic potash t h ey obtained only
12·3, 12 0, and 13-14 per cent. of nitrogen.
SIR LYON
PLAY.FAll~
AND 811\ .A.UGUSTUI:i FREDERICK AB;&L.
IT has rarely1 if t'Ver, fallen to our lot to have to announce in
one week the raising of two chemists t o the honours indicated
by the above beading. Her Ma.jesty has been pleased to confer
the honour of Knight Commandership of the Order of the Bath
upon the Right Hon. Lyon Playfair, M.P., C.B. Dr. Lyon
Pla.yfair was born at Meerut, Bengal, in 1819. B~ was educated
at St. Andrew's, at Edinburgh 1 and afterwards proceeded to
Giessen, in B esse Darml'tadt, to st~Ady under Professor Liebig.
He also worked with Professor Bunsen for some time. In 1843
he waa appointed Pro£88801' of Chemistry at the Royal Institution,
APRIL
13, 1883.
:Manche~ter,
•
and was, from 1853 till1858, Government InspectorGeneral of Schools and Museums of Science and Art. He was
frot;t185S lilt 1869, Profcs~or of Chemistry in the Univer<!ity of
Edmburgb, and. "":'" Special Commissioner in charge of the
dt>p:wtmcnt:! of Junc,g at the ExbiLition of 18.31, after which he
was created a C. B. lle has 1·epresentecl the Univt>n;ities of
Edinbut-gh and ~t. Andrew',; since December 1. 68. From
Novemhet·, 1~i:l, till Fd>mnrr 1 i4 he w~ P ostmaster~ :euerol~ and W:\8 appoint.ed Cit~il'Wan' of \Y ays and )leans
1u April, 1880, but rettred from this po-t a few we1-b
ago. He has translated and published several works on
~hemi~l subjects, and on public health and education.
He
1s a luctd speaker, he is full of knowledge of a practical kioll,
nod he has bad abundant expt:rience of certain affairs of
administration. II; was one of the cu1-iosities of the appuintments of 1880 that a man with these qualifications should have
been made Chairman of Committees, where those qualifications
would be of least use ox· of no use. It is odd uow that no post
of public utility can be found for such a mao; but at any rate
Dr. Playfair has well earned any ornamental distinction that he
maY: care to take. The Queen has signified her intention of confernng the h1.1nour of knighthood upon Professor l~rederick
Augustus Abel, C.B., F.H.S., in recognition of the valuable services rendered by him to the War Department and other departments of the Government ill his capacity of War Department
chemist. lie 1has been for a long series of years at the head
of the Royol Laboratory, Woolwich, and has recently published
the l'esults of some elaborate researches conducted eonjointly with
Major Noble on gunpowder. Science is certainly to be congt-atulated on these honours.
ARTESIAX 1\'ELLS CPON TDE OREAT rLAIXS OF THE UNITED
STATE.<~.
T~
•
Legislature of Washington sanctioned two years ago the
appomtment of a Commission for the purpcee of indicating
suitable localities for e:tperimeoW arteaian wells ill the regions
of the great plains. That area lies between the meridian of 102
on the ~:\St, and the base of the Rocky Mountains on the west,
embracmg about 40,000 square miles. T he Commission baa
returned and made a report expressive of regret that they
cannot encourage a confident hope of success as to the result of
experimental borings as contemplated by the Act of Congress
authorising the work. Traversing the great plains, the general
aspect of the surface is found very similar to the prairie district
of the Upper Mississippi Valley. It is utterly treeless everywhere, saving a few clumps of cotton wood and willows. Grasses
of the most nutritious character for grazillg, as well as other
herbaceous plants, prevail, but vegetation b,wely CO\"()rs the
surface. All attempts at boring in the~e arid region:~ havtl, with
one exception, been made by private enterprise. The exception
is the boring made at Fo1·t Lyon, in the State of Colorado, under
the auspices of the general Government. Noteworthy among
the prh'ate borings are two, situated at P ueblo, in Colorado.
One of these, it bas been stated, was of a bore 5~in. in diameter,
and that the work was done with a plunge drill. At a depth of
116Gft., at the bottom of a deep series of cb.yey shales, a flow
of wate~ was obtained. It gave a discharge amounting to 4000
barrels m twenty-four hours, but it bel!an soon to diminish, nod
has now nearly ceased. Two borings have been made near Canon
City, but proved failures. Two others, made at Denver, have
been wholly unsuccessful. Tb~: Commissioners give a detailed
account of all the attempts made, but state that after a careful
examination of all the f:l.cts, it is their opinion that prospects of
obtaining a sati&factory supply of water by means of artesian
borings are not encouraging. N evcrtheless the po~eibility is
shadowed out that some at-tesinn boring may be succes~fully
carried on in consequence of some local dips that are believed
to oc::ur in the western par~ of the district. It is likewise
deemed possible that sutlicient water would escape from the
Arkansas Hiver into the strata which underlie the south-west
part of the district
CASUALTIES IN llllNING.
A.> actuarial report ou the condition of the Northumbel"land
and Durham Minet·s' Permanent Helief Fund is accompanied by a
series of tables, one of which gives some interesting details of the
extent of the casualties that occur in mining. The operations
of the fund extend over the largest; part of the counties of
Northumberland and Durham, and it has 76,278 members at
the present time. For the pas~ fh·e years the deaths ha,'e been
8i0 from accident, or put into a form that enables a more
accurate estimate to be formed, the proportion was 2·45 for every
1000 mt>mbers; for e,·ery 1000 in the pre,;ous five years the
proportion was 1"9i, and in the two previous years the proportions
were 2"98 and 3·83 respectively. It would thus appear that in
the earlier years of the fund's oper.ltions the deaths from
accident were more in proportion even than now, that in the
middle periods they were lea.st, and that the recent great
calamities in the north have caused the death rate to go up
seriously. The non-fatal accidents of less than twenty-six weeks
in duration are also many, varying in the quinquennial periods
from 58 per cent. to 101 per cent. on the numbers of the deaths
from accidents, and on this point a. mass of figures is given in the
report. But the general conclusion to be drawn is that there are
very great variations in the number and the proportions of the
mining accidents, both fatal and less serious. It is well that we
have these records of the largest of l he permanent relief funds to
add to the reports of the inspectors of mines, and thus to acquire
a still fnller idea of the extent of the mortality in mines, and of
the accidents that result. But the experience of the mining
funds is as yet too short to enable us to judge as to the average,
for ill the periods brought before us in the largest fund there is
a very great variation that cannot a3 yet be accounted for.
DISCHARGING TORPEDOES.
IT is well known t hat the problem how best to discharge Whitehead torpedoes presents considerable difficulty,and many attempts
have been made to devise sa~isfactory mechanism. It appears
that Messrs. YaJTOw have settled the question so far as torpedo
boats are concerned. Some interesting trial.s took place at
Westminster on the afternoon of the 9th, in the presence of
Admiral Sir Cooper Key, First Sea Lord, Rear-Admiral
Brandreth, Controll•'r of the Navy, Mr. George Bendel, and
Mr. Nathaniel Barna~, with a eecond·claM torpedo boat
recently built for the J.::nglisb Government by l\1eesr<~. Ynrrow
and Co., iD order to illuetrate the new system. of steam iropulae
introduced by them. The gear is similo.r to that recently tested
at l'ortsmouth with great success, it being found very superior to
the piau previously adopted. The arrangement consists in
building two troughs inclined at an angle of 5 deg. in the bow of
the boat, which are provided with suitable guides for carrying
the Whitehead torpedo. Aft of these troughs or guides are two
long steel steam cylinders, 6in. diameter and 7ft. stroke, th(l pistonrods of which press against the ends of the torpedoes, and upon
steam being suddenly admitted into these cylinders the torpedoes
are instantly forced out \vith considerable velocity, the speed being
THE
ENG INEER.
estimated at about fi£teen miles an hour. If, therefore, the
impulse is given when the boat is going twenty miles an hour,
tbll collecli,·e 11peed of the t•)rpcdo upon entering the water is
clearly thirt.y-fi\·e mile3 an hour. The arrangement i.a e:tceedingly simple, aud 11111let· thE' entire control of the steersman.
After tl•e torpedo wa.'l firecl !'everal times tl.e boat proceeded
down the river with the ,\dmiralt.y authoritie~, and the
oppo1 tunity wall takton to in:-pect tbe smlll launch driven by electricity developed in accumulators manufactured by tbeElectrbal
Power Storage Company, the construction of which was fully
explained by Mr. \ 'olckmar, after which the Admiralty
authorities inspected the Dra7.ilian ironchd being bt;ilt by
Messrs. Samud'\ Brothers, returning to town in the torpeao boat.
LITERATURE.
(FlBST NOTICE.)
E?uilibrio lntcmo delle Ptle .Metctlliclte. By L. ALLTEn. Rome.
] 82.
Tms is an attempt to solve, with an approach to completeness, the problem of finding the stre8ses in the
members of bridge pier s built up of clusters of metal
columns braced together horizontally and diagonally.
When the number of pieces in the structure is much grE'ater
than that absolutely required for stiffness, it is well known
that the above problem is one of great complexity.
Accordingly, the character of the book we have under
notice is such as to require one to possess considerable courage
before plunging into the thick of it, because here equations
lOin. long, and involving two dozen various symbols, are
quite thick. The ordinary engineer would certainly run
away in consternation, and give up bridge-building in
despair, if he were to be convinced that a necessary preliminary were the solution, or even the comprehension of
the meaning, of the set of closely-printed equations occupying on pa<Ye 100 a space of Hin. by 6in. He would prefer
to re-build the bridge every fh·e years rather t han undertake to understand and make use of these formulrc. If a
bridge were d esigned according to them, and the manager
of an insurance company were compelled to comprehend
the principles of its construction before offering terms for
its insunuce against failure, be would assnredly charge a
d ouble premium, simply out of revenge for the headache
he had suffered from in the effort.
Such might be the sentiments of the ordinary engineer
with regard to this book. Nevertheless, it is well worthy
of consideration whether it is not the absolute duty of
those engineers in leading positions who undertake the
design and erection of such important works as the Tay
and Forth bridges to face every difficulty of previous
investigation, whether that difficulty be theoretical or
practical. To obtain the best possible design for any one
of such structures is wort.h infinitely more mental labour
than is usually bestowed on it.
After the design is
complete, the construction and erection cost, say, £100,000,
and the risk of failure or totally destructive accident is
worth even more than that. The memoir under review
needs, as already said, some labour to study it, and must
have needed still more to write it; but probably the author
would not refu10e an honorarium (,f £500 for its production as a piece of profe3Sional work, and another
like sum would in all probability be accepted, not
entirdy without g ratitude, for the trouble of applying it~ conclusions to the numerical calculation of
the elements of d esign for one of the important
structures referred to.
If, then, these conclusions are
theoretically correct, and moreover are of useful application to such cases, it would evidently be a senselesa policy
to reject such assistance merely because it is offered in the
shape of complicated mathematical equations. Repugnance
to the employment of difficult mathematical investigation
for important and expensive engineering works is not at
all justified by the mere diffi<:ulty and tediousness of the
proce3S. The subsequent practical carrying out of the
design is infinitely more tedious and expensi ve, and the
sav in~ of expense and risk that is possible in this subsequent part of the work is immensely greater than the cost
of the most careful imaginable preliminary theoretical
investigation. T h ere is one objection alone that can be
reasonably urged against the most complete previous
analysis of the matter in all its fullest complexity and
down to its minutest detail. This one valid objection is
that the brain of even the best educated engineer is hardly
powerful enough to seize in one eomprehensive grasp all
the manifold conditions that have a really important
influence on the solution of the problem, and the oversight of some of these at first sight almost trivial considerations not unfrequently wholly invalidates the conclusions
arrived at by a complicated theoretical calculation, and
makes the result deviate even farther from the truth than
what might have been arrived at in a much simpler
m ethod. The more complicated the calculation the more
uncertain does its correctness become-the liability to
error increases with the complexity. No doubt it is from
errors arising in this way that mathematical investigation
has been much discredited, and distrust in its utility rather
widely spread. We wish we could believe that these prejudices
all arose in this way, because th ere would in that case be a
fairer chance of the rapid pr ogress of the higher engineering science, which would then become popular always in
proportion to its own merits- that is, its own accuracy.
But the fact unfortunately is that most of this prejudice
is the result of ignorance, bad education, or want of education, and sheer inability to master any difficulty that is
not of the lightest kind.
Although Signor Allievi's work is by no means a com·
plete treatment of lattice bridge piers in which there is a
Iarse degree of" redundancy," still we think it is the most
senous attempt that bas yet been made in that direction by
the simple analytic method. In a series of papers by Professor R. H. Smith, of Birmingham, on" The Calculation
of Stresses in Redundant Structures," which appeared in
THE ENGINEER of 1880, the principles of these calculations
were fully stated, as also the mode of carrying them out by
graphic constructions. A comparison of the methods
given ther e with the long series of equations contained in
S ignor AUievi's book shows the superior simplicity, intelli-
291
gibility, and practical easiness of the graphic method of
investigating strains over the algebraic.
One specially
noticeable point of superiority in the previous mode of calculation is that it becomes no more difficult ami tedious
with incr~ased variability of the sections and the loads nt
the various parts of the structure. Thus there is no
temptation to take sh ort cuts to a result by assuming
hypothetical conditions a great deal simpler than the actual
ones; whereas in the algebraic treatment such an immense
reduction towards simplicity is effected by the assumption
of simple and 11ymmetrical data-such as uniform distributiou of load, or uniform section- that the algebraist
most frequently gives way to the temptatiou so obviously
h eld out to h im, and gives the solution of h is problem
upon data that are inconsistent with everyday practice.
Throughout the first half of Allievi's memoir the section
of t he vertical columns of the pier are s uppoaed to be
uniform from top to bottom, the sections of all the horizontal bracing bars from top to bottom are supposed to b e
the same, and those of the inclined bracing bars are also
taken as being all uniform and the same throughout tbe
h eight of the pier. Now it is not unnatural to ask, Whatis
the use of any refined investigation into the stresses if the
structure is to be built according to such an extraordinarily
unscientific d esign ? No pier of great importance would
now-a-days b e built according to these data.; and, if its
importance be so s mall that, say, the economy obtainable by
having all the pieces of one pattern be a ruling consideration, this simply means that the calculation of the stresses
is of comparatively little importance, and their accurate
calculation absolutely u seless.
Why, then, waste time
and brain tissue upon a minute investigation of such a
case I We find fifty-eight large double sized pages in the
treatise under notice, every one crowded with equations
devoted to this case.
Of course the simplicity and
symmetry uf the conditions are charming ; the weight
per foot of height of the pier is uniform throughout
the whole height, the side pressure of the wind is
uniform from the base to the head, &c. &c. But, unfortunately, the practical applicability of the results is
limited to those cases in which precise calculations are n ot
needed and are of no value. No d oubt the results are
highly interesting. It is in itself interesting to know that
numerical results can be obtained without excessive labour
by tbe solution of a large number of simultaneous equations. Signor Allievi give!! numerical examples of the
working out of most of his equation s. These are constructed both for the case of the pieces meeting at a joint
being all pin-jointed, and also for the case of the vertical
columns being continuous from top to bottom. In the
latter case the columns are treated as continuous girders,
and the bendin~ moments and tortuous inflexions caused
by tbe lengtbemng of the horizontal bars are all calculated
and allowed for in the final equations. The data for a
num~rical example on pa~e 23 are taken from the V iaduct
Bnsseau by Nordling, tne load on the top of the pier
being 200,000 kilogrammes, and the section of one of the
coluruns being 450 square centimetr es.
For tbis the
lateral bulging deflections are calculated for each of the
six joints between top and base. The largest of these is
no more than 1 l .;in. I t is in consequence of these deflections that the columns theoretically r equire to be treated
as continuous g irders, and not as different lengths pinjointed together.
Tbe horizontal bracing bars ar e #
metres apat·t, and it is therefore evident that the above
very small deflections are practically without influence iu
altering tbA stresses in t.he columns. Accordingly we find
that the results calculated b y Allievi for this example,
taking the structure as pin-jointed, are almost identical
with those found on the supposition that the column is
stiff from top to bottom. Furthermore, i t is well to not~
t bat the above small deflections are far within the limits
of any possible accuracy of workmanship in a structure of
this sort. Thus a theoretical calculation of the deflections
at different points of the column founded on the supposition of perfect fit between the parts- and this is the
only supposition that can be made for such calculation-is
really futile, becau11e the deflections thus calculated are
much less than those irregular initial deflections caused by
imperfect fitting, which from their nature it is impossible
to know.
THE following are the conditions of the next competition for the
Volta Prize of tbe Paris Academy of Science :-The prize of
50,000£.-£2000-founded by the decree of the 11th Juno, 1882,
for the dtscovery or invention which shall render elt>ctricity
economically applicable to one of the following applications :H eat, light, chemical action, mechanical force, the transmission of
messages, or the treatment of sick persons, will be awo.rded in
December, 1887. The competition will remain open until the
30th June, 1887, and scientific men of all nations are admitted t o
compete.
CALCUTTA
INTERNATIONAL EXHJBJTION. - Communications
recently t·eceived from the Vice-President of the E xecutive Committee at Calcutta-the H on. Colonel S. T. Trevor, R.E., joint
secretary, Government of Bengal Public Works Department--are
to tbE' effect that all the necesso.ry annexes in course of erection
adjacent to the India bluseum will be completed by July or August.
A large space on the .Maidan, facing the museum, has been enclosed,
and will be devoted specially to machinery in motion, agriculturnJ
implements, &c. Gas and water will be available throughout tho
bllilding. The arrangements in regard to lighting are now under
considero.tion. It is proposed that, for this purpose, the electric
ligbt should be employed. A deep reservoir, covering an area of
nearly 90,000 square feet, "1\;ll serve for exhibiting specimens of
native boats, and for displayi11g diving apparatus, life-saving
apparatus, including boats aud steam launch machinery. The
exhibition of Oriental jewellery will surpasa any previous display
of the kind. In addition to the splendid collection lately shown
at the Jt>ypore Exhibition there will be contribution• from tho
Indian princes and nobles, who have all been uked to co-operate.
The regalia of each potentate ia to be shown aepara~ly. The
Publio Work& Department of the Government of India hu com·
municated with the Governments of the several presidenci~ and
provinces requesting them to obtain from the railway authoritiea
under their control special rates for the carriage of goode intended
for the exhibition. The interest shown in the undertaking by the
foreign consuls, and the number of applications for 8pace received
from all parts, ensure tho complete success of the exhibition as an
international dis\)lay. In considering the allotments oi &pact>,
priority will be gtven in accordance with the dates of the applica·
tiona received through the official agent, 4, Westminster-Qbambers,
Victoria-street, London.
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:ENGINE S OF THE LONDON AND NORTH- WE S TERN RAILWAY C OMPANY 'S STEAM S HIP VIOLET.
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IN our impression for March 30th we referred at some length in an
.article on the Irish mail contract to the steamships Lily and Violet,
and through the courtesy of Admiral Dent, marine superintendent to
the Railway Company at H olyhead, and Messrs. Laird Bros., Birken·
bead, we are enabled to give above and on page 293, drawings of the
Violet and her machinery. The Violet and Lily are sisters, but the
Violet is a little the faster of the two. She is 310ft. long over all,
300ft. Gin. between perpendiculars, 33ft. beam, and 14ft. 4in. deepfigures which show that she is not the cockleshell some persons believe .
She is oerti1ied by the Board of Trade to carry 475 deck passengers and
·41 7 saloon passengers. The fittings of the ship are admirable, and
the second-class cabins present a marked contrast to the accommodation
provided for second-class passengers on board the present mail boats,
which is extremely bad.
The Lily and Violet are fitted with oscillating engines with jet
oondensers, and two diagonal air pumps, as shown above.
The
cylinders are 7Sin. diameter and 7f t. stroke, with double piston-rods
and croBBheads, the piston-rods being Sin. diameter. The entablatures
are of cast iron, and of box form, and are strongly supported by eight
wrought iron columns, each 7in. diameter. The crank shafts are lSin.
diameter. Each cyli.n der has two slide valves worked by a link motion
in the usual wa.y, and a combined steam and hydraulic starting gear is
fitted which enables the engines to be reversed with great rapidity.
The paddle-wh~ela are 27ft. Sin. in diameter, the floats being 11ft. wide,
and 4ft. 6in. deep. Steam is supplied by eight rectangular boilers,
working at a pressure of 30 lb. per square inch. They contain 2152
tubes, and have a. total heating surface of 12,215 square feet, and a
grate surface of 470 square feet. The mean indicated horse-power
developed on a continuoUB run of over three hours was 3220-horse
power, the revolutions being 30 per minute. The vessels are made of
eteel rolled at Crewe.
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The railway company possess two other passenger steamers, the Rose
and t he Shamrock, of muca the same type, but not so fast. The
proposed change in the contract has stimulated the Irish company,
and the mail steamers are now driven as fast as they can go ; their
performances being closely watched. Indeed, racing daily takes place
between the mailboats and the railway company's steamers. The
following statement appears in the Prurrw.n's J()Uh'nal, an Irish paper
much opposed to the proposed change, and unlikely to concede anything against the Irish vessels. The Violet is, we may premise, probably fifteen minutes faster than t he Shamrock, mentioned below.
"The arrival and departure of the steamers at the Carlisle Pier is mo11t
narrowly watched, and the most anxioUB inquiri'!B made as to their
cross-Channel performances. The fourth official trial of the steamers
belonging to the London and North-Western Railway Company took
place on Saturday, between Kingstown a.n d H olybead. The Munster
laft with the mails at 3.43 a.m. English time, and arrived in Kingstown
at 7.25, making the run in three hours and thirty minutes. The
Leinster left Holyhead on the same day at 2.12 p.m., and owing to
the t hick weather did not arrive until 5.32 p.m., taking t hree hours
and forty-five minutes to come acroBB. The Connaught in her trip
over on Sunday morning was detained in the Channel by a dense fog,
and arrived at 7.26 English time, bringing heavy foreign ma.ils. The
Leinster was two minutes later when leaving, owing to delay occasioned
in getting the luggage of the D'Oyley Carte Operatic Company on
board. It is expected that when the mail steamer Ulster comes out of
dock and resumes her duties on the station she will be able to go the
cross-Channel trips in very quick time. On Saturday the Shamrock
passed the Holyhead Breakwater outwards at S.l1 a.m., inwards at
6.7 p.m., passage from Holyhead to Kingato,vn, jetty to jetty, three
hours and fifteen minutes. From Kingstown to Holyhead, jetty to
jetty, three hours and forty-four minutes. The Connaught passed
breakwater inwards at 11.20 a.m ., alongside of jetty at 11.29; passage
-
from Kingstown to H olyhead, j etty to jetty, tln·ee hours and forty-five
minutes.
METEOROLOGY AS A SCIENCE.
is sometimes mentioned as "the youngest of the
sciences;" Professor Tyndall, about a year ago at the Royal Institution,
spoke of t he further steps it should take that it may be rescued from
t he charge of being somewhat empirical, and the Athtnceum once took
meteorology to task on the same ground. The general want of con·
fiden ce now prevailing as to t he trustworthiness of the meteorological
predictions published daily likewise indicates the state of the public
mind. To some extent meteorologists are not to blame for this, for
having become habituated to the weather predictions of the late Admiral
Fitzroy, the public were in no humour to accept the desire of certain
Royal Society men that weather facts alone should be published, without
prophecies as to the future. Britons would no more stand this than they
would the abolition of Zadkiel's Almanac, Mother Shipton's prophecy
about the end of the world-fabricated by a Brighton bookseller a few
years ago- the Lord Mayor's S how, or any other brain-rooted institution. A prophet mUBt the head meteorologist be, in spite of himself,
and without honour in his own country. The brutality of unregulated
popular feeling compels him to don the wizard's gown, to string his
crocodile up to the ceiling, and to continue his daily incantations. A
critical examination of the English official and unofficial meterological
journals reveals the existence of a vast mass of s tatistical facts, accumulated during many years from all parts of the world, and indicates the
absence of some scientific man of master mind to weave all these, as
well as foreign records, into some harmonioUB whole, into a sound
philosophical system. The observations seem to be collected daily
from too small an area to give the beet facilities, perhaps, for correctly
anticipating coming weather. The daily record in t he Time& is not
M ETEOnOLOOY
only limited in area, taking in but a small portion of Western Europe,
but even figures of interest to general readers are omitted from the chart
which is given. Many, out of mere curiosity, would like to know what
climate their friends in Riviera are enjoying, yet no temperatures are
printed in the chart for N ice or thereabouts. Coming storms, some of
which do not arrive with the certainty of dynamite couriers, are preannounced in England by telegrams from the N eto York He~·ald offioe,
and much is published daily about barometrical movements over limited
areas, with comparatively little aoout temperature changes i yet the
latter as distributed over large areas may have much to do with the
formation of the former, as might perhaps be seen did the daily received
observations cover a sufficiently large field. On the European continent
the national meteorological observations are of a complete nature; why
then should not the varioUB elements recorded at some thirty spots
between, eay, the meridian of Greenwich and that of Constantinople be
telegraphed to London and examined, if not published, daily 1 If it
were known that on a certain day much cold prevailed generally
throughout North America between the equator and the pole, and that
during the same twelve or twenty-four hours much warmth prevailed
generally throughout Europe, the knowledge of broad general conditions such as these, extending over such large areas, might by dint of
study give some kind of trUBtworthy indication what weather to expect
before long in the region between the two continents. The position
of the Meteorological D epartment of the Board of Trade is uncomfortable,
for fortune-telling about the weather the public will have "by palmistry
or otherwise," as the Vagrancy Act says, and they feel at the same time
justified in censuring its inaccuracy, whilst no power on earth can
induce them to open their minds to the fact that the materials for
ensuring accuracy do not exist. A man cannot be made to see the sun
if he will not, and men always see not neoeasarily what is before them,
but that which their mental eye gives them the power of seeing. When·
ever a man sets up an astronomical observatory his poorer neighbours note
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(For dtacription au page 292.)
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TEtE ENGINEER.
tbe circumstance, and forthwith he becomes in their eyes n. firatr
rate astrologer, who ill to bo consulted in season and out of
aeason about lost spoons, lost babies, stray doge, and evil omena.
Thus meteorologi~t.d stand not nlone in having greatness thrust
upon them. A story is told about an Astronomer Uoyal who Wl\8
so often pestcre~ to cxercille his astrological powers, that he
resolved to E,-ive a le J<Oil to a woman who3e teapot had been
stolen, and who required t.be exercise of his occult arts to recover
that aame. I t ruua somewbnt to this effect:- " .My good woman
I will do my bcllt. You bnvo a. front door to your bouse, I ace.':
"YC81 sir," replied abo, curt.al'ying. " In front of it ie a path
through tho front garden," be added, making this shot with some
doubt in his own mind. " That's true, too," was the reply.
"When you leave the gnte you cnn turn either to the right or to
the left," s~ id be. "Porft!ctly true, that's quite right," responrlccl
tho woman, whose faith io his wonclerfnl powers was rising to
summer heat, to borrow a moloorologicnl oxpreBBion. He then
directed her to wnlk alung tho rond, enter tbe gate of the first
field on the right, dig deeply 1\t n certu.in indicated spot neo.t· o.
corner formed Ly tho hedgn, o.nd abo would find her teapot. A
few clays later he snw tho woman climbing Greenwich H ill, and
WI- Jnsbed himself into a stale of mornl elevation to lecture hllr
on her credulity. 11 Well, my good woman, did you find your
teapot ?" 11 0, air, I dug whore you told me ancl found the
teapot, and you are the greatest astrologer that ever lived."
T hat Astronomer Hoyal couhl no more lose his fame than .Mr.
Scott's department can at the present day.
A 131G ))AM.
T ru: following account of the Yillo.r Hescrvoir dam on tho
River Lozoya, by Mr. E. J . Theodore 1\lanby, l\L lust. C.K, is
from tho 11 Proceedings" of the I nstitution of Civil Engineers:The Isabel II. Canru, which conveys to Madrid the watera of the
River Lozoya, began originally at a point called P onton de Oliva,
where ~be required level W38 estAblished by a dam 92ft. high.
A aupplemtmtary dam, 1 Uft. high, was subsequently built at
Navarejoa, about three miles fur ther up lhe river, and the canal
prolonged up to that point.; but tho combined capacities o£ these
reaervoirs proved inaufficien t to meet the growing requiremen La
of the capita.!, and it was decided in 1869 to construct a lange
storage reservoir at Villar, about fourteen miles above NavarejCls,
capable of holding 20 million cubic metres-4400 million gallons.
The construction of this clam began in June, 1870, and ended in
1878. T ho dam is curved in plan to a radius of 440ft., tho
convexity being, o£ course, on tho up·Htream side. The total
length of tho dam at the top, measured along tbis curve, is
646ft., out of which a length of 197ft. on the right bank is
8ft. 3in. lower than the remainder, thus providing an outlet for
the ovorJlow of tho reservoir. '!'he overflowing water ill
,_..--..J.,.r:,-·-·1
.1
-
----
directed down the valley, and kept from falling on the foot of
the dam by a guide-wall 60ft. long, running radially to the
curve of the dam, from tho inner end of t he outlet . An
iron bridge, consisting of twelve spans of 16ft., runs across
the outlet, carrying a roadway which continues along the
top of tho higher portion of the dam. It was neceBBalJ' to
provide a croBBing for horses and foot paBBengers over the dllm,
to replaoo the Villar bridge drowned by the reservoir. The
DlAximum height of the dam in the centre of the valley, from the
bed of the river to the highest level the water can attain, i.e.,
•he le\•el of the overflow, is 162ft. lin. The higher l?ortion of
the dam rises to 8ft. Sin. above this level, and is prov1ded with
parapets. Tho figure of the cross section of the dam can bo very
approximately described 38 follows :-The inside or up-stream
face is vertical from the line or the highest water level to a
point 84ft. 3in. bolow, whilst tue outer or down·stre.'\m fi\Ce
batters at an irreg~lar rate clown to the aamo level. The thick·
nessea down to th l8 level run lUI follows :-At and above over·
flow level, 14 ft. 9io.; at l Oft. below overflow level, 16ft. 5in.; at
20ft. below overflow level, 19ft. 4in.; at 30ft. below overflow
level, 24ft. 3in.; at 40ft. bolow overflow level, 30ft. 2in.; at 50ft.
below overflow level, 36ft. 9io.; at 60ft. below overflow level,
44ft. Sin.; at 70ft. below ovo1 £low level, 52ft. lOin.; at 80ft.
below overflow level, 61ft. •Jin.; at 84ft 3~in. below overflow
level, 65ft. llin. F rom 84ft. 3~in. below overflow level tho
inside face batters 1 in 3•67, and the outaido face continues with
a uniform batter of 1 in 1·163, till they respectively strike tho
rock in tho bed of tho river. 'l'wo galleries run through tho
dam at a depth of 113ft. bolow ov~>rfiow level. Each of these
baa a clear inlet area of 19 equaro feet divided into two compartr
menta, closed by tduiccs governed from a central tower built on
to the inner {ace up to the level of tho l'Oadway. These sluices
are worked by hydraulic power derived from a spring found
on one of the banks, 2000ft. distAnt from and about 200ft.
higher than the dam. Tho strain on Cl\Ch sluice rod with a full
reaervoir is 8~ tons.
Beaidee th ese two galleries, four tunnels have been driven
through the rocky eidee of the valley to provide an outlet for
ftood waters, and avoid, if poBBible, the higher over.O.ow coming into
use. T wo of these iseuo from the same level as th~gaUeriea, a
third one from a point 50ft. higher, and a fourth from a point
77ft. higher. T ho wbolo dam is built of hydraulic rubble
m8.8()nry, except tho lower p3rt of the tower and the top course
of tho dam, which aro of ashlar. The totAl coat of tho reson·oir,
including the bridge and tho tunoelts, was .t80,55H. Tho
DlAterials were supplied by cunti".\cto•·s, and coat £ <12,000. The
CODJitruction wat~ executed by uay labour, nud coat £38,!i66. Tho
aectiono.l aren or thu dam f1·om ovo1flow level down to a hori·
zontal line 162ft. l in. below is 1275 equaro yards, and may bo
considered 88 n fairly light one. Tho Furens clam, which is of
about t he same boigh t-164ft.-only measures about 1200
square yarda in ~, but the Qileppe dam, if carried up to the
height of 164ft.-wbich emergency W38 contemplated nnd pro·
vided for by its cleaignere.-would preocnt an area of 2130 squnre
yards. Tho type cnlculated in Kr:mtz'a work for a height of
161ft.. bn.s aLout 1330 squl\ro yards area.
Tho Villar dam is slightly narrower at the base than the Furene
dam, and much narrower t.ban the Oileppo dam, or Krantz's
type. I ts thicko('~s nt 162ft. below ovelflow it~ about 15Ht. Tho
Furcns dam mc38uree Hi!Jft. at the corresponding depth, accord·
ing to tho plate in Kra.ntz'e work, and tho Oileppo 216ft. '!'he
Krantz lype, fo1· a. height of 164ft., gives 185ft. 38 tho proper
thickne88 at LMo. Fig. 1 represents the comparative outline of
the sections of tho Oileppe, Jl'urens, and Villar dam. Krantz's
type is flgured in dotted lines. The outline of the Fureua dam
hna been t.'\ken from Krant1.'s work. (For full account of this
reselvoirand dam 8C() TIIR J•:NUINSim or tbo yea.r 1876). Thnt
o£ Oiloppe dam hM been ploHocl from the dimensionl! given in a
notice printed in these " Minutes," vol. xlviii., p. 312. The Villar
clam was dcl!igne<l and constructerl by Mr. J oso 1\lorer, chief
engiuce1· to ~h o Spanish Ouvernment.
TH E TREVI 1'1IICK MEMORIAL.
TIIR following copy of tho minutes of the meeting of tho Trevi·
thick Memo•ial, hl'ld at tho Institution of Civil Engineo1·11 on
April lOth, 1883, will interest many of our readers :-J>reaeot: Sir
Al,drew Clarke, R.K , l\Io jor·Oenet·al : lHeasra. llydc Cla1·ko,
Alfred Edwnrd Cowper, C.E., P ercy (:. R. Westmncott, C.E.,
Trueman H . Wood, ll.A., B cnry Chapman, O.E., William Adams,
O.E., Joseph Tomlinson, O.E.; Major John Davis, F.S.A. 1\lajorOencral Sir Andrew Olnrkc, R.E., was requested, and kindly consented, to tnko the chair.
Tho bon. secretary read the communication he bad received
from Mr. 1Ill.8band, the boo. secretary of tho Cornish aub-committee,
as to the views of that committee, embodied in tho following resolution:-" While we entirely approve of the suggestion of raising
a statue to Trovithick in Westminster Abbey, we art strongly of
opinion that the ~'Teat aim ehou1d be to raise such a fund a.a would
lend to the establishment of scholarebipa for the assistance of the
education of young men of talent with o. view to qualify them to
take good \lositions in their professions as mining or engineers, the
fund so r0o1sed to bo designated tho Trevithick l\Iemorial Fund;
and it is believed that if such a fund is established it would be
kept permanently open for furth er contnbutions." After some
discussion, tho following resolution was proposed by l\Ir. Henry
Obapman anti seconded by l'llr. Percy G. Westmacott, and carried:
" It was resolved to raiao o. fund for the erection of a statue to tho
memory of RicbtU'd 'I'revithick, and further to provide a fund for
tho establishment of scholarships bearing his name, such scholar·
ships to aid in tbo technical c.>ducation of young men to aualify
them for the profeuion Clf mining nod other engineering.' 'l'ho
boo. secretnry was instructeu to write to Mr. Husband, informing
him that tho committee substantially agree with the proposals of
the Cornish sub-committee, and proposed and passed the above
resolution.
The following furthe1· bll.8ineas was then proceeded with :- Mr.
Henry Chapman proposed and 1\l r. William Adams seconded, that
l\lr. ,)ames Brunlees, President of the Institution of Civil Engi·
neers, Mr. Percy C. Jt W estmacott, President of the Institution
of Mechanical J!:nginecra, and Mr. W. Bolitho, chairman of tho
Cornish Sub-committee, be tho trustees for the Trevithick
Memorial Fund ; carrietl. Proposed by l\lr. J. Tomlim1on, nod
seconded by l\Ir. Edward Alfred Cowper, that the bank for tho
fund be the Imperial Bank, Victoria-street hrancb; carried. Pro·
poded by Henry Chapman, and sP.conded by Major John Davis,
thnt employers of labour bo rrqueated to allow penny subscriptions
from their workmen; carried. Proposell by 1\lr. Hyde Clarke, and
st>condcd by 1\lr . J'oaO})b Tomlinson, that the thanks of the meeting be given to the Council of the I nstitution of Civil Engineers
for the usc of their room for the meeting; carried unanimously.
Proposed by l\lr. Chapman, and sccouded by Major John Davis,
that a vote of thanks bo given to l\lajor·General Sir Andrew
Clarke for his conduct in the chair.
Tre followiug gentlemen were appointed as executive committee to
meet to carry out tho views of the general committee, approve forms,
&c. :- 1\Iajor-Oeneral Sir Andrew Clarke, R. E., Sir Frederick J.
Bramwell, F.RS~. 1\Iesars. William Adam~s_, C.E., Hyde Clarke,
Alfred Edword uowpor, O.E., William .tt.usband, O.E., Joseph
Tomlinson, C.R, l >ercy G. H. Westmo.cott, C.E., T rueman H .
Wood, ll. A., Henry Obapman, C.K, bon. treasurer, and Major
John Davis, F.S.A., hon. secretary, three to form a quorum.
Tho hon. srcrotnry was requ2ated to send to the bon. secretary
of the Cornish Uommittec tho minutes of tho meeting.
FREEBOARD.
'I'm: folJo,ving instructions to surveyors of ships have been iesut>d
by tho Marino Department of the Board or Trade:1.-Tbe noard of Trade are advised that in a great number of
cases the freeboard assigned to ships aa shown by the load-line
disc is sufficient.
2.- Tlaoy aro alao advised that in many cases tho freeboard
aasigned ia insufficient.
3.-ln order to concentrate tho efforts of tho staff on those cases
only in which the, freeboard nSBigned is iruufficient, tho Board hnvo
decided to adopt the fo!Jowing plan.
·I.- They intend to obtain and record in an Alphabetical List of
Ships the freeboard auigned in each case by the owner's load-line,
tho freeboard assigned in any case by the Committee of tho Society
of Lloyd's Regiatc:r of British o.nd Foreign Shipping, and the freeboard which would be given by the Board of 1'rade tables. They
will commence with steamships.
5.-Tbcy nro thct·efore proporcd to receive from owners any
information thoymny desire to forward to tho lllarine Department,
in the casc.> of any shit1, with o. view to enable the Department to
indicate how far tho lond·lino a11 marked by tho ownerR is or is not
in such a position ns would meet the views of the Department and
ita adv1sors.
G.-:Forma in wl1ich this information can be inset•tcd may be
obtainccl, free of any ohargo, nt any Board of Trade Oflicc, Custom
Holl.8c, or Mercantile 1\larUIO omco in the Unitetl Kingdom.
7. - 0n consulting tho above liats which wtll contain in parallel
columns tho three free boards, viz., tbo owner's freeboard, the ft·ec·
board of Lloyd's Register Committee, and the freeboard according
to the lloard of Tude tables; the surveyors will know bow to not,
and tho owncr11 will have the means of knowing whetber there is
any probability that their ships will be detained for O\'erloading by
tho Board of 1'rndo aurv~yor.
8.-Thosc ownl.'rll whose own load-lines are in accorclance with the
Board of Trade tables will know that their ships will not be inter·
fered with by tho Board of Trade staff on account of overloading,
so long aa their marks remain viaiblc in tho eamo position, and so
long as the ships arc so loaded ne, when in salt water, not to be
immers~:d beyond tho centro of the load-line disc.
9.- Tho freeboard, ns ()otcrmined by the Board of Trade rules,
will be-(1) 'rho freeboard for summer; (2) Tho freeboaHl for
winter; (3) The freeboard for Atlantic voyages in winter.
10.- Thc aummc1· frreboard, according to tho &ames rules, will,
a11 a matte1· of courHe, include thC' freobonrd for voya&es in summer
wrathcr all over tho world, and the winter freeboard will be the
freeboard for voyages in winter weathox· all over the world, except
in tho N ortb Atlantic.
11. 'I'ho survoyo1a will circulate this noLicc widc:ly amongst tho
shipownorH in their porta and diutricts, o.nd distribute the forms
referred to heroin.
T. li. l!'AIUU(II, Secretary.
THOMAS 0 RAY, Aaaistant Secretary.
APRIL
13, 1883.
THE IRON, COAL, AND GENERAL TRADES
OF BIRMINGIIAM, WOLVERRAMPTON, AND
OTliER D I 'TRICTS.
(From our oton Corrapondcnt.)
Tm~ 'luarterly m<'otinge of tho iron trade this week bavo been
attem rd by 1ellere and buyers from many or the chief diatant
centres. The amount of bu~incss resulting baa not at present been
of great importance. Still, the course of prices having been aacertained, it ia anticipated that during the next few weeks a fair lot
of new wo1k will br plnced. Among the customers for manufac·
tured iron, ex\1ort merchants are expected to be prominent.
At the Wo verhampton meeting on WellnNiday tbe all-mine
pig-makers, inlluenced mainly by tho action of tho Lillcsball Iron
Company, Shropshire, dotet mined to re-deolare last quArter'•
prices of 85a. for cold-bla6t pigs, and 6l>s. for hot-blast. l~or beet
~rey Jlige a fc:w hot-blast makers aro getting G7s. GcJ. The demand
111 dull, and stocks 1\IO increasing on makers' hAnds. Ono Stafford·
uhiro firm is knowu to bo.vo n. stock of some 6000 tons, notwith·
standing thnt production bas of late been curtailed. Tho Lillcahall
Oompo.ny is turning out somo 1100 tons·n week from throe hot·
blnst nnd two cold-blast furnaces.
l'art·minc pigs were tame at CiOs. to 4iis., anJ common I>iga
were <lOa. to 38s. !ltl., less 2~ per cent. Forty-flvo shillings WM the
quotation for tho Willin~sworth brand. lkcen t oltonsivo aales of
pigs prod \Iced in other d11tricts made against a largr business being
dono hy the von elora of these descriptions at thiB week's gatherings.
Still prices were pretty firm. Lincolnshtrc and Derbyshire sorts
were quoted 50s., tbou~h 48s. 9d. was nearer the actual selling
price. Northampton p1gs were about J7s. Gd. H~>matito holders
announced 62s. Gd. to 6fls., according to brand. Ulveratonc
hematites and Froude- Wrexham- minc iron wore both oiiered at
M~., wb1let Thornchffc-South York,hirc pigs were firm at GOs.
dolivt>red.
The marked iron howes on WedMsday announced no alteration
on tho quarter. Uau, consequently, were re·declared at .£8 2s. 6d.
for the Hound Oak brand, ~ nd £7 lOs. for those of the other firms.
Sheets and plate's rolled by the same makers were .£9 por ton.
Tho dC'mand was not reported as brisk, whether on home or foreign
account, for iron or this quality, but makers expressed hopcfulnC88
as to the fu ture.
Mal<crs of medium and common finiahed iron resisted aU
attempts by merchant& or other buyers to reduce prices below the
love) of tho last fortnight or ao. They declared tho.t tbtu o waa
absolutely no room for making any concessions, and there can bono
question that they spoke tho plain truth. llara of medium quality
were £7 to £6 lOs., nnd common bars ranged from £G lOs. to .£0.
Hoop and strip makers reported a fair demand, in much part on
shipping account. Oood makers demanded £7 to £6 15s. for hoops,
but others wtro content with £(i l 2s. 6d. to £6 lOa. at works. Gas
and no.il 8trip wns n. minimum of £G 7s. 6d. to £G 5a.
1\lakers of sheets !or galvanising and working up purposes said
thnt o1·dcrs still hnng Arc, particularly from tbo go.l vaoiaera.
Singles were £7 15s. upwards; doubles, .£8 5s. to .£8 7s. 6d. and on ;
and lattC'ne, .£!) 5s. to £!) lOs. nominnl. Oalvaniecd sheets woro
weak. Tho Birkcnbead Galvanising Company officially quoted
their sheets of 22 to 21 w.g. at £13 l>s. to £13 7a. Gd. f.o.b. Liver·
pool, and reported themselves with plenty to do.
At llirmingham thie- Tburaday- afternoon the prict>s declare<l
at 'Volverhnmpton were confirmed in every particular. No altera·
tion Has made. The coalmasters determined to call the mon'e
delegates together next Tburaday to consider the question of wages
nnd prices. Tho Welsh tin·t>late makers mot, and fixed Wellih
cokes at 1Gs. prr box in L1verpool, and charcoals, 20s. TI1o
galvaniscra met and determined, as far as possible, to restrict pro·
ductiou. They refused to quote pricea.
Ironstone was quiet, though there hn.d been somo recent good
salee. Agents for Northam)Jton &orls quoted them 5s. !.ld. to Ga.
dcliverc·d into this diatrict. For N01 th Staffordshire purple oro
17s. was asked. Uonl wne without change on tho basis of 118. J?Cr
ton for tbr Earl of Dudley'11 blast furnace descriptions. I nfenor
furnace coal was to bo had at Os. Gd. Good mill and forge coal
was 8!., and common forgo 7a. toGs. 6d. Cokes wore quoted 2Ja.
for best foundry Durham sorts, and l i)s. 9d. to l Gs. for those of
South Yorkshire.
Tho post of assistant inspector of mines for South Stafiordehiro
and l!:aat Worccsterabirot ~ndt>r Mr. W. B. Scott, chief inspector,
has been given by tho .tt.ome Secretary to Mr. W. H . Pickering,
assistant manager or Ho.inford colliery, St. Helens, Lancashire.
Mr. Pickering obtained a manager's certificate in Juno, 1881.
All tho coal (listricts of England and \Vales were, it is claimed,
reprcaentcd at a national conference of miners held during tbo
Arat three days of this week in Birmingham to receive reports on
tho result of tho national ballot on restriction of output suggested
by the Leeds Conference in December, and to determine whutbcr
restriction should be enforced or not. Tho proceedings were con·
d\lcted in p1 ivete.
Tho export trade in barclwares is opening quietly but 11tcadily,
and t.bia year, as at. this time last year, Canada. is lending the way
with eomo spirit. AustraHa promises well if manufacturers will
only bicle their time, and not llood the place with goods before
they arc needed. Prices are 11till much against makers, but thoro
ia a tendency towards strength by a disposition to restrict make on
the part of firms in one or two lt>ading branches.
Wolverbam}Jton bas been fairly successful in tendering for the
Admiralty work just distributed. A half-year's supply of black
ironmongery and boats' ironwork is amongst the business mott
recently scoured.
The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce are agitating for legit·
lation on deeds of Jll\rtnorsbip similar in ita nature to the Billa of
Exchange Act.
'rbe meeting of tho Railway and ()anal Traders' Association to
be hold in London on tho 17th inst. will be of conaiCJcrable im·
portancc to this our Birmingham correspondent writes-district,
and deputations will attend representing the Chambers of Com·
merco of Birminghnm and other towns hereabouts. It will be
considcrod how best to proceed to induce tho Government to deal
this session with questions nt issue between railway traders and
railway compll.lliee.
Tho ongiuooriog work undertaken by tbc waterworks depnrt·
mont of tho Wolvorhampton Corporation at their {)osford station
i11 now nearly completed. Tho cngino expenses tluring the labt
financial year hav(i been £2700. Tho total working expenses for
tho year htwc bePI1 £U:>l!J, and the department have made a uct
profit of £15G3.
NOTES FROM LANCASHIRE.
(Pron~
J.1Ian rhe~tu.
our own Con·upondent.)
Businras generally in tho iron market has been
so largely held in abeyance pending the result of the quarterly
meeting• thia week, that very little opportunity bn.s been afforded
o1 fairly teating tho actual condition of trade. What chango there
is in tho market1 it is certainly not in the iavour of sellers; there
is every indicat1on that pig iron maker&, who for sevrral weeka
past hnvc found it impo11ible to etcoro orders on the buis of their
present quoled ratea, will have to meet buyers with some con·
cession, whilst in finished iron merchants have been so freely
underselling tho makers as to induce tho expectation that prices
will have to give way in tbi9 dit'cotion also.
At the l\lanohr•tcr mat·ket on Tncsd~~oyl inquiries for either pig
or manufactured uon were very few, ana both buyers and acllcu
scomcJ to he holding hack until after tho Thursday's llirmingham
meeting. l•'or pig iron quotations were little more thnn nominal.
J,ancnebiro makers were a11ldng 17a. Gd. to 48s., Jesa 2' for forgo
and foundry quo.litie11 delivered equal to l'llancbcster, pending an y
revision of list rntea wbioh ml\y bo mado after the qunrtcrly meet ·
ings. I n district brands pdccs wore a tl'iOo easict· as rogard11
LincolDJibire, whioh waa offered at about 458. 4d. to 46e, 4d., leas
•
APRIL
THE ENG I NEER.
13, 1883.
295
--
dclivered ; for Derbyshire, which is practically out of this J?rontioa· Rail way. The prices mnged fa·om £ l 1&!. (id. per ton of To-day- Thursday-transactions took place a.t 47s. l~d. ca.sh, and
market, pr ices rangccl from 4is GJ. up to 503., less 2~ for forge IIIessrs. Krupp, Bssen, to .£6 per ton of other makers, free on board 47s. Jkd. one month.
at port or shipment. l\Iessrs. Cam moll and Co., of Shl'ffield, were
and foundry f1Ualities delivered hero when asked.
It iS noticeable that there is o. steady iwprovcment in the quo.nIn finisht!d iron thoro was very little buying going on. Generally 1\ fraction under £5, and two othet· .English tenders were £5 5s. and tity of Clevehmd pig iron being consumed in Scotland, and, as a
tbr Lancashire makl'rs nre able to keep their forges going from band to £5 lls. r esp ectively.
consequence, the arrivals which, several weeks ago were very far
lllcssrs. Jones and Colver, of th o Continen tal Steel Works, ht.ve behind, are now gradually increasiug.
mouth with tho orders coming in, but in some cases they are very
badly off for work, al\tl frequent stoppages of tho mills nrc neces· import~nt orders in hand for tho tool steel, ftles, hammer~, vices,
The prices of makers' iron are a little easier, as follows : sary. Prices vary considerably. Lancashire bars d elivered into &c , r~quired for both the F orth and Toy bridges. The Steel G_a.rtsherde, f. o.~., at Glasgow, per ton, No. 1. 61a. Gd.; No. 3,
tho .!Hnncbester district onn be bought at as low ns £G 2s. Gd., with Uompany of Scotlood is mnking tho steel plates. Messrs. Tao· 6us. ; Coltness, G3s. Gd. and 65s. ; La.ngloan 64s. Gd. a nd 5511. ;
1
£ 6 Gs. about tho averngo figure asked by makers, and North Staf· credi, .Arrol, and Co., Glasgow, a.ro the contractors for the Forth Summerlee, Gls. Gli. aud 5ls. 6d.; Cbapelball, 60s. 6d. and !Ht. ;
fordshiru bar~:~ for prompt specification can bu readily bought nt Bridge, nnd Messrs. Arrol and Co. for the re-building of tbnt over Calder , 62s. Gd. and 52s. Gel.; Carnbroo, 55s. Gd. and 60s.; Clyde,
£ 6 6s., although some of tho makers havo been holding out for the Tny.
-618. 6d. and 4!ls. Gd.; 1\lonkland, 48s. 6d. and 46s. Gd.; Qua.rter 1
Tho disputes in the file nod rozor trades remain unsettled. At 48s. Gd. and 46a. 6d.; Govan, at Broomielaw, -1. a. 6d. an<1
£ 6 7s. Gd. per ton.
Apart from spcoinl work, such as tirept·oof construction for tho present 300 tilo cutters at·c on strike, and by Saturday this number 46s. Ud.; Shotts, at Leith, G4s. and 56a. ; Carron, at Grangemouth,
new cotton mills" hich are being built in tbe district, iron founders will be increased to 500. The organised trades of the country nrc 5ls. - specially selected, 5 s. 6d.-and .Joa. 6d.; Kinneil, at
are only very moderately employed, nod prices, which nro already nssisting the tHo workers to resist tho reduction of 10 jJer cent., nnd Bo'ness, 4 s. and 47a.; Glengarnock, :~ t Ardrossnn, 55s. and 49s. ;
the engineers, ironfoundors, and printerA hove already voted sum:i Bglinton , •lOs. nnd 47a.; D almellington, 50s. a nd 49s.
cut very low 1 show a tendency towards weakness.
·rho engineering trades nrc all very busy, with scarcr ly so m any
Brassfound ors report business as mod<'rnte. In svmc oases they of money in support of tile men who nrc "out." Tho razor
arc busy on locomotive work, but for gc.>nera.l cngineert~' fittings opernti ves nrc genrrally succeeding in getting their 10 per cent. orders coming fo rward as of late. In some cases engineers are
advance, with tho iutimatton, however, tbat when the trade again about to extend nnd improve their works, and I a m informed that
tho d emand docs not appear to bo quito so good as it bas been.
an effort will shortly be made to provide better faoi)itiea for the
Tho cncineel ing trades reml\in in nc.>arly the so. me position n.s last becomes depressed it will be taken of£.
The Sheffield C:aa Company is at present promoting a.n exhibi· construction of land enginea in Glasgow. H ere engineers a re
r eported. Onlers twc still coming in prl'tty freely to machine toolmakers, nncl tht.>re is no falling olf in the activity connected with tion of gas ~ppara.tus for heating, cooking, and other purposes. rather behind those of the l!:nglish manufacturing centres in their
locomotive building and marine engineering Small cnboinea of tho It wns opened by the lHayor, lllr. M. Hunter, ou Tuesday, and is opplianc!'s and methods of working, although they appear to be u
fa.r ahead in the marine department.
hot-nir a.ud water motor typo continuo in demand for vnrious pur- exciting a good d cnl of interest.
There ia a. good demand for coal for shipment at all the ports on
p oses. A water motor is beil'g made by 1\tcssrs. W. H . Bailey and
the west coa.st. The miners here give no trouble. They ha.ve been
Co. for one of the Oldbnm colliot ics, where it will be employed for
underground baulagl', and b o driven by the pumped up drainage
earning fair wages, with very little broken time, and a.ppea.r to be
THE
NORTH
OF
ENG
LAND.
more prosperous than whon they were earning higher pay and
wntor under a fall of 200ft. Tho samr firm hi\\'O also just executed
(A·onl
ou1·
oum.
Co,.,·espondcnt.)
occasionally going on strike.
I n Fife o.nd Clackmnnnan the
a contract fot· the Coole Local Board for flushing the sowers, in
which a bot-air engine is employed to drh·o the pumps.
1'Ht-: 1uarterly meeting of th e Cleveland iron trade was held at inquiry for coals for shipment bas been on tho increasr, nod some
In the coal trade tho reduction in prices announced last week by l\liddlesbrough on Tuesday lost. There was ::a. good nttcnrlnnce, of the masters bavo now a p rospect of getting rid of a. portion of
the lendmg ;.\11\nchestor firma h ns oaturnlly tended to weaken tbu but uot much business was done. Buyers freely offered 39s. !>d. tho stocks that had a ccumulated at th e collieries. Tho opening
market, a.nd coucessions hero and th ct·e ha.vo been necessary. per ton for No. 3 g. m. b. for prompt delivery, but nt>ither makers up of the Daltic trade will have an improving effect. There ia a
With, however, a fairly good demand maintained as a rult>, and no nor merchants would take less than 40s. Several sal 0:1 were go">d d emand on tho part of the Continent, and tho low prices
material accumulation of stocks goiug on, there bas not as yet effect ed then and since at the latter figure, and it i11 now thought which prevail arc atta·aoting busineu from ports on the south aide
been anything like a general giviug way in prices, and at the 1,>it that nn advance in price may taku place shortly, as the shipments of the Firth of F orth; the port of Leith is tho one most a.treotod
mouth quotations average about ns under :- B est coal, Os. Gel.; nrc very satisfactory, nod tho Glasgow mn.rket shows signs of in this wny. At Grangemoutb 2700 tons of coals were shipped in
th e course of the week, while 3000 were despatched at Bo'ness.
seconds, 7s. Gd. to Ss.; common bouse fire coal, Gs. Gd. to 7s. : improvement.
The dispute in tho mining trade of tbe Lo~bians is watched wit h
st eam and forge coal, 5s. 6d. to Gs.; burgy, 4s. 6d. to 5s.; and
On tho abo,•e occasion tho l\liddlcsbrougb Fire-Brick Company,
good ordinary slack, 3s. Gel. to o!s. per ton.
Limited, exhibited samples of its fire-bricks, blrult furnace lamps, keen interest all over the mining districts. W ere it not that the
Shipping bas been a li~tle more active; but J)ancashire steam &c., made o.t 1\Iiddlesbrough from olny ba·ougbt from Scotland by masters in Fife wrre obliged to reduce wages very early in tho
coal, delivered either at 0:\rston or Liverpool, can still bo bought sea. This company, wbicl1 baa only rrccntly established itself, is season owing to dull trade, the reduction in the Lothians might
now well supplied 'vitb orders for ordinary sized bricks, special have bl'en postponed until a considerably later date. But, in
readily at 7s. 6d. per ton.
present circumstances, tho colliery owners ju l\lid and E&at
For coke there is a fair demand, with prict>s at the ovens i n the blocks for gas retorts, sonking pits, cupola. lining, nud so forth.
Manchester district averaging 7s. to 9s. for common, and up to
Ou Monday night Messrs. Connal and Co. had 81,585 tons of Lothian have been compcJied to lower the miners' pay in order
l b. and 12s. for best foundry cokes .
Cleveland pig iron in their store nt Middleabrougb, being a. decrease that they might have a. chance of cvmpeting with the m&ators of
Bar'1'0!".- Tbe business tnmsnoted during the past week in tho for th o week of 310 tons. Tho stock in their Glasgow store on the Fifesbire. The strike in the Lotbians has n ot been gen eral, but it
y et bas affected a lnrge number of men, whoso families arc in many
hematite pig iron market has been small comparatively, and with same date was 583,7-17 t ons.
no advance on th:~.t of the past few weeks. Prtces are not quota.bly
Tho shippi11g season bM now fairly commenceu. The q11nn tity cases in destitute circumstances.
There is a mark\!d improvement in the house-building trade,
altered. Any alterations in this respect, :lot lca.st in tho wny of nu of pig ·irou sent from tho Tees up to Monday night wns 23,4 16 tons.
advance, can scarcely be hoped for for some time to come, as the out- Last month during the same period the quantity was 21,468 tons, particulBrly in the larger towns of Scotland.
put considerably exceeds the demand, am\ stocks arP. accumulating. and in April, 1882, it was 21,:>88 tons.
Makers do not show anr. desire at present to limit the production.
Tho advanced prices arc being futly maintained for mnnufaotnred
The tonnage sent by ra.tl and sea is by no means heavy, but tho iron, and consumers are giving out tbE>ir ord"rs more frPely. Ship
WALES AND ADJOINING COUNTIES
steel mills arc using \'cry largely, and makers of Bessemer have plates arc .£6 Gs. to !:6 103. per ton, f.o.t. at makers' works; Bhip·
(PI·om our own Co,-,·espondcnt.)
some large d eliveries to complete in connection with steel makers. buitding angles, £.) 15s. ; and common bars £6; a.llless 2! pet· cent.
No. 1 Bessemer is quoted at 53s. per ton; No. 2, 52s.; and No. 3 discount. l~uddled bars nrc £3 15s. to £3 17s. 6d. net, on trucks at
A coon deal of interest bas been oxcitt>d by the contest between
forgo, 5ls. A Cow sales have been eftceted nt figures a. trifle less works.
tho Taf£ Vale Company a nd tbe :MarquiaofBute. The l\larquia en·
than these, but that is only in cases where makers wish to realise
I n nccordanco with tho resolution come to at a recent meeting deavoured to obtain a Bill legaliaing the construction of railway
st ocks. There does not appear at present to be any chance of a.n of the B onrd llf Conciliation and Arbitration, the whole of the sidings north of Cardiff, which would r elieve the pressure at the docks.
early revival of brisk t rade. The steel tmde is very busy and worlts connected with the board were loid idle on l\Ionday last. This was opposed by the Tatr V ale Company, which naturally re·
further ordera a.re being secured, especially in tho rnil department. D tuing the noxt sL~ months !'ach man will work only ten shifts per gnr,led a six miles extent of sidings parallel with its own railway a.s
I ron ore rnther quiet n.t late rates. Other industri es uodistmbed. fortnight, instead of eleven, a s h eretofore. Two or three firms in being rather too ne~r the character of an oppoaition line; but nftor a
Tho Furness Hail way Company bo.ve decided to e~tend tho Channel the district, not bound by the decisions of the board, arc enclea- a. bril'f conflict, a. compromise honourable to both bas been effected,
wall at the Ramsden Dock, Barrow, by about 300ft. The wo1·k vouting to resist tho r estrictive policy. The mcu employed a.t and now both l?a.rties are free to unite in opposing the Barry Dock
has been lot to tho executor s of lllr. Orad well. Tho wall will be these works arr, however, in favour of doing as their comrades scheme. The stdings will now be made by the Taff Company, which
elsewhere do, and ha.vc given t heir employers a week's notice to is engaged to supply room for over 1000 wagons by January next.
built of masonry a.nd brick.
that effect.
This will afford double faciliti es a.t tho docks, nod, taken in conjnnc·
Tho colliery deputies in Northumberland have adopted a sliding tion with the Newport, Caerphilly, and Poutypridd, and the S wan·
THE SHEFFIELD DISTRICT.
scale, which gives them an immediate lldvn.nce of 1t per cen t. on sea Bo.y and Rbondda. railways, lea.vo little excuse for oa.rrying on
pres on t wages.
the Barry scheme.
(F ,.om Our Own Cot'l'e.!pOndcltt.)
Tho works of the North-Eastern Steel Compauy, which arc being
The chief staple trades are tolerably active. I note that during
A.'\ analysis of tho Board of Trade returns for tho quarter just erected at 1\liddtesbrough, ar~ fast approacbin~ completion, and it the
last month we exported 23,000 tons of iron and st eel from
ended brings out some interesting fncts in reference to tmdo in tho is hoped that the tlrst blow will be made cl\l'ly m May. Tho com· Wales, and close upon 69,000 tons during the quarter. Cardiff in
Sheffield and South Yorkshire district. I n hardware nnd cutlery, pany hns fom· 10-ton converters, capable of turning out about the matter of iron has shown a progressive increase. In January
during 1\Iarch last there was a very serious falling ~n: as compared 2000 tons of basic steel per week. Machinery bas been put down the iron exports were 8631 tons; in February, 9048 tol18; and in
with March, 1 2-from £377,637 t-> £338, 03, and tt as noteworthy for rolling the whole of this into rails, slabs, blooms, and billets.
l\larch, 11,490 tons. I n another week or two I shall be in a. bet t er
that the deoreMing markets nrc Hussia , Germany, France, Spo.~n
In tbe Chancery division of th o High Court of Justice on Satur- l'osition to estimate what kind of an iron trade we are going to
and Canaries, United Sta.tt's- from £1)2,183 to £3J 205-Brazt11 day last, V ice-Chancellor Bacon granted an order for tho com· have tbis year. After the quarterly meetings business is gen erally
British posso~slons in South Africa-from £19,7G2 to £10,492- antl pulsory winding up of the busineas of the outh Bank Iron Com·
placed more freely.
Australia. The only increasing markets nrc, Holland, increase pany, Limited.
Cyfartbfa has scoured the steam hammer from Penydarran
.£22; Foreign West Indies, increase £211 ; Argentino Republic,
Tbo official accountants appointed by the ironmasters, lllnst w ·orks. This was put up by llir. F othergill at an expense, I hear , of
increase £2208 ; British East Indies, from £80, 410 to £33,1G3; and furnnccmen, mincowners, and miners, under tho sliding scale £1500, and only used three t imes. Cyfarth fa has bought it for
other countries from £83,62!) to £8;), 784. The decrease ou the agreement to ascertain J>eriodically tho realised selling price of
about a third.
quarter is only £29,963, the totals being fo1· the 1\larch <1uarter , Ulevelaud pig iron, issue a. joint certificate on Saturday lnst. This
I have no hopPful fea ture to chronicle in connection witb tin·
1882, £1,005,3 2, and for 1883, £975,418.
shows that tbe net average invoice price of No. 3 Cleveland pig plate. Orent distress continues to prevail, and as th o trade seems
Tw·ning t o steel rails, there is an increase on th e month, and n iron for the three months ending !\larch 3bt was 42s. 0 '25d. per to be settling down into o. still more hopcles11 condition, a retort
falling off on the qunrter. nussia, Oormany, and Sweden and ton. This is a reduction of 1s. 6 '10d. per ton on the previous to wholesnle emigration is decided upon. This applies particularly
Norway ba.ve done no business with us during lBst month; in fact, quarter. The district tonnage rate for mining 'vill be 10' 7:id. per to Llaugennech.
with the exception of Russi~ having £1000 value in 1 2, thereha.s t on for the next three months, ns against 10'!Nd. p er ton dnrmg
Prices are low :l.nd buyPt'S rare. The be1~lthy tone of the iron
been no trade in steel rails with these countries for throe years. the post quat·ter. Tho underground datal men have been receiving 1\nd coal trade is shown by the remarkable ei\Se with which the
Tbe United States show a tremendous fallin~ off. During March, 14·40 per cent. above .the standard. They wil_l now be reduced to Dry Dock nnd F oundry (.'ompa.ny, Cardiff and Treherbert, hns
1882, the value expor ted was .£127,369, while last month it was 12 'i50 per cent. above at. Surface lnbourers will be rcducl'd from boon floated.
only .£24,210. T he quarter ending 1\Iaroh, 1882, 8howed a volue u ·s2 p er cent. to 10 per ct-nt. above the standard. The wages of
I am glad to state that tho S wansea H arbour Trust h ave with·
of £866,092; qunrtcr ending March, 1883, £77,272. Lasb month men at the mines will therefore be reduced 1~ to 2 per cent., but drawn their opposition to tho Swansea Bay and Rboodda. extenB razil took £22,406 value iu steel ra}h1, as com~! ared with ~20,1.{(;0 there will not bo any alteration in the wages of blast furnncemen. sion. They will now support it, as the movement, freed from a.ny
i n l\I ar oh, 1~2; the quartl'rS t.howmg £92,1G nnd ~5~~0Go, or A.
The gentlemen intl'restod in the establishing of a. scllool of science injurious claim, must bo productive of benefit to the borough.
falling-off nmow1ting to nearly £-20,000 for 1883. Cbtlt, on tho at Middlesbrough held another meeting on 1\londny last. It was
The coal and patent fu<'l trades of • wansea nrc prosperous.
other band, is au improving market, £127, £2!l15, and £605:l for tho deoidocl to purchase a site of lnnd of GOO squnrc yards a.rca, Last week the con! exports were much ltu·ger than usual, and
months of ?II aroh 1881-2-:1, rC8p~ctivoly. British North America, situated at tho corllllr of two of the principal streets. 1'ho price 6000 tons of patent i uel were exported.
which exported £17,158 in l\[arcb , 1~81, fell n.wny to £118 in agreed w&a one guinea per square .yard. A further meeting will.be
Generally all over Wales the coal trade exhibits a h ealthy, sound
March, 1 2, a.nd is now £1-1,301. British East Indies is at present hold in three wteks to consadcr tho best means to rntso condition, and tho average of tho best times is sustained in all
a great market for steel rails. F or the quarter ending llbroh, sufficient funds for erecting tho necessary buildings, and afterwards quart ers. P rices, too, are firm, and the attention or oapitalitlts is
18811 the v~lue sent th ere was £36,•171. This was incrca~ed in for carrying on the school.
being direct ed to several virgin fields, notably one in the Sirhowy
1882 t o £1701872, a.nd in 18.,3 to no !~ss than .£2G4,878.. Australcoalfield. Many parts of tho lllonmou thshire di.Btricts pretent
asia ba.s also increa.sed very matenally, the value bemg, 1881,
feasible spots; those especially where tho upper m easures, for
£110,169; 1882, £147 ,GOO; 1883, £liO,V41.. The to~nl value for
example, have been exhausted, leaving tbe st eam coals in tact.
tho quartet• was £1,112,031, as oompnred With £1,123,0 lG for tho
NOTES FROM SCOTLAND.
There is also a good .field, three miles in extent, of virgin coal
corresponding quarter of Ul 2.
(From OU!' &11'/l Cot'l't&pondml.)
within easy distance of Cardiff, and this, moat singularly, a ppean
Thanks to Dr. Webster, the United States Consul h ere, I am
Tll & iron market, wbich wns very dull a.nd lifeless up to the to have been overlooked. While on the subject of coals, I me.y
enabled to 11tate prPoisely bow the Sheffield CJo:ports to that country
odd, for tho comfort of those who are aghast at the grea t depletion
have run during tho last three mon ths. Tho total valur for ~he close of last week, warrants touching 4Gs. 10d. per t oo, became of the <&ft. seam now going on, that the Gft. and Oft. coals, which
quarter ending March l:ut wa.s £204,655, as oompored w1th rather more active at tho beginning of tho present wc~k. Under are intact n early all over the South Wales coa.l basin, are better
£334,671 for the corresponding qunrter of 1 · 2-a falling off in tho impression that warrants bad at length reached thetr lowest, a tbnn North of England coals for st eam purposes.
value of no less than £130,016. Steel wll.s exported to tho amount numbor of operators manifested a desire to purchase; but it was
Cwmavon W orks nrc to be let upon leas<', by order of the Court
of £85,46S and cutlery £62,7:37, thus showing a. doorcnse in stool very difficult to impaa·t. any permnnen~ s~rengtl~ t~ the market. of Chancery.
equal to £121,861, o.nd in cutlery of £1171. It is evident, there· T ho fact is that the fOI'OJgn trade so fnns rltsappomttng. Although
During March tho W olsh coal rxport trade was as follows : fore, that the ~rent decrease bas been in rails nod other hl'avy the quantity of pig iron despatched in t ho course of ~be past week F rom Cardiff, 500,958; Newp ort, 105,525; S wansea., 81,206 ;
goods, but it is long since tho r eturns showed so startling a decline. is l\Ot much smaller than that of tho correspomhng week last Llannely, 3840.
The minors have at lenllth had their ballot on tho policy of y ear tho exports to date since tho begin ning of the year show a
restriction. I n tho Derbyshire districts 10,000 ballot papers bad deolluo of about 8000 tons. Tho demand from tho United States
been distributed, and replies have been received from about half is muob inferior to what was anticipated, and it is v~in to exp~ot
D unu:o the half year ending 31st Dace~ber ln~t, tho train miletho.t
the
value
of
pig
iron
will
materially
impro~o
u~tal
tho
f~retgn
the number. The results are :-For restriction, 8445; against, 28 i
ngo on tho Bellnst a.nd Northern Counttes Railway was 309,146
trade
gets
into
a
better
position.
At
homo
the
mqwry
for
ptgs
~or
n eutral , ll!Jl:!. I n Yorkshire tho figures have not been permittca
pa.ssengcrs and 145,815 goo(ls. Tho total cost of locomotive po wet·
consumption
is
largo
and
steady,
but
the
makers
are
producmg
to t ranspire, but tho officials state the result of the ballot papers
was £14, 167.
eent in to be that only about 10 per cent. of the miners are against more iron than is sufficient to meet current wants, and as tho
ll!ES ns. CLKlf ,~~ u 1\Iorun.,:, of Philadelphia, Pa., bavoa new safety
restricting tbe output. It i, therefot·u certain that a determined decrease in Connal's stocks this week is less than usunl , tho feeling appliance for elevators, which is thus described:-" Benet\ththe('le.
effort will be mado to carry out the proposal to work only eight in pig iron circles is by no means very ohet>rfnl.
Business was done in tho wa.rl'ant market on Fnda.y forenoon vator is~ table of ~in. pine, nicely balanced by lighhpa'lngs. Should
h ours a day from bo.nk to bank, a.nd five days a week.
the cable break or anything happen to increase the normal speed of
H ouse ooo.l iB still briskly called for, and prices remain as in at 46s. lOd. and 46s. 10~J. cash, and 4is. to l7s. ld. one month. the car the pressure of th e atr on the table forces it upwards.
winter. Messr s. Nt'wton, Chambers, and Co., Thornoliffe Collieries, The afternoon's figurcs were .J6s. lO~d. to 46s. lOd. cash, and
This turns four powerful cams, provided with cog teeth, into t h e
who do the largest trade with London from South Yot"kshiro, a.re 47s . lAd. to ·17s. 1d. one month. On Monday forenoon trnnsac·
guide posts a.t the side, and the fall of tho c.ll'vatot· is anested
a t present quoting :lt tho pits :- B est Silkstouo, 12~. !ill. p er ton; tiona \vcro efl'cetod a.t 4Gs. 10!1d. to ·IGs. !)~d. cash, l\llll 47s. ld. 11nc
t hin aeam, Us. 2tl.; ~ilkstone nut!~, s~. 3d.; Silkst(Jnn bt ight~, month the nftemoon quotations bci11g 4lii!. lOci. to 4H<t. !H~tl , and almo't instantly. On n. trial the ropo was cut twice, tho elevator
carrying at the time 2259 lb. of weight- including four m en9a. l d. In manufacturing coal, engino slack is making 5$. Uu. at tus. ll~d. cash, nntl 17s. eight days, and .J7s. to 4'is. 1. d. on\!
and the fa.ll tvns less tbau. Jio. f(\~~ ti!n~ Thoro wa..s fol!IO ,.,_o
t he' ~ts; steam. coal, 5s. 6d.; steel coke, 12s. lOd.; and bard coke, month. Buainess was dono on Tuesday forenoon at 4Gs. 1 ;c~, ~o jarring.' Another novelty is automatic hatches on each floor,
47s. 1~d. casb, and 47s. 2~d. to 47s. S~d. one month, tho to~c of
16e. 6d.
Ten English and Continental firms recently competed for 11,000 the market being quiet in the nfternoou. On Wednesday bustncss which open before, and close immediately after tho paeaage of the
to11.1 of ateel rails o.nd acceasories for the Salamanca a.nd P ortuguese was done at from 47s. to 47s. 3~. cash, and 47s. ~ . one month. elevator."
2~
•
THE PATENT JOURNAL.
~ed from the Journal of the Comm~• of
Paltnll.
• • • II hal COIIW to our Mhce 11141
•onw
applieanu of ""
Patml·oDtce Salu Departmml, for Patmt .8pe~tionl,
1lave camed muc.\ unneccuaey trouble and annoyance,
bot.\ to thtmltlvu and to tile Paunt~e C!Qicial•, by
giving the numbu of the page of Tar; ENOUIUR at
'll'llich the 8pee\lkalwn they require il riferred to,
of giving the proper number of the Sptc(ftc41W?I. The
millake hal bttn made by looking at Tu& ENoorus
Index, and giving the number• there found, \11/1\(.\ only
rifer to the pagu, in place of turniny to tho•e 2X!gu and
l!ndinq the number• of the S»eC\IIcatwm.
'"'Lead
Applico.tione for Letters Patent.
•
APRiL 13, 1883.
THE ENGINEER.
-
296
• • • When patenta hnvo boon "communicated." the
name and addreea of the commun.tcating party are
printed in ltallca.
3rtl .April, 1888.
1657. SLAOB or S coniA, J. Wright, London.
1658. CsM&NT1 J. Wright, London.
1659. L&AD, &c I HOI.D£R8, J'. n. Johneon.-(J. Recktn·
dor(er, Nc111 York, U.S)
1660. ST&CL, J . Rlloynnd 0. S. Pnckor, Glaegow.
1661. F IXINO WOOD&N ROLI..I:R8 Of WRINOINC1 &c.,
MAOR1NIIt8 on to their A Xt.llt81 II. Clcgjf, Accrlngton.
1662. l''oLDING CoAm, E. Smltn, West Dulwlch.
1668. Bt1TT&R1 k c., H . J Alll.eon. -(B. R . Po111ell, U.S.)
1664. T A&8£LS, H. II. Hnrrle, L ondon.
1665. TVPOORAPUIC MACUIN&8 1 C. R. D.lvlda, U.S.
1666. SPnuTS, A. Manbr(), London.
1667. Vaa&l..ll or Rr:CE IVEA8, J. Fowler, Bmdford.
1668. TR.utw Ave, &c., R. G . Fairlie, London.
1669. HATS, M. HMlnm, Stockport.
1670. CovERINGS for DOTTus , P. B nll, Sheffield.
1671. A:ruonrNG B ANDLE8 to CunEnv, &c , 0. T.
Tuko, Shoffiold.
1672. DR&AD, J. Beatty, Bolfnat.
1678. SITLPDORIO ACID, W. Oarrowny, Olt~tgow.
1674. CATTLE FooD, P . Jonson.-(S. 0. KJr,r, Ribe.)
1675. CO'liPOONl> Pt.ATU, F . A. Rrupp, J<:nco.
1676. TRAVltl..t.INO BAoa,C. D. Abcl.-(1'. Lau.cw, Berlin.)
1677. Ou MOTOR ENOINU1 C. D. Abol.-(N• .A. Olio,
Dcu.tz-on· thr,· Rh '"e.)
1678. STEEL BANDS, J . Sheldon, Stocubridge.
1679. MARINS NJOIJT SIONAL8, B. n. Doty, London.
1680. UTILI81NO ExuAo&T SnAaf, A. J. Boult.-(D. Rm·
eha\11, Braintree. U.S. )
1681. UTILI& INO EXIlA08T SnAM, A. J. Boult-{D. Rm·
eha\11, Braintree, U.S.)
1682. PROPflLLI.NO, &o., APPAI\AT08 1 F. J. Clar'lto1 J. W.
OrabBm, and J . Kirby, Lincoln.
1688. P .uNT 01· Dn, A. I'll. Clnrk. - {The Lud1 Man'll.·
factur(ng Con~pany, Brooklyn, U.S. )
4.th April, 1888.
1684. ELZCTI\10 LAMPS, E. Lumloy, London.
1685. DIVIDING Eool': Tnl&niiNO, &c., E. Colley, London.
1686. VrtiiTILATOne, A. Mccbnn, GIMgow.
1687. COOPLINO ROI..I..INO STOCK Of RAILWAYS, S. Roberta,
Tunbridge Wolle.
1688. COLOURED 0LA8S WINDOWi1 1 &c., H. J. AllliJon.(J. La Farge, NeliJ Y ork, U.S.)
16~9. WIRE Ron, T. Sonic, Sm Frnncleco, U.S.
1690. LAVATORIM, F. P. Preston, J. Prestige, nnd E. J.
Preeton, Deptford, and E. W. Do Rueett, Anorloy.
1691. TANNING l'lfAT&IIIAL 1 W, R. Lake.-(.A. Badoil,
Pari:.)
1692. Lu1s, W. Romp, Derby.
1698. CwsrNo tho VflNT IIous of An CAsKs, &c., G.
Whlto, BaleBll Bentb.
1694 BALA_NOINO, &c. , St.rDINO WINDOW SASD£8, J. B.
Adnms and J. Telford, L iverpooL
1695. btPki88UIO BJ&OO ITS &o.1 J . Balloy, Dolton.
1696. Box I RONS, F. A. Bill, BITIDingham.
1697, ALCOUOL 1 &c. , J . H . Loder, Leldon.
1698. PVROM&T&R8, W. L. Wleo.-(.A. d: B. Botdw-, Paril. )
1699. Roor LA)II'8 for RAILWAY CARRIAOM, J. Hinu
and F . R. Bnkor Birmingham.
1700. BoxM, E. Wright, Southcnd-on·Sca.
170 I. AorUATINO EL&OI'RIO BKLL8, &c., H. J. Eck nnd
D. J . and C. D. Callow, London.
1102. STARTINo Tn.ut-cAas, B. J.
h!llle.-(P. B.
Sha\11, Witli4t114port, U.S.)
6th. .April, 1888.
1703. BAT LININGS, A. C. Bondcraon.-(P. P. Uuil·
laumt an.d Son1, Pari•. )
170t. CoNDOOI'JNO, &c., 'ELttOI'RIC Cunn&NTS, J. M. M.
1\Iu.n ro, Glnagow.
1705. H OT WATJI:Jl APPARAT!18 1 T. 0. Olney, '1\fnnoboster.
1706. L OBRIOATINO .80L8TER81 &c., fl. Balderston,
Paleloy.
1707. SEOOR1110 So.uu· P1N~ 1 .&c. , H . Nash, Mo88 Sldo.
1708. Tov CANNON/ H . J . Allison.- JA. Le Meunier and
La. .SOcUtt .A. Ba n el Heu.de, Pari1.
1709. RACQUft81 G A. Adkins, Lon on.
1710. G&N&RATINO EL&CTR IO nnd CDEMIOAL ACTION, S.
J. Wallnco, Keokuk, U.S.
1711. FL&&O& DIVIDING .t\TTAOUWI!NTS to CARDING
MAODIN!8 1 B . J. Haddan.- (/. 8. Bolelle, Belgium.)
1712. DAMP·Pnoor and NotHNPL.utMADL& lliT&RIAL,
J. Bnrnes, Mnncbcator.
lil3. SoorFLING PLAYING CARDS, J. F. Schwnrz, Man·
cheater.
1714. PRJNTUIO ROLLZM, E. Earle, lt!nncbc&tor.
li15. DRVJNG ExoRnA, &c. , J . M. Sutton.~ Mnnchester.
1716. P&oP&LLINO TntCVOLEII, &c., W. uricrloy.-(R.
Perl and F. Te•chek, Yitn~ta.)
1717. DRAWING, ROVIIIG 1 lilc., F1BRU 1 W. Walker and
A. Binns, Bnllfax.
1718. BANDAO&, W. F. Bottomley, Bradford.
1710. Bt NDINO TOOtmlEn SnEZTS of PAPER, &c. , M.
Bnuor.-(.A. Lot:, Paril.)
li20. Pai'.8&RVINO P &ni&DABLE PaovrsiONe, &c., G.
Partridge, London.
1721. ROTARV SnAM ENOINU, F. C. Olaecr.- (R. Bautr,
Urour/Jhr~<lor!, Germany.)
1722. GAS )!OTOR EIIOINII SLID£ .APPARA1 us, F. W.
Croeeley, Manchester.
1728. MAOUIN& B AAtm:Ra, F. C. Glaeor. - (J. Frlilicll,
DtiUetdorf. Uermany.)
1724. LOOK8 and L OOK GATIIt8 for CANAL8 1 dzj). 1 W. R.
Lako.-(L. Coi•cau, .Ant111erp. )
1726. COH)IONIOATIIIO APPARATUS, F. Armstrong,
Bookonhnm.
1726. J ew&LLflRv, &c., W. R. Lnko.-(U. L. Mal'• and
H . ..4. V. Wirth, Paril.)
1727. I cc, W. R. Lake -(S. B. Hunt&: F. B. Pinto, U.S.)
1728. P OLNTJNO Toot., F. Service, London.
n.
6th .April, 1888.
1729. R&M&DVINO PllT&IOAL DrP&OT8 of the MooTu,
&c., R. H . Bmndon.-(8. J. Bing, Pari•.)
1780. Covm1110 IRON ond STEIL with LEAD, &c., W.
B . Spence.-(B. Mbhlau, Dautldorf, Germany.)
1781. H ZATINO APPARAT08 1 W. WUl.lame, Birmingham.
1782. BtCYOL&S, C. N . .Baker, Birmingham.
1783. RoTARV KNOTT&R6 1 H . J . Ha.ddnn.-(Rrinickeand
Ja.per, tbethm, Germany.)
1784. Eoo BEAT&JUJ, A. B. :Proet nnd F. Earl, St. Ivee.
1785. L.utP Gua, &c., S. Falk, London .
1786. D YHAWO·&L&OI'RIO MAODINI:Il, M. Depre~~:, Parla.
1787. TRANBI'ORWINO EL&CTRIO OORR&NTS, M. Deprez,
Parill.
1788. ORDNANCt:, P. M. Pnrtons, Blackheath.
1789. PvROM&TER8, A. Longadon.-(.A. Krupp, Buen.)
1 HO. APPt.VJNG DABBING BRuen r;s to Cow BING MA·
ORINU1 B . Portwny, Dradf->rd, & J. Walker, Shlploy.
1741. FLV·WB&IIA and PoLLIIY8 1 W. H argreaves and
R. Harwood, Bolton.
1742. DtviDJNO D OOBLE PILED F.uuuoa, J. B. Johnson.
-(T. Ditdcrich•. Bourgoin, FraMe.)
1748. UTILISINO META LLIC SCORIA, G. P ltt.-(U. Rocour,
!Mge, Belgtum.)
1744. RltliD&RJNO WooD, &o. , UNrlfi'LAllMABL&, F. K.
do Staelcki.-(B. Hoff, Jaro1lau Ualfria .Amtria.)
1746. EL&CTRIO tJOUTINO, F. II. Varley, l;,ndon.
1746. V&LOOIPIIDU, A . L. BrickneUif Brlxton.
1747. Vm.OOiuD.a, A. L. Brickne , Brlxton.
1718. DI 6TRIIiUTil\G .t\PPAIIAT08, W. .R. Lako. - (B.
Shepa.t<.l, Untltd Statu.)
li49. Ftt.T"RINO In CENTRIFOOAL ltfACIIINf;i, C. ll.
Haubold, Chomnlb:, Oennnny.
1750. RDIOVUIO 8AND 1 &c., from 0AR I.IOORS 1 &c., W.
R. Lako.- (L. Coi•tau, .Anlturp.)
ith ..4pril, 1883.
1761. DRYINO PAPER, &c., A. Aonnndalo, Dunbar.
17:>2. lt!tDDLINO P oR.,IIItR8, J . S. SutcllfTe, Bncup.
1758. LAMPe, J . T. Klnst. -(/. R. Pinncv, US)
175<l. ELJtcrRODY.B, F. E. Elmore, London .
1765. VEmcusJ. J . W. nnd B. J . Davey, .Bristol.
1766. Mlrr&R8, ts. Pitt.-(/. Cauderay, Lam~nne.)
171>7. WALL P APEl\11 1 F. Ram.My, London.
1768. AliALOAMATING il.PPARAT08, A. K . Huntington
and W. E. Koch, London.
1759. PnoDOOINO and R&aoLATINO Eucrmo LIGHT
and PowER, T. Wlcaondangor, llor oeey.
171JO. FEEDING tho CARDON& of Et.&OI'RIO Ano L.UfP8 1 J.
Henry nnd H. D. Bourno, London.
1761. EVAPORATING APPARATUS, J . Wofbcl, 0onOV(l1 and
P . Plccnrd, Lausanne.
1762. Ft.oes, &c., R. n. and S. Roovoe, London.
1768. Hon&E81101!: Dt.ANJ< ROLL8, 0 J . R addnn.-(8. T.
J. Coleman, J . N. Clarke, and 11. 8. Revnoldl, U.S.)
1764. PI CKERS, J . H olding, Lowor Broughton.
176j, BINDING Sua:AV£81 1:1. G. Rnll MBfvorn Wells.
1766. 0As R&eot.ATOIUI, J. and W. Goodson, London.
1767. WEATD&RPROGY ExrL081Vl'li Co~• POUNDs, P . J cDllon.
-(J. Schulho(, Vienna. )
1768. TREATING PLANTS, W. A. Bnrlow.- (F. Ulobollch·
ing, Bolouna, and M. lltllller, )u.n., Yienna.)
1769. CoT PtLI!! F&ORIOB, J . B. Johnaon.-(L. T.
Lepage, Brenol, Prance.)
1770. BOT"ri..IC STOPPII:R8,
LBkc.-(C. G. Hutchin·
1011, Chicago, U.S.)
9th ..4pril, 1888.
1771. STUDS, J. Buchanan and J. Brown, Llvol'\)001.
1772. BATB.S, W. n . L uther, Olnegow.
1778. 0LA&'I HOOFING, C. E. Osborn, London.
1774. ELECTRIC AJ\0 LAMPS, L . .8. 1\llllcr, London.
1775. DISTRIBOTINO TooAcco in CIGAR&Tr& ~horu.Na,
A . C. H cndcl'80n.-(B. F. Leblond, Pari•)
1776. I IIC'AND&:>OENT Et.Ecrnlo LAMPS, E. )J Ullor, London.
1777. IS&O INO TICKETS to PREVENT FRAOD8 1 D. J.
Maloney, Edlnburgb.
1778. bTR£TCDIN0 1 &c, TROUSERS, E. Nunnn, London.
1779. RwleTr.:RINC D•sTANC& AI'PARATOB, J. I mray.(P. Billon, Paril.)
1780. SIFTING APPAR&Tns, B. Pngo, Tollcsbunt d 'A.J'cy.
1781. SecuRING RAIL8 0. Wood o.nd T. Wilton, .Bmndon.
178~. WINDOW Bt.tND R ot.t.ERS, B . A. Walker, London.
1789. COVERING WJRE Or STRAND w ith GOTTA·P&RODA 1
&c., A. C. Moffntt and W. H . Wnrdnlo, London.
1784. CooPL.u<os nnd FITTJNOS for R&II..WAV CARniAOE8,
&c., R. Pearson, GIMgow.
1785. S&coNDARY BATT&RI£81 E. G. B rower. -(G.
.Arnoldd and R Tamine, Mon1, BelgLum.)
1786. WnEKL8, J. and El. MoLnron, Leeds.
1787. At.BOM8 1 L. Wleo, Clifton .
1789. CoLO!IRINO l'llATTEna, P. J. Moyer. Berlin.
1789. GALVANIC BATT&RIE8, G. B. do Ovcrboqk.-(Dr.
F. Hornung, Magdebu.rrt Pruui.o.)
17!)0 GAS REGULATOR, n. J. Baddan.-(J. Flcilcher,
Cotogru, Glermany.)
1791. APPLVJ110 ELt:OI'RIOITV to VEDIOLEII, F. Wynno,
London.
1792 R£)10VINO Sonsw PnorELLtnslrom their S11APT8,
J. II J ohuson. - (f/. B. Gouget &; .A D V&ttcmt, Pari1.)
1799. BOAT·DISZNOAOII\0 Oun, N. Iramblln, London.
w. n.
Inventions Protected for Six Months on
Deposit of Complete Speci.tlco.tione.
1662. F OLDING CnAIR 1 E. Smith, Woat Dulwtch.-8rd
.April, 1883.
1663. TREATING 1\IILK, H . J. AlJieon , London.-.!\ com·
munlcatlon from E. R. Powell, Burlington, U.S. 8rd .April, 1888.
Patents on which the Stam.P Duty of £60
has been paid.
1367. LAWN TZNNt8 POLI'!S, F . H . Ayroe, London.-2nd
..4pril, 1880.
187a. SPRtNO, &c., WINDLABB, J. E. L lnrdot, Brockley.
-8rd .April, 1880.
1874. AUTOMATIC MosoROGM A \C IIOR, J. E. Llardot,
Breckloy.-8rd .April, 1880.
1876. DoUBLE GRIP ANcrooR, J. E. Llnrdot, lJrockloy.Srd .April, 1880.
1387. T REATING 0nl'!8 1 b', J. King, "London .-6th .April,
1880.
1417. GATUERINO and BtNDINO ConN, W. Woolnougb
and C. Klugsford 1 Kingston -7th April, 1880.
1609. ExTRACT INO F1 OR£8 I rom T&XTII.JC PLANTS, G.
Vtan, Fmnco.-20th April, 1880.
1885. MAONETO·I'lt.EOrnto ltiAOOJNl'..S , &c., T. A. Edison,
Menlo Park, U.S.-6th. ..4pril, 1880.
1426. Cti'M'tNO Soa£w Tnn£ADS 1 A. J. Boult, L ondon.
-7th .April, 1880.
1446. D.r:CORTICATJ:NO T &XTILII: or F1BR0!18 SoBSTAN0181
E. J. Couty, PIU'Is.-8th .April, 1880.
1407. EL£01'RIOAL CoNDUCTORS, 0. Bonv.tsldo, London.
-6111 .April, 1880.
1457. ToBAcco, A . Prior, Dubltn. -9th .A-pril, 1880.
1460. CoWliNO FJBRoos :&1ATERIAL8, T. Oaddum, Mnn·
chestor.-!lth A pril, 1880.
H85. COTTJNG APPARATtiB, n. M. Nlcholla, Brompton.
-12th .April, 1880.
1493. Dn&AD, A. Esilman and J. H. llaallall, Man·
cheetcr -12th .April, 1880.
1600. SrRINOLUB CLASP KNIVE8, &c. , C. Kessoler,
Dcrlln.-12th .April, 1880.
1561. LAM PS, F. S iemens, London.-lOth .April, l st!O.
1882. AOTO~JATIO V£NTILATINO APPARAT!18, B. J. D.
Mille, London.-5th .April, 1880.
1415. CARD GaiNl>INO lt1 AODINE8, J . S. Dronafleld,
Oldham.-7th .April, 1880.
1433. SEPARATING CONDENSIBLE lt!ATT£1\1 J. Alexander
o.nd A . K. McCosh, Gnrtshorrlo.-81.\ .Ap'fll, 1880.
1456. CoAL TAR, &c., P noDUOT8, C. Lowe nnd J . OW,
ltfnncheator.-9th .April, 1880.
1471. Bet:n, A. W. GWmnn ond S. Sponcor, London.lOih ..4pril, 1880.
1495. W AOON CooPLI.NOB, W. E. Ocdgo, London . -12th
.A pril, 1880.
1895. STAMPING MACHINES, L. Engol, London.-6111
..4pril 1880.
H4 8. BoOTS and SuoM, 0. Poo.nnan, Oenley-onThnmcs.-8111 ..4prit, 1880.
1608. .EIIVItt.OPlt 1\[AORJNI'!S, D. M. Loetor, Norwlch.l Sth ..4prit, 1880.
1416. Oxvou, &c., GAS, P. Jonson, LondGn.-7th
.April, 1880.
1481. CRANK SaAFTS and AxLEII 1 T. Turton, Liverpool.
-8th ..4pril, 1880.
1484. TR&ATJNO Woot., J . 'F. Harrison, Bradford.-8th
.April, 1880.
1496. Rnoau, R. H aldane, Glaagow.-8th ..4pril, 1880.
1442. LABII1..8 on RAILWAY CARRIAOU, J . Elliott,
Leeds.-8th. .April, 1880.
1414.. MAIIDING or B REWING 8£t:R1 &c., J. Barton,
Dcwsbury,-8th ..4,ml, 1880.
H59. CAP80t.1110 Bont-a, &c., S. P. WUdlng, London.
-9th ..4pril, 1880.
H62. PREPARING FRtnT to bo U8£D as a BEVERAGE,
&c., A. J. M. Bolanachl, Dulwlch.-9th .April, 1880.
14.67. DVEINO SILKEN FABRI CII, A. L yon, Parla.-9th
.April, 1880.
1470. Gt.AZING, &c., SILKEN FAB&t081 A. Lyon, Parle.lOth ..4pril, 1880.
1584. WAT&R·OL08&T8 1 W. Smith, San Franclaco, U. S.Hth A pril, 1880.
1672. P L17M..BAOO CaoOI BLM, S. A. P eto, London.-28rd
.April, 1880.
1975. Coi7PLINO BonER, &c., APPARATUs, 0 . Turton,
London.-18th .llfay, 1880.
Patents on which the Stamp Duty of £100
has been paid.
1429. TILLING hrPLhl&NTS, J. B oward nnd E. T. Boue·
fteld, Bedford.-8rd .April, 1876.
1458. REI"RIO&RATINO, &c., Al'PARATtlll 1 0. Lindo•
London.-61h .April, 1876.
1469. STOPPER& fur BOTTLES, W. H . and ? · Slnnatt and
T. W. Lingard, Manchestor.-6tll .Apn,!, 1876.
1478. BasAXINO STONE, &c., R. and J:l , Droodbont,
Stalybridgo.-Ot.\ .April, 1876.
1502. INFLAlOlABL& OIL APPARATUS, C. Moeoloy,
l'lfanchester.-8th .April, 1876.
1456. MCERTA[SINO tbo RAT& at which YE88EJ..II o.ro
PASSINO through tho WAT&Jl 1 &c., C. E. Kelwny,
Portseo..-5th .April, 1876.
1482. WIN'& OLAU£8, &c., J . T. n. RlcluLrdson, Jbtton.
- 7th A'Pril, 1876.
1488. Sr&KRINO, &c., \'1'.8SBI..S, 0. Stavert, lt! orpoth. 7th .April, 1876.
1782. S ULPTIATJCS, J. nargroa.vca, WldnCII.-271.\ .A tJril,
1876.
Notices of Intention to Proceed with
Applications.
(Lalt d.o.y for fUing opporitW?I, 27th ..4pril , 1888. )
6781. ACTIONS for PIANGtrORT£8 1 T. C. Dauncoy, Stroud.
-lit December, 1882.
6786. I NDlCATone for ExoiBtTING CoN8£0!1TIVB NoME·
RAL8, J. B . Dinsmore, Liverpocl.-llt Dtcer~Wer, 1882.
6742. ELEOI'RIO, &c.~.., APPARAT!IS, S. P. Thomp3on,
Bristol, and J. D. H usbands, London.-ht December,
1882.
6745. F IRE·£80APE8, H . J . Allison, J.ondon .-A commu·
olcatlon from D. A. B urr.-2ntl December, 1882.
579S. .6!ATTR£88ES, S. K. l bhotaon, Southson.-5111 De·
cember, 1882.
6795. SASU FA8Tlt.NUIOS, J. Whltohouao and S. Peacock,
Blrmlngham.-5th December, 1882.
6803. DRAWINO·OFI!' APPARATUS, T. Collingwood, Lllm·
bcth.-5th December, 1882.
5812. FILTER&, H . Rawlings, London.-6th December,
1882.
58~8. BoLDI!!Ae lor GLOBES, &c. , T. Carpenter, Blrming·
hnm -6th December, 1882.
6852. STUM 0£NrRATOR8, W. R. Lllko, London.-A
communication !rom J. C. Stead.~th December, 1882.
6858. NAMEPLATES, &c., C. L. B . Lemmon, Ooeforth.
-7th Dtccmber, 1882.
5880. CoN&OMlNO SMou, &c., B. C. Paterson, OlaegGw.
-9th December, 1882.
5911. P oMP8 for CONDENSINO STEAM, T. F. S tenson,
H nn<lsworth. - 11 1/t Dtctmber, 1882.
5995. AUTOMATIC MOBICAI. lN8TROMIItNTS, W. R . Lako,
London.-A communlcntlon from A. H. H ammond.
-12th December, 1882.
6940. TRICYOLU, W. B . ThiLckor nnd J. T. Green,
Nott1Dghnm. -18th December, 1882.
6089. MosAIC FLOOR Ct:.OTns, F. Walton, London.-18th
Dtcember, 1882.
6185. E Lt:OI'RIO ARC LAMP, A. M. Clnrk, London.- A
communication from La. Soci6Ul Sollgnac ct Clo.2ith necember, 1882.
104. Soou and BooTS, B . J . H addan, L ondon.- Com.
from ll! . R. Ethrldge.-8th January, 1888.
228. DooBt.&·t.OoK UNtV&RSAL J OINT, R . Watkinson,
Sallord.- 16th. January, 1888.
286. BOWLS nod Rot.LER8 for MANOLINO l'lfAODINI'!8 1 C.
L. JBckson Bolton.-15thJanuary, 1888.
8 46. YARNS for W EAVING FADRI081 0. Eaton, MilD·
chcster.-20th January, 1888.
597. SKLP·AOTING HYDRAULI C MAOlJIN£8 for RIVB'I'Till0 1
&c. R. B . TweddeU, London , and J . Platt and J.
Fielding, Glouccster.-Srd Februa'f'l/ 1 1888.
626. Seur·AOTtNG Pltlls, J. J. Ridge, Lond<~n.-6th.
February, 1888.
70S. GROOVED TIRES for WUUL8, W. B . Cannont, Man·
cheator.-81h February, 1885.
898. CoNDEN81NO APPARATOS1 J . Twoody, Walkor,-191.\
Februa'f'l/, 1888.
916. MANOPAOTI7R& of GASE8, W. A.J'thur, London.Com. from J. P. OW.- 20th Februaey, 1668.
921. WATER GAOOM of ST"&A.M BoiL&Ae, J . B oldon,
Swlndon.-20th Pebr"U41')', 1888.
982. CARDING ENo~N&s, R. Tntham, Rochdale, nnd R .
Sellcrt, Scholes.- 20th Febr=ey, 1888.
989. MATREIIUTICAL DIVIDING, &c., I N8TROM1:NT81 A.
Leo and P. S. Maru, London.-2Srd February, 1888.
1009. S&WING MAOUINM, J. Wnrwick, Manchcator.24th February, 1889.
1019. ELZCTRIOAL G&JO:nuoas, T. J. H andford, Lon·
don.-Com. from T. A . Edlaon.-24th Februa'f'l/, 1888.
1022, ELECTRICAL R AILWAYS, T. J. H and ford, London.
-Com. from T. A. Edlson.-24t.\ February, 1888.
1098. PR&PARING INSOLATED WIRM, B . E. Newton,
London.-A communication from A . A . Cowlos.28th Febi"UUJ.ry, 1888.
1101. APPLYING MOTIVE POWER to RAILWAYS, T. W.
Rnmmoll, London.- 111 March, 1888.
1119. DECORATION of WooD, H . Saunders nnd S. Comber,
Drighton.-llt March 1888.
112 1. CoNTROLLING thoBTE&RINO Gun ofVELOOJPEl>£81
A. Burdese, Covontry.-2nd Jo1arcl1, 1888.
1164. SMOKELI!!88 8Tovllt8, R. E. Cox, London.-8rd
./llarch, 1888.
1157. STEEL MAKINO F ORNAOM, F. W. Dick nnd J.
Riley, Glaagow.-5th .Marcil, 1888.
116-1. HANDLES for KN1vu and FoRK8 1 R. E. &wtoll,
Sheflield.-6th Mo.rch, 1888.
11611. PunrPYINol &c., WATER, T. L l.ehman, Woat
Hartll'pool. -5tA M arch, 1888.
1201. ROPE TRACTION TRA11WAVS 1 &o., C. F. Findlay,
London -6th llfarch, 1888.
1208. G.u.vAlllO BATTltRIIIt81 T. Stator, London.-6th
March, 1668.
1804. BOR8£8BOU1 H. J. H addan , London.-Com.
from H. M. Maru.-121.\ March, 1888.
1857. TIJltRHO·&L&crRIOAL0ENERAT<IR8, R. H . Bmndon,
Parle.-Com . from E. G. AohCIIOn.-14th March, 1888.
16t5. TaOOBJt.IO or ROTARV EN0111&, lJ. .A. Bonneville,
London.-A communication !rom I . N. Forbee.- 27th
March, 1888.
1546. L OOOMOTIVU B . A . Bonneville, London. -A
communication f'rom I. N . Forbes.- -27th March 1888.
1616. PNEUJUTIO SIONALB for R.uLWAVS, E. H. Chaao,
Boston, U.S.-SOth. !larch, 1888.
(Lalt d.4y (or .ftling oppo1ilion, lit !Jfay, 1888.)
6767. A CCOMOLATOR8 for S&OONDARY BATT&I\1 1'.8, W. A.
Bnrl ow, London.-A communication from 1\Ioaars. L.
Encausao and Can6slo. --4th December, 1882.
6777. ATTAOIDIENTS for P&RAMBULATOI\81 A . Lloyd,
L ondon.-6th Dtcember, 1882.
5780. CoaBOOATJ:NO 1\l m.u. SnnTS, G. M. Edwards,
London.-61h December, 1882.
6784. WALKrNo STICK UMBR&LLAfl, J . T. Ford, Porta·
mouth.- 6th. December, 1882.
6786. PREPARING Ft.OJD GLtrs from Ftsu, L. A. Groth,
London.-A communication from C. A. Sab.letrOm.
-6th December, 1662.
5787. ExTRACTING OIL from 11'1ea, L . A . Groth, London .
-Com. from C. A. Snhletr0m.-5th December, 1882.
6788. PREPARING EXTRAOI' from Ftea, L. A. Groth, Lon·
don.-Com. from C. A. Sahlatrom.-5th December, 1882.
5790. CoNn&NSrNO STux, &c., A . W. L . Roddie, Lon·
don.-Com. from E. Thel.sen .-5111 December, 1882.
6805. WBJt&L8 for RAJt.WAY P oaJ'08a, W. R. LBko,
London.-Com. from F. Smlth.-5111 Dtcmtber 1882.
6824.. TRAldWAY CARB, E. C. Wickes and F. E .
Beau·
mont, London.-6th Dtctmber, 1882.
5840. SEWING MACKIN&&, T. J. D enne, Red HW.-7th
Dtctmber, 1882.
58fl. RE1>170INO the FBJOI'lON between WATER and
SOlllllEROEl> BODIIIt81 F. B . F . Engel, Bamburg. Com. from G. de Lsval.-7th December, 1882.
5844. S osP£Nl>ED L IODTS, J . J . Royle, llanchestor. 7th December, 1882.
6858. V&LOOI P&DU 1 W. R . Pldaeon, B olmwood.-81.\
.December, 1882.
6864. Mr:rULIO ALLOYS, W. Keep, Now Quay.-8 th
Dtccmber, 1882.
5877. PDA)IBOLATOR8, W. Ilntohman, London.-91.\
December, 1882.
6882. V&LOOIPZDM, J. R. Tr!gwoll, London.-91.\ De·
ctmber, 1882.
6907. TvP&·DRIC881NO MAOII IX£81 B . J . H nddan, London .
-Com. from E . Borger.-lltll December, 1882.
6914. OXIDtarNo T&x TtL& FAB&toa,
D. Abel, London.
-Com. from G. Wttz.-llth December, 1882.
B.
c.
6921. Su·OOINO VauL8, J . B . Jobm1on, London.Ocm from D. Ammen.-12th December, 188t.
51l80. PllTTtNO OoT ScoURiliO 0PDATtOlfain the M.uro·
J'ACTUR& of Lurnm, W. R . Lake, London.-A com·
munlcation from J . W. Vaugban.- 12th December, 188t.
5987. DtaPLAVINO ADvnTt81KDITII, W. R . Lake, Lon·
don.-Com. f rom W. Aldn.-Uth Decembw, 188t.
6951. WATCIIIII, A. B. Colo, Coventry.-181.\ !)«ember,
1882.
6020. Tnnuost o APPARATUs, G. L . Anders and J . B .
H onclc, jun., London.-16th Dtcember, 1882.
6027. LATCUINO BoLTS, J. Woodward, Wolvorha.mpton.
-18th December, 1882.
6096. PENCIL H oLDtma, B . J . Haddan , London.-Com.
from 0. 8ch0nuer.-2llt Decnnbtr, 1882.
56. l'llRUORINO Et.conuo ConR£11T8, 0. L. Fox, Lon·
don .--4th J anuary, 1888.
591. IroRIZONTAL ST&Ax Borum.a, &c., A. B . B. Sharpe,
Llncoln.-8rd February, 1889.
l OtS MnALLIO OnES, W. J . Tan n er, London.-27th
Pebrua'f'l/, 1888.
1001. BoPPLVtNO LOBRIOAliT, S. Kershaw, Mancheeter,
and J . .Bromllow, B eywood.-28th Februaey, 1888.
1112 F&RROCYANID&e, 0. de Vlgne, LIUo.-111 March,
1888.
1187. Fzcn MOTION of CinooLAa SA WINO M.&.cntNa, T.
N. Robinson, Rochdale. -6th March, 1888.
1208. FILJCS, &c., H . H . LB'Ite, London.-A communlca·
tlon from M. A. H owell, jun.-6t.ll !Jfarcll, 1888.
1564.. D t81NT&ORATINO MAOB INU 1 W. R. Lako, London.
- A communication from S . and E . B. Dod.eon.-27th
March, 1888.
Patents Sealed.
( Lilt of LeiUri P atml \llhich pamd the Urt4l &al on Ute
6th ..4priL, 1888.)
4709. ENV&I.OPltll, &c., E . Sturge, Walworth.-9th Octo·
ber, 1882.
4794. Fit.Tnoro APPARA.T08, E . Ed warda, London.-91.\
October, 1882.
4816. TOOL8 for BORJ:NO TAl'!:R H OLliS, J . G. Perkin and
J . Scott, &ndal.-l Oth October, 1882.
4817. PRODOOINO B LOCK l 0£ 1 T. Dowrle, sen., London.
- lOth October, 1882.
4822. PRINTING MAORlliU or P RZSS.£8 1 J . E . Daweon,
London. - l Oth October, 1882.
48~6. VAPORI&&JUJ, P . Cbapelaln, Parla. -11th October,
1882.
4006. DRIVUIO POLUY8 and WB&EL8, G. E. Bhorwln,
Aetou. -Hth October, 1882.
4981. EL&CfRIO MOTOR8, A. G. de NileJI and E. DOl•
fosa6s, Pnrle.-17th Ocftlber, 1882.
6044. Ct.ttANtNo FAT 011..81 F. C. Gluor, Borlln.-28rd
October, 1882.
5296. BotLIIR FURNA0£8 1 W. 'Mowatt, Slatoford.-611•
November, 1882.
484. T ntuTINO SEWAO& WATER, J. Young, KeUy.-26th
Janua'f'l/, 1888.
448. STIIICI\1110 APPARATUS for Vllt88&1..8 1 J . Donaldson,
London .-27th January, 1888.
.
( Lilt of Let Uri PaU?It \llhich pautd the Urt4t &al on the
l Oth .April, 1888.)
4572. MANUJ'AOI'OR& of GA.s , S. Chandler, Newington
Causeway.- 26th September, 1862.
4828. DnVINO WooL, D . P . Smith, Glaegow.-11th October, 1882.
4888. CoATrNO TIN, &c., T. B . J ohns, London.-111.\
October, 1662.
4886. STACK& of CuPoLA1 &c., FUBNAO.U, J. Touuaint,
Upper Saltloy.-llth uctober, 1882.
4841. BAI.AliOE VALVE, W. Teague, jun., P oole.-111.\
October, 1882.
48H . ROTARY PRI'liTlNO llic all!ERv, J. Dobeon, Lou·
don.-llth October, 1662.
4846. 0.U.VANG-&LEOT1UO BU'l'DJ£8, J. Oliphant, Lon·
don and E. Burr, Waltham.atow-12th October, 1881.
4847. VELOOJP&DJ:S, J . Rettie, London.-121.\ October,
1882.
4851. FlOURED FOOT R oos, W. W. Smlth,London.-121.\
October, 1882.
4866. LrNT from Fux FrBRU, 0 . W. von Nawrocki,
Borlln.-12th October, 1882.
4868. RuuCTone, A. H . Clark, London. - 12th October,
1662.
( 86 4. CLrPII for STRETCBINO Wovu FABBica, D. P .
Smith, Olaegow.- lSth October, 1882.
4870. FACINO Po111T8 for TRAMWAYII, B . Scott, Liver·
pool.-lSih October, 1882.
48'71. RANOS FINDING APPARATUS, C. McQuire Bato,
Woolwicb.-18th October, 1882.
4876. Pn&V&NTINO the SURREPTITI008 OPENING of
Dooae, &c., E . Guattari, London .-18th Octob~1 .1882.
4877. STALL DtVIBIONB, J. A. Hanna and T. 11'. SJUJIIng·
ton, London.- 18th October 1882.
4878. 0At.VANIO BATT&RIU, G. C. V. H olmes and S. B .
EmmoDJI, London.-1Sth October, 1882.
4882. LOOMS for WliAVlliO CARPftfl, W. YoUDgjohna,
Klddorminstor.-14th Octo~er. 1882.
4890. Ft.OID PITHPrNO APPARAtUS, B . W. Davia, Lam·
both.-Hth October, 1882.
4892. lll&UORINO 0AOOE, B. H. Joeoph, B~gham.
- 1411• October, 1882.
4898. TRJOYOLICS, J . P . Dalby, Leeds.-Uih October,
1882.
4919. UONTROLLf'NG CLOCKS by TIW!: SIOlfAL81 J, A.
L und, London.-16th October, 1882.
4929. F RICTION CLUTORJ:81 D. Friable, Now Haven, U.8 .
- 17th October, 1882.
4956. ST&.ua Bo1uA8, G. G. M. Hardlngham, London.
- 18tll October 1882.
4980. COOKING RANoa, B. H cRuer, Glaegow.-191h
October, 1882.
4987. OBTAINING SAL'T8 from MINDAL WATKRII 1 A. J.
Boult, London.-19th October, 1662.
4999. ADMINIBTRUION of ALDBJITARY F t-0108 1 L. A.
V. P ellegrin, Fmnco.-20th October, 1882.
5026. SEPARATING CoPPm from MATT, &c., J. Plaletod,
London.-2111 October, 1882.
6801. MnALl.IO BzoanAD8, R. 0. Bodgettl, Blrming·
ham.-Oth No~~tmber, 1882.
6867. FOLDING Box£8, &c., A. H . Clark, London.- 9th
November, 1882.
6866 . .BLEAOUINO ll'mRu, J. A. Graham, London.-101.\
N011ember, 1882.
6867. COATING IRoN with L&AD, J . A. Graham, London.
-10111 November, 1882.
6868. Bot LER for DtOZIITJ:NO Ca&mOAL 0PIIR.A.TION8 1 J.
A. Grahnm, LondGn .-lOth N011ember, 1882.
6718. D •&TILLATION of CoAL, W. J. Cooper, London.SOth November 1882.
5820. PLAVINO PIAN01'0RT&8 1 A . Capra, London.-etA
December, 1882.
6968. VZRTIOAL Sft.Ut B OILJ:M 1 A. H . B. Sharpe and
F. Palmer, Llncoln.-Hth December, 1882.
6071. CARRIAOII AxLa, &c., J . Dakert, Aberdeon.~Oth December, 1882.
6142. COOKING Al>PARA.TUS1 J. W. Plunkett, London.28rd December, 1882.
117. D RILL8, J. B . J ohn.aon, LondGn.-9th Jar. IIOf')',
1888.
128. SPARK Alla.anR8, A. J. B oult, London. -01.\
J anuaey, 1888.
221. BEARING& for SPrNDLEII, J. Nicoll, Dundee.-161.\
J anuaey, 1888.
868. CoND&NB&R8 for P~n~ PING Esonr.a, W. A. MU••
New York, U .8.-2Srd January, 1888.
409. Ssw111o llioarm:s, I . Naech, London.- 151.\ Jattt&ary, 1888.
415. RAISING, &o., WEIOBT8, J . and J . T. PlokertDa',
Stockton on ·Teea.-25th J a?n•.aey, 1888.
491. CoPPER, &o.. T u ne, T. B. Sharp, Bmethwtok.801.\ Januaey, 1888.
408. Wnmt No TaaUD upon SPOOL8ik' J . P . Kerrazad
T. Law, Pal.eley.- 801.\ /al\\141')' 888.
608. SPnonNo, &c., CorroN, J . Tatham, Bochdale.80th / a nua'f'l/ 1 1888.
Ltst or Speolftcatlona publlehed c1urllllf tbe
weeJt endlnlr April 7th, 1888.
lei.!
8781\ 4d.; 5061, 2d. ; 2612, 2d.; 11616, 6<1.; 1105,
8216, 2a.; 8884, M.; 8489, td.; M70, 6d.; M70, ld..
APRIL
13, 1883.
THE ENGINEER
~595,
Js. 2d.; 8645, 2d.; 8649, Gd. ; 8723, 2d .; 8786, 1e.; 3800. SBUTI'LE 8 EWINO )fACIIIN&S FOR BUTTON :EJOL&
8762, 6d.; 87841 lOd.; 8818, Gd. ; 881<1, 6d.; 3827, 6d. ;
SEWLN0 1 J. B. ll'alah., Halijo:c.- 12th 4 ugWJt 1 1882.
8882, 6d.; 8845, 2d.; 8847, 6d.; 8848, 6d.; 3849, 6d.;
- (A communication (tom J. Kayur, Germany. 6d.
8850, 6d. ; 8861, 6d. ; 8862, 2d.; 8858, 2d.; SSM, 2d.;
The needle bar is actuated by tho sewing machine,
1860, 6d.; 3861, 2d . ; 8862, Gd. ; 8864, 6d. ; 8866, 6d.; and b aa n seH·I\Ctlng and cbangen.ble sti~h forward s
8875, Gd.; 8877, 6d.; 881!3, 2d.; 8884, 6d.; 8885, 6d.; or backwards moYomcnt in the one or the other definite
8886, 6d.; 8888, 6d.; 8889, 2d. ; 8890, 6d. ; 8891, 4d.; position, so that the n eedle at one time pierces the slit
8892, 4d.; 8898, 2d.; 8894, 2d.; 8895, 2d.; 8897, 6d.; of the button b ole, a.nd at another time pierces side8898, 2d.; 8906, 6d.; 8901, 6d.; 8902, 2d ; 8903, Gd.; ways from tho sl it into the material to bo sewn .
8006, 6d.; 8907, 4d; 8908, Sd.; 8909, 2d.; 8910, 2d; 8832. StLF·ACrtNO SnAM TRAPS, &c., L. Dove, Strat·
8911, 4d.; 8912, 2d. ; 8918, 4d; 8915, Od.; 8916, Gd.;
ford, Baux.-11111 .AugWJt, 1882. Get.
3918, 6d.; 8919, Gd; 8!121, 2d.; 8!122, 6d.; 3!123, 2d.;
F ig. 1 Is an elevatil,n, partly in section, showing
8926, 6d.; 8926, Gd.; 8927, 6d.; 8928, 6d.; 8921.1, 2d.; one
nn-angemont of a steam trup. A is tho cistern·
8980, 2d.; 89111, 2d.; 8932, 2d. ; 8!188, 6d.; 893•1, 6d.; B the cover; C tho junction from the steam pip~ o;
8986, 2d. j 89861 4 d. j 89871 6d. j 8989, 6d. j 8040, 6c!. j other construction requiring to bo freed from water·
8941, 2d.; 8943, 6d.; 8946, ~d; 8946, 6d.; 8947, 2d.; D is an improved form of cock, to t he plug of which
89t81 l B. j 3949, 6d. j 89!>1, 6d. j 8252, 6d. j 89641 4d. j tbo float E Is fixed, and into which the cock e>pons.
8966, 6d.; 8956, 4d.; 3Qb7, 2d.; 8961, 6d.; 8968, 2d. ; The construction of this Boat will be understood from
8964, 6d ; 8066, 2d. ; 8960, 2d. ; 8968, 6d.; 3970, 6d.; tho section shown In fo'ijf. 2. When thQ float is in the
8971, 2d. ; 897:1, Od ; 397!>, 4d.; 8976, 6d.; 3977, 4d.; position shown by tho dotted lines in Fig. 1, the cock
8979, 6d.; 89t o, 4d ; 8981, 6d.; 89~3, 6d.; 39 ~4, 6d ; is open, and tho clroln WRtor will pas9 through it Into
89861 6d.; 89f6,13d.; 3987, 2d. ; 8988, 2d.; 8969, 4d.; tbe float, which wlll sink the float until ull the wnter
8991, 4d. ; 8992, 6d.; 3995, (ld.; 8!197, 4d.; 8998, 2d.; is drained out of the s1oam pipo; steam will then flow
8999, 2d. ; 4002, 6d.; 4003, 4d. ; 4094, 2d.; 4007, Gd.; and drive out the drained water into the hole F and
4008, 4d.; 4009, 8d.; 4011. 2d. ; 4016, 2d.; 4020, 2d.;
4021, 2d.; 4026, 6d ; •o26, 6d.; 4027, 4d.; 4080, 2d.;
B
4086, 6d.; 4043, Gd.; 404~, 6d.; 4048, 4d.; 4056, ~d.;
4079, 6d. ; 4091, 6d.; 411 7, 6d.; 4126, 6d; 41 57, 19d.;
4288, le; 0089, 4d.; fo ll9. Sd.; 5144, 6d.; 5188, 4d.;
~236, ad.; 6486, 2d.; oo~s. lid.; 6085, 6d.; 17, od.
• • • Specltlcationa will be forwarded by post from the
Patent-ofllco on reeelpt of the amount of prtco a.nd
poetage. Sums exceeding ls. must be remitted by
P oet-office order, made payable at the Poet-ofllco1 51
High Holbom, to Mr. H . Reader Lack , h or Majesty's
Patent-ofllco, Southampton· buildings, Chancery-lane,
London.
AEST.RAOTS OF SPEOIFIOATIONS.
Prepared by ourrth:u c:cprudy for Tuz ENOJNI!ER at the
o~ee oj Ber M o,juty'a Commi~lionera ot Patrnu.
F"I C. I
,,u ·--c
0
c (~
E
~
2615. P RESERVATION OF MILK, B. &herQ·, Germany.-
!Srd June, 1882.- (Not procttdtd ttith ) 4d.
The mUk is placed In botl les, tho mouths of which
are then closed first with a cork, over which n filtering
disc of close fabric sntumted with A. mLxturc of oil and
paraffine is placed and nbove the lattor a disc of cork.
Tho bottl es nro wbjected to air and steam pressure.
8215. SEAT Sn•FTIU\8 FOR CARRJAOE8, IV. H. Robert&,
Eomer&tt.-1th. JuJ.y, 1882.-(Provi.rional tn•otection
not allo'l&td.) 2d.
The seat res ts on ratchqts on each side and can be
moved by a lever.
8439. 0.1UNDIISO AND OTHERWISE PREP~RINO GRAIN,
&c., A . M . Clark, Londoa. -l9th. J1dy, 1882 - {A
communicati<m f•om J. JJ. J. L. il1ounii, Pa•ia. )(Pr01ritionol protection not allowed.) 2d.
This consists essentially ln the general arrangement
of the dltferent apparatus for treaUng {ltllin in a build·
lng spread over n large area Instead of being built up
in several stories.
8470. TWO·PLY AND TBRE&·PLY SCOTCO CARPETS, &c.,
J . B . Braith.1eaite, Wt&tmorelancl.-2ht July, 1882.
6d.
The objecta are, First, to produce figured cloths so
that tho design Is shown more clearly tbnn hitherto on
both the front and back, by so manipulating the warps
that the same coloured threads shall work with a line
over them correspondiDg and same coloured weft
threads liB woll on the back liB on tho front; nnd
Secondly, to prevent wbnt i.e known as" specking " or
•• grinning," that i.e, fhowiDg through on the faco portions of the warp that ought at tho time only to be
working on the back.
8479. E X.PLOSIV£ COMPOUND FOR FtRTNO TOY AND
OTBER GUNS, Tl'. (}. Rttve, Balin(!.- 2ht July, 1882.
- (Provisi0114l protection not allolctd. ) U.
A pellot or s mall block of sodium t.e inserted in to the
chamber of !\ toy f!Uil, nnd, on coming In con tact with
a small quo.ntity of water p reviously inserted in tho
barrel, is i6D!ted.
3645. ANTIFRICTION BEARIN08 FOR SHAPT81 .to., W.
P. Thompa<m, Liverpoo/...-bt 4u{l1Ut, 1882.-(A communicati<m from B. Salomon and R. 4 1"1nant,
11101ltrt4l. )- (Void. ) 2d.
The object fe to provide a solid aDd steady bearing
wbilo tho shaft i.e movini, the friction surfaces being
reduced to a minimum, a.nd means provided to adjust
tho samo, eo as to compen sate for wear. The shaft bas
an enlargement and is surrounded by a sleeve sorewed
to a frame, antilrictlon balls being interposed between
the enlo.rgcment and the sleeve.
8649. SOR&W P ROPILL&RS 1 B . Hardy, Edinbur(Jh.- l&t
Auguat, 1882. 6d.
Th11 drawing shows a side view of n four·blade screw
propeller. The p airs of spokes are preferably in line
with each other, as shown. A propeller with four
blades requires elsht spokes, a.nd in some cases it 14
preferred that tbe blades should overlap each other liB
shown : but in other cases it may be ad va.ntageoue to
(3 6<4 9 )
a
0
a
0
0
0
..
0
•
0
0
0
0
shorten tho length of the blades. Also the position
and number of the spokes may he varied to suit the
varied lengths of tho blades. A is tbe a:rlo; B tho
bOss, keyca or otherwise securely fixed t o tho axle.
Thu botl8 B is enlarged at its centre in order t o reduce
the frlction, and thl4 boss may be otherwise foru1ed,
i n some cases a globular form being adopted.
8723. P.LOUOUINO OR CULTlVATINO BV ENOINE POWJ:R1
J. Jmray, London.-4111. .Augud, 1882 - (A commun icalion from P. Dittrich., Berlin. )-{Prov~l pro·
ltction.not q.lloto(d. ) 2d.
A traction engine 18 provided with two drums, the
rope3 from whlcb paas to two steam ploughs, each
attached to another rope which pe..eees over a guide
pulley to tho winding drum of another smaller engine.
3786. HUTJNO .&~D Coo.LTNO FLUIDS, W. and G.
La.IDTtnct, London.- 6111 .Augu.rt, 1882. h .
Tbia relates to a.n apparatu.e for heating or cooling
fluida, a.nd consists In b uilding up corrugated plates,
eo ae to form s se.r ies of t ubes, suitable means being
provided for feeding or distributing tho Buld through
tho apparatus.
8784. GENERATORS FOR TllE PRODVCJ'ION OF 0A8 FROlll
F u• L USED IN TBE MANUTA CTVRE OF 8T&&.L1 &c. , J.
N obu, Durllam.- 9th. .Augu&t. 1882. l Od.
An ordinary generstor Ia provided with a wrought
Iron cuing lined with firebrick, anJ In its aide and
end walla t uyerea are arranged to admit air from a
blower. The f uel rests on hollow grat e bars, through
w bJch water Bowe.
r lc.2
.... .._. ... F
passage G. 'T bo operation llghtu1s tho 1\on.t and
en us es it to ri se to tho lo.-ol 1-h own in solirl li~ea in
Fig. 1 nnd also in Fig 2. 'J he cock Is then shut. Tho
steam in tho lloat wUI then bog in to condense. where·
upon U1o water wUl rise t hr<>ugh tho pa•sago I<' and
the float will 6lowly Eiok and open !he cock ; if ihere
Is no water to bo drained, a p uff of steam will cause
the Boat again to rille and shut tho cock, and tho
operation will bo repeated automatically as long as
there is pressure in the construclion to bo drained.
Tbc surJ)lus water rune away from tho clstoru by the
pipe II. Tbo holes I I are for tho emission of air.
8845. GLOVE F ASTENERS, W. G. Rigdt:n, London.-12th.
.Augu3t, 1882.- (Not p1octtded 1oitlt) 2d.
This relates to fnsteners consisting of n tougue
attached to one side of the glove opening and passinjf
through an eyelet Inserted in tho other side thereof,
such tongue being retained in ita closed J)<'sltion by a
catch on Its under. ide engaging With a correspondi.Dg
catch on the bo.so plate.
8848. 8Tl!:AM ENOINES, J. Beck, Sh,ffield.-12tll A UQ1Ut,
1&82. 6d.
The object i.e to simplify ond otherwise improve tho
construction of engines used with hand steering gf'ar
on ships. A pair of cylindort~ nrc fixed at righ t angles
tv each oth er on one side of the frame, o.nd act upon n
single crank of n shaft , having a pinion to tronsmit
motion to the main gearing actuating tho wheel or
bnrrel carrying the cbain lesding to the tiller. An
excentrlc on the shaft actuates both sllde valves. The
cyllndcra are formed with parallel slides, to which
blocks are fitted and connected to ono end of the
piston· rod in such n manner that the connecting rods
vibrato over and aloog the sides of the cyllodors.
8849. PABALL&L VtCES, TV. M. MacBriar, Skf.Qidd.12th .Auguat, 1882. 6d.
A is the front or movable ho'\d of the vico, having
the gripping s teel jaw J secured thereto. The front
part ill made to project a.nd cov(\r the collar of the
screw C, and in the cavity eo formed a steel spring
WMhor S, is introduced to maintain a close con~t of
tbe said collar with the screw pin F for opening the
vico. Tbe lower part of the said bend i.e formed with
a bolo, In which tho bar D is secure ly fitted and
atto.<-hed. A I is the back or fixed head, and carries a
similar t.teel gripping jaw J corresponding to that
[38 49)
J
J: ·--
0
0
E.
on A, while the lower p?rtion of head is extended
backwards the £ullleng1h or tho base plate E, securing
a firm attachment, and formiDff a box In which the
bar D moves freely. Tlio box B 18 &~cured to the back
jaw, and is formed with a solid collar; screw threads
nro formed or fixed internally extending from the
front of the said collar to near tho hinder end of box,
tho front portion being left plain , of larger diameter,
to act liB cover t o tho screw when the vice is In use, tho
whole of the moving parte being thus protected from the
easy admission of filings Bnd dirt , which usually prove
so d etrimental to vices of the ordinary con struction.
8849. LAMPS FOR PACKit:O TOOUBER Tl'TO A SMALL
CoMPAS!\. W. H. Bulpitt, Birmin gham.- 12th
.Augwt, 1862. 6d.
This consista in forming the frames of anchor or
cabin lamps, and also of stable lanterns, so that they
can be made to collapse or fold up in a small epaco.
3850. ~f.&.NUFACJ'URII'O AND H KBMitTICALLY CLOSINO
Box r.s, &c., OF BREI'.T MKTAL, A. J . Boult, Lond<m.
- 12th .Auuu&t, 1882.-(.A communication from C.
Do.nchl and P. Deni4ud, Prance ) 6d.
Tbia consists in uniting the bottom and body of a
box by mOlina of a 1\y press or a di.ec or " milling
wheel" m ounted on a vertical spindle.
8851. MACHINES FOR DRESSINO 0RAIN1 G. JJI'. Murray,
Bau.ff, N.B.- 12th. .Auguat, 1882. 6d.
Tbia reL-;tes to machines for dressing grain and for
separating it from the chaff and straw. Tho grain is
fed through an in cllned boppe•· fitted withasp1ked roller
to regulate tho paasage of same. Below tho hopper is
a board with n otched ribs, which IIBBista the feeding,
such board being attach ed to and reciprocated by the
riddle. A fnn causes a current of air to act on the
falling grain and carry off the chaff and Uaht st raw,
the heavier portions p.LBslng with tho grain down a
regulating tail-board to the riddle, up through which
tho bl!l8t from a second fa.n is caused to pass.
3858. CLosn~o, FAST!NINO, AND Rt:LtASINO TR& DooRS
OF RAILWAY CABRIAO II8, F. Pontift:.e, London.-12th.
A u.umt 1882.- (Not J1TOC~edtd with. ) 2d.
A bar is placed bort?.ontally on the side of the ca'Tiage
above nr below tho door, and Is fitted with a roller or
p rojection, which, when the bar is ehlfted one way,
bears against and cloaes and door, wbere!l8 when the
ba r 14 sbilted in the opposite direction tho door Ill !reo
t >open.
8854. BOTTLES FOR APR&TED WAT ERS AND STOPPERS
POR SAME, J. FergWJOll, Wiltl.- l2th. A ugU<ft1 1882.
- (Not pr~ttdcd toith..) 2d.
Thla relates to bottles with internal stoppers, a.nd
297
consis ts in eo forming tho neck of tho bottle and
shaping tho stopper, that when tho latter is forced down
to opon tho bottle by means of a part which projeota
beyond the mouth of the bottle, the bottle Ito retained
by a sh oulder fo1mcd in the neck of t he bottle and a
clear passage left for the liquid.
'
8862. VALVES FOR STEAM, WATt:R, &c., D.
Hanc~k
Stratforct.-l2th Au{l-u.8t, 1882. ud.
'
Tho shell of t he valve is I"rmcd with nn Internal
partition separating tho entrance and ox1t openings
and through which n.n openi ng is formed. The valv~
spindle carries .an ex centric valve ~ork!ng in contact
with the partition, so that by turmng the spindle the
opening through tha partitlvn is covered or uocovorc;l
liB desired.
8864. MALLEABLE lRON1 &o. , W. S. Sulhtrland, Birmingl!am.. -Hth .AugWJt, 1882. 6d.
The object is to fa• ilitate nod cheapen th o m ·mufac·
ture or conversion of cast Iron Into malleable or what
is known aa wrought Iron, Bnd it con sists in 6Ubjoctlng
molten cast Iron lO the action of currents of heated
carbJnlc oxide gas and air, by forcing such gases
through and amongst I ho m119s side by s ide in thin
streams, wbon tho carhonlc ox Ide is In excess. The
app3ratus employed consists of 1hrco chambers, in one
of wblcb tho C!l8t Iron Is melted, In the second it is
subjected to tho action of tho gnsoous agen ta. and In
tho third the fini.ehcd iron i.e kspt bellted a.nd run off
aa required.
8865. 8TAY8 AND BUSKS, J. illgltby. 3fanchtlter.-l4tll
.Augu11, 18~ 2 -(.A co».,lu!,ication from P. W.
Ziegler, Gtrmany ) 6d.
To order to prevent the plo:~t of cloth enclosing the
steel or bones of stays wearing away l'tl!>ldly, each steel
Is formed at its upper end with n round bolo, from
which n slot extends downwurds for a short distance.
A button or flanged knob, formed on a small plato, is
seouNd at tbe top of the pleat, and such kllob en tors
the bole in tbe steel, and wbUo allowing a certain
amount of vertical piJy, prevents the steel working
loose.
8875. TREATINO CO'ITON A~"D O'JU&R T «Xl'ILE FIBRES,
&c., B. de Po.~a, London. -14th A u.guat, 1882.- (.A
communication from 1:1. Ant/toni, Po.rit.) 6d.
This rel1tes to a process of and ap~'lrntus for
enabling cotton o.nd other fibres to be bleached, dyed,
or chemically treated before they are 6oally spun.
Tbc collers. pots, or cans, coutaJning the sllvore pre·
pared by carding or drawing machines are perforated,
and with their slivers nro placed in boilers, and tho
ell vert~ impregnated with a 6uitable liquid for scouring
bleaching, or dyeing tho same Tbe liquid is run off
when the fibres are t horoughly impregnated and
steam or gliB admitted to complete the opors,tion'.
8877. BREECB·LOADINO FIRE·AIUts, w. Rouera,
Pimtico. - 14th August, 1882. 6d.
This relates to breech· loading fire·arms with 1.\ book
on the uudorslde of the barrels engaging with a pin in
tbo body, the breeches being opened for loadlni by the
movement of the barrels about the p in or axis. To
automatically place the locke in the ccckcd pos1tlon
by opening tbo gun lugR cover the ends of tho. pia:
round \Vb1ch lho barrels turn. The lock cavities are
fitted to receive slides, the fore end of each of which
projects !18 far !18 the centre of the pin, and a tooth on
it is received into a receBB on the inner sido of the Jug
on that sirto of the gun. Tho rear onds of the slides
form hook.& engaging within projections upon the
undersides of the tumblers.
3883. FELT :EJ ATS, &c., •. Taylor, Cht&((r. and R.
ll'all1corJ.:, Man cllt8ter.-l5th. ..4ugust, 1882.-{Not
proceeded with. ) 2c/...
In order to remove "burrs," cotton fibre, and other
vogetablo matter from the wool used to make felt hata,
tho bodies for the bats are taken in tho cono stage
when formed, nnd hardened before they are felted, and
aro steeped for two hou.rs .In a bath consisting of 120
parte water to 1 part vatnol. The Invention furth er
consists ln felting or planking hat bodies with or with·
out sulphuric acid in the water in the ordinary manner,
and then finishing the operation with boiling water in
which soda and borax have been dissolved.
3884. BOOTS AND SBOE81 IV. Morgan-Brown, london.
- 15th. 4 11gWJt, 1882 - (.4 communico.tiOA (tom H.
R. 4 dmm, Boaton, U.S ) 6cl.
The outer sole, Inner sole, and u pper are united by
staples formed with holding projections, and inserted
through tho soles and upper with tbo cross bnr at the
st.'lple next to the inner sole.
3885. CAR Wu&ELS J'OR RAILWAYS .,_..,-D TRAMWA YS,
II'. Morgan-Broum, Lond011.-1:>th ..4ugWJt, 1882.(A communication from (}. TP. MiHimort, Chicago. )
6d.)
This relates to wheels built up of sep::1mte parts, a nd
conslllts of forming the spokes of such wheels from
pieces of bar Iron, twisted so aa to connect them to the
hub a.nd to tho rim of the wheel. The outer &nd of
each spoke h iiB a p rojection to fit a recess in the
cdgo of the rim and t ho Inner end is twisted
a quarter turn . and the sides cut away, so that when
placed in position the inner ends all fit close together,
an d form a common bearing for tho ehnrt. Tubo
p lates are placed on each side of tho inner ends of the
spokes a.nd secured in '(>Osition by bolts.
3886. SPANN ERS APPLICABLE FOR NuTS, &c. 1J. Broum,
Liverpool.-15tlo .Lfuguat, 1882. 6d.
O.oe jaw of the span n er is made sbortor than the
other, and is formed with a serrated edge to grip the
nut, the object being to onab1e the spanner to grip and
turn the n ut when m oved in open direction. but which
w ill tum on the nut when desued to move the spanner
back again £or a fresh grip.
8888. LUliBIOATII'O APPARATUS FOR Sn~ll 'F.NOllil"&
CYLINDERS, &c., IV. R. Lo.kt, London.-15th ..4ugu.rt,
1882.-(A co»tmunication (rom F. HoUa!ld, Troy,
U.S. ) 8d.
This relates, Fl.rst, to a lubricator consisting of a
l ubricating veBBel containing an oU a.nd water chamber
connected with a steam boiler, so that the s team
p ressure will cause oil to be delivered to e. conduit
pipe cunnecting the lubricator with on e of the s team
cylinders of a locomotive, a steam pipo connecting tho
said conduit pipe with the boiler. An u p por chamber
is provided and conn ected with the boiler, and also
with the oU and water chAmber, which b!IB a.n over•
Bow n ear tho top, baTing a diicbarge n oz?.le and n
valvo for regulating' the pressure on the oil a.nd water,
and the flow of tho condenstd water from tho upper
chamber. The invention also relates to Improvemen ts
in lubriCAtors with a transparent cup or reservoir,
having n detachable nozzle, ndapted to be secured in a
sock et in tho part to be l ubricated.
8889. P UOTOORAPIUO CAMBRA81 B. Bd1Darda, London.
- 15th. .Auguat, 1882.-(...f communication /"1'0111 P.
RouaiJ·, Par it.- (Not proceeded totth ) U.
This relates to camert\8 in w111 ch the eenaltising a.nd
dovelopinjf of the plate are carried on In the camera
itself. '!he back of tho camera baa a bln~ted door, and
also a flat slide fitting below tho top of the camera.
Below the elide is a groove to enable a separate gTound
glMs to be inserted for foollseing. To sensltise tho
plate the ground glaas i.e replaced by a plllte coated
with lodlsed collodion, nnd tho s lldo pushed forward,
w !18 to bring it ovor a vessel conteiolng a silver
aensitielng solution. The back shutter is then o1oat!d,
and the len s havin g boca previously covered, all light
is excluded. The vOSBel ls then rsleed, and the plate
Immersed. t\ simil ar v088el enables tho picture to be
developed.
8890. PISTONS FOR BLOWINO AND P O"MJ.'I )('O E.NOINES 1
&c., R . 11. Oubbina, l:ltw C'ron.-1;,11, .Auguat, 188l.
6d.
I n a suitahle casing Is fitted a piston, conaietin g of a
\xldy ond a tlexiblo cincture forming the packing, and
which is tho contact portion of the piston against the
caelng or cylinder. ., be flex ible cin cture Is filled with
Uquid, havin g a ,ufficlent "head " to press out tho
cincture Against t he CASing, with a sufficiently yielding
pressure for ensm ing tightness wlthout undue fri ction.
3891. AlANtJFAC1'URI! OP' BASIC l'' JnEPROOF MATERIALS
J"ROM TD I! ALKALINE EARTn8 1 ll. Utl1mann, Pttui'U•,
-15th AugWJt, 1882. 4d.
This consists in mo.nu faotu1 iog basic fire· proof
materials, by Jirst dead burning nnd el3gglog the
alkaline earths with admixt ure of Iron or oxides, or
other com blnatlone t hereof freo from silicic acid, then
mixing tbhl fundamental mRBs, after comminution ,
with hydrocarbons that are £roe £rom water and viscous
wben beated, and with alkali carbonates free fron1
water; and lastly, prossing or stamping tho compound
Into the required !orm.s.
8892. SoBSTIT11T& t' OR DOTTER AND LARD FOR COOK·
!NO Pu~tPOeES, 11. J. llod.d~tn, Ken~ington.-(A communication jrom S. fl. Ct~chran, B~erelt, U. S) 4d.
This relates to purifying. Uavowing, and deodorislng
beef suet, tho fat or oil of swine, and col ton seed or
equivalent oils, and mlxlng thurewltb. slippery elm
bark and beef 6tcarine.
8894. Tove, J . Fltifcltmann, WtetmineUT. - 15th
.AugWJt, 1881.-(~ communication ftom L. .Much,
Btrtin.)-(Not procuded with.) 2d.
'This r"lates to a puzzle or toy, the object beiog to
remove one or more rings from a wire frame.
3895 CLOAR8 AND CIOARlrrrr<S, S. IF. Wood, Cornu:all,
U S.-l6th. .Aupult, lSSZ -(Not proctcdtd. 1Dith. ) 2<1.
This relates to the p rep:nntlon of 8heets or leaves
m ade from tho stems and refuse leaves of tobncco, to
bo used for covedng, and, U desired, for tilling clgnrs
and cignrcttca.
8897. REOESERATIVE H OT 1\I.AST S rOVES ron BLAST
F URNACES, B. Forti, Mitldlllbrou.gh ·011·1 tt&, and J
Moncour, Ct4mberlct!ld.- 111th ~ ugu..st. lfll2. 6d.
This conslste, First. in dl\•idlng the rogeoentor of
tho stove Into comp \rtments, each connected by in
ternal valves with a Ouo tbrvugh '1\•hlcf\ tho Mld bl.uJt
to be heated is admitted ~o as to re~ullteand produce
a uniform temperature of bl1st dnring the wh•Jle timo
that tho bl•et i:1 hlowlng; . econdly in eo connecting
each compartment by intotnnl vnlves with n tlue l11ad
ing to tbc chimney, so thAt tbe wbf•lo of tbo couhlned
bl!IBt can be di.echa•gert 1hrough either <'ompnrtmont
for the purpose of carrylog ofT tho depotoit from com
bustion . 'I ho stays between 1bo wall" of tbe regen era
tor aro trlaug\1lar or more or lee~ lozenge·sb ·.plld, and
without fht horizontal •mfaccs. Tho cowbustlon
cham bor Is framed so lh 1t it divides tho regencr<1tor
into two compartments.
8898. Loo~1s, S. Holtinro4·e, B ur1tl,y.-15'h. A vgu. lt,
It 82.- (Not procucltlt with ) 2d.
Tho object Is to di•]X'nso w1tb. the loatbor strop for
connectmg tbo picking slick and t •lcker, nod use
instead a metal chain composed of riugs or Iinke
which cbnngo their position t.o as to present fresh
points of cou tact.
8900. SMoK t!:-CONSUMI~O GRATES, IV. J. Boti"!J, Lon
don- 15th Avgu11, ISS2. 6d.
Tho back of the grate consis ti of !\ grating, behind
which i.e a chambor to receive iron turnings or Olher
suitable material, which can bo readily brought to a
rod boat. 1'be firo belts the Iron turning<~. and tho
products of combustion pi\SSing through tbe &lroe are
entirely consumed.
3901. FoCNTAL.'l P &NS, J. liadal, Ltmdoll, - 1.51h
.AVIJU.It, 1882. 6d.
This relates to improvcmenta on patent No. 2451,
A.D. 18811 the object being First, to overcome tho
friction, wblrb prevents the wilting rod in etylograpbic pons from working with facility ; QDd Secondly,
to a void the necessity for unscrewing the cap to nllow
air to paa& Into the pen before using, and screwing tho
cap down agnin when the pen ill not in use, eo liB to
preven t tho escape of Ink. Tho v •lve rod is formed
iu two p!\rte connected by n flexible jolnt. A cbambor
is formed above the air tube. and iJJto it a tube pro·
jeots. su that lnk entering such chamber will be pre·
vented from escaping.
3902. IIOll'TII' O OR LIFTINO APPARATUS, W. R. Lake,
London.-15th A ugu&t, 1882 - (A commun;cation.
from J. H. Liduerttood1 Jltorri&to1Dn1 U.S.- (Not pro·
cttdtd 111ith..) U.
This relates to hoisting apparatus in which the
chain is ~oiled round a cylinder arranqed on a shaft,
so that it may be caused to rotate with the abaft or
revolve roun d tho same, the object being to provide
means for en~uring good frictional contact between
the drum and tho shaft when they aro to rotate
together, and for readily con n ecting and d isconnecting
the same when the apparatus is in use.
8903. CARRIAOE AXLES, Jl7. R Lokt, London ·-15th.
Augu.rt, 188~.-(.A communicationfront W. J. Varley,
Ntto Jerlt!J, U.S.) 6d.
This consl~ts In the combination with a carriage
axle of an adju.stable sleeve, secured thereon by meaDB
independent of the nut employed to keep the axle·
box and hub upon the axle. The sleeve Is p rovi.:led
with grooves an d paBl'ages for holding lubricating
material, dilltributlng it to tho wCilrlng aurfnccs, such
grooves being covered by an adjustable band through
a hole in w bleb they are filled.
8907. CIOAR8, &c., 0. W. F. Bar114dale, Nolti.agham..
-16th Auguat, 1882. 4d.
Thill consists In takiog an ordinary cigar, 1\nd by
pressure causing the middle thereof to IIB8umo a
triangular form, lcaviog thn mouth end pointed a.nd
the llghting round as usuo.l.
3908. PRODUCTION AND APPLJCATlON OF COMBO'STJBLE
OASES,
W. S. Sulht~lancl, Birmingham.-16t~
4 ug"-8t, 1882. 8d.
Tho object is, First, to produce by the complete com·
bu~tlon of coal, combustible gas of greater p urity and.
strength than hitherto; and Secondly. to provide auitable a pparat us for tho p roduction and application of
such Ras. Tho epec,ficatlon is divided Into ton h esds,
all relating to tho arrangement and construction of tho
apparatus employed. Tbo producers bavo a m ovable
bottom and water j ack et, a.nd tho poke boles aro provided with steam jets.
8909. CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, .to., TV. P . Thompaon,
Liverpoot.-16th Augu&t, 1882.-(.A commvnication
from A. C. cl' 4lma, Pari• }-(Not proceeded 1eith..)
2d .
This relates to the construction of roads of burnt
clay, broken int o frogmenta and epread out into layel'3
of suitable thickness, tho clay being preferably burnt
by moans of gas.
3910. 8CB9TITUT& FOR • rARCB, &c., R. Edward,
Liverpoot.-l 6tlt ...«uuuat, 1882.- (Notprouedtd 10ith..)
u.
This re.l ates to the production of a substitute for
s tarch from Tarranon sbale, or wh&t is ca lled by some
geolog lsta pasto rock, which lies between the upper nnd
lower Silurian formation.
8911. APPARATUS FOR SmULTANEOt"S IONITION or
S&VKRA L F VSEI', II'. B tdford·Smith and a. H.
Smith, Corn tuo ll. - 16th A tt{l1Ut, 1882. 4d.
This relates to improvemen ts on pl\tent No. 478,
A.D., 1879, a.nd conelllta In forming the apparstue of
cross or star form, anti inserting a combustible acid in
the centre where all the branches meet, each branch
having a fuso lnse1ted, so that Its lnner end abuta
against the wad.
3913 . BA KI)('O OvENS, J R. Cl.ibnall, Hammeramith.l 6th. .-f Vllt<8t, 1882. 4<.£.
'I he i n ventor constructs the oven with the fu rnaco at
the back, which furnace communicates w1tb the Ouos
located in tbe ~en tre of the oven, the beat therefrom
being commun l~ated to the side flues by occasional
openings in sl1e walls of the furnace flues.
8915. FIRE ESC'APE", &:c , J . K tnll(dy, Strabant,
b·eland.-16th. .A u.gu&t, 1882. 6d.
The object i.e the arrangement of the escapo laddors1
ln euch a mnnnor t hat carriages may be m ountea
thereon for the loworin~r of persona from an elevation;
and tbo application to the ladders of adjustable appa·
ratus, to which tho hoee pipes can be attached in such
a m anner tbnt the pipes nro supported, and the direction of the jets of water Is u oder better control
T H E ENGINEER.·
298
8916. ScR&W On:.x.-BOxiS FOR Pn&PARINO WooL, &c., 8943. S&PARATINO CRLUI FRO'K !ftLK, D. Baynu, roller such parts being so arranged that the distance
D. , H., and IV. 8mitli, Keighley.-16th.AugU~t, 1882.
Cc:tnterbury.-17th .Aug141t, 1882.--{ A commutllcation botw~en thom ls greater at the point of entry of the
grain than at the point of exit, and remains so In every
from P. H. Mclnto&h, Canada.) 6J
6cl.
Tho inventor claims tho application of reciprocating
The object is to effect tho eeparntlon by c:>Ollng the adjustment of the mlll.
combs mounted between the back rollor11and fallor11 in milk.
8986. APPARATUS POR CoNN&CrrNO AND DISCONN!OT·
a<:row·gill prop 'ring boxes.
INO RAI LWAY On TRAMWAY ROLLINO StOCK, P .
3945. DRYlNO OR VKNTILATINO StAOI\( &c., P. BtUt,
Barnu, Rcading. -19th A ugtUt, 1882. Gd.
8918. DJOK lloLnERs, H. J . .Alliaon, London.-16th
w,nterton. -17th .AugU~t, 1882. Not procutUd
This
relates to improvements on potent No. 8684,
.A ugu.tl, 1882 -(A C1)7!1munication frtm~ R. M.
tdth.) 2d.
La11t ~it, lo"cw York ) 6d.
Tho ObJect is to afford fa.c Ulty for concentrating the dated 20th September, 1876.
The invention consl3ts in a novel construction, action of the stack drying fan or exhauster employed 8987. UTILISATION OF 0ALVANISERS' FLUX, &c., IN
arrangement, and combination of a pur of ad/"ustablo upon any desired part or parts of tho stack or rick.
TBE 'MANOFAOTOR& OF ZINC PAINT, &c., H. Kenyon,
foldln~ lcver11, an adjustable ha.so b.>:J.rd and ramo, a
4 ltrincM.m.-19th A U:,JU~t, 1882.-{Not proceeded
llos-rs Pon ExBIBITINO LADIES' CostUMes, &c.,
standard, a foltilng leg frome, and certain details of 3947.
1&ith.) 2d.
G. 0. Tanner, Romerton.-11th .AvgtUt, 1882.-(Not
various devices , whereby pnvisloo Is mado for adjustThe
prlnclp:Jl object is to utilise galvanisor11' flux,
FOCuded
with.)
2d.
ing tho leaves to a.:commodate books of different sizes,
It is proposed to form au Improver out of tho ordi- gas iron, and sawdust manure in tho obtaiomont of
and holding thom in ditibrent positions, &c.
nary bust or 8ap, \vhich will have its centro nenr or useful product.!! and bye-products.
8919 . COFFINS, S, J., and R. Turnc-, Rochdale.- 16th at tho wabt, and being p'\rt of tho pnpier m:~ochu or 3988. APPARATUS FOR RUSINO SU'NKEN Y&3SELS, &c.,
other material of which tbo bust is m \de.
J. B. B unter and J. H. T4omaa, London.-19th
.A"'""'· 1882. G..l.
This consists in a coffin mnde of nsbeetos cloth,
.Augt.Ut 1882.-(Not proceeded with.) 2d.
8948. Loous FOR W~VISO, C. Cattow, B"rnley. -17th
which is enclosed in a wooden or other suitable shell.
This rola£e; to tho arrangem ent and construction of
.Aug tUt, 181!2 h.
8921. MANOi'AOTDR it OF FABRICS FOR Cov&RINO
Tbis relates to improved combination of mechanism pontoons.
WALLS, &c.,
Fi;lter, Herne Bill.-16th .AugU~t, employed for operating tho healds; a lao for imputing 3989. PR&UOR& 0AOC&3 FOB STILUI, AIR, WATER,
1882. 2d.
&c., G. B. Paughan, London.-19tll .AugtUt, 1882.poaitivo mt)tion to the lower hcald staves by eop3rato
The Inventor claims the omploymeot of oil and cork mechanism, and wbich Ia applicable to looms generally.
(A communication from .A. Pirmston and W.
dust to give a suhttance and leather-like feel and To improved comblo[,tfous of mech!Uibm for holding
HoU~tOl&, Pari.&.)-( Not 'J1T'OCetcltd with.) 2d.
appearance to n thin ma.torial, such as linen or cotton the cloth roller or cloth bonm, ADd to an improved
A curved pressure tube is employed, the two onda
or other substances combined therewith, and tho construction of reed dents.
boing connected to two oor11. Tho opposite ends of
manufacture and use of a Folld filling to tho embossed
these bars are articulated to the shank of a toothed
3952.
GAS
Srov&S,
J.
P.
C.
Normcm
and
A.
H.
P
.
portions of a fabric, to render it permanent and wateraootor, communica.tlng through a pinion to a needle
8tua•t· IT"ortlcy, London.-18th A U{!tUt, 1892. Gd.
proof.
This relates to a ga.s stove, combining a small highly· the movements of the pressure tubo.
8922 CUICK REINS, A. M. Clark, London.-1Gth heated chamber, a comparatively large cooking or 8992. ROTARY EI'OrNES, J . IJI. X. Ttrlindcn,
.A uguat, 1882.-(d cqmmunicat~ ;rom B. T. warming chamber, and an onvelopo without opening
Bruutll. -19th .AugU~t, 1882. Gl.
Barding, Maitl4nd, Nov:1. Scotia.) 6d.
This relates to that class of rotary engines in
for escape of the products of combustion, except as set
Tho invention consists In a ru_noing rein or par· forth.
wWch radial pbtons or vaoos slide to nod fro in slots
b uckle arrangement, attached :\t ono end to the boor· 3954. TR&ATloiKNT OF P EATTY T ORI", &c. , P . J Ft-ied· formed m a drum mounted excontrically In a cylinder
ing hook of tl1e eaddle and at tho other to the driving
rich1, London.-18th .A"gU~t, 1882.-(.A communica· or casinr.
roin, the bight of this running rein passing through
tion from G. W. Stu~ingCl, Ormingen, litlltertanda.) 3997. lllANOI"ACf trRI!: OF SOLID COMIDINE AND PRO·
an eye on tho check rein, eo that tho pull of tho driver
DOCTION OF DIAZO ·OOMOL£1 &c., FOR US& IN
4d.
oo tho driving rein will nlso bo applied t o the checlc
P
a&PARATION ov Azo Cox.ooas, C. D• .Abel, London.
Tho turf Is separated into small p ortions, and
rein, whose tonaion will thus be increased and relaxed exp_osod
- 21at AugU~t, 1882.--{.A cou1munication (ror11 the
to tho rain or otherwise, to remove tannic
in unllormity with that or tho driving rein, inatead of actd colouring
.Actitn Gudl~e\o.ft fllr .Anilin Pabricatio'tl, Berlin.)
ma.tters or other mntter11 soluble and
boing permanently in tension as usual.
4d.
removable thereby. It is then dried and torn apart,
This
consl.ets parUy In the p roduction from the solid
3923. SMOKC • CONSOliii'O FORNAOD, T. Fletcher, and tho various de&criptions of m atter are separated by
IP'a rri ngton.-16t.\ .AugtUt 1882. 2d.
sieves. Tho line duet is treated with tar, rosin, and or crystallised cumldlne of dlazo-cumolo or tho eulpho·
Between tho fireplace or furnace and the 8ue or coal duat, and formed into bricks. The leafy powder, acid of diuo-cumole, and the use of these substan ces
c-blmnoy, an open screen work of firebrick or other lire- after admixturo with sulphate of iron, affords n good for the production of azo colours.
rellisting material is erected.
disinfectant. Tho em:illor clastlc pieces may be 3998. L.UIPS, &c.. 0. B. Lt011d, B&rminghan~.-2 1at
8925 P ONTOONS OR AIR VESSELS FOR USE I~ Til& employed as a packing or filling, and the larger o4Lstic
.AugU~t, 1882.-(Not procetcltd 1Dith.) 2d.
FoRMATION OJ' MILITARY DRIDOU, FOR RAISING piece&, a fter treatment with sulphate of iron, are
Tbe object is to provide a sel!-aotinf means of
adapted a.s a litter materiAl for hor11es.
SONKL~ V&SS&LS, ~ • .A. B . Williama, Ptcl:ham. extinguishing the 83me of a lamp, or o closing AD
-16th .Auguat, 1882. 6d.
3956. ARTLPICIAt. STO:>'E OR MARBL&1 J. H. Johmon, ouUet or aperture upon the lamp.
Tbia relates to a pontoon constructed in detAChable
Lorulon.-18th .AugU~t, 1882.--{.4 communicatim 8999. RECOVERY OF CA08TIO SODA OR POTASH EM·
portions, which n1·e adapted to Ue aud bo packed ono
(rom the CerU,.ldo Marble Ctm~pany, Pari&) 4d.
PLOYilD FOB TUE EXTII.AOTION OP AII.SEl'llC f'R0ll1
within the oUter, when the pontoon ill not built up or
Tble relates partly to the preparation of artificial
CoPP&R PR~CIPITATES, 0 . Johrwm, Jarro1e-on-Tyne.
in use.
atone or ma.rblo, by submitting native gypsum or sul-2l•t A ugU~t, 1882.--{.A communwtio'tl (rom T.
8926. SPRlNO MATTlncssa, W. R. Lake, London.-l6U1 phate of lime to a dehydrating indurating treatment.
Gibb, Ne10 Jeraey, U.S.HNot procwted with.) 2d.
AugU~t, 1882.--{.tf communitation from G. (}ale,
This rotates to tho recovery of caustic soda or potash
3957
.
AUTOMATIC POMP OR BOlLitR F.nDER, E . T.
Quebec.) 6d.
Hughu, Londo'tl.-18th .Augmt, 1882.-{A ctm~muni· from tho ar11enical aalt of soda or potash obtainod when
This reistes tt> a spring mattroes or bed bottom,
catio11 from tht .tf!Uomatic Boiler and Engine Co., arsenic is extracted from copper precipitates, by means
having V-shaped links forming dlaaonal connections
of a solution of caustic soda or potash.
Ne~c R aven, U.8)-{Notprocced«l with .) 2d.
between the springs at each end of the said mattress,
This consists of two pumps working in combination 4002. KtTCBBN RANOJ:S, R. II'. Crabtree, Lttd&.-2ht
with or without straight IInke
or in connection with each other ; one, a plunger
.A ugU~t, 1882. Gd.
This relates, Firat, to an arrangement of auxiliary
3927. Ron TRAVWA:s( H. H. M. Smith, Londm.- pump, on its up stroke draws f rom the supply in the
16th .A ugtUt, 1882. .tf communiccU~ {rtml A. 8. usual way through a auction pipe and valve ; the other gas atovo or stove& adapted to the plate racks of
B a.llidit, San Pran~co ) 6d.
pump, which may boa piston working in a cylinder, is kttchen ranges ; Secondly, to an arrangement of fire·
This consists partly in the combination with tho connected with tbe boiler by a pipe provided with a box or furnace ; Thirdly, to the arrangement of a.sh·
tubo containing the ropo or cable of deep grooved valve at the proper water level.
pan or nsh receiver, comprising two drawers, ono over
pulleys or sheave&, for carrying tho said ropo or cable, 8968. MUSICAL INSTII.OM&NTS KNOWN AS 1\hcn.U:ICAL the other, eUdio~t in a suitable frame. Other improvethe eaid pulleys or sheaves being carried in frames
OROOINETT&, R. Wl.aUey, Liverpool.-18th AugtUt, m ents are describod.
adjustable upon a curved or inclined surlaco or support,
1882.-(NotFOCutUd 'IDith.) 2<l.
4004. BnEWINO , P. E. Whitham, mar Bro.dford.-21st
so a.s to bo suited for carrying tho rope or cnble along
The First part of the improvements is in that part of
August, 1882. -(Not procudtd 1oith.) 2d.
etroight portions or around curved portions of tho the instrument, where tho air p:ll!scs through tho perThe object is to convert the unru')dlfied sta.rch in
tuln
forated strips of paper into the winr\ box. I t further the m .:u b tub into dextrine duriog the operation of
3928. SuPS oR LADD tRS, C. .A. Jonu, GlouuiU'r.- consists in maklog an opening at tho bottom of each brewing boer.
ltlth .Augu11, 1852. 6d.
of tho four small bellows, for the purpose of gaining 4007. C&NTRIFtJOAL ?tiACntNES von DaYINOS.ILT, &c.,
Tbis relates to improvements in steps or laaders, access to the Inner valves when necessary.
P. Wirth, Prank(ort.-2111 .AugtUt, 1832.-(A comconaillting in constructing them of two parts or prin· 3965. MACBlNE POR PIERCL.'<O NAIL fiOLf:S IN
munication from C. -von Bec410laheim, Munich .) Gd.
cip:Us connected ~t their upper portions by a sliding
Tbe inventor claims, Firat, a circula.r sieve arranged
RooPINO SLATES, &c., S. Cornforth, Birmingham.
jolnt, and controlled at tho lower portions by a strut
to
be rotated simultaneously upon two axes, which
-18th. .AugtUt 1 1882.--{Not proceeded. tcitJ•. ) 2d.
or strctch"r or struts or a~tchor11.
This relatea to toe !feDeral construction of machines, iotorscct each other obliquely; Secondly, wind sails
8929. HuTLNO BATUS, B. Darbyt .Lolldon.-16tll for piercing or punching nail holea in rooting or other or wings arranged upon tho centrifugal apparatus for
the purpose of removing tho dr.led salt.
AuptUt, 1882.--{Not 'J1T'OCudW. "itlt.J 2d.
elates.
Tho object is to arn.ngo the gas-heating apparatus so 8966. FOLDINO AND EXT&NSlBLE CASJ:S on RECEl'· 40()8. APPARATUS FOR INDIOATlNO TU& P OSITION OF
as to avoid all injury to the beth.
'
TAOLJ:S, &c., B. P. .AlaClnder, London.-1811\.
SoNKE:-1 SBIPS, &c., W. R . Lake, London.-211t
8980. WATJ:B. WAST& PREVJ:NTER FOR CLOSitTS, &c.,
AugU~t, 1882.- (A communwtio'tl from A. P. Potta,
Augmt, 1882.--{ A communication from M. Pernberg,
G. B mder1on «nd D. McNeil, London.-16111
!lldianapot~. U.S.)- (Not 'J1T'OCet.d.Ad with.) 2d.
S1Dt.den.) 4d.
This consists, First, in certain combinations of trays,
Tbis conafsts of a buoy having a rope attached thereto
AugtUt, 1882.-(Not 'J1T'OCud.td with.) 2d.
The object is to render the action of the syphon from frames, or receptacles, and hinged or pivotted connect- and securod to the vessel or other object.
t he beginning to the ending of tho disch uge the same; ing cross arms , whereby aald trays aro held in position 4009. MAOBIN&RY POB TB!t :MANOFAOTORE 01' BARR&LS
and further, tho discharge of tho water is effected with· both when closed and extended ; Secondly, In the
OR CASKS, JY. R. Lal:t, Londm.-2lat .AugtUt, 1882.
combination of such extensible receptacles with other
out noise.
-(.tf communication f-rtm~ P. Myer1, N N l'ork.) Sd.
article&
or
supports;
Thirdly,
In
certain
sp~ial
Tho Invention comprises several improvemen ts in
8931. MOVINO .L~D llOLDINO FoBOrNOS OR INOOTS articles provided with movable or extensible compartUln>&R ST&AW RAIIIWERS, &c., A. Mure, Gl4agow.
the construction of the machlnery.
ments.
-lith .AugtUI, 1882 -( Not 'J1T'OCtt.ded 1Dith.) 2d.
4011. FORNAO&S, J. and T . Robi'tl4on, Wi<lnu.-22nd
TWa relates to improvements on patent No. 3381, 8968. ElosrCBY KNITTINO MAORINEII, TY. BarriiO'Il,
A ugtUt, 1882.-(Not procttded '!#ith .) 2d.
4th August, 1881, and consists1 Firat, in the employ~Ja'llChutc-. -18Ut AugU~t, 1882. 6d.
This consists in a n ovel construction whereby the
m ent of cylindrical roUer11 earned In m ovable bearin~
Tho object is to knit two or more stoclclngs or advantages of a melting or smelting and a refining or
or axle-boxes; Secondly, in rendering the onvil itself articles, by m aking two or more machines work atone reducing furnace are obtained in combination.
to traver11e backwardsandforwarda beneath the "tup" operation by ono per110n turning a crank or whoel.
4016. PtsTON L tTBRICATOII.S( ll. J. Haddan, Ke~t•ingtml·
of the hammer.
8970. MACHINES FOR SPUININO AND WINDINO
-22nd .AugtUt, 18:!2. A Ctmlmuniclltion frtm~ J .
8982. FIREPROOF LIQUID CouPOO'ND, W. Allrop and
TOBACCO, D. and J. Macdonald, Gl4agolc.-19th
P leilcMr, Cologne. ) - (Not 'J1T'OCe«ktt 1eith.) 4<1.
R. Ridfll&a!J, Bomerllm.-lith A ugu.tt, 1882. 2d.
A Ugu~t, 1882. 6ct.
This consists essentially, to the fir11t place, of conThis consists In tho usc of AD alkaline allicate and
This relates to improvements in tho general con- structing a piston of two circular metallic discs holdh ydrate of alumina mixed together, or soparatoly, as a struction of tho mnchino.
ing between them n number of layer11 of cork, indialire·reeistini compound.
8973. CmmNs, II'. McCaU~land, Btlfaat.- l 'Jth AugU~t, rubber, paateboard, or other more or less elastic
8938. 8AF1n"V APPA1lATt7S FOR ROLLrNO MILLS, T.
material; and, in the second placo, in combination
1882. Gd.
Nturay, Litge.-11th A u.gtUt, 1882. Gd.
Tble consists In the use of improved tubular boaters with such a piston, a m echanism for tho regulation
The object is to prevent the breukage in rolling milia, or duhere, whereby a constant supply of nir is fur- of the supply of the requisite qltBntlty of semi-solid
by deadening or annulling the shocks wh.lch a re pro- nished to the milk or cream during the operation of unguent, consillting of a link preased by a s pring
duced by the pnssage of a bard body, and relates parUy churning.
against the piston-rod, which i s provided on its
to the employment of spiral springe.
3977. MANt71'ACf0111!: OF AlolliiONIA AND P ORIFIOATION periphery with one or more n otches Into which the
8984. RINO SPJNNINO AND DOOliLINO :&fACHU\"&RY,
OP SJJAL£ OILS, D. Urguh.art, Wutminater.-9th link fal18.
J . McGregor, Manchutc-.-17th .AugU~t, 1882. Gd.
A ugtUt, 1882.-{Partly a communication from Dr. L. 4020. ROLLER MILLS FOR 0BINDINO FLOOR, &c., T.
One portion of the invention relates to the rings
Play/air, New l"ork.) 4d.
A . Adarn~on, Btl(aat.-22nd .AugtUt, 1882.--{Not
uaually used for spinning! and which are fixed into
This consists, Firat, in tho manufacture of ammonin
FOCetcltd with.) 2:t.
from
shales
having
llme
or
soda
lime,
mixed
therewith
This
consists In having one or m ore smooth r ollers
tho ring rail. Other modibcations are described.
8985, SHAPINO MACHINE, .A. T. Gral!ltllt and A . for the purpose of increasing the amount of nmmonia working in combination with a 8utcd roller or rollers,
Pro.t, Stofford.-11th .AugU~t, 1882.-(Not procet.dlcL given off on distilhtion ; Second ~~~ tho use of lime or and in the arrangement thoreof.
eodn lime in tho distillation of s cs for the p roduc- 4021. EXRA09TrNO Am PROW HAT OR OTH ER STACKS,
wiUt.) 2d .
Tble consists in arranging the several parts of the tion of shale ol..is freed more or leas from sulphur ;
rr. 1/aigh, SJ:ipt.tm-in-Cratom.-22nct AUgU~t, 1882.Thirdly,
the
use
caustic
lime,
slaked
with
a
solution
machine in such a way M to enable the several aides
(Not procud,d with.) 2d.
of caustic soda, in admixture with peat, coal, or
of the article to be acted upon simultaneously.
The object is the construction of portable apparatus
similar carbonaceous substances, for the purpose of that can be applied to stacks, and tho air exhausted
8936. SCPPORTJNO AND P ROTECTTNO THJ: BD'M'OMS OF lncreJslng the amount of ammonia given oft during
PANTALOONS, W. Brierley, B alifox.-11tA AUgu~t destructive distillation, :md of improving the oily pro- from the interior of the stACk for tho purpose of drying tho material when it has been stACked insuffi1882.--{A Ctm~munwtionfromR. Kindler, Germany.) ducta of distillation.
ciently dry.
4<1.
This consists of a vory narrow plate or blade spring, 8979. DRTVINO M&on.unsu OF TRIOYCLKS, &c., Tl'. 8. 4026. SK.I.TES, C. G. Beddoe, London.-22nd .AugtUt,
Lttri.~, Wolt:erhampton.-19th AugU~t, 1882. Gd.
the lower end or sltank of which is fastened by means
1882. 6d.
Tbo object is tho construction of mechanism forming
of small screws or pins to the heel of the boot or shoe.
This consists chlolly in tho employment of means of
a double driver, that ls to aay, m echanism wWch con·
8937. CONSTRUCTION OP Mrros, J . T . .Dann, B rixto!l. voys motion from the crank axle to both tho driving causin; the side claws for tho sole to descend so as to
- 17th .AugU~t, 1882. -(.A Ctmlmttnicat~ ;rom .A. wheol.!i, and nlao permits of tho diiTorential motion of grip the welt, a nd thus form with the heel claws an
effective attachment to tho boot.
.SChmid, Z"rich.) 6d.
the wheels necesaary in paasing round a curve.
This consists in the construction ADd use or employ4027. DaEDOI:NO AND EW'TYrNo DR&DCINO L 1oUTER.S•
3981.
STEAM
ENOII>"J:S,
J.
Shanh
and
J.
G.
Lym,
ment of two cylinder11 ao combined together that each
B. P . .Aluandcr, London.-2tnd A ugtUt, 1882.A .-broo.th, N.B.-19th .A ugU~t, 1882. Gd.
cylinder bas six apertures or ports, one ot top, one at
(A communication from M . Neuha\411 Berlin.--{Not
This consists in employing two single-acting
the bottom, and four at hall height, two of the latter
procuded with. ) 4ct.
cylinders
with
one
port
in
each,
the
steam
exhausted
communicating with tbd top and bottom aperture of
This relates to tho use of pumps In loosening soil
from
the
small
or
high-pressure
cy!Jnder
being
used
In
tho other cylinder, and the two other11 serviJlg, one as
which is to bo dredged, and the raising of thh loosened
the
large
or
low-pressuro
cylinder
for
the
pttrpoae
or
inlet, and the other aa ouUet.
soil ; nlao to deta.lla in construction of tho pumps emmaking the return stroke of the piston.
ployed.
8989. CmNE&rNO Tn:nua BY MtJLTIORROXATIO
3983.
llfACUINERY
Pon
MAJetNo
Doutt
H
ons
von
PRINTING, &c., W. .A. Barl01D, Um.don.-1 ith
4030. M""NOFACTORE OF MolTS, J. lJiaddin, London.llltHINO,
&c.,
J
.
ll"o.dllington
and
B
.
Longbottom,
22nd .tfugU~t, 111S:!. -(l'iot proceeded 1eith.) 2d.
• .Augu&t, 1882.-(A communicat~ fronl Mme. J'tuvt
Barr~ne-in-Purnu•.
and
J
.
A
lh<J&orth,
Dlllt.tm-in.·
This reL.ltes to impronlmonts in the manufacture of
L. Gode{roy, and L. Lamdle, Pam) 6cl.
P"rnua.19th
.AugU~t,
1882.
Gd.
mats made from coir yam in combination with manilla,
The process is divided into two parts, viz., a c.'temiThis
rotates
to
the
arrangement
of
a
rocking
lever,
hemp, or other similar materlal.!i.
cal and a mechanical part.
eliding block, and air chamber, operotingin conjunction
4043. ht.t.CBJNEa POR MAKINO MOULDS POR CASTING
3940. CONNl:CflNO TOCETBIIIR h'TEROIIANCUDLE with a vertical a team cylinder and p iston-rod.
NAILS, 8. WiUia~n~, JUar Bir.ningham. - 23rd
TAPPl:T!I usm IN Loolol.S, J . Byw:~.tc-, JUar LtciU. 3984.
TAILOB.b'
MABKINO
JSSTRO)Itnml
H.
Searle
and
1
.AugtUt, 1882. Gd.
171h .AvgU~t, 1882 6d.
T.
J.
lrO'Illidt,
London.
-19th
.AUQUit,
1882.
6d.
This consists essentially in the combination in a
A series of discs or loose plates having flanges or
This
relates
to
the
employment
of
holder11
containmachine for pricking or moulding the shank h'lll of
rima t hereon are employed, in which aro grooves or
ing
thln
m
oulded
sheets
of
the
cll!llk
or
marking
the mould of a perforated moulding platform
slots for recolving tongues or projections formed on
mater
ial
having ribs to form the "gets " (upon which
oacl~ tappet for keeping them in position in one
direction, whilst they nre prevented from moving 3985. 0Rn>"DINO 'MILLS, W. Wing,fl:ld-BOAnyn, Lon- platform the half mould is supported), with a 1ising
and falling pricker plate, tho series of prickers of the
sldewny by the adjoining d.lsc, which is similarly
dcm.-19th .Au!71Ut, 18'12. 6d.
provided with loose tappets, all of such dbcs bolng
Thill relates to the combination of 11 revolving roller aaid pricker plato passing through the perforations in
placed on the tappet Phaft and bound bodily together and nlixed or movable coun terpvt, h \ving its inner tho mouldlng platforms bofore they enter t he h:Jolf
by bolt4 wL.ich pass through the whole series.
or grlndiog surface .identical with a segment of such mould for effecting the pricking operation.
A PRIL
13, 1883.
SELEOTED AMERIOAN PATENTS.
l rom cl&e United Sl4tu' Palm' 06'« OJkial Gcutl!.
273,750. 0AB ENOUI'E, B iram 8. Mazim, Pari$
Prame.-Piled .Augu.&t 28rd, 1882.
•
otaim.-The combination, with a tubo, cylinder,
or other chamber to be exhausted, of exploding
cylin:iere or similar chambcr11 provided with induction
or eduction valves and exploding aperturoa, the communication between the tubo or cylinder and the
exploding chambers bolng eatablbhed through the
Induction valves, t\8 and for the purpose set forth.
A motive power engine consisting of tho following
nstrumentalltles In combination, to wit: a cylinder
s.
1
oi
•
and pl3ton and m eans for utilising or a~plying tin:
movement of the aame, a mixer for comblrung detin.lto
p roportions of air and gas and admitting the aame to
t ho cylinder, valve m echanism for controlling the
admission of gas and air, a governor connected with
said valvo, exploding chambers containing induction
and eduction valves, and means for igniting the gas
In aaid chambol"'l alternately, as set forth.
278 855. SECONDARY BATTERY, Nathaniel S. Keith,
New York , N. Y.-Filed January SW, 1883.
ctaim.-In a secondary bettory, the combination of
a posi t1 ve electrode, the aoti vo put of whlch is finely
divided metal deooslted thereon by electro-deposition,
and 11 negative electrode the active part of which is a
spongy metallic compound deposited thereon by
olectro-dopositlon, either one or both electrodes being
contained In a porous envelope or receptacle.
CONTENTS.
TB& ENOINEER, April 13th, 1883.
PAO&
WBAT NiTRO-oLYCI:BIN& IS •• • • . • . . • . • • 279
ST&EL FIR&-BOXE~ . . . .
• . . • . . .. .. 279
THE LoNDON AND KoRTn·W.&STJ.RN CoMPANY's SBlP
ViOLET. (Illustroted.)
. . .. . . • . •• . . 2i9
T o£ M~LTA RAILWAY. (Illustrated.) •• . . .. 280
NEW TROOP SIUP POR INDIA
. . . • • • • . . . 280
L&l'TZJUI TO TH E E.DITOBDlUTBOOTION BY FIR& or NICE PIER . • . . • . 232
ToE PROBI.IW OF FLIOIIT . . . . . • . . • • . • 282
El&LICAL OUR INO
.. • • • • • . • . • . 282
Tall: 1:'\oaTRAl!PTON ACCJJ)BJ,"T.. • • • • . . • • 282
DI!:LOIAN N All. RODS . . . . .. .. . • .. .. 282
TONNAOE AND LOAD LINE . . • • . . . . . , •• 282
Ta m CHANNEL T ONN£L
. . • . . . . • • • • • 282
RAJLWAY MA"M'&RS • •
•• • •
••
••
••
••
•• 28S
Nona AND 'MIOtoBAm>A
•• •• • . •• .. 288
li!J 80"J:LLA.NltA • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 288
T o£ TRANSMISSION ov PowzA nv EL&crRICITY •• 286
Tae SuMM IT LEVEL T uNNEL ov TBE D&Trws A.ND
Fr:sTINIOO RAILWAY .• .. • • .•
. . 287
ST&EL CRU18£RS FOR TD£ UIIIT'ID STAT&S NAVY .• 287
L&ADINO ARTICLI!8-DVNAMITE PERIL .. • . .. • . • • • • • • • • 289
ENEROY ExPitND&D IN PROP&Lt.r~o A Dcovou .. 289
H ow TO Us~IAXI!: NITRO·OLYOERUill: •• . . . . 290
SIR LYON PLAYPAIR AND SIR AU009TOS
F REDJ.RIClt A!lEL
. . . • . . . • • • • • 290
ARTESIAN WELLS UPON TUB 0RUT P LAJNSOI'TDil
UNJTilD Suns . • • • • •
• . • • . • • • 291
CASOALTlES IN MrNIIIO
. • • • •• • • 291
DISCBARO ISG TORPEDOES . • • .
• • • • • , 291
LrTttRATOR£Equllibrlo Interno delle Pile M' tallicbe . . .. 291
M«TEOROLOOY AS A SciENCE.. .. • • . • • • . . 292
Toe TR&VITruCK Mn~ontAL.. . . . . .. •• •• 29"
A Dro DAM..
••
••
••
••
•.
••
. . 294:
Fa SED )Al\D . . • .
. . . • ..
. . • . ..
Ta& l noN, CoAL, AND GBNEAAL TRADes or Bin·
MINOU.ul, WOLVBRUA.MPTON, AND DlSTBICf • • • •
NOTES FRO¥ LANCABBI R~ , • • • • • • • • • , •
NOTr:s FROM SBEPFilU.D
. . •• • • •• • • • •
NOTa PRO)I T:W: NORTH 01' ENOI.A.ND • • • • • •
NOTJ:S PROM SCOTLAND . • • . . • . • . • .. • •
N OTP.B PROM WALCS AND A.D.JOININO Cotnn'113 • •
Ta:& PATE:!>"T JOURNAL •• • • .. •• • • • • • •
ABSTRACTS OP PATI!:NT BPECIFIOATlOifS. (Dlua.) ••
ABSTRACTS Ol" PATENT AxERlOAN SPJtOlflOATlON8.
(Illustrated.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .
p Al\AORAJ>R8MaUock Bath Water Supply • . . • • • • . ..
The Chief Cities of Europe . . . • • • • • .•
Trial Trip of tho s.s. :b1alk
. • . • • • • . ..
Lubrication . . . . . . . . .. . .
. . ..
. •.
Calcutta International Exhibition .•
.
294
29~
m
295
295
295
295
296
297
298
280
287
287
287
291
SoUTH K.RNSINOTON 1\IuSBOll.-Visiton during
t h e week ending April 7th, 1883 :-on Monday,
Tuesday, and Saturday, free from 10 a .m. to
10 p.m., Museum, 10,281 ; mercantile marine,
I ndian section, and other collections, 3802. On
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, admission
6d. , from 10 a .m. to 6 p.m., Museum, 1984;
mercantile marine, Indian section, and other
collections, 305. Total, 16,372. Average of corresponding week in former years, 15,491. Total
from the opening of the llluseum, 21,876,746.

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