Contrafforte Pliocenico - Città metropolitana di Bologna



Contrafforte Pliocenico - Città metropolitana di Bologna
The Reserve
The geography
of the Pliocene age
The golden sandstone rocks that
shape the Reserve’s spectacular
landscapes recount the history
of a small sea gulf whose waters
submerged this territory during
the Pliocene age (5-2 million
years ago), when the plain area
known today as the Po Valley
was still a deep open sea environment, next to which the
Apennine mountain range had
already, for the most part,
emerged. In the area between
the valleys of Reno and Idice,
there was a coastline which included the ancient river mouths
of Reno, Setta, Savena, Zena
and Idice. These watercourses
carved out valleys which more
or less coincided with the present day ones, and flowed to the
sea, laying down transported
material (during the Pliocene
age, hundreds of meters of
sediment were deposited in
the gulf).
The most ancient Pliocene deposits, visible today in the wide
quarries and craggy ravines between Setta and Savena, are
formed by layers primarily of
pebble (conglomerates), typical
of river environments near the
coast. Higher up, the conglomerate gives way to gray clay,
easy to recognize in the ravines
(“calanchi”) of Rio Carbonaro,
at the foot of Monte Adone,
which was deposited in marine
environments as deep as 300400 meters (the presence, in the
clay, of pebble lenses that were
deposited during the more intense flood periods, is a sign of
how close the emerged land
was). After this first sea invasion, there was a “regression”
that led to the withdrawal of the
waters and to the emergence of
previously submerged areas,
again exposed to erosion. At
this stage the streams Setta,
Savena, Zena and Idice flowed
toward the northeast, carving
the valley outlines from the recently deposited Pliocene clay.
Following this, the area was
again submerged by the gulf
sea, flooding the new valley
contours and progressively sealing them with a cover of sandy
sediment which led to the “fossilization” of their V-profiles. It
was during this new marine
stage that the sandstone and
conglomerate rock was formed,
as can be seen today in the
walls of the Contrafforte
Pliocenico. Here the numerous
traces to be seen in the rocks
recall their place of origin:
wave-bashed beaches into
which flowed the wild Apennine
rivers. Over the course of the
entire Pliocene age, while the
coarsest and heaviest materials
were being laid down by rivers
near the coastline, clay, silt and
fine sands were deposited further offshore. These materials
can be seen to the north of the
Reserve, not far from Bologna,
in the deep and large ravines of
Pieve del Pino and Sabbiuno.
After sedimentation, the deposits of the Pliocene gulf were
involved in the orogenic movements: rising and shifting that
explain how the most ancient
sediments in the gulf, from the
early Pliocene age, can today be
found a few miles to the northeast of their original site, while
one can walk today up to the
peak of Monte Adone (654 m)
on ancient beach deposits of upper Pliocene.
Cliffs, pinnacles
and grottoes
The slender profile of the Contrafforte Pliocenico is the incredible result of the erosive
modelling which took place between rocks of different “hardness.” The clay slopes at the
base are of average steepness
and gouged with ravines, while
the sandstone above, more resistant to the erosion, is typified
by vertical rocky cliffs which
feature, along the steepest parts
of the slopes, a distinct morphological step. The cliffs are this
high and continuous also because their orientation crosses
at a right angle that of the layers, ensuring greater stability. In
the opposite side, facing northeast and north, the slopes are in
the same direction as the layers,
with a softer and more uniform
morphology, without cliffs or
drops and with wood covering.
Along its whole range the Contrafforte Piocenico area is divided into larger valleys (Setta,
Savena and Zena), while the
smaller streams flow through
Parchi e Riserve
Riserva Naturale
A sandstone tower in Sadurano.
with deeper grooves, that at
times take the aspect of true
canyons (such as the Raibano
and Aldani gorges), creating
saddles that significantly lower
the skyline.
Along the slopes, the atmospheric agents, dominated by the
wind, have modelled peculiar
erosive shapes, more rapidly
carving the less cemented or
more fractured rocky masses.
This is how the magnificent
towers near the peak of Monte
Adone or along the cliffs of
Sadurano were created, along
with ravines, rock shelters and
ledges, like the marvelous Rocca di Badolo, Monte del Frate
and Sadurano (well known to
hikers and rock climbers). The
presence of fractures and faults
that run through the rock has
fostered the development of
small cavities, such as the Grotta delle Fate at the foot of
Monte Adone and the Grotta dei
Funghi near Badolo.
By Fondazione Villa Ghigi
The long rocky face of the Contrafforte Pliocenico.
The unmistakable profile of Rocca di Badolo.
del Pino
Pian di Macina
Sasso Marconi
S. Pietro
T. S
T. S
S. Lazzaro
di Savena
T. Q
di Reno
T. Z
the shells of gastropods and bivalve mollusks such as the easily
recognizable oyster shells. The
fossils too provide important data for the reconstruction of their
living environment (climate,
water depths, salinity, etc.). Frequent fossil traces, reminiscent
of large petrified worms, stem
from the fossilization of tunnels
dug into the sediment by living
organisms. Some of the most interesting remains are the phyllites discovered in 1929 in Livergnano by the Bolognese naturalist Giuseppina Gubellini.
Among the leaves, packed into
multiple layers and with perfectly preserved shapes and ribs, the
holm oak, oak, laurel, poplar,
willow, elm, plane, ash, hornbeam and many others, can be
easily distinguished. The beautiful collection can be seen in the
paleobotany showcases of the “G.
Capellini” Museum of Geology
and Paleontology in Bologna.
The majestic cliffs of Contrafforte are scored by delicate internal lines, along which the wind
has chiseled minute sculptures,
similar to bas-relief, bringing
out the more cemented and resistant parts of the rock. The
“sedimentary structures”, as
they are called, result from the
different ways in which granules were deposited and are an
important evidence for a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation paleo-environments.
In Contrafforte, they always
stand for shallow sea environments and can be considered a
fossilized testimony of the small
dunes created by waves and
coastal currents, which moved
the seabed and foreshore. Even
their absence is telling, because
it indicates periods in which the
sediment was intensely mixed
by the organisms living in it. In
Contrafforte, on the main “bioperturbed” levels, which are
more erodible, ledges that give
movement to the walls at different heights have been modeled.
Embedded in the rock or scattered in the detritus following
rock breakdown, one also finds
the fossils of organisms that inhabited the Pliocene gulf: mostly
T. S
Sedimentary structures and fossils
F. Ren
beam and some plants typical of
mountain woodlands. As well as
beech, there is also yew, holly,
bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata),
spineless butcher’s broom, spring
snowflake (Leucojum vernum)
and lily of the valley (Convallaria
to the sandy soil. Some of the
herbaceous plants in the undergrowth include primrose, Apennine lungwort, anemones and,
more rarely, the dogtooth violet,
snowdrop, and Alpine squill.
Down on the cooler valley floor,
the microclimate favours horn-
Patches of holm oak on the southern walls of Monte Rosso.
The morphology of the Contrafforte Pliocenico has generated a
wide variety of environments,
with highly contrasting microclimates. Correspondingly, there is a
rich and varied vegetation which,
along with the plants found
The woods in the Reserve
throughout the Apennine upland
and the Bolognese hills, includes
The woods that cover most of the
rare and unusual forms, often the
Reserve are primarily aged woodremains of past landscapes that
lands, harvested in the past and tohave survived in these almost inday abandoned or left to be imaccessible refuges. Perhaps the
proved as tall stand woodlands.
most representative image of the
There are also young bushlands
Reserve is the dark evergreen fogrowing on former fields that have
liage of the holm oak, an oak typinot been cultivated since before
cal to the Mediterranean area,
the Second World War. On the drithat dots the sunny slopes, in
er slopes drought-tolerant oak
some sites forming green underwoods prevail, with a predomigrowth along with Mediterranean
nance of downy oak (Quercus pushrubs such as phyllirea, Italian
bescens) and its retinue of mannabuckthorn, tree heath, sageleaf
ash, service tree and the rare
rockrose, and poet’s cassia
Montpellier maple, along with
(Osyris alba). The cliff environscattered holm oak groves. Among
ments hosts a characteristic flora
the shrubs there is wayfaring tree,
which includes lichens and mosshawthorn, wild privet, scorpion
es, small succulents such as
senna (Coronilla emerus), bladspecies of stonecrop (Sedum),
der senna (Colutea arborescens),
herbaceous plants with fine flowCanary clover (Dorycnium hirsuers like wood pink (Dianthus
tum), common and black broom
sylvestris), rock soapwort, globe(Cytisus scoparius, Lembotropis
daisy, Alpine and autumn squill,
nigricans). In the sparse and
dwarf shrubs such as Italian everbright undergrowth, a profusion of
lasting, wormwood, white rockgrasses and the rare and beautiful
rose, thyme, wild marjoram, and
flowers of burning bush, Canterheath-rose. The landscape is simibury bells (Campanula medium)
lar to the variegated and scented
and the various orchids (Orchis
Mediterranean “garrigue”
purpurea, O. simia, Cephashrubland and, in less extreme
lanthera damasonium,
areas, gradually gives way to
Dactylorhiza romana) stand
arid plains dominated by
out. Extensive
grasses and dotted with jumesophilic woods cover
niper, Spanish broom and seathe cool damp slopes
buckthorn bushes. In the
facing north, where
prairies grow such diverse floral
hop hornbeam stands
species as Siberian bellflower,
alongside doany and
various orchids (Orchis corioTurkey oaks, maples
phora, O. morio, O. tridentata,
(sycamore, field and
Serapias cordigera) and
Italian), wild service tree,
feather-grass (Stipa pennaCornelian cherry, hazel
ta), a rare graminaceous
and laburnum. Chestspecies native to the
nut is also common,
southeastern steppes of
having been cultivated
Europe. While in the
over the centuries by
ravines and gulleys of
the local populations
the “calanchi” grows
the vegetation typical to Orchis coriophora. and flourished thanks
the city as well as from Sasso
Marconi, Pianoro and Monzuno,
along pleasant hillside roads.
From Bologna, you take the
Savena valley road to Pian di
Macina, and then the secondary
road SP 58 Pieve del Pino, which
goes up to Badolo. A more scenic
alternative is the hilltop road
from Bologna to Badolo through
Sabbiuno and Pieve del Pino.
From Pianoro, in the Savena valley, another road leads up to
Brento, at the foot of Monte
Adone, or you may follow the SP
65 Futa to Livergnano. From Sasso Marconi just take via Ganzole
which after the Prati di Mugnano
park leads on to the SP 58 towards Badolo. The SP 36 Val di
Zena skirts around the most eastern sector of the Reserve. For
those coming from further away,
the Sasso Marconi exit of the A1
highway is less than one kilometer from the road to Badolo.
The Contrafforte Pliocenico Nature Reserve in the Bologna hills,
extending in the municipalities of
Sasso Marconi, Monzuno and Pianoro, protects a peculiar and
imposing line of sandstone rocks
which, for about 15 km, stand out
widthways to the valleys of Reno,
Setta, Savena, Zena and Idice.
The Contrafforte Pliocenico culminates in the peaks of Monte
Adone, Rocca di Badolo and
Monte Rosso. In the Setta valley,
the Reserve faces the most northern section of the Historical Regional Park of Monte Sole. Contrafforte’s particular morphology
is at the basis of diversified and
contrasting environments, of
great interest in terms of flora
and fauna components (the Reserve territory is included in the
Site of Community Importance
list). The protected area, which
lies about 20 km from Bologna,
can be easily reached both from
g ia
these environments, which includes many legumes such as
Spanish broom, French honeysuckle (Hedysarum coronarium), silver broom (Argyrolobium
zanonii), Masquiller’s restharrow
(Ononis masquillerii) as well as
goldilocks aster and various
Cliff plants and
Mediterranean vegetation
Contrafforte Pliocenico
T. Idic
The most interesting fauna is
found in the steep cliffs, where
the most protected ledges provide perching spots and breeding
places for rare and protected
birds in Europe. The bastions of
Contrafforte Pliocenico were one
of the few places of refuge for the
peregrine falcon, even during the
most critical period, which lasted
until the late ’80s. Today, its presence in the Bologna area is gradually increasing, also thanks to the
project “Pellegrino” Life Natura,
sponsored by the Province of
Bologna, which has chosen this
elegant bird of prey with pointed
wings as its symbol.
Another extremely rare falcon,
which also nests on cliffs, is the
lanner falcon, very similar to the
peregrine falcon but different
from the latter in the reddish instead of black head and the lower
parts with no stripes. From the
ridge areas, young golden eagles
sometimes push themselves to
the highest points of the Reserve.
In the winter, when it leaves the
mountainous areas to retreat to
the rocky hills, you can spot the
wallcreeper. Around the cliffs, it
is also possible to see Alpine
swifts darting in groups, forming
small colonies in the most inaccessible places. On the southern
slopes and the upper parts of
Contrafforte Pliocenico, are
the ortolan bunting and the
tawny pipit, two small
birds typically found in
shrub and sunny meadows. In the same environments during an excursion, one can often
hear a rustling sound
produced by reptiles
on the run, such as the
green lizard, the Italian three-toed skink,
the southern smooth
snake, the green whip
snake (often allblack coloured)
and, more
rarely, the
Points of Interest
1 The Prati di Mugnano park,
The peregrine falcon and
other rocky habitats species
The species of the
wooded slopes
The woods of the Reserve, and
especially the northern slopes,
are populated by roe deer, wild
boars, foxes, and other hill
mammals, including several
species of forest bats (for
which artificial nesting boxes
have been prepared).
There is no lack of important
European birds of interest such
as the honey buzzard, wryneck
and nightjar, which are flanked
by more common species such
as jays, cuckoos, wrens and
Among the reptiles, one can
find the Aesculapian snake, a
long slender snake that climbs
nimbly on shrubs and trees in
search of nests to prey on. Particularly significant are the limited and circumscribed signs of
the spectacled salamander, a
rare amphibian found in the
cavities of the undergrowth
near rivers or in other very cool
and wet places, ideal habitats
for the common toad, the agile frog, the Italian stream
frog and the Apennine yellow-bellied
toad. Among the invertebrates are some
interesting significant
environmental indicators, such as the stag
beetle (Lucanus
cervus), in the most
extended wooded
stretches, and
crayfish in the
clear sheltered waters
of streams.
the different layers, one can notice
a peculiar V shaped geometry in
the part between the Pliocene
clays and the overlying sandstone.
This is almost certainly a paleo-valley, namely the fossilization of the
valley carved by the river during
the Pliocene age. The stream is
flanked by large specimens of
white and black poplar, white willow and other riparian species,
while near the river banks, patches
of willow shrub go down as far as
the gravel river bed (colonized by
a grassy vegetation adapted to seasonal flooding).
owned by the Municipality of
Bologna, extends over 100 hectares
in the territory of Sasso Marconi,
with broad meadows, mixed oak
woods and the remnants of chestnut groves. Here grow such rare
and protected species as snowdrops, fire lily, Turk’s cap lily, and
various orchids. The park, opened
in 1973, reaches its highest point in
the south with the panoramic summit of Monte Mario.
2 Beneath Monte Mario is part of
the initial tract of the Roman underground aqueduct, the ingenious
hydraulic works built in the Augustan age, which brought to Bologna
the waters of the Setta by way of
the excavation of a narrow passage
about 20 km long and with a gradient of just 30 meters. In late antiquity, the aqueduct ceased to function and was discovered only in the
second half of the nineteenth century, thanks to Antonio Zannoni,
Municipality of Bologna engineer
and archaeologist, who saw to its
restoration and reopening.
3 In the winter, at the base of the
steep southwestern wall of Monte
Mario, the foliage of the umbrella
pines stands out in the “Battedizzo
pinewood,” already noted in midnineteenth century by the botanist
Antonio Bertoloni, who recorded
that despite its artificial origin, it is
a confirmation of the mildness of
the microclimate. In Battedizzo, in
the twelfth century, the existence
of a castle was documented. Its remains were destroyed by a landslide in 1775, while in the fourteenth century, a church dedicated
to San Martino as is the present
one, was one of the dependencies
of the Pieve del Pino.
spring snowflakes, anemones, violets, hellebores, while the presence
of the fire lily and Turk’s hat lily is
more localized.
5 The steep walls of the western
slope of Rocca di Badolo, a traditional gym for climbing enthusiasts
from Bologna, are the site of some
interesting sedimentary structures
created by wave movement, and
brought to light, like minute linear
sculptures, by the wind’s erosion.
Near the top, in a storeroom
carved into the rock, approximately forty axes from the Bronze Age
were found in 1881. The fortress,
mentioned along with the Battedizzo castle in 1164, was knocked
down in the mid ’300s. The church
of San Michele Arcangelo in Badolo and the oratory of the Madonna
della Rocca, which can be reached
by a picturesque path, are the result of postwar reconstruction.
6 On the majestic rocky face of
Monte del Frate the sandstone is
scored by a dense web of sedimentary structures, with many traces
of fossils, associated with beach
environments. In the ridge areas,
along with juniper, brooms and
bushes of rock-rose and Italian
everlasting, the clumps of the
southern plumet (Stipa austroitalica) stand out in the spring with
their striking but delicate feathery
blooms. On the rock face, not far
from Badolo, is the opening to an
artificial cave, discovered in 1966,
with many small niches, almost
A remarkable sandstone pinnacle
on Monte Lolla.
certainly a late medieval dovecote,
probably already in use in Roman
times as a place of worship.
7 Two rocky towers, fifteen meters high, flank the summit of
Monte Adone, marked by a large
cross made of metal. The more cemented sandstone layers, which
protrude from the profile of the
towers, have also formed a sturdy
hat that has protected the rock column below from erosion. Below
the summit, at the base of the rock
marked by old stumps of holm
oak, is the opening to the Grotta
delle Fate (Cave of Fairies) of tectonic origin and accessible for
about fifty meters (already used in
prehistoric times, in past centuries
it has been haunted by fantastic
legends). On the northern side, the
valley of the Rio Favale is covered
by a dense forest rich in
mesophilous plants.
which goes from the bed of the
Savena up to Livergnano is marked
by high linear walls that culminate
in Monte Lolla. The top of the
ridge, shaped like a wall, has been
carved into mushroom-like forms
by the action of wind.
11The peculiar houses of Livergnano, an ancient village built
along the road of Futa, partly because of their “rockiness” and partly because of their bright colors,
are an example of spontaneous
construction almost unique to the
Bolognese Apennines. From the
plateau of the church, rebuilt after
the war as almost all buildings in
the village, one can see a large portion of the Bologna hills.
12 From Monte Rosso to the
stream Zena, the rocky face of
Contrafforte appears in all its
grandeur. The walls are characterized by very thick layers of conglomerates: in the large stones of
different shapes and colours, one
can recognize sandstone, limestone, gabbro, serpentinites and
jasper (all rocks that still emerge
8 On the panoramic plateau of
Monte Castellazzo, stood the Brento castle, built by the Byzantines in
the sixth century (kàstron Brinton), which passed in the twelfth
century to the bishops of Bologna
and the Municipality of Bologna,
only to fall into ruin. At the base of
the mountain going toward the
Savena, hidden in the woods, lie
the ruins of the ancient church of
Sant’Ansano, bombed in 1944. The
new village church was built in
1959 by Father Marella along with
the nearby “Casa del Pellegrino”.
4 The Raibano stream sculpts a
deep valley between Monte Mario
and Rocca di Badolo, flowing
through smooth rock walls (colonized by mosses and maidenhair
fern) and forming small waterfalls.
On the valley floor, the beech tree,
which here reaches one of the lowest altitudes in the Bologna area, is
mixed with hop hornbeam and
hazel. The undergrowth is full of
10 The section of Contrafforte
The conglomerates in the rocky walls.
9 In the portion of Contrafforte
which crosses the valley of Savena, along the lines that separate
The picturesque houses of Livergnano.
of poplars and willows, and sometimes patches of common alder,
becomes denser, to form a sort of
tunnel that shades the stream. Just
to the east, outside the Reserve,
stands the Monte delle Formiche
(Mount of Ants) with the sanctuary of Santa Maria di Zena, where
every year in early September, coinciding with the celebration of the
Nativity of the Virgin, swarms of
winged ants go to die on the mountain slopes.
le Ganzole
le Quiete
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1 243
C. de
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During World War II, the rocky
Fo s s o Raibano
La Rocca
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F oss
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481 8
Monte 343
Ca Nova
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osso Pian
Important religious building
“Calanchi” (ravines and gulleys)
Route number
Reserve boundary
Fields and arable land
Woods and shrublands
Ca di Luca
Ansano 10
Querceto di
1000 m
Monte Lolla
I Gruppi
Ca di
Point of interest
di Zena
Ca Poggio
di Casola
Mainly rocky formations
b id
Itinerary route
Dirt road
C. Nuova
R i o Car
Cinque Cerri
Rio Favale
tance from the Contrafforte
bastions of Contrafforte Pliocenico culminated in the
Pliocenico were used by the Ger- terrible massacres of Monte
man army as a defensive front Sole, are collected in documentaagainst the advancing Allied tion centers maintained by the
troops. Bloody battles took place two communities. Still others
in the area with involvement of may be seen along the routes
civil populations, and villages promoted by the project “Gothic
like Livergnano and BrentoZulaLine” (the charge of IBC - Instiwere completely leveled by the tute for Cultural Heritage of Rebombing. Many witnesses of the gione Emilia-Romagna, as part
tragic war, which a short dis- of a European project).
2 From the Zena valley, one goes
up to Livergnano, along a path and
then a dirt road through patches of
woods and cool xerophilous woods
on the north side of Monte Rosso.
The return via Sadurano offers
panoramic views of the sandstone
cliffs above. Duration: 4 hours.
The memory of the last war
1 From Badolo, following the directions along the “Via degli Dei”,
you reach the summit of Monte
Adone by way of Monte del Frate.
The path, sometimes very scenic,
provides a chance to appreciate
the main geological features and
vegetation of Contrafforte. Duration: 5 hours (round trip).
A long excursion itinerary
sponsored by CAI of Bologna,
the “Crossing of the five valleys”,
connects Monteveglio to
Ozzano Emilia by the roads and
paths in the hills, covering a large
part of Contrafforte (the track
has accurate markings and “rest
stops”). The route crosses the
“Via degli Dei”, a hiking trail that
follows much of the historical
route between Bologna and Florence. Continuing along the CAI
paths, it is possible to take shorter loop trails in different areas of
the Reserve. Rock climbing is
now permitted only in the area
of Badolo.
493 12
Monte Rosso
R io
dei Cani
T 248
o dei Co r
The Reserve, established in 2006,
is the largest in Emilia-Romagna
and extends for 757 hectares in
the municipalities of Pianoro,
Monzuno and Sasso Marconi.
The management of the protected area is the responsibility of
the Provincia di Bologna
(Servizio Pianificazione Paesistica - via San Felice, 25 - 40122
Bologna - tel. +39 051 6598645 from
ambiente, it is possible to have
access to the Reserve’s website,
which offers a wealth of information about the nature, history and
management). There are plans
for the creation of information
facilities in the villages of the
Reserve. In Brento is the Monte
Adone Centre for Conservation
and Research of Exotic and Wild
Fauna, which provides shelter to
stray, injured or confiscated animals (Via Brento, 9 - tel. +39 051
847600 - Near Badolo, an interesting botanical garden dedicated to
local flora, open for visiting from
March to October, is located near
the B&B Nova Arbora (via di
Badolo, 35 - tel. +39 051 847581 In one of
the rock houses in Livergnano is
the small private museum “The
Winter Line”, dedicated to the
events of the Second World War
(via della Chiesa, 4 - tel. +39 051
778834). Among the publications
concerning the territory, the
most recent are Marconi G.,
Mongardi D. C’era una volta il
mare… Natura e storia tra il
“Sasso” e il Monte delle
Formiche, Provincia di Bologna,
Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio
in Bologna, Gruppo Studi Savena
Setta Sambro, 2005, and
Paticchia V. (a cura), Percorsi
della memoria. 1940-1945: la
storia, i luoghi, IBC EmiliaRomagna, Clueb, 2005. More
information on Contrafforte is
available online at the Regione
Emilia-Romagna websites
Via dello Stale or Via degli Dei
The Reserve’s territory is characterized by the presence of an ancient road that led from Bologna
to Florence, passing Brento,
Monzuno, Madonna dei Fornelli
and then the Passo dello Stale
(near Barberino). In Roman
times the road commenced at low
altitude, to reach then the ridge
between Savena and Setta, while
in the Middle Ages, the road left
the city at San Procolo (now San
Mamolo) and led immediately to
the higher altitudes via Paderno,
Pieve del Pino and Brento. Over
the centuries the old mule track,
which was also a route for pilgrims to Rome (“Romei”), was
called various things (Romea,
via dei muli, via di Barberino),
but today is known as Via dello
Stale or Via degli Dei (Way of the
Gods) because of the site names
along the way that may refer to
pagan gods: Monte Venere, Monte
Adone, Monzuno (from Mons
Juno). Along the way, there were
various fortified centres, including the castles of Brento, Badolo
and Livergnano.
Useful background
13 The stream Zena skirts the
eastern boundary of the Reserve,
flowing through deeply recessed
land. The area, which is made up
Recommended Itineraries
uphill from Contrafforte). The sunny rocks that overlook the old centre of Sadurano are dotted with
holm oaks, shrubs and rockdwelling grasses. On the northern
side, however, there are cooler
wooded stretches, with patches of
old chestnut groves.
Pubblication promoted by the Emilia-Romagna Region Department of Agriculture, Environment and Sustainable Development © Regione Emilia-Romagna,
2008. Coordination: Parks Services and Forestry Resources (Monica Palazzini, Maria
Vittoria Biondi). Edited by Fondazione Villa Ghigi. Text: Ivan Bisetti, Maria Angela
Cazzoli, Teresa Guerra, Emanuela Rondoni. Editor: Mino Petazzini. Graphics: Tiziana
Gironi. Photography: Fabio Ballanti, Ivan Bisetti, Maria Angela Cazzoli, William Vivarelli. Maps: Elvezio Tiboni. Graphic design: Sandri Carlotti Adv. Acknowledgments:
Laura Biagi, Ornella De Curtis, Marina Terranova, Carlo Sarti.
Translation promoted by the Province of Bologna’s Landscape Planning Service © Provincia di Bologna, 2010. Edited by Fondazione Villa Ghigi. English translation:
Simmetrie & Partners. Editor: Mino Petazzini. Acknowledgments: Paolo Pupillo. Printing: Grafiche Zanini, Anzola Emilia (BO).
Cover: tree heath and holm oak.

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