3_Corruption, illegal activities in forestry and

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3_Corruption, illegal activities in forestry and
Conferenza finale
del progetto
Timber Regulation Enforcement to protect European
wood Sector from Criminal infiltration
Corruzione, attività illegali nel
settore forestale ed
EUTR: i risultati del questionario
Walter Mattioli – RiSSC
[email protected]
Roma, 14/07/2016
Scopo del progetto
•  identificare e contrastare le vulnerabilità alla corruzione del mercato del legno
•  identificare e sfruttare le potenzialità del Regolamento EUTR
•  rafforzare le capacità degli operatori privati, delle forze dell’ordine, ecc., di
identificare e contrastare il rischio di corruzione all’interno del mercato del legno
•  promuovere e disseminare buone pratiche per la prevenzione al fenomeno della
corruzione nel settore forestale
•  condividere i risultati e le conoscenze acquisite tra i vari stakeholders
In che modo
#1
ü  raccolta dati e
informazioni
ü  casi studio
ü  interviste
ü  questionari
Questionario
1. Scopo
Ottenere informazioni su conoscenze, esperienze personali e
percezione del fenomeno della corruzione e attività illegali nel
settore forestale
2. A chi
Forze dell’Ordine
Operatori
3. Come
#2
Due questionari distinti
Diversi tra Paesi EU e non EU
30 domande divise in tre blocchi
Traducendo in lingua madre
Anonimamente su Google Forms
Risposte
ü  21 Paesi coinvolti
ü  212 Risposte
ü  158 Operatori
ü  54 Forze
dell’Ordine
#3
Risultati
How widespread is corruption in the forestry sector?
DON'T KNOW
LEAS (20 MS)
PO (ITALY)
NO CORRUPTION
11 %
26%
30%
25%
24%
LEAS – Law Enforcement Agencies (Forze dell’Ordine)
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#4
19%
VERY WIDESPREAD
15%
35%
70%
25%
4% 4%
FAIRLY WIDESPREAD
26%
30%
PO (BG)
PO (ALB-KOS)
FAIRLY RARE
33%
9%
PO (FYROM)
VERY RARE
50%
68%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
Where does most corruption occur in the forestry
sector?
ORIGIN COUNTRY
TRANSIT COUNTRY
LEAS (20 MS)
PO (ITALY)
DESTINATION COUNTRY
29%
6%
16%
8%
PO (FYROM)
7%
PO (BG)
PO (ALB-KOS)
LEAS – Law Enforcement Agencies (Forze dell’Ordine)
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#5
17%
18%
0%
6%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
Illegal routes in the forestry sector are:
Special routes only for illegal logging
The same routes for legal activities
56%
PO (ITALY)
33%
PO (FYROM)
70%
15%
63%
PO (BG)
PO (ALB-KOS)
68%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#6
The same used for other illegal activities
50%
20%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
What is the activity/process more at risk of corruption
INSIDE Europe?
Null
Processing
11,4%
Export of timber from EU Country
10,1%
Transportation to the sawmill
6,3%
Transport of timber into EU Country
8,2%
Sell
8,2%
Logging
6,3%
Low
Medium
Very high
39,9%
32,9%
40,5%
32,3%
11,4% 5,7%
31,0%
36,7%
27,8%
12,7% 3,2%
32,3%
41,8%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#7
High
15,8%
31,0%
31,6%
22,2%
17,7%
19,6%
20,3%
5,1%
6,3%
12,7%
19,0%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
What is the activity/process more at risk of corruption
OUTSIDE Europe?
Null
Export of timber from EU Country
Low
Medium
12,7%
Very high
35,4%
28,5%
Transportation to the sawmill
10,1%
25,9%
35,4%
Processing
10,1%
27,2%
33,5%
Sell
10,8%
Transport of timber into EU Country
Logging
22,2%
8,2%
6,3%
27,2%
23,4%
13,3%
21,5%
19,6%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#8
High
16,5%
19,6%
18,4%
25,9%
8,9%
10,8%
13,9%
33,5%
27,8%
7,0%
13,3%
32,9%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
What are the main factors that can facilitate corruption? (TOT)
10,6%
Lack of training and equipment by the law enforcement
10,4%
High demand for illegal timber
10,3%
Lack of or inadequate controlling mechanisms
10,0%
Indifference of potential witnesses
9,6%
High gains for illegal timber market
8,7%
Lack of interest by the law enforcement (to fight corruption…)
8,5%
Lack of education/training in the people involved in the supply chain
8,0%
Low risks for criminals
6,4%
Lack of culture of legality in the buyers market
5,8%
Lack of or inadequate sanctions
5,5%
General diffusion of corruption in the Country
3,7%
Lack of or inadequate norms
1,8%
Lack of protection of witnesses
Other
0,8%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#9
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
What are the main factors that can facilitate corruption? (ITALY)
Lack of training and equipment by the law enforcement
High demand for illegal timber
Lack of or inadequate controlling mechanisms
Indifference of potential witnesses
High gains for illegal timber market
Lack of interest by the law enforcement (to fight corruption…)
Lack of education/training in the people involved in the supply chain
Low risks for criminals
Lack of culture of legality in the buyers market
Lack of or inadequate sanctions
General diffusion of corruption in the Country
Lack of or inadequate norms
Lack of protection of witnesses
Other
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#1
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
Who might have the highest interest to bribe for illegal gains?
(TOT)
22,2%
Timber traders
16,4%
Timber operators
12,2%
Forest Police - Forest Guards
12,0%
Criminal Groups
10,9%
Land Owners
10,4%
Public employees
7,1%
Politicians
Other police officers
Custom Police
4,7%
4,2%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#1
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
Who might have the highest interest to bribe for illegal gains?
(ITALY)
24,7%
Timber traders
20,0%
Timber operators
Forest Police - Forest Guards
3,5%
12,9%
Criminal Groups
12,2%
Land Owners
9,8%
Public employees
7,1%
Politicians
Other police officers
Custom Police
4,7%
5,1%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#1
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
The enforcement of EUTR...
Don't know
Totally disagree
Tend to disagree
Tend to agree
Totally agree
can help detecting if corruption has occurred within the Country of Origin
12,7%
15,2%
51,3%
is more effective than other national/regional/local laws in fighting corruption in
forestry sector
13,3%
17,1%
47,5%
can reduce corruption in forestry sector outside Europe
can reduce corruption in forestry sector in Europe
20,9%
10,8%
can reduce criminal activities in forestry sector outside Europe
can reduce criminal activities in forestry sector within Europe
9,5%
10,8%
can help in fighting illegal/criminal activities in forestry sector
9,5% 5,7%
19,6%
43,7%
16,5%
17,7%
PO – Private operators of the Timber Market (Operatori Privati)
#1
17,7%
17,1%
13,3%
50,6%
12,7%
18,4%
47,5%
17,7%
55,1%
53,8%
23,4%
30,4%
Fonte: TREES Survey, 2016
Risultati
What are the main challenges to enforce the EUTR?
Harmonisation of sanctions across the EU
Levels of penalties across the EU
The definition of risk (and its related assessment)
Compentecies and Training for LEAs
What is required by an operator to exercise due diligence
The interface with third party verification/certification
Cooperation from timber suppliers in third countries
Carrying out risk assessment and mitigation on high-risk
supply chains and/or high risk timber sources
Resources for LEAs
Gathering information on applicable legislation in timber/
timber products-exporting countries
Gathering evidence of illegal origin
0%
Don't know
#1
Strongly disagree
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Disagree
Agree
Strongly agree
Conclusioni
•  corruzione e attività illegali nel settore forestale: problemi
reali, tangibili...
•  ... percepiti e affrontati in maniera diversa
•  ... ancora difficili da documentare, e, la corruzione, è
ancora “difficile da scovare”
•  ogni area geografica ha proprie caratteristiche - “forestali”
e non;
•  impatto EUTR: la strada intrapresa è quella giusta, grandi
aspettative e enormi potenzialità da sfruttare, ma...
#1

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