CPT6PROCs - ieiit - Politecnico di Milano

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CPT6PROCs - ieiit - Politecnico di Milano
CEPIT
COORDINAMENTO ESPERIMENTO PROPAGAZIONE ITALSAT
CSTS CNR - ASI - POLITECNICO DI MILANO
CEPIT VI
VENEZIA, NOVEMBER 3, 1998
MEETING PROCEEDINGS
Chairman: Prof Aldo Paraboni
Coordinator & Editor: Dr Apolonia Pawlina
Centro di Studio sulle Telecomunicazioni Spaziali CNR
Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione Politecnico di Milano
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
Milano, January 1999
Dear Colleagues and Friends,
CEPIT VI continues to share happily the venues of the Ka Utilization Conference: after
Rome, Florence, Sorrento and Venice we look forward to see you again in Taormina, Sicily.
Thanks to the organisers of the Ka Conference CEPIT VI Meeting took place in the gorgeous
and famous (fin de siècle glory, Visconti's films, Venice Film Festival...) Hotel des Bains, in
the quiet autumnal Lido, with the splendours of Venice just over the channel.
The agenda of the meeting (November 3, Tuesday afternoon dedicated session in the main
Conference stream) included the communication on the health status and still possible
exploitation of the Italsat F1 spacecraft, the reports from the experimenters over the Europe
(some with the latest measurement results), the presentations of the incoming earth-space
propagation experiments (missions STENTOR and DAVID) and, finally, a bit of general
discussion.
After the welcome address of the Chairman, Aldo Paraboni, the very attended information
(vital to the next future of the measurements campaign) on the status of the Italsat F1 was
supplied by Bruno Giannone from Nuova Telespazio, the organization running the Satellite
Control Centre in Fucino. The good news is that the F1 (launched in January 1991) is still in
excellent shape, with the fuel supply sufficient to survive in the orbit for several more years,
if the keeping-in-orbit manoeuvres are limited to the essential ones. This means however
that only the earth terminals equipped with powerful tracking systems can receive the
beacon signals. Accepting this limits and the current orbital control routine (only the W-E
satellite axis is kept in nominal position, while the N-S is left uncontrolled) the F1 beacons
will not only be available to the end of 1999, but could be in theory received for two or three
more years. The question how to proceed with the experiment in 2000 was raised, but
remains open.
Italsat data contribute strongly to the COST 255 Action (Radiowave Propagation Modelling
for New SatCom Services at Ku- band and Above). Its Chairman, Bertram Arbesser
Rastburg, also this time kindly reported to CEPIT on the last developments of the Action.
The CEPIT Chairman invited the community to co-ordinate the efforts to make the best use
of growing K-band data base in the specifications for future SatCom systems.
The Session closed with the short report on the status of the DB-CEPIT - Italsat data bank,
given by the CEPIT Co-ordinator, who also warmly invited the experimenters in the
position to do so to make available their statistical results.
The present CEPIT VI Proceedings, published as usual with the support of CSTS-CNR at
Politecnico di Milano (kindly acknowledged), retain the work-in-progress characteristics of
the previous editions, aiming to collect the contributions as they come, in belief to supply
you with some timely information.
Yours
Co-ordinator and Editor
Alona Pawlina Bonati
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
Dear Colleagues,
It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you at the sixth CEPIT meeting in this (as usual for
Ka conferences) wonderful place.
The continuously increasing importance of the Ka and EHF keeps alive the enormous
scientific interest in the utilization of these bands, and, as a CEPIT group, we are trying to
contribute to this worldwide endeavour still offering new data and efforts in terms of
models and culture.
Also this year we have the good news that the satellite is in good health and the deadline, as
far as the satellite control is concerned, is reconfirmed for the end of 1999. Things are even
better considering the available fuel which, apparently, could ensure some further 2-3 years
of life. Hope is the last to die....
Opening the works I wish to everybody a fruitful activity and I hope that the chances of
cooperation among European and American experimenters can be further fostered.
The CEPIT Chairman
Aldo Paraboni
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
INDEX
CEPIT VI Agenda
1
"Italsat F1 satellite status" by Bruno Giannone (Telespazio)
3
“Measurements of total atmospheric attenuation using ITALSAT/F1
and radiometers in Roma" by A. Martellucci et al. (FUB, Roma)
15
“Italsat Propagation Experiment At Spino D'adda: Update Of
Available Statistics”, by C. Riva et al. (Politecnico di Milano)
23
“Status report on ITALSAT beacon measurements at RAL" by
C.L.Wrench & S.Ventouras (RAL, UK)
33
"Two years of italsat 40 GHz measurements at EUT" by L. v. d.
Coevering (EUT Netherlands)
39
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
"Experimentation with 40 and 50 GHz beacons at Polytechnical
University of Madrid", Jose M. Riera Salis (ETSI Telecomunicacion)
49
"Use of Italsat 40 GHz Propagation Beacon at University of
Portsmouth " (Eric Vilar)
50
"Update on 50 GHz beacon measurements by Telenor R&D at Kjeller
in Norway” (Lars Braten)
51
"Update on 50 GHz beacon measurements by DLR Germany"
51
CEPIT DATA BANK
"Update on Italsat Propagation Experimenters and Italsat Data Bank
(DB-CEPIT): ", by A. Pawlina
53
PLANNED EXPERIMENTS
"Recent developments concerning the EHF propagation experiment
with STENTOR satellite" by L. Castanet et al. (ONERA, France)
57
"The use of Ka band and W-band in the DAVID small mission" by M.
Ruggieri (Università Tor Vergata, Roma) and A. Paraboni
71
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND MAILING LIST
77
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
CSTS CNR - ASI - POLITECNICO DI MILANO
CEPIT
COORDINAMENTO ESPERIMENTO PROPAGAZIONE ITALSAT
CEPIT VI MEETING
VENICE, NOVEMBER 3, 1998
hosted by
FOURTH KA BAND UTILIZATION CONFERENCE
NOVEMBER 2-4, 1998, VENICE, ITALY
CEPIT VI MEETING - Italsat Propagation Experiment Workshop - aims to gather people involved in
Italsat measurment campaign and people with a general interest in EHF propagation experiments, also
those to be carried out or designed for the next future.
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 14:00, SESSION 10 BIS (ROOM B)
Chairperson: Apolonia Pawlina (CSTS-CNR Politecnico di Milano)
•
•
•
Welcome Address by CEPIT Chairman, Aldo Paraboni (Politecnico di Milano)
Communication on the Italsat F1 and F2 status, by Bruno Giannone (Telespazio)
“Measurements of total atmospheric attenuation using ITALSAT/F1 and radiometers in Roma" by
A. Martellucci (FUB, Roma)
• “Italsat Propagation Experiment At Spino D'adda: Update Of Available Statistics” G. Masini, A.
Paraboni, A. Pawlina, M. Mauri, R. Polonio, C. Riva (Politecnico di Milano)
• “Results of 40 & 50 GHz ITALSAT measurements from Southern England' C.L.Wrench &
S.Ventouras (RAL, UK)
Communications from other Italsat experiment sites (by CEPIT coordinator)
• "Experimentation with 40 and 50 GHz beacons at Polytechnical University of Madrid ", ETSI
Telecomunicacion (Jose M. Riera Salis)
• "Use of Italsat 40 GHz Propagation Beacon at University of Portsmouth " (Eric Vilar)
• Update on 50 GHz beacon measurements by Telenor R&D at Kjeller in Norway” (Lars Braten)
Last updates - short communications
• Status of the Italsat campaign at the Technical University of Eindhoven (Gerd Brussaard)
• Conclusion of the Italsat campaign by Deutsche Telekom at FTZ Darmstadt (Gert Ortgies)
16-16:20 Coffee break
REPORTS ON OTHER PROPAGATION PROJECTS
• Update on COST 255 activities, by COST 255 Chairman, Bertram Arbesser (ESA-ESTEC)
• Illustration of French STENTOR Satellite and EXPRESS Project by L. Castanet, (CERT-ONERA)
• Presentation of the Project DAVID - two Italian experiments designed for new LEO satellite by
Marina Ruggieri (Università Tor Vergata di Roma)
DISCUSSION ON THE SCOPE AND FUTURE OF VHF and EHF PROPAGATION
EXPERIMENTS
We count on the contribution of the speakers and of all participants, among them some distinguished
representants of organizations like Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands), TRW Space &
Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (USA), Stanford Telecom Advanced Communications
Systems, Ashburn, Virginia (USA), German Aerospace Research DLR, and others to welcome.
________________________________________________________________________________________
Proceedings will be assembled after the meeting, and contributors are kindly asked to hand the material (papers,
slides, notes) they wish to be included in the Proceedings to the Coordinator. Also mailing it to the Coordinator
shortly after the meeting is welcome
.
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
CEPIT VI MEETING
FOURTH Ka-BAND UTILIZATION CONFERENCE
Venezia, Italy, November 2-4, 1998
Measurements of total atmospheric attenuation
using ITALSAT/F1 and radiometers in Roma +
Antonio Martellucci1, Domenico Carriero2 ,Ermanno Fionda1, Alberto Aresu1 and Fernando Consalvi1
1 Fondazione
2
+
Ugo Bordoni, Roma, Italy
Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Roma, Italy
Work carried out in the framework of the agreement between the Italian PT Administration and the Fondazione Ugo Bordoni
CONTENTS
• ITALSAT experimental set-up in Pomezia (Roma), Italy
• Description of the procedure to remove system's bias and to evaluate the
total atmospheric attenuation.
• Description of radiometric and beacon measurements
• Frequency scaling of radiometric attenuation to the ITALSAT freq.
• Statistics of radiometric parameters and total attenuation during rainfalls
1
ITALSAT/F1 Propagation experiment : FUB Set-up in Pomezia, Roma
Beacon Freq. [GHz]
Equipment Room
DEICE
CONTROL
Polarization
Radiometer 13 GHz
PRESSURIZER
MAGNETIC TAPE
Antenna Base
B1
B2
B3
B1
B2
B3
B2 Phase Mod.
Antenna Diameter
Polariz. Switch. Rate
Monop. Tracking System
Data Collection Rate
Polariz. Tilt Angle
Latitude
Longitude
Link Elevation
18.685
39.59
49.49
Y
Circular
Switc. X/Y
505 Mhz
3.5 mt
903 Hz
18.7 GHz
1 Hz
19.45 deg
41.69 deg
12.47 deg
41.8 deg
DAS
ANT. BOX
REM
FMUX
SIM
L.O.
IF CHANN.
PLL
SMC
FMUX
Radiometer 23/31 GHz
ACU
MOTORS
POWER UNIT
Meteo Equipment
2
Problems originating from the satellite and/or in the receiving station :
• satellite orbital instabilities
• satellite maneuvers
• thermal shifts of the antennas and waveguides
• pointing system instabilities
• power supply fluctuations of the satellite signal
⇓
Fluctuations of the transmitted/received beacon level
Problems originating from radiometric measurements:
• restricted dynamic range for measured brightness temperatures
⇓
uncorrect evaluation of signal attenuation during rainfalls
3
Combination procedure
Radiometric measurements + Italsat beacon level
⇓
Evaluation of Total Atmospheric Attenuation
in any sky condition
To apply a combination procedure, signal's reception
must be simultaneous with radiometric acquisition
4
Combination procedure
radiometric measurements + satellite beacons
(Ed. F. Barbaliscia : Opex Reference Handbook on Radiometry, ESA/ESTEC 1994)
• For a given radiometric attenuation arad(t), a threshold At is chosen, above and
below which occurrence of rain and clear sky are respectively assumed.
• The copolar satellite beacon level S(t) is processed by moving average
(Savitzky-Golay low pass filter) to remove scintillations ⇒ the resulting signal
<S(t)> contains only the fluctuations due to the satellite and to the earth
receiving systems.
• A reference level, defined as baseline level Sb(t) = arad(t) + <S(t)> is then
established, excluding the periods when the radiometric attenuation arad(t)
exceeds At by a linear interpolation.
• The total attenuation of the copolar signal is obtained as atot(t) = Sb(t) - S(t) that
contains radiometric attenuation, lower than At, beacon rainy attenuation and
scintillations.
5
Pomezia, ITALSAT Station, 4th May 1998
200
13 GHz
23 GHz
31 GHz
Brightness Temperature [K]
150
100
50
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
Time [sec]
60000
70000
80000
90000
Measurements of the brightness temperature at 13.0, 23.8 and 31.7 GHz
Pomezia-Italy, elevation to the ITALSAT/F1 satellite.
6
Pomezia, ITALSAT Station, 4th May 1998
140
Brightness Temperature 31.7 GHz [K]
120
Measurements
Gas+Clouds, D10
Gas+Clouds, D90
100
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
80
100
Brightness Temperature 23.8 GHz [K]
120
140
ScatterPlot of the brightness temperature at 23.8 and 31.7 GHz, Comparison with model data
Pomezia-Italy, elevation to the ITALSAT/F1 satellite.
7
Frequency scaling of radiometric attenuation to ITALSAT/F1 freq.
• Theoretical Assessment of radiometric parameters
Gas+cloud
Absorption
Models
Radiosonde
Measurements
Tsky(f)
Tm(f)
V
L
..
• Frequency Scaling Coefficients
Calculation of radiometric attenuation:
Arad(f)=4.4343ln((Tm(f)-Tc)/(Tm(f)-Tsky(f)) [dB]
Using multi linear regressions :
Predictors :
(A13, A23, A31)
⇓
Predicted :
(A13, A40, A50)
8
Pomezia, Italsat, 01/02.05.1998, Elev=41 deg, f=49.5 GHz
5
Beacon Level S(t) [dBm]
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
20000
40000
60000
Time [sec]
9
80000
10000
Pomezia, Italsat, 01/02.05.1998, Elev=41 deg, f=49.5 GHz
Total Attenuation atot(t) [dB]
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
Time [sec]
10
Database
• Period : October 1997 - August 1998
• Number of processed events : 41 (625 hours of measurements)
Statistics
1.Measurements of satellite beacon performed in presence of loss of lock,
pointing system instabilities, uncorrect antennas' reception
2.Measurements of brightness temperature performed in condition of non validity
of radiative transfer equation
have been removed from database
11
Cumulative Distribution Functions of Radiometer Data
Pomezia, Radiometer Data, 10/1997 - 08/1998, Elev=41 deg
Percentage of Samples %
100
Radiometer Data 13 GHz
''
23 GHz
''
31 GHz
MPM, Radiosonde Data 13 GHz
'' 23 GHz
'' 31 GHz
10
1
0
50
100
150
Brightness Temperature [K]
200
12
Conditioned Statistics of Brightness Temperature
Pomezia, Radiometer Data, 10/1997 - 08/1998, Elev=41 deg
Brightness Temperature [K], 31.7 GHz
200
150
100
50
Decile 10%
Decile 90%
MPM,Radiosonde Data, Decile 10%
''
Decile 90%
0
0
50
100
150
Brightness Temperature [K], 23.8 GHz
13
200
Conditioned Statistics of Total Attenuation
Pomezia, Italsat, 10/1997 - 08/1998, Elev=41 deg
35
Total Attenuation 49.5 GHz [dB]
30
25
20
Decile 10%
Decile 90%
Marshall Palmer
Joss Thunderstorm
Joss Drizzle
15
10
5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Total Attenuation 18.7 GHz [dB]
14
14
CONCLUSIONS
• ITALSAT measurements of :
Rain attenuation :
Rain, Radiometric and Total Attenuation :
Period 10/94 - 11/95
Period 10/97 - Still Ongoing
• Procedure for accurate frequency scaling of radiometric measurements to
the ITALSAT freq., valid in absence of rain
• Statistics of total attenuation (gas + cloud + rain) in Ka and V frequency
bands
⇓
Assessment of frequency scaling from K to V band
15
ITALSAT PROPAGATION EXPERIMENT
AT SPINO D’ADDA:
UPDATE OF AVAILABLE STATISTICS
Gino MASINI, Aldo PARABONI, Alona PAWLINA BONATI,
Mario MAURI, Roberto POLONIO, Carlo RIVA
Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione e CSTS/CNR,
Politecnico di Milano
Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano
Tel: +39-2-2399.3400, Fax: +39-2-2399.3413
Characteristics of the ITALSAT satellite and of the station in Spino d’Adda
ITALSAT satellite Spino d’Adda station
Beacons' frequencies [GHz]
18.7 V
& polarization
39.6 C
49.5 V/H
EIRP [dBW]
24 to 30
Latitude
45.4° N
Longitude
13.2º E
9.5° E
Altitude above sea level. [m]
84
Elevation
37.8°
Antenna diameter [m]
3.5
18.7
25.0
G/T [dB/°K]at 39.6 GHz
30.4
49.5
28.6
Sampling rate [Hz]
1
Spino d’Adda Earth-station: status of measurement campaign
Statistics
Rainfall intensity
Rain attenuation
Total attenuation
Worst month
Frequency scaling
Fade duration
Scintillation
XPD
Number of years
5 (1993-1997)
1 (1993)
4 (1994-1997)
4 (1994-1997)
4 (1994-1997)
1 (1995)
2 (1995-1996)
Event basis study
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda
time abscissa exceeded [%]
10
1
1993
0.1
1994
1995
1996
0.01
1997
ITU-R rain zone K
0.001
1
10
rainfall rate [mm/h]
100
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 1993
time abscissa exceeded [%]
10
1
49.5 GHz
0.1
39.6 GHz
0.01
18.7 GHz
0.001
0
10
20
30
40
rain attenuation [dB]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda -18.7 GHz
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
1994
1995
10
1996
1997
1
average 1994-1997
0.1
0.01
0
4
8
12
total attenuation [dB]
16
20
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 39.6 GHz
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
1994
1995
10
1996
1997
1
average 1994-1997
0.1
0.01
0
10
20
30
40
total attenuation [dB]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 49.5 GHz
100
time abscissa exceeded [%]
1994
1995
10
1996
1997
average 1994-1997
1
0.1
0.01
0
10
20
total attenuation [dB]
30
40
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 1994
100
time abscissa exceeded [%]
worst month 18.7 GHz
worst month 39.6 GHz
worst month 49.5 GHz
10
cd 18.7 GHz
cd 39.6 GHz
cd 49.5 GHz
1
0.1
0.01
0
10
20
30
40
total attenuation [dB]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 1995
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
worst month 18.7 GHz
worst month 39.6 GHz
10
worst month 49.5 GHz
cd 18.7 GHz
cd 39.6 GHz
1
cd 49.5 GHz
0.1
0.01
0
10
20
total attenuation [dB]
30
40
Long term frequency scaling ratio measured in 1994-1997
and predicted by ITU-R model
Long term
frequency scaling
ratios
Measured (1994)
Measured (1995)
Measured (1996)
Measured (1997)
Average (1994-96)
Average (1994-97)
ITU-R model
18.7/39.6
GHz
18.7/49.5
GHz
39.6/49.5
GHz
2.89
3.10
2.97
3.43
2.99
3.10
3.35
3.78
4.01
4.20
5.00
4.00
4.25
4.47
1.28
1.38
1.36
1.48
1.34
1.37
1.33
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda 1995 - 18.7 GHz
10000
Threshold: 12 dB
number of fades
1000
8 dB
4 dB
100
2 dB
10
1
1
10
100
fade duration [s]
1000
10000
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda 1995 - 39.6 GHz
10000
number of fades
1000
Threshold: 12 dB
8 dB
100
4 dB
10
1
1
10
100
1000
10000
fade duration [s]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda 1995 - 49.5 GHz
10000
Threshold: 12 dB
number of fades
1000
8 dB
4 dB
100
10
1
1
10
100
fade duration [s]
1000
10000
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 39.6 GHz
power spectral density [dB2/Hz]
1E+5
1E+4
1E+3
1E+2
summer 1996
winter 1996
1E+1
1E+0
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
frequency [Hz]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda - 49.5 GHz
power spectral density [dB2/Hz]
1E+5
1E+4
1E+3
1E+2
summer 1996
winter 1996
1E+1
1E+0
0.0001
0.001
0.01
frequency [Hz]
0.1
1
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
Enhancement 39.6 GHz
Fading 39.6 GHz
10
Enhancement 49.5 GHz
Fading 49.5 GHz
1
0.1
0.01
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
scintillation absolute amplitude [dB]
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda 1996 - 39.6 GHz
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
Winter
Spring
10
Summer
Autumn
1
whole year
0.1
0.01
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
scintillation standard deviation [dB]
0.5
ITALSAT - Spino d'Adda 1996 - 49.5 GHz
time abscissa exceeded [%]
100
Winter
10
Spring
Summer
Autumn
1
whole year
0.1
0.01
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
scintillation standard deviation [dB]
0.6
0.7
Two Years of ITALSAT 40GHz Measurements at EUT
L. v.d. Coevering
Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands
Introduction
In April 1994 Eindhoven University started attenuation measurements with the 40GHz beacon of
the ITALSAT at the satellite ground station. Despite the fact that the antenna is relatively small
and the equipment has to be replaced together with the instalment of a new antenna 2 years of
continues measurements are performed (May 1994 - April 1996). The resulting two year statistics
are presented in this article.
Equipment and Software
The antenna dish has an aperture diameter of 50cm. The receiver was taken from the OLYMPUS
experiment and equipped with a new LO. This set up has a dynamic range of >25dB (20dB in the
first five months). Ancillary weather measurements consist of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure and rain intensity (drop count).
The acquisition unit samples the signals at a rate of 96 samples/seconds which is brought
down with filtering to 3 and 1 samples/second for respectively the beacon and ancillary measurements. In addition the mean and standard deviation in one minute windows is calculated (and
stored of course) for the beacon signal.
Every day plots are made from the acquisition data stream, receiver chart recordings are
available for the suspicious mind. Pre-processing is performed with the DAPPER software from
ESA but the statistics are gathered with the in house developed program EUTANA. (Someday
DAPPER pre-processing must be replaced). Due to the fact that the old acquisition to DAPPER
conversion program was not capable of processing standard deviation data these are only available
for the second year, after a more flexible acquisition data processing program became available.
The zero reference level of attenuation is computed from the humidity and temperature.
Rain and Attenuation
Figure 1 gives the cumulative distributions for the ITU-R 'E' rainzone (the appropriate one) and
the measured rain. Compare this with the attenuation statistics of Figure 2 where the ITU-R rain
model is used with as input the rain measured at the station (as in Figure 1). We see an under-
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
2
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
estimation of attenuation by the ITU-R model. The year tables in Table 1 are for concurrent rain
and beacon measurements, this means that for the attenuation a period in January 1995 is excluded because the rain gauge was out of order. Further there was only one outage from 31 January until 6 February 1996 (it seems our winters are unfortunate, luckily attenuation is low then).
25
100
Rain
Attenuation [dB]
Rain Intensity [mm/h]
20
15
ITU-R 'E'
10
Measured
40GHzV
Calculated (ITU-R)
measured rain
10
5
1
0.01
0.1
1
Time ≥ Ordinate [%]
10
0
100
Figure 1 Cumulative distribution rain, EUT
9405-9604
1
0.1
Time ≥ Ordinate [%]
0.01
100
10
Figure 2 Cumulative distribution attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Worst month
Rain- and attenuation worst month statistics for both years are in Figure 3 respectively Figure 4
were for reference the ITU-R rain model statistics are included, the tables can be found in Table 1.
In the table the attenuation's >26dB come from the loss of lock occurrences.
25
140
20
100
Attenuation [dB]
Rain Intensity [mm/h]
120
9505-9604
80
9405-9504
60
9405-9504
15
9505-9604
10
ITU-R 'E'
40
5
20
ITU-R 'E'
0
0
0.01
0.1
1
Time ≥ Ordinate [%]
10.
Figure 3 Worst month CD's Rain, EUT
9405-9604
Concurrent Year statistics
%
0.001 0.002 0.003
71.3 55.9 49.8
9405 rain
-9504 att
75.9 64.9 54.0
9505 rain
-9604 att
Concurrent Worst Month Statistics
%
0.001 0.002 0.003
9405 rain 117.0 110.6 105.5
29.0 29.0 29.0
-9504 att
9505 rain 151.1 150.2 149.3
26.5 26.5 26.5
-9604 att
Table 1
0.1
0.2
7.2 4.9
17.6 10.3
39.5 26.0 15.7 10.6 7.4 4.9 3.3
16.7 12.5 8.6
0.01
88.2
29.0
107.8
26.5
0.02
75.4
29.0
85.0
26.5
0.03
68.7
29.0
71.9
26.5
0.1
1
Time ≥ Ordinate [%]
10.
100.
Figure 4 Worst month CD's Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05
39.4 27.6 18.2 14.0 10.4
0.005
100.7
29.0
138.4
26.5
0.01
100.
0.05
57.0
29.0
55.1
26.5
0.1
42.0
29.0
36.9
26.5
0.2
25.2
29.0
19.6
26.5
0.3
3.7
8.2
2.3
7.0
0.5
2.6
6.4
1
2
3
5
10
20
4.4
3.1
2.5
2.0
1.3
0.8
5.5
3.7
2.6
2.2
1.7
1.3
0.8
0.3
0.5
1
2
3
18.6 12.2 7.5 5.5 4.2
29.0 29.0 29.0 28.0 28.0
13.1 6.5 4.3 3.2 2.2
26.5 19.3 12.7 9.4 7.1
5
2.8
5.5
2.0
4.8
10
1.9
3.4
1.9
2.9
20
1.7
2.4
1.7
2.1
Concurrent year statistics rain and attenuation 40GHz ITALSAT EUT
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
30
50
30
1.5
1.9
1.4
1.7
50
1.1
1.3
1.0
1.3
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
3
Fade duration and Slope
Duration and slope statistics suffer from the fast varying scintillation effects on the attenuation of
the signal. A low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of Fc=0.2Hz is used to remove these scintillation and the statistics are given with and without filtering. [1][2]
Fade duration
In general we would expect the breakdown of long fades into shorter ones by scintillation, comparing Figure 7 and the filtered version in Figure 8 we see indeed an decrease of short fades when
filtered. The year tables in Table 2 break it down into separate years.
The total time spent in a fade duration class can be extracted from Figure 5 and Figure 6, or, if a
table is preferred, Table 4. Filtering increases the time spent in longer duration classes as expected
from the theory in the introduction.
5000
1000
1000
500
[1s,6s>
[6s,10s>
[10s,18s>
[18s,60s>
[1m,3m>
[3m,10m>
[10m,30m>
[30m,60m>
[1h,month]
100
50
10
5
1
# Fades
10000
5000
# Fades
10000
500
[1s,6s>
[6s,10s>
[10s,18s>
[18s,60s>
[1m,3m>
[3m,10m>
[10m,30m>
[30m,60m>
[1h,month]
100
50
10
5
1
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
Duration Classes
3
5
6
Figure 7 Fade Duration, 40GHz ITALSAT
EUT 9405-9604
Duration Fades 40GHzV 9405-9504
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB
8690
2074
1339
392
[1s,6s>
1080
252
203
60
[6s,10s>
906
251
168
58
[10s,18s>
1277
399
310
102
[18s,1m>
701
259
202
67
[1m,3m>
441
196
150
49
[3m,10m>
163
67
42
16
[10m,30m>
40
18
12
3
[30m,1h>
23
6
5
3
[1h,1month]
Duration Fades 40GHzV 9505-9604
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB
6018
1432
962
222
[1s,6s>
594
134
107
27
[6s,10s>
496
165
95
19
[10s,18s>
640
212
158
35
[18s,1m>
362
149
122
35
[1m,3m>
258
115
83
31
[3m,10m>
111
54
33
11
[10m,30m>
27
9
4
1
[30m,1h>
14
5
5
3
[1h,1month]
10
15
20
25
Duration Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
≥15dB
113
20
13
52
26
30
10
2
2
≥20dB
61
9
11
18
7
25
9
3
1
≥15dB
132
17
17
23
14
16
10
1
0
≥20dB
43
2
7
13
11
14
4
1
0
Figure 8 Fade Duration, Filtered 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Duration Fades 40GHzV Filtered 9405-9504
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
10
673
203
167
66
9
1
166
59
51
15
2
1
256
74
63
24
8
2
891
302
221
84
34
8
659
249
194
67
28
21
442
200
153
50
31
9
189
74
47
18
11
3
47
17
12
3
2
1
23
7
5
3
2
Duration Fades 40GHzV Filtered 9505-9604
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
3
12
7
6
0
3
0
30
7
7
1
1
1
80
26
18
3
3
0
372
123
103
22
20
7
329
141
126
33
14
11
276
126
85
31
15
4
119
54
33
9
11
1
31
12
6
2
1
0
14
5
5
3
0
≥20dB
6
3
4
8
7
25
9
2
2
≥25dB
0
1
1
2
8
21
9
3
1
≥20dB
2
0
1
10
13
14
4
1
0
≥25dB
0
0
1
0
7
11
4
1
0
Table 2 Duration fades 40GHz ITALSAT EUT (raw and filtered)
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
4
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
10000
5000
10000
5000
1000
500
[1s,6s>
[6s,10s>
[10s,18s>
[18s,60s>
[1m,3m>
[3m,10m>
[10m,30m>
[30m,60m>
[1h,month]
100
50
10
5
Total Fade Time [s]
100000
50000
Total Fade Time [s]
100000
50000
1000
500
[1s,6s>
[6s,10s>
[10s,18s>
[18s,60s>
[1m,3m>
[3m,10m>
[10m,30m>
[30m,60m>
[1h,month]
100
50
10
5
1
1
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
3
Duration Classes
5
6
Figure 5 Fade Duration Time, 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Fade Duration Time 40GHzV 9405-9504 [s]
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
20876
5123
3344
1002
272
[1s,6s>
8909
2104
1718
477
172
[6s,10s>
12617
3502
2328
802
183
[10s,18s>
43049 13569 10700
3561
1752
[18s,1m>
73300 27220 20392
7097
2852
[1m,3m>
141019 66071 48007 17446 10111
[3m,10m>
8784
[10m,30m> 158945 62773 39270 14711
99463 45258 30744
7505
5203
[30m,1h>
9925
[1h,1month] 143434 34690 27139 14549
Fade Duration Time 40GHzV 9505-9604 [s]
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
14324
3487
2333
565
340
[1s,6s>
4925
1103
879
230
144
[6s,10s>
6923
2306
1290
255
245
[10s,18s>
22038
7309
5677
1164
798
[18s,1m>
38371 15818 13028
3730
1358
[1m,3m>
87336 38472 29565 10457
5342
[3m,10m>
9628
9983
[10m,30m> 116232 50415 30426
62805 22263
8963
2543
2256
[30m,1h>
0
[1h,1month] 102781 42910 36340 17238
Table 3
10
15
20
25
Duration Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Figure 6 Fade Duration Time, Filtered 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
≥20dB
152
76
153
612
721
7762
7496
8721
5566
≥20dB
128
17
99
421
1181
4874
3145
1941
0
Fade Duration Time 40GHzV Filtered 9405-9504 [s]
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB ≥20dB
18
2088
639
550
230
31
15
8
1406
510
421
130
18
26
11
3702
1081
888
349
126
52
113 32384 10843
8015
3057
1196
318
1117 69582 26638 20117
7291
2803
748
6600 140510 66960 50263 17320 10471
7780
7327 181212 69041 44354 16290
9541
7513
8700 117800 44069 30839
7584
5215
5180
5565 146252 39326 27291 14582
9930
9596
Fade Duration Time 40GHzV Filtered 9505-9604 [s]
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB ≥20dB
7
53
35
32
0
11
9
0
272
66
55
9
10
0
14
1166
391
244
49
44
13
0 14222
4639
3915
850
783
318
870 36712 14682 13576
3779
1517
1389
4014 93926 40180 29771 10754
4832
4947
3099 127585 50982 30379
8287 11084
3155
1918 73220 29532 13164
4558
2253
1942
0 104889 43060 36569 17377
0
0
≥25dB
0
7
11
111
1118
6621
7323
8700
5563
≥25dB
0
0
14
0
876
4013
3098
1918
0
Fade duration times 40GHz ITALSAT EUT (raw and filtered)
Fade Interval
Fade interval statistics are for error free signal reception what fade duration statistics are for outages, i.e.. they count the periods of outage free events given a dynamic range. Keep in mind that
the time spent in higher attenuation threshold classes is greater than for lower thresholds.
5000
1000
1000
500
500
[1s,10s>
[10s-60s>
[1m,5m>
[5m,10m>
[10m-60m>
[1h,6h>
[6h,24h>
[1d,7d>
[1w,4w>
≥ 4w
100
50
10
5
1
# Intervals
10000
5000
# Intervals
10000
[1s,10s>
[10s-60s>
[1m,5m>
[5m,10m>
[10m-60m>
[1h,6h>
[6h,24h>
[1d,7d>
[1w,4w>
≥ 4w
100
50
10
5
1
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
Interval Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Figure 9 Fade Interval, 40GHz ITALSAT
EUT 9405-9604
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
Interval Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Figure 10 Fade Interval, Filtered 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
5
Interval counts are in Table 3 and the picture of the period total in Figure 9 for the unfiltered data and in Figure 10 for the filtered data. Table 5, Figure 11, and Figure 12 give the times
spent in the interval classes.
Fade Intervals 40GHzV 9405-9504
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB
5849
1331
829
244
[1s,10s>
3998
964
697
197
[10s,1m>
1745
520
375
106
[1m,5m>
479
159
120
35
[5m,10m>
683
257
167
44
[10m,1h>
351
145
111
34
[1h,6h>
130
76
61
29
[6h,1d>
91
66
67
53
[1d,1w>
2
11
11
15
[1w,4w>
0
0
0
0
[4w,∞>
Fade Intervals 40GHzV 9505-9604
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB
4166
964
618
131
[1s,10s>
2411
613
396
85
[10s,1m>
921
275
232
49
[1m,5m>
256
87
78
15
[5m,10m>
398
158
97
30
[10m,1h>
225
76
59
26
[1h,6h>
89
55
46
19
[6h,1d>
50
39
38
22
[1d,1w>
9
12
8
10
[1w,4w>
1
2
3
3
[4w,∞>
≥15dB
67
69
41
8
13
10
17
36
14
0
≥20dB
43
32
14
4
6
6
11
20
13
2
≥15dB
112
51
14
5
11
9
6
14
11
3
≥20dB
25
27
14
3
4
4
3
11
7
3
Fade Intervals 40GHzV Filtered 9405-9504
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
7
317
86
75
32
2
3
558
189
158
48
10
2
965
287
230
70
29
0
361
129
87
32
10
6
643
217
140
38
10
4
305
136
98
26
8
9
117
73
56
28
16
18
83
64
64
46
35
11
4
11
12
17
14
3
0
0
0
0
0
Fade Intervals 40GHzV Filtered 9505-9604
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB ≥10dB ≥15dB
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
54
17
18
3
5
3
378
145
93
14
15
1
198
53
50
9
4
2
314
117
92
21
8
2
188
70
47
20
9
3
80
51
45
8
6
9
45
40
39
22
13
6
11
12
8
10
11
4
1
2
3
3
3
≥25dB
0
0
2
0
6
4
9
18
11
3
≥20dB
0
5
11
4
4
4
3
9
8
3
≥25dB
0
0
3
1
2
2
3
9
6
4
Fade intervals 40GHz ITALSAT EUT (raw and filtered)
Table 4
10000000
5000000
1000000
500000
1000000
500000
100000
50000
100000
50000
10000
5000
[1s,10s>
[10s-60s>
[1m,5m>
[5m,10m>
[10m-60m>
[1h,6h>
[6h,24h>
[1d,7d>
[1w,4w>
≥4w
1000
500
100
50
10
5
Total Interval Time [s]
10000000
5000000
Total Interval Time [s]
≥20dB
2
5
10
1
6
4
11
19
12
3
10000
5000
[1s,10s>
[10s-60s>
[1m,5m>
[5m,10m>
[10m-60m>
[1h,6h>
[6h,24h>
[1d,7d>
[1w,4w>
≥4w
1000
500
100
50
10
5
1
1
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
Interval Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Figure 11 Fade Interval Time, 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
3
5
6
10
15
20
25
Interval Classes
Attenuation Threshold [dB]
Figure 12 Fade Interval Time, Filtered 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Fade Interval Time 40GHzV 9405-9504 [s]
Fade Interval Time 40GHzV Filtered 9405-9504 [s]
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB
≥10dB
≥15dB
≥20dB
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB
≥10dB
≥15dB
≥20dB
≥25dB
22340
5003
3093
882
253
142
23
1361
386
309
128
9
8
0
[1s,10s>
56197
13103
9491
2965
967
308
48
8655
3011
2220
905
106
80
0
[10s,1m>
135440
37327
27260
7375
2234
1402
246
77944
23291
18384
5882
1816
1151
247
[1m,5m>
115344
33028
23398
6628
2487
1197
0
91799
30007
19867
6167
2304
295
0
[5m,10m>
774403 316029 198983
54423
10122
3460
3742 672929 240818 163960
50709
7565
3875
3747
[10m,1h>
2949853 1286524 976721 339993 107248
58004
47473 2545469 1184182 912711 286713
90271
47450
47476
[1h,6h>
6155385 3474474 2867440 1399279 852119 528589 391098 5628326 3453804 2717608 1400008 810487 531739 391110
[6h,1d>
[1d,1w> 17935287 14685050 15256354 12463196 8769825 5976542 5648032 17568779 14781583 14637706 10732405 8777241 5726782 5648080
2070642 10466143 11029508 16232058 18150093 15148945 12328938 3616330 10598463 11918866 18023779 18205283 12929654 12328935
[1w,4w>
0
0
0
0
0 6184538 8662050
0
0
0
0
0 8662047 8662050
[4w,∞>
Fade Interval Time 40GHzV 9505-9604 [s]
Fade Interval Time 40GHzV Filtered 9505-9604 [s]
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB
≥10dB
≥15dB
≥20dB
≥25dB
≥3dB
≥5dB
≥6dB
≥10dB
≥15dB
≥20dB
≥25dB
16344
3744
2268
471
401
87
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
[1s,10s>
33815
8843
5390
1416
531
486
0
1222
416
440
40
160
114
0
[10s,1m>
68020
16555
17152
2573
818
978
401
31548
11422
8150
1005
1158
1038
407
[1m,5m>
56548
19547
16120
2595
1308
1365
461
40770
12673
11950
2035
1037
1417
461
[5m,10m>
396283 149885
95347
26054
3214
2505
752 316601 118947
93882
21744
3468
2513
756
[10m,1h>
1960135 660609 502727 244616
84372
39083
25293 1649345 613597 427533 188460
84419
39102
25287
[1h,6h>
4267537 2817953 2394173 1030691 292656 126824 126857 3704402 2616173 2268954 369091 292663 126821 126857
[6h,1d>
[1d,1w> 11563364 9120970 9038780 6239899 3978747 3675058 3088139 10836425 9381691 9248189 6417134 3852022 3070359 3088139
8632387 11385166 8145376 11921543 14713027 10110027 8258671 10191159 11398066 8157806 12233133 14713013 10715032 8258677
[1w,4w>
2632591 5418636 9434780 9461424 9881398 15008584 17466229 2632649 5447643 9434823 9698507 10008302 15008584 17466229
[4w,∞>
Table 5
Fade interval times 40GHz ITALSAT EUT (raw and filtered)
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
6
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
Fade Slope
102
Calculation of slopes is done with the 5-point
101
central derivative [2][3]. Distributions for the
100
Time [%]
10-1
filtered and unfiltered attenuation signals are in
40GHz
Figure 13. Contour plots against attenuation
10-2
10-3
are in Figure 14 for the raw and in Figure 15
40GHz Filtered
10-4
for the filtered data. Cumulative distributions
10-5
10-6
-1
for slope absolute values at an attenuation
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
Fade Slope [dB/s]
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
threshold (±0.1dB) for the two cases are in
Figure 13 Fade Slope, 40GHz ITALSAT EUT
Figure 16 and Figure 17. Table 7 includes the
9405-9604
CD's for positive and negative slopes.
Fade Slope vs Attenuation
25
25
#1
#1
#10
#100
20
#1000
Attenuation 40GHzV [dB]
Attenuation 40GHzV [dB]
#10
#100
20
#10000
15
10
5
#1000
#10000
15
10
5
0
0
-1
-0.5
0
Fade Slope [dB/s]
0.5
1
Figure 14 Fade Slope vs Attenuation, 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
-1
-0.5
0
Fade Slope [dB/s]
0.5
1
Figure 15 Fade Slope vs Attenuation, 40GHz
Filtered ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Fade Slope with Attenuation threshold
1
0.2
0.1
0.05
0.02
0.dB
5.dB
10.dB
15.dB
20.dB
25.dB
0.5
|40GHzV Fc=0.02Hz Slope| [dB/s]
|40GHzV Slope| [dB/s]
0.5
0.01
1
0.dB
5.dB
10.dB
15.dB
20.dB
25.dB
0.2
0.1
0.05
0.02
0.0001
0.01
1
Time (|slope|≥ ordinate and CPA=legend±0.1dB) [%]
Figure 16 Fade Slope Att. threshold, 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
0.01
0.0001
0.01
1
Time (|slope|≥ ordinate and CPA=legend±0.1dB) [%]
Figure 17 Fade Slope Att. threshold, 40GHz
Filtered ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
Slope CD's 40GHzV 9405-9604
Perc
+
0dB
5dB
30
10 0.021 0.023
3 0.071 0.072
1 0.125 0.127
0.3 0.205 0.207
0.1 0.300 0.304
0.03 0.433 0.436 0.031 0.038
0.01 0.580 0.589 0.073 0.104
0.003 0.772 0.783 0.148 0.183
0.001 0.969 0.989 0.312 0.276
0.555 0.408
0.0003
0.778 0.594
0.0001
0.980 0.756
0.00003
0.953
0.00001
Table 7
10dB
0.073
0.189
0.324
0.473
0.650
0.756
15dB
0.059
0.218
0.427
0.655
20dB
0.145
0.355
0.620
0.962
25dB
7
Slope CD's 40GHzV Filtered 9405-9604
+
0dB
5dB 10dB
0.006
0.014
0.023
0.046
0.073
0.117
0.180
0.301
0.524
0.746
0.007
0.014
0.025
0.048
0.076
0.122
0.188
0.290
0.425
0.600
0.052
0.530
0.013
0.034
0.057
0.078
0.104
0.130
0.162
0.199
0.010
0.033
0.065
0.102
0.157
0.220
0.306
0.427
0.022
0.077
0.166
0.256
0.402
0.559
15dB
20dB
25dB
0.018
0.106
0.226
0.428
0.580
0.045
0.122
0.239
0.432
0.053
0.207
Slope CD's (percent of total time) 40GHz ITALSAT EUT (raw and filtered).
Attenuation threshold ±0.1dB with absolute slope values.
Attenuation Variation
Standard deviation of attenuation and the seasonal and diurnal cumulative distributions are the one
of interest here.
Standard deviation
The dip in the standard deviation against filtered attenuation percentile curves in Figure 18 and
Table 8 comes from an ice/snow event at 20 and 21 December 1995. Equipercentage statistics are
created from the single cumulative distributions by connecting the points with equal probability.
Seasonal CD's (Figure 12 and Table 613) show a nice increase from winter to summer.
2
Eq.%
90.%
70.%
50.%
30.%
10.%
40GHzV StdDev Attenuation [dB]
40GHzV StdDev Attenuation [dB]
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
40GHzV Filtered Attenuation [dB]
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.005
2.11 1.73 1.56 1.34
3.00 2.86 2.65 2.40
3.00
2.43 2.11 1.96 1.76
3.00 2.91 2.72 2.36
Table 6
Att
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0.01
1.07
2.08
2.52
1.49
1.93
0.02
0.79
1.64
2.04
1.22
1.53
0.03
0.67
1.35
1.75
1.09
1.30
0.05
0.56
1.12
1.44
0.93
1.08
0.1
0.44
0.87
1.08
0.72
0.84
1
0
25
0.01
Figure 18 Percentiles StdDev Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9505-9604
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
All
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
ALL
0.1
1
Time≥ordinate [%]
10.
100.
Figure 19 Season CD's StdDev Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9505-9604
0.2
0.35
0.67
0.84
0.54
0.65
0.3
0.30
0.57
0.73
0.45
0.56
0.5
0.27
0.48
0.60
0.37
0.47
1
0.20
0.38
0.48
0.29
0.38
2
0.19
0.29
0.39
0.24
0.30
3
0.18
0.27
0.35
0.20
0.27
5
0.15
0.21
0.29
0.19
0.23
10
0.10
0.18
0.25
0.17
0.19
20
0.09
0.15
0.19
0.12
0.15
30
0.08
0.12
0.17
0.09
0.12
Season CD's standard deviation attenuation 40GHzV ITALSAT EUT 9505-9604
Mean StdDev
0.10
0.08
0.17
0.13
0.29
0.24
0.37
0.32
0.47
0.44
0.53
0.55
0.51
0.58
10%
0.08
0.12
0.18
0.21
0.20
0.15
0.17
30%
0.11
0.16
0.25
0.31
0.38
0.37
0.21
50%
0.15
0.21
0.35
0.45
0.60
0.68
0.59
70%
0.23
0.34
0.60
0.77
1.02
1.20
1.33
90% EquiPerc
0.18
0.18
0.33
0.33
0.45
0.45
0.59
0.59
0.73
0.74
0.86
0.88
1.05
1.11
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
50
0.06
0.08
0.13
0.07
0.08
8
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
0.55
0.69
1.10
1.10
1.20
3.90
14
16
18
20
22
24
Table 8
0.64
0.76
0.68
0.83
0.79
0.00
0.20
0.22
0.71
0.67
0.77
3.92
0.23
0.24
0.91
0.81
1.01
3.93
0.67
0.83
1.11
1.09
1.41
3.94
1.48
1.90
2.13
2.31
2.22
3.95
1.35
1.80
2.27
3.30
3.95
4.00
1.51
2.27
Percentiles StdDev Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9505-9604
Seasonal and Diurnal
Diurnal (Figure 3 and Table 10) and seasonal (Figure 4 and Table 9) attenuation distributions are
created with much coarser bin tables than the ones in Figure 2 and Figure 4, the concurrency constraint for Table 1 is also absent so do expect some minor differences.
25
0.001%
0.01%
15
0.1%
10
1.%
5
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
ALL
20
40GHzV Attenuation [dB]
20
40GHzV Attenuation [dB]
25
0.0001%
15
10
5
10.%
0
0
00:00
06:00
12:00
Hour of the Day (UTC)
18:00
0.01
24:00
Figure 3 Diurnal Variation Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.005
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
All
Table 9
Hour
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
0.01
26.0
0.02 0.03 0.05
0.1
24.0 21.3 11.6
8.4
27.9 16.1
30.0
19.7 16.9 15.3 12.9
30.0 15.3
0.1
1
Time≥ordinate [%]
10.
Figure 4 Season CD's Attenuation, 40GHz
ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
0.2
0.3
7.0
6.0
10.1
7.9
15.5 10.9
9.6
8.0
9.9
8.0
0.5
5.3
6.4
7.8
6.6
6.3
1
3.9
4.6
5.0
4.7
4.4
2
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3
2.8
3.0
2.8
2.9
2.9
5
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.0
10
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6
20
1.0
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.8
Season CD's Attenuation, 40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
10%
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1%
3.9
3.9
3.6
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.4
4.5
4.5
3.9
3.9
4.6
5.5
4.8
5.5
5.9
5.9
5.0
5.0
4.0
3.9
4.6
4.8
3.8
0.1%
13.4
3.9
9.2
7.8
9.6
9.6
14.3
15.4
12.4
9.0
9.3
11.7
11.5
13.8
5.5
5.9
17.7
25.6
12.0
8.8
12.2
4.6
4.8
9.1
0.01%
13.4
3.9
9.2
14.0
9.6
14.7
14.3
17.7
12.4
9.0
13.3
11.7
20.7
13.8
5.5
5.9
17.7
25.6
12.0
14.0
12.2
4.6
4.8
9.1
0.001%
13.4
3.9
9.2
17.5
9.6
20.0
14.3
18.0
12.4
9.0
16.7
11.7
20.7
13.8
5.5
5.9
17.7
25.6
12.0
17.7
12.2
4.6
4.8
9.1
100.
0.0001%
13.4
3.9
9.2
19.4
9.6
22.8
14.3
18.0
12.4
9.0
17.9
11.7
20.7
13.8
5.5
5.9
17.7
25.6
12.0
19.7
12.2
4.6
4.8
9.1
Table 10 Diurnal Variation Attenuation,
40GHz ITALSAT EUT 9405-9604
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
30
0.3
0.3
0.1
50
40GHz ITALSAT May 1994 - April 1996 EUT
9
Conclusions
A collection of two year attenuation statistics at Eindhoven University was presented for a fixed
satellite link using the 40GHz beacon of the ITALSAT.
An underestimation of the ITU-R rain model was seen.
References
[1]
Poiares Baptista, J.P.V. and P.G. Davies (ed.), "OPEX Reference Book on Attenuation
Measurement and Prediction", Second Workshop of the OLYMPUS Propagation
Experimenters, ESA WPP-083, Noordwijk, November 1994
[2]
Coevering, L. van de, K.G. Holleboom, G. Brussaard and J. Dijk, 'Some Results of the
OLYMPUS Propagation Experiment at Eindhoven University of Technology',
Proceedings ICAP-9, IEE Conf. Publ. 407, Vol.2, pp. 32-35, Eindhoven, April 1995
[3]
Abramowitz M. and I. Stegun, "Handbook of Mathematical Functions", Dover, pp.
882-883, 914, New-York, 1970
Eindhoven University of Technology - Telecommunications Division
SHORT REPORTS FROM THE EXPERIMENTERS
POLITECNICA DE MADRID 50 GHz V&H POLARIZATION RECEIVER
Prof. Jose M. Riera (Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI-Telecom) reporting (end Oct 98):
The project has suffered considerable delays due to problems with the hardware and with
funding. The history of difficulties in assembling the system is quite long; in particular the
foundamental component - the 48GHz Gunn oscillator had to be replaced, then some other
parts of the hardware had to be re-designed. The main problems have been solved and now
the oscillator is working consistently, but still there are measurements and adjustments to be
made.Everything was complicated by the fact that, after repairments made by the
manufacturer, the equipment worked in the laboratory and thus we decided to install it at
the antenna back. Then, it failed again. It was decided not to send it again to the
manufacturer but to adapt the rest of the hardware to the oscillator, that is not working as in
its specifications. It has been possible, but very hard. Aditionally, the last year has been one
of the most rainy ones in Madrid, and when it rains it is not possible to work at the antenna
site.
The scarcity of funds has played an important role. In fact, another oscillator should have
been bought but that was out of question because of the available budget.
Hopefully ITALSAT will be received in Madrid now in some weeks, expecting that the
good shape of the satellite would allow to take data for at least one year.
Last news (Dic 98) :
The new receiver antenna is now being pointed in order to start receiving the beacon at
intermediate frequency. This is the most critical proccess that remains to be done regarding
the receiver integration, because the level at IF is rather low, and the antenna beamwidth is
only 0,5º. Thus, it is difficult to "catch" the satellite. Once the satellite is received at IF the rest
of the parts should work well without further problems, as they have been extensively
checked in the lab and they work at lower frequencies.
SPANISH EXPERIMENT WITH THE YEBES RADIO-TELESCOPE
Prof. Jose M. Riera (Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI-Telecom) reporting:
The Italsat 50 GHz beacon (vertical polarization) was measured using the radiotelescope
system for several days a month during the last 5 years. Now this experiment is concluded.
In the last months it became very difficult to track the satellite movements with the 13 m
antenna. Its tracking system is not very flexible, as it is designed to track the apparent
movements of stars and galaxies due to the Earth rotation. However, it was possible to
"check" the inclination of the satellite orbit and it seems within the predictions.
References:
Riera, J.M., Al-Ansari, K.H., Besada, J.L., Benarroch, A.Propagation experiment at 50 GHz
Madrid Proc. of URSI Commision F Symposium, pp. 304-307, Aveiro, Portugal, Sept. 1998
Alvarez, F., Del Rey, F.J., Riera, J.M., Benarroch, A., López, J.A., Barcia, A. Final results of the
propagation experiment at 50 GHz using the Yebes radiotelescope Proc. of URSI Commision
F Symposium, pp. 292-295, Aveiro, Portugal, Sept. 1998
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
UNIVERSITY OF PORTSMOUTH (UK): 40 GHz PORTABLE RECEIVER
AND MAJOR SCIENTIFIC GOALS OF THE ITALSAT EXPERIMENT.
(Interview with Professor Vilar, 29 October 1998)
The portable 40 GHz receiver was built by the University of Portsmouth in 1993
thanks to the funding by EPSRS (UK). Beacon measurements started in spring 1996 in
Chilbolton, then the receiver was moved to Barcelona in summer 96, where it was
operated until December 1997. Now it is back to Chilbolton, operating together with
two radiometers. The second radiometer was added to the experimental set up in
October 1998. It is built into the beacon receiver, sharing with this last the same
antenna system.
The receiving system is wholly automated: beacon measurements are triggered by
the optical rain gauge.
The tracking system (built at the University) was installed in January 1998; it is of
“predictive” type and follows very satisfactory the satellite movements in N-S axis.
Concerns are expressed instead regarding the keeping of the W-E satellite axis (by
the control center). Tracking the W-E position in addition to N-S is not possible or
cost effective.
MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Amplitude and phase description of the central 40 GHz line.
Fading due to clouds - for this purpose two independent radiometers are used
together with the beacon receiver.
Statistics of phase noise and of carrier to noise ratio C/NO.
Scintillations.
Turbulence characterization of the path; height and thickness of the cloud
(turbulence) layer.
Design of the receiving equipment itself - two types of receiver were in fact
developed, the first design was classic p.1. 1., the second one has used the direct
base band complex demodulation (In-phase and In-quadrature).
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
TELENOR R&D 50 GHz MEASUREMENTS IN KJELLER, NORWAY
(Lars Braten, E-mail Oct 30, 98)
The measurments of the 50 GHz beacon started in April 1997, using the receiver with
1.2 m antenna plus the collocated rain gage.
• measurments were stopped in early 1998 due to the lack of the tracking system;
• several months of data have been processed for the scintillation analysis;
• data of attenuation by rain are under processing;
• hoping to publish the results soon;
________________________________________________________________
GERMAN AEROSPACE RESEARCH (DLR)
Institute for Communications Technology, Oberpfaffenhoffen, Germany
40 and 50 GHz measurements are ongoing regularily; Statistical evaluation (in
progress) includes: attenuation: cumulative distributions; seasonal and diurnal
effects; fade durations and slopes; distributions of "3dB durations" (time during
which power level changes by 3 dB).
DBCEPIT: strong interest in contributing (incoming)
References:
U.-C. Fiebig and M. Schnell: ``40 GHz Measurement Campaign - Evaluation with
Respect to System Design and Fade Countermeasures'', Proc. European Conference
on Satellite Communications, ECSC-4, Rome, Italy, pp. 199-204, 1997.
U.-C. Fiebig and M. Schnell: ``Impact of Rain Attenuation on Satellite Broadcasting
Systems at Ka-band'', Proc. First International Workshop on Radiowave Propagation
Modelling for SatCom Services at Ku-band and above, Noordwijk, The Netherlands,
1998.
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
T.1. CEPIT EXPERIMENTERS (Oct 98)
Organization
Country
Measurements
EUT Eindhoven University of
Technology (active)
Nether
lands
40 GHz cp, 50 GHz coand cross-polar
SERC - RAL, Rutheford Appleton
Laboratories (active)
U. K.
20, 40 and 50 GHz copolar
DLR - German Aerospace Research,
Oberpfaffenhoffen (active)
Germany
20 and 40 GHz copolar
University of Portsmouth (active)
UK
40 GHz copolar
FUB - Fondazione Ugo Bordoni, Roma
(active)
Italy
all beacons, all polariz.
CSTS-CNR Politecnico di Milano
(active)
Italy
all beacons, all polariz.
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
(receiver under test)
Spain
50 GHz co- and crosspolar
CERT - ONERA, Toulouse
France
earth terminal tests
CSELT Torino -Telecom (ended)
Italy
all beacons, all polariz.,
20 GHz mobile,
TZD Darmstadt (ended)
Germany
20 and 40 GHz copolar
Telenor Research Kjeller (ended)
Norway
50 GHz copolar
IRAM - Institut de Radioastronomie
Millimetrique (ended)
France
40 GHz copolar
CAY, Centro Astronomico de Yebes
Guadalajara (ended)
Spain
50 GHz copolar
University of Surrey / ESTEC (ended)
UK
20 GHz mobile terminal
ESTEC/ IAS Graz (ended)
Austria
20 GHz mobile terminal
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
DB-CEPIT: ITALSAT PROPAGATION DATA BANK
(January 29, 1999)
DB-CEPIT collects yearly (and/or monthly) statistics of main propagation
parameters (attenuation, XPD, rain rate, scintillations, fade durations and slopes)
derived from Italsat measurements. The statistics are stored in form of levels
exceeded for fixed percentages of the year.
The software for generation, keeping and using the data bank is the one developed at
ESA-ESTEC for the Olympus Propagation Experiment (DB-OPEX) and offered free of
charge by the organization to the propagation researchers.
The list of organizations ufficially participating to the experiment is given in the
Table T.1. The data potentially available and those currently included in DB-CEPIT
are listed in the Table T.2. At the moment the DB-CEPIT covers 29 years of
attenuation and rain rate. Still more entries are expected in the next future coming
from current measurements, or from the sites where the data are still under
processing.
The main contributors are by now the stations of Spino d’Adda (15 years), Darmstadt
(6 years), Sparsholt (3), Turin (3), Eindhoven (2). Two more organizations, recently
re-contacted, promissed to contribute with accurate statistics (FUB and DLR).
Some of the experiments were run for several months only or were not designed for
collecting long term statistics, so their results are out of the format of DB-CEPIT.
CEPIT DATA BASE NEEDS UPDATING
We are still lacking some inputs from:
• experimenters who concluded their measurement campaign
• experimenters who continue to collect the data from Italsat
• experimenters who ended their measurements but still have to process the data
•
ALL EXPERIMENTERS ARE KINDLY ASKED TO COOPERATE
CONTRIBUTING TO COMPLETE THE DATA BASE.
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
T. 2. CEPIT DATABASE
(as forJan 99, months of data)
Organization
At18.6
GHz
40
At.40
GHz
40
At. 50
GHz
24
72
60
72
60
72
60
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
16
21
12
TDZ Darmstadt 36
36
21
12
36
36
21
12
EUT Netherl.
36(?)
(?)
raing. 36 mnths, fades,
48 (?)
raing., fades
days
13 m radio-telescope, new RX
under test
FUB
Roma
(!!)
Politecnico di
Milano
CSELTTorino
RALChilbolton
RAL-Sparsholt
Other measurements
all XPD’s, radioms at 13,23,31 GHz
and raingauge, 36 mnths, fades,
scintillations
all XPD’s, radioms at 13,23,31 GHz
(48 mnth), raing. 120 mnths, fades,
scintillations
all XPD’s, radioms at 13,23,31 GHz,
raing., fades, scintillations
radiom. 51GHz (24), raing. (24)
radiom. 51GHz (21), raing. (21)
radioms at 13,23,31 GHz (36),
raing. 36 mnths, fades,
scintillations
24
DLR Germany
Oberpfaffen
(!!)
Univ.
Politecnica
Madrid
48 (?)
Univ. of
Portsmouth
UK
12 (?)
TeleNor
scintil., fades
9
start Apr97, raing. (60), fades
Kjeller Norway
XX
YY
months of existing data
months included in DB-CEPIT
(?)
(!!)
to be confirmed
promissed to supply the data
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA”
- DAVID Mission
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
__
The Use of Ka-Band and W-band in the
DAVID Small Mission
M. Ruggieri (*)
A. Paraboni (°)
(*) Universita’di Roma "Tor Vergata -DIE, Italy
(°) Politecnico di Milano-DIE, Italy
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
OUTLINE
• Mission Overview
• Ka-Band and W-band Exploitation in Experiment E1
• Ka-Band Exploitation in Experiment E2
• Conclusions
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
2
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
Mission Overview
• DAVID (DAta and VIdeo Distribution) is one of the eight proposals of
small-satellite-based scientific missions selected by the Italian Space
Agency for a phase A study.
• The small-satellite missions will be embarked on the ASI standard
platforms PRIMA and MITA.
• The DAVID mission is based on two scientific experiments:
proposed by the Universita’ di Roma Tor Vergata (E1) and the
Politecnico di Milano (E2).
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
3
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
Mission Overview
.
Orbit Parameters
Height (km)
Inclination (deg)
RAAN local hour
Period (hours)
Number of Orbit per day
RAAN Precession (deg/day)
Delta Longitude (deg/orbit)
Revisitation Period (day)
Max Eclipse Duration (min/orbit)
578
97.7
6:09
1.604
15
+0.986
-24.0
1
25
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
4
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
Mission Overview
Ground Tracks in one day (*)
100
80
60
*
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
(*) This analysis has been performed by Space Engineering, partner of the DAVID phase A team.
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
5
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
Mission Overview
Satellite Visibility from Milano (*)
Sat Visibility Intervals (1 day)
elevation angles (deg)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
500
1000
1500
Union of Sat Visibility Intervals (1 day)
elevation angles (deg)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
minutes
12
14
16
18
(*) This analysis has been performed by Space Engineering, partner of the DAVID phase A team.
__________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
6
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
EXPERIMENT E1
Ka-band ISL
ARTEMIS
LEO
W-band
USER
CP
Terrestrial
Network
GTW
USER
USER
________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
7
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
EXPERIMENT E2
LEO
Ka-band
Rx
via telecommands
Rx
Rx
power vector
METEO
DATA
PC
satellite data
Data processing
E2 Operation Center
________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
8
University of Roma “TOR VERGATA” - DAVID Mission
________________________________________________________________________
CONCLUSIONS
• Many applications can be envisaged for a communications system based
on the DAVID architecture.
• Ka-band is utilised in both experiments E1 and E2, as an optimal
compromise between scientific aims, technological feasibility and cost.
• The advantage investigated in the experimental phase of E2 can be
usefully exploited in the deployment of Ka-band and above multimedia
satellite systems.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
CEPIT VI Meeting/ 4th Ka Band Utilization Conference, Venice, November 3, 1998
9
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Dipartimento di Elettronica
Piazza L. da Vinci 32
20121 Milano ITALY
Mr. Terje Tjelta
Telenor Research
Satellite & Radio Systems
Postboks 83
2007 Kjeller NORWAY
Dr Susan Upton
UF Data Analysis
1 um Bierg
6839 Lellig LUXEMBOURG
Prof. Francesco Valdoni
Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica
Via della Ricerca
00133 Roma ITALY
Prof. Danielle Vanhoenacker
Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
Microwave Laboratory
Batiment Maxwell
1348 Louvain-la-Neuve BELGIUM
Prof. Francesco Vatalaro
Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica
Via della Ricerca
00133 Roma ITALY
Dr Spiros Ventouras
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
CLRC, Applied Science Dept.
Oxfordshire OX11 OQX
Chilton Didcot U.K.
Prof. Eric Vilar
University of Portsmouth
Dept of El. & Electronic Engg.
Anglesea Bldg, Anglesea Rd
Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ U.K.
Dr Wolf Vogel
10100 Burnet Road
Austin TX 78758 USA
Prof. Andri Van der Vorst
Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
Microwaves Laboratory
Batiment Maxwell
1348 Louvain-la-Neuve BELGIUM
Prof. Peter A. Watson
University of York
Dept. of Electronics
Heslington
York YO1 5DD U.K.
Charles Wrench
CCLRC Rutheford Appleton Laboratory
RCRU Building R.25
Oxfordshire OX11 OQX
Chilton, Didcot UNITED KINGDOM
Prof. Thomas K. Yesufu
Obafemi Awolowo University
Departament of Electronic and Electrical Eng.
Ile - Ife NIGERIA
Tel: +47-63-848703
Fax: +47-63-819810
[email protected]
Tel: +352-710848
Fax: +352 710848
[email protected]
Tel: 06 7259 4465
Fax: 06 2020519
[email protected]
Tel: +32-10-47-2304
Fax: +32-10-47-8705
[email protected]
Tel: 06 7259 4464
Fax: 06 2020519
[email protected]
Tel:
Fax:
Tel: +44-1705-842539
Fax: +44-1705-295336
[email protected]
Tel: +505 846-4817
Fax:
Tel: +32-10-47-4020
Fax: +32-10-47-8705
[email protected]
Tel: +44-1904-432338
Fax: +44-1904-432335
[email protected]
Tel: +44-1235-446427
Fax: +44-1235-446140
[email protected]
Tel:
Fax:
[email protected]
CEPIT VI Meeting, VENEZIA- Lido, Nov 3, 98; Coordination: CSTS CNR c/o DEI, Politecnico di Milano
cpt6proc

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