the SINEO project

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the SINEO project
Contribution of Padova Team to
SSA - NEO Segment : the SINEO project
Monica Lazzarin
The contribution of Padova Team to SSA activities mainly
focuses on the NEO segment, in particular the investigation of
the surface composition of NEO and related issues.
Padova Team is involved in the European Space Situational
Awareness (SSA) programme, Near Earth Object segment,
responsible Detlef Koschny of the European Space Agency
(http://www.esa.int/esaMI/SSA) and in the project approved
by ESA “Enabling Technologies for SSA-NEO segment”
Telespazio-INAF-Univ. of Pisa proposers.
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Involved Researchers
Padova Team is composed by researchers of the Department of Physics
and Astronomy of Padova University.
Monica Lazzarin - Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia - Univ. di Padova - Ricercatore
[email protected]
Sara Magrin- Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia - Univ. di Padova – Assegnista
[email protected]
Ivano Bertini - Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia - Univ. di Padova - Assegnista
[email protected]
Fiorangela La Forgia - Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia - Univ. di Padova – PhD
[email protected]
Maurizio Pajola - Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia - Univ. di Padova – PhD
[email protected]
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Field of interest in SSA: Near Earth Objects segment
The Team is expert in the study of the physical properties of small
bodies, asteroids and comets, from groudbased and space
instrumentation. Among the several activities in this field:
•Started some years ago a long term spectroscopic survey of Near Earth Objects
(SINEO=Spectroscopic Investigation of Near Earth Objects) to investigate their
surface composition, important physical parameter also for mitigation purposes
•All members involved as Co-I or Associate Scientists in the space mission
Rosetta (OSIRIS camera); developed algorithms to analyze the images taken by
the OSIRIS camera of the two encountered asteroids: Steins and Lutetia.
•Most of the Team members involved in the sample return Marco Polo-R
mission for the study of a Near Earth Asteroid.
•Most of the Team members partecipate to the ESA SSA-Near Earth Objects, PI
Koschny and to the “Enabling Technologies for SSA awareness-NEO segment”
project by Telespazio-INAF-Univ.Pisa
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Motivations for NEO investigation:
Where do NEOs originate?
Comets
Asteroids
Kuiper Belt
Main Belt:
3:1, 5:2,
2:1, 6...
Oort Cloud
Near-Earth
Space
T~ 10-100My
~20%
Collision
with the Sun
~80%
Hyperbolic orbits
Collision with E/V/M
Why NEO spectroscopy?
Surface composition and mineralogy
-
NEOs origin
- Solar System formation
- Solar System dynamic
relationships with comets, MBOs
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meteorites
- Solar System evolution
- PHA investigation
Funded projects on NEOs physical investigation:
• ITANET project 1995, CNR, Search and study of potential hazardous objects
for the Earth (NEOs) (Astronomy Dept. of Padova, Obs. of Torino, Brera,
Catania, Roma, Univ. of Pisa. PI: A. Carusi).
• PRIN-MIUR 2004 project, University Minister, Physical and dynamical study
of Near Earth Objects (Astronomy Dept. of Padova, Obs. of Torino, Catania,
Brera, Roma, Univ. of Pisa. PI: A. Milani).
• National contract funded by ASI ''Studies of Solar System exploration', PI:
Angioletta Coradini. Local program on NEOs.
• PRIN-INAF 2009 project, INAF, Physical and dynamical study of NEOs
(Astronomy Dept. of Padova, Obs. of Torino and Roma, Univ. of Pisa and IASFRoma PI:G.Valsecchi).
• SSA-Telespazio-INAF-Univ. of Pisa project approved by ESA 2010 “Enabling
Technologies for SSA awareness-NEO segment”
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Previous experience and obtained results
•Long time experience on spectroscopic investigation of asteroids,
comets, Trans Neptunian objects, transition objects. Facility used:
ESO-Cile Telescopes (NTT, VLT), Mauna Kea Telescopes(CFHT,
IRTF), TNG-La Palma-Canarias.
•SINEO project (Spectroscopic Investigation of Near Earth
Objects): one of the largest spectroscopic data base with about
200 spectra of NEOs in the visible and Near Infrared region (0.42.5 micron) partly published and not yet completely analyzed.
150 spectra in the visible and 90 in the NIR. Some examples:
C
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•Taxonomic classification: needed for estimate the composition
of the objects.
Obtained almost all the taxonomic classes found in the MB that
confirms NEOs variegate origin. The use of the Principal Component
Analysis confirms the taxonomic classification obtained.
C-
XPCA:performed using
S-
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SMASS II data (Binzel
2002). Our data
distribute in the same
clusters defined by
SMASS II data.
• Comparison of NEO spectra with those of about 900
meteorites taken from RELAB catalog. Most meterorites has
not a clear origin. Found that 38% of NEOs have a meteoritic
analogue; all C-types have a Carbonaceous Chondrite analogue and
24% of S-types have an Ordinary Chondrite analogue. A first
conclusion is that NEOs are the principal parent bodies of meteorites
that fall on the Earth.
Most part of the
investigated S-types
NEOs does not fit
with any meteorite:
their spectra are
typically redder
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• Study of space weathering
The S-type NEOs that do not
match with any meteorite are
typically redder than the
reddest OC meteorites and we
conclude that this is due to
space weathering effects
Laboratory experiments made in collaboration
with Catania observatory on OC meteorites
indicate that ion bombardment of OC meteorites is
able to mimic SW effects on S-type objects due to
solar wind
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• Peculiar objects: dead/dormant comets, family asteroids,
rare taxonomic types…
We have found some peculiar objects: the
spectra of four V-type objects very similar to
Vesta.
Then the spectrum of a NEO probably
belonging to the rare R-class.
The spectra of 2 objects of primitive
composition that could be of cometary origin.
In fact they also have a Tj typically cometary
and a high probability to come from the JFC
channel.
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Tools adopted for SINEO
• Observations: low resolution spectra in the spectral range
0.40 – 2.50 micron
• Telescope used: ESO-NTT La Silla-Cile and TNG-La Palma-Canarias
EMMI
DOLORES
Gr#1, D=5.9 Å/pix, Slit=5”, seeing=1”
LR-R Grm3, D=2.9 Å/pix, Slit=5”, seeing=1”
V=20 in Texp=1h
S/N=20
V=20.0 in Texp=1.0h
S/N=23
SOFI
GB, D=6.9 Å/pix, Slit=2”, seeing=1”
J=16 (V ≈17.5) in Texp=1.5h
NICS
Amici, D=30-100 Å/pix, Slit=2”, seeing=1”
H=16.2 (V ≈18.0) in Texp=1.0h
S/N=20
GR, D=10.2 Å/pix, Slit=2”, seeing=1”
K=16 (V ≈18) in Texp=2.5h
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S/N=20
S/N=30
web
http://www.astro.unipd.it/planets/sineo.html
Italiansite:
Workshop
on SSA
Conclusion
Need to extend the data base of Near Earth Objects spectra with long
term dedicated observational campaigns to improve the knowledge
of the composition of these objects. We need to make an inventory
of the typical materials present among NEO population.
This is an important information also for the mitigation, so for SSA.
We need big telescopes as NEO are typically faint objects.
The existence of a wide supported european and national program
on SSA-NEO would give more strength to time request applications at
the European and International Telescopes, typically subject to high
pressure.
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Principal References of the Team related to the subject
MAGRIN S., LA FORGIA F.,, PAJOLA M., LAZZARIN M., MASSIRONI M., FERRI F., DA DEPPO V., BARBIERI C:, SIERKS H., OSIRIS Team (2012). (21) Lutetia
spectrophotometry from Rosetta-OSIRIS images and comparison to ground-based observations. Planetary and Space Science, vol. 66, p. 43-53
BERTINI I., BARBIERI C., T.-M. HO, LAZZARIN M., CREMONESE G.,, KUPPERS M.,, MAGRIN S., MARCHI S. (2012). Photometric observations of comet
81P/Wild 2 during the 2010 perihelion passage. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, vol. 541
LAZZARIN M., MAGRIN S, MARCHI S, DOTTO E, PERNA D, BARBIERI C, BARUCCI M.A, FULCHIGNONI M (2010). Rotational variation of the spectral slope
of (21) Lutetia, the second asteroid target of ESA Rosetta Mission. . MNRAS, vol. 408, p. 1433-1437
MARCHI, S, DELBO', M, MORBIDELLI, A, PAOLICCHI, P, LAZZARIN M., M (2009). Heating of near-Earth objects and meteoroids due to close approaches to the
Sun. MNRAS, vol. 400, p. 147-153.
LAZZARIN M., S. MARCHI, L.V. MOROZ, S. MAGRIN (2009). New visible spectra and mineralogical assessment of (21) Lutetia, a target of the Rosetta Mission.
Astronomy & Astrophysics, 498, 307
LAZZARIN M, MAGRIN, S, MARCHI, S (2008). SINEO: Spectroscopic Investigation of Near Earth Objects. In: Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana
Supplement. Bormio, Gennaio 2008 Societa' Astronomica Italiana, vol. 12, p. 20-27
DE LUISE, F, PERNA, D, DOTTO, E, FORNASIER, S, BELSKAYA, I. N, BOATTINI, A, VALSECCHI, G. B, MILANI, A, ROSSI, A, LAZZARIN M., M, PAOLICCHI,
P, FULCHIGNONI, M (2007). Physical investigation of the potentially hazardous Asteroid (144898) 2004 VD17. ICARUS, vol. 191; p. 628-635
MARCHI S, PAOLICCHI P, LAZZARIN M., MAGRIN S (2007). Space weathering of asteroids: similarities and discrepancies between Main Belt asteroids and NEOs.
In: Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Proceedings if IAU Symposium 236. Edited by G.B. Valsecchi and D. Vokrouhlický ( 2007).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 239-242
MARCHI, S, PAOLICCHI, P, NESVORNY, D, MAGRIN, S, LAZZARIN, M. (2007). Space weathering and tidal effects among near-Earth objects. In: Near Earth
Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 236. Edited by G.B. Valsecchi and D. Vokrouhlický ( 2007). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, p. 233-238
DE LUISE, F, PERNA, D, FORNASIER, S, DOTTO, E, MILANI, A, VALSECCHI, G. B, LAZZARIN M., M, BOATTINI, A, PAOLICCHI, P (2006). Unveiling The
Nature Of 2004 VD17. In: Near Earth Objects, Our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, International Astronomical Union. Symposium no. 236, August, 2006 in
Prague, Czech Republic. Prague, Czech Republic, 2006, vol. 236, p. 51-54
LAZZARIN M., MARCHI S, MOROZ L. V, BRUNETTO R, MAGRIN S, PAOLICCHI P, STRAZZULLA G (2006). Space Weathering in the Main Asteroid Belt: The
Big Picture. The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 674; p. 179-182.
MARCHI S, MAGRIN S, NESVORNY D, PAOLICCHI P, LAZZARIN M. (2006). A spectral slope versus perihelion distance correlation for planet-crossing asteroids.
Montly Notices of The Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 368; p. L39-L42.
MARCHI S., PAOLICCHI P., LAZZARIN M., MAGRIN S. (2006). A General Spectral Slope-Exposure Relation for S-Type Main Belt and Near-Earth Asteroids. The
Astronomical Journal, vol. 131; p. 1138-1141.
PAOLICCHI, P, LAZZARIN M., MARCHI, S, MAGRIN, S (2006). Space weathering of asteroids: similarities and discrepancies between Main Belt asteroids and
NEOs. In: Near Earth Objects, Our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, International Astronomical Union. Symposium no. 236, held 14-18 August, 2006 in
Prague, Czech Republic. Prague, Czech Republic, 14-18 August, 2006, vol. 236, p. 84-90
LAZZARIN M., MARCHI S., MAGRIN S., LICANDRO J. (2005). Spectroscopic Investigation of Near Earth Objects (SINEO) at Telscopio Nazionale Galileo. Montly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 359; p. 1575-1582
MAGRIN S., LAZZARIN M., MARCHI S. (2005). Spectrally Peculiar Objects from SINEO survey. In: American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting, vol. 37, p. 15
MARCHI S., BRUNETTO R., MAGRIN S., LAZZARIN M., GANDOLFI D. (2005). Space weathering of near-Earth and main belt silicate-rich asteroids: observations
and ion irradiation experiments. Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 443; p. 769-775, ISSN: 0004-6361
MARCHI S., LAZZARIN M., PAOLICCHI P., MAGRIN S. (2005). New V-type asteroids in near-Earth space. ICARUS, vol. 175; p. 170-174, ISSN: 0019-1027
MARCHI S., PAOLICCHI P., LAZZARIN M., MAGRIN S. (2005). A Unique Spectral Slope-Exposure Relation for Silicate-Rich Main Belt and Near-Earth Asteroids.
In: American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting, vol. 37, p. 15
LAZZARIN M., MARCHI S., BARUCCI M.A., DI MARTINO M., BARBIERI C. (2004). Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Near Earth Objects: First Results.
ICARUS, vol. 169; p. 373-384, ISSN: 0019-1035
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Italian Workshop on SSA
Space Weathering:new and more general approach finding a
general relation between the spectral slopes of silicate-rich asteroids and
exposure to solar wind and micrometeorite impacts computed with the age
and origin distance in the MB
559 S-type
MBAs
selected from
SMASSII and
70 S-type
NEOs from
SMASS Near
Earth Object
Survey and
from SINEO
Exposure ∝
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1
a
2
1−e
2
⋅T
T MB = T MB (t coll ) = T MB (D )
T NEO = T NEO (t yark , t coll ) = T NEO (D )
Italian Workshop on SSA
SW:using a large data set of spectroscopic observations of planetcrossing asteroids (NEOs and Mars Crossers) we found a statistically
significant correlation between their spectral slope and the perihelion
distance.
We find that Q and S-q type planet-crossing asteroids are more
abundant (relative to more space weathered S-type objects) at small
perihelion distances. Close encounters with terrestrial planets may
produce tidal perturbations to their surfaces removing, also partially, old
and weathered layers and expose non weathered OC-like material.
214 visible spectra of NEOs
taken from SMASS-NEO and
from SINEO and 70 MC from the
SMASS II. Vertical lines are the
perihelion, a and aphelion
distances of the terrestrial
planets.
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