Advances in Power Line Communications and Application

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Advances in Power Line Communications and Application
Università degli Studi di Udine
Wireless and Power Line Communications Lab
Tutorial at EUSIPCO 2012 ‐ August 27, 2012
Advances in Power Line Communications and Application to the Smart Grid
Andrea M. Tonello
Wireless and Power Line Communications Lab University of Udine, Italy
[email protected]
www.diegm.uniud.it/tonello
© A. M. Tonello 2012. This material is for the tutorial use only. It cannot be copied and/or distributed without author’s permission.
Introduction
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Andrea M. Tonello
Andrea M. Tonello
Milan
Udine
Aggregate professor at Univ. of Udine
Vice‐chair IEEE TC‐PLC
Steering committee member IEEE ISPLC
Venice
Rome
 University of Udine: 17.000 students (ranked in the top‐ten)


WiPLi Lab 15 members, part of the Department of Electrical, Mechanical and Management Engineering (150+ members)
Activities: Wireless and Power Line Communications
 Communication theory and signal processing
 System and protocol design
 Measurements and emulation
 RF and base band prototyping
 Home networking, smart grid, vehicular communications
 Projects: several EU FP5‐FP7 and industrial projects
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Acknowledgment
 A. Tonello acknowledges the work of his PhD students: – M. Antoniali, S. D’Alessandro, F. Versolatto
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Contents 1
 Introduction of the speaker
 Acknowledgment
 Power line communications and Smart Grids (p. 8)
 History and application scenarios of PLC
 Application and role of PLC in the Smart Grid
 Channel characterization (p.21)
 Bands and coupling
 In‐home channel
 Outdoor LV/MV channel
 Effect of circuit discontinuity elements
 Can we model the channel ? (p.39)
 Top‐down modeling approach
 Bottom‐up modeling approach
 MIMO channel: multiple‐input multiple‐output (p.52)
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Contents 2
 Noise characterization (p. 56)
 Background noise
 Impulsive noise
 Common noise model in the literature (p. 67)  Physical layer techniques (p. 69)
 Single carrier modulation (FSK), multicarrier modulation, adaptation, and performance increase
 Possible capacity increases from extended bandwidth and MIMO
 Other modulation schemes: Impulsive UWB
 Cooperative algorithms (p. 95)
 Relaying and flooding
 Media access techniques (p. 111)
 Scheduling in linear periodically time variant (LPTV) channels
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Contents 3
 Systems, standards and MAC details (p. 116)
 Summary of systems and standards
 Status of standardization
 MAC in narrowband systems
 MAC in broadband systems
 Conclusions and evolution of PLC (p. 138)
 References (p. 141)
 Short bio of the speaker (p. 149)
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Power Line Communications and Smart Grids
History and Application Scenarios of PLC
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Application Scenarios
 Idea: exploit the power delivery network to convey data signals  Application of power line communications is ubiquitous
– Broad band internet access
– In‐Home
– In‐Vehicle
– Smart grid applications
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Some History about PLC Technology
 PLC exists since early 1920s – Used by power utilities for voice and data communications over HV lines.
– Original solutions were based on ultra low data rate transmission (below 3 kHz) – A first generation of narrow band (NB) technologies has been then developed, most of them using FSK in Cenelec bands (say below 130 kHz) and rates in the order of some tens of kbps.
– A second generation of NB modems has then been designed using multicarrier modulation (OFDM, below 500 kHz) to achieve higher rates below 1 Mbps.
– In parallel, there has been a lot of activity in broad band (BB) PLC (2‐30 MHz). First generation with rates up to 10 Mbps, Second generation with rates up to 200 Mbps, Third generation with rates up to 500 Mbps and possibly above.
 Development has been fostered by industry, initially, with proprietary solutions and only recently standardization has been started  Some credit in fostering interactions and disseminations can be given to
– IEEE ComSoc Technical Committee on PLC (TC‐PLC) started in 2004
– International Symposium on PLC (ISPLC), started in 1997 (in Essen, Germany), and fully sponsored by IEEE from 2006. Next year will be held in Johannesburg.
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Outdoor – Broad Band Internet Access
INTERNET
Network
Operator
house
LV PLC
building
LV PLC
MV/LV
substation
HV/MV
station
MV PLC
LV PLC
MV PLC
MV PLC
MV/LV
substation
MV/LV
substation
house
 It enables customer premises to
access the Internet through the
existing electrical infrastructure
 Services
– High Speed Internet connection, video on demand, voice over IP, …
 Technology
– Broad band PLC in the bands 2‐30 MHz
 Deployments
– Italy, Austria, Germany, Spain, USA, …. under development countries
– Market suffers of highly penetrated xDSL services
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Home Networking
PLC
 In‐Home high speed services delivered
through the home gateway
 Home office networking, video conferences, …
 IPTV, 3D games, video streaming
ADSL
FTTH
RLL
PLC
 Integration of different technologies is advisable
 PLC, Wireless (WiFi), UWB, visible light communications
 This objective can be realized with the use of a convergent layer where PLC provides a high speed backbone
 Example 1: inter‐MAC approach developed in the EU FP7 Omega project
 Example 2: convergence at network layer
 Narrow band PLC for home automation and energy management
REF. EU FP7 Omega Project. [Online]. Available: http://www.ict‐omega.eu/
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In‐Vehicle PLC
Wipli Lab team in a cruise ship measurement campaign

In‐vehicle communications via DC/AC power lines:
 Alternative or redundant communication channel (e.g., to CAN bus)
 Command and control of devices and sensors
 Multimedia services distribution (music, video, games, etc.)
 Benefits
 Weight reduction
 Lower the costs
REF. A. B. Vallejo‐Mora, J. J. Sánchez‐Martínez, F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez,
“Characterization and Evaluation of In‐Vehicle Power Line Channels”, Proc. of IEEE Global
Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) 2010, Dec. 2010.
REF. M. Antoniali, A. M. Tonello, M. Lenardon, A. Qualizza, “Measurements and Analysis of
PLC Channels in a Cruise Ship,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App.
(ISPLC’11), Udine, Italy, April 3‐6, 2011.
REF. M. Antoniali, A. M. Tonello, et al., “In‐car PLC Advanced Transmission Techniques,” Proc.
of the 5th Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In‐Vehicle Systems, Kiel,
Germany, September 2011.
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Power Line Communications and Smart Grids
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Smart Grid
distribution
generation
transmission
 A Smart Grid is composed by several domains
– Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Customer
 Intelligent and dynamic grid with
– Distributed generation and storage options
– Active participation by customers
 The Smart Grid elements of each domain are
interconnected through two‐way communication
customer
from: http://smartgrid.ieee.org
Convergence of Communication and Electrical Networks
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PLC in the Smart Grid
Distribution Domain
INTERNET
Network
Operator
house
LV PLC
building
LV PLC
MV/LV
substation
HV/MV
station
MV PLC
LV PLC
MV PLC
MV PLC
MV/LV
substation
MV/LV
substation
house
User domain
Distribution domain
 PLC provides an easy to install two
way communication infrastructure
 The user domain is very important for the penetration of SG services
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 Monitoring and control
 Fault detection, monitoring of
power quality and islanding effects
 Energy management
 Decentralized
production
storage control
 Charging of electrical vehicles
and
 Smart metering




Demand side management
Demand response
Dynamic pricing
Acquisition of user behavior
User Domain
 Internet access
 Smart home
 Home networking
 Automation and control
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Some Specific Applications of PLC
 Monitoring and control with 2 way communications to ease the integration in the distribution grid of
– Renewable energy sources (PV and wind plants)
– Decentralized Storage systems (batteries and e‐cars)
– Control, authentication and payment of e‐car charge
 Smart metering – Home energy management systems (HEMS)
– Demand response and demand management
– User behavior profiles
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Some Specific Applications of PLC
 Monitoring and control of the grid
–
–
–
–
–
HV/MV lines status, faults
Islanding of micro grids
Power quality (frequency, voltage/current, harmonics)
Monitor power systems status (transformers, CBs)
Load shedding and generator control in remote areas
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Classification of PLC Technologies
 Extremely Narrow Band PLC
– Very low data rates (in the order of bps) for application in large grids
 Narrow Band (NB) PLC
– Low data rate (up to 1 Mbps) and narrow spectrum
 Broad Band (BB) PLC
– High data rate (above 10 Mbps) and large spectrum
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Role of Narrow Band and Broad Band PLC
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 All these services and applications have different requirements:
 Data rate, latency, robustness, energy efficiency
 It is believed that NB PLC is the right choice for SG applications.
This is because:
 Low data rates are required
 Longer distances are covered by NB PLC signals
 Cheap modems have to be deployed
 BB PLC has been designed for internet access and home networking
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Channel Characterization
Bands and Coupling
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PLC Operating Bands
AM Radio
[520 kHz, 1610 kHz]
Amateur Radio
[1.8 MHz, 30 MHz]
1
0
2
Narrowband
PLC
Defence Systems + FM Radio TV + Radio VHF
Radio PMR/PAMR [87.5 MHz, [108 MHz,
[30 MHz, 87.5 MHz] 108 MHz]
240 MHz]
30
100
240
MHz
Broadband
PLC
PSD equal to ‐50 dBm/Hz
+
Notching
30 (MHz)
1.8
B ‐ Band
A ‐ Band
3 9
95
C ‐ Band
125
D ‐ Band
140
FCC / ARIB extended
bands
(prohibited in EU)
148.5
500 (kHz)
 Spectral masks have been defined to limit the emissions (EMC)
–
–
Cenelec: A (power utilities), B (any applications), C (home networks with CSMA), D (security applications)
Third generation broadband solutions go beyond 30 MHz (80 and even 250 MHz)
REF. IEC, CISPR/I/301/CD, Amendment 1 to CISPR 22 Ed.6.0: Addition of limits and methods of measurement for conformance testing of power line telecommunication ports intended for the connection to the mains, 2009‐07‐31.
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Coupling
 Coupling is necessary to remove the 50/60 Hz power signal
 Capacitive coupling is often used, especially in LV
capacitor
protection circuitry RF transformer
 Size is an issue if used in MV/HV lines
 Inductive coupling simplifies installation but has lower pass behavior
Capacitive coupling in MV lines, courtesy of RSE
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Inductive coupling in MV lines, courtesy of RSE
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Channel Characteristics
 The channel exhibits
– Multipath propagation due to discontinuites and unmatched
loads
– Frequency Selective Fading
– Cyclic time variations due to periodic change of the loads with the mains frequency (mostly bistatic behaviour in home networks)
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Channel Characterization
In‐Home Channel
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In‐Home Channel Characterization
 Real – life residential sites
– Italian in‐home scenario
 Up to 100 MHz
 More than 1200 links
– Channel frequency response
– Line impedence
 Static and time variant channel acquisitions
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A Look at the In‐Home Topology
In-home Grid
Main
panel
 Layered tree structure from the main panel with many branches and outlets
fed by derivation boxes. This is typical of EU networks.
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Path Loss and Phase from Measurements
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Path Loss
Phase
20
50
0
0
Phase (rad)
Path Loss (dB)
-20
-40
-60
-50
-100
-80
-150
-100
-120
0

20
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
80
100
On average
– High attenuation
– Frequency increasing attenuation

-200
0


20
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
80
100
The phase is not uniformly distributed
The average phase is not linear at low frequencies Strong fading effects
– Average channel gain is log‐normal
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Statistical Analysis  It is important to characterize statistically the channel
 We define the Root Mean Square Delay Spread as
 

D
0
 P   d 
2

D
0

2
 P   d , P  t   h  t 
2

D
0
 We define the Coherence Bandwidth as
h   d
2
h(t)
R  f    H    H *    f  d  R  Bc0.9   0.9 R  0 
B2
B1
 We define the Average Channel Gain as
H(f)
B2
 1

2
| H  f  | df 
G  10log10 

B
1
 B2  B1

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Relations between Metrics
 The higher the channel attenuation, the higher the delay spread
 Coherence bandwidth is an hyperbolic function of the delay spread
 Data from campaigns in Italy, in France, in USA, and in Spain
1
3000
RMS-Delay Spread (s)
0.8
State (Band in MHz)
0.7
Italy (2 – 100)
ACG (dB)
2500
RMS‐DS (s)
CB (kHz)
‐35.75
2000
0.32
301
0.21
310
0.36
226
0.52
‐
0.29
‐
0.6
France (2 – 100)
0.5
0.4
‐
Italy (2 – 30)
‐32.38
US (suburban) (2 – 30)
‐ 48.9
0.3
0.2
Spain (2 – 30)
0.1
0
-60
-50
Coherence Bandwidth ( = 0.9) (kHz)
2 - 100 MHz Italy
2 - 100 MHz Italy
2 - 30 MHz Italy
2 - 30 MHz US
2 - 30 MHz Spain
0.9
-40
-30
-20
Average Channel Gain (dB)
-10
1500
1000
500
‐30
0
2 - 100 MHz Italy
2 - 100 MHz Italy
2 - 100 MHz France
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
RMS-Delay Spread (s)
0.8
1
REF. M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, F. Moulin, F. Gauthier, “Indoor Power‐Line Communications Channel Characterization Up to 100 MHz – Part II: Time
Frequency Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., 2008.
REF. S. Galli, “A Simple Two‐Tap Statistical Model for the Power Line Channel,” Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2010.
REF. F. J. Cañete, et al., “On the Statistical Properties of Indoor Power Line Channels: Measurements and Models,” Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2011.
REF F. Versolatto, A. Tonello, “On the Relation Between the Geometrical Distance and Channel Statistics in In‐Home PLC Networks,” Proc. of
IEEE ISPLC 2012.
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Narrowband Channel Measurements
 Results from Italian campaign measurements (20 kHz ‐2 MHz)
 Lower average attenuation than broad band
20
15
0
10
5
-20
Phase (rad)
Path Loss (dB)
0
-40
-60
-80
-5
-10
-15
-100
-20
-120
-140
0
-25
0.5
1
Frequency (MHz)
1.5
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-30
0
0.5
1
Frequency (MHz)
1.5
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31
Channel Characterization
Outdoor LV/MV Channel
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Distribution Grid Topology
HV/MV
station
Medium Voltage: 10-30 kV
length 5-10 km
MV/LV
substation
MV/LV
substation
1
9
ll
ce es
y
l
us
pp
su 0 h o
0
~3
L2
L3
L1
N
14
7
LV supply cable
max length 1 km
400 V L-L
230 V L-N
16
European LV power supply grid
 LV (230/400 V) 3‐phase distribution
system divided in supply cells
MV/LV
 Each supply cell is connected to a substation
MV/LV transformer station
 300 houses connected via branches (30 houses/branch)  Maximal branch length ~1 km
Asian/American LV power supply grid
 LV (125/250 V) single or split phase
 Many MV/LV transformers
 Smaller supply cells: few houses
 Maximal branch length ~100 m
 Three wires (neutral grounded at the main panel)
High Voltage: 110-380 kV
length ~100 km
23
21
European LV supply grid
30
HV/MV
station
REF. “Power Line Communications – Theory and Applications for Narrowband and Broadband Communications over Power Lines,”
eds. Ferreira, Lampe, Newbury, Swart, Wiley & Sons. Ltd., 2010. Chapter 2.
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Outdoor LV vs. In‐Home PLC Channel
 Comparison between OPERA (Open PLC European Research Alliance) reference channels and a typical In‐Home channel
 In‐Home channels have high frequency selectivity and low attenuation
0
-20
-40
Path Loss (dB)
-60
-80
– Very high number of branches, discontinuities and unmatched
loads
– Short cables
150 m
-100
-120
In-Home
Outdoor LV
-140
-160
250 m
350 m
-180
-200
0
10
20
30
frequency (MHz)
40
50
 Outdoor LV channels have
high attenuation but
negligible fading
– Cable attenuation dominates
REF. M. Babic et al., “OPERA Deliverable D5. Pathloss as a Function of Frequency, Distance and Network Topology for Various LV
and MV European Powerline Networks,” 2005.
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Outdoor MV Channel
 MV channels exhibit in general (but not always) lower
attenuation than Outdoor LV PLC
– Further investigations have to be done
 Coupling effects have also to be considered
– Inductive / Capacitive coupling
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Measurement Results in MV Test Network Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
 Measurements in a real test network (RSE) with loop length 300 m
 Three representative channels are here shown
 Full statistical analysis in REF
Border
switch
Amplitude (dB)
0
MS
...
HV/MV
Transformer
Inductive
coupler
C1
C2
-50
Best
Average
-100
Worst
-150
G5H10R/43
(not electrical continuity)
G5H10R/43
100
Best
SS3
SS2
SW
0
...
C8
C7
RG7H1R
C6
C5
RG7H1R
LV
C4
C3
RG7H1R
LV
Phase (rad)
SS1
-100
Average
Worst
-200
LV
LV
Test network of RSE, Italy
-300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Frequency (MHz)
35
40
45
50
REF. A. Tonello, et al. “Analysis of Impulsive UWB Modulation on a Real MV Test Network,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Symp. on Power Line
Commun. and Its App. ISPLC’11, Apr. 2011.
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Channel Characterization
Effect of Circuit Discontinuity Elements
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Effect of Circuit Discontinuities
 Broadband PLC benefits of strong coupling effects at high frequencies
 Broadband may also help to mitigate the low line‐impedance problem
Crossing an open switch  Cross‐phase communications  Bypass MV/LV transformer
– LV Circuit‐Breaker
– Industrial environment
-30
-40
-50
Path Loss (dB)

-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
(0)
(0)
H11 (f)
-110
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Frequency (MHz)
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(0)
H12 (f)
70
80
H22 (f)
90
100
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Can We Model the Channel ?
Top‐down Modeling Approach
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Top‐Down Statistical Modeling
 The channel transfer function can be deterministically modeled according to the Multipath Propagation Model (MPM)
Np
H  f   A pi  f   e


 a0  a1 f K di
e
 j 2 fdi 
i 1
Propagation phase shift
Cable attenuation
Reflection effects
 IDEA: introduce the variability into the model (statistical extension)
N p : Poisson random variable with intensity Lmax
pi  f  : log‐normal frequency‐dependent r.v. with a random sign flip
di : Erlang random variable (uniform distribution in [0, Lmax] given Np)
REF. A. Tonello, “Wide Band Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications,” EURASIP Journal on
Advances in Signal Processing 2007.
REF. A. Tonello, F. Versolato, B. Bejar, S. Zazo, "A Fitting Algorithm for Random Modeling the PLC Channel," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 2012
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Fitting the Top‐Down Model
 The MPM can be fitted to the experimental measures
– It requires the knowledge of the average path loss profile and the RMS delay spread of the measured channels
– To catch the full variability, we define classes of channels. Each class is associated to a certain occurrence probability, and a set of parameters
0
Path Loss (dB)
 Examples of fitting the measures in home nets:
– EU FP7 Omega project (France campaign)
– Italian campaign (discussed before)
A SW Generator is available at: www.diegm.uniud.it/tonello
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
REF. A. Tonello et al., “A Top‐Down Random Generator for the In‐Home
PLC Channel,” Proc. Global Commun. Conf. (GLOBECOM’11), Dec. 2011.
REF. A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, B. Bejar, S. Zazo, “A Fitting Algorithm for
Random Modeling the PLC Channel“, Trans. on Power Delivery, 2012.
Class 9
-10
-80
0
Target Path Loss
20
Class 1
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
80
100
REF. FP7 Theme 3 ICT‐213311 OMEGA, “PLC Channel Characterization and Modeling,” Deliverable 3.2, Dec. 2008.
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Average Channel Gain
20
 The best fit (in dB) is given by the normal distribution
 Average ACG= ‐35.59 dB (Italian case)
10
Quantiles of Average Channel Gain (dB)
 The generated channels (with the simulator) show the same ACG spread of the measures
0
Model - French Setup
-10
-20
-30
-40
Model - Italian Setup
-50
-60
Measured - Italy
-70
-80
-4
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
-3
-2
-1
0
1
Standard Normal Quantiles
2
3
A. Tonello
4
42
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
RMS Delay Spread
1
 Excellent fit with measured data in terms of RMS delay spread
 The best fit is given by the log‐normal distribution
 Average RMS‐DS=0.257 s (Italian case)
Cumulative Distribution Function
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
Measured - Italy
Model - Italian Setup
Model - French Setup
0.1
0
0
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0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
RMS-Delay Spread (s)
1
1.2
A. Tonello
1.4
43
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Coherence Bandwidth
1
 Average CB= 390 kHz (Italian case)
0.9
Cumulative Distribution Function
 Again, good fitting of the generator with data
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
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Measured - Italy
Model - Italian Setup
Model - French Setup
500
1000
1500
Coherence Bandwidth ( = 0.9) (kHz)
2000
A. Tonello
44
Can We Model the Channel ?
Bottom‐up Modeling Approach
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Bottom‐Up Channel Modeling
 Idea:
– Use transmission line theory to determine the channel transfer function
 Requirements:
– Knowledge of topology, cables and loads
 Statistical extension:
– Develop a statistical model for the topology, etc.
 In the following, we consider the application to the in‐home case
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
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46
In‐Home : Bottom‐Up Statistical Modeling
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
 Random topology generation
– Regular structure: the area can be divided
in clusters (typically one room/cluster)
– Each cluster has a derivation box
– National practices and norms can also be
implemented (e.g., UK ring topology)
 Applying Trasmission Line theory, we
can compute the CTF among any pair
of outlets for a topology realization
: outlets
– Efficient method based on voltage ratio
approach has been developed
: derivation boxes
REF. A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, “Bottom‐up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling – Part I: Random Topology Model and Efficient
Transfer Function Computation,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 891 – 898, Apr. 2011.
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47
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
TL Theory Application
 From topology to graph representation
 From graph representation to electrical quantities representation
 TL theory approach based on efficient methods are fundamental: e.g., the voltage ratio approach (VRA), a scalar version of the ABCD method
unit N  1
γN
VN
ZC N
Z BN
Z IN
x axis
 N ρ LN
γ N 1
VN 1
ZC N 1
xN 1
1   Lb  f 
Vb 1
Hb  f  
   f 
 f 
Vb
e b b   Lb  f  e b   b
γ1
V1
Z BN 1  N 1 ρ LN 1
Z I N 1
xN
unit 1
V0
ZC 1
Z B1
receiver port
transmitter port
unit N
1 ρ L1
Z I1
x1
x0
N
H  f    Hb  f 
b 1
REF. A. Tonello, T. Zheng, “Bottom‐up Transfer Function Generator for Broadband PLC Statistical Channel Modeling,” Proc.
of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC’10), Apr. 2009, pp. 7‐12.
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Why a Bottom‐Up Approach ? Cumulative Distribution Function of RMS Delay Spread
Quantile-Quantile Plots of Average Channel Gain
0.8
CDF
0.6
0.4
Af = 100 m2
0.2
Af = 200 m2
dB Average Channel Gain quantiles
1
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
Af = 100 m2
Af = 200 m2
-100
Af = 300 m2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
RMS Delay Spread (s)
1
1.2
Af = 300 m2
-3
-2
-1
0
1
Standard Normal Quantiles
2
3
 The bottom‐up approach allows the connection to physical reality (topology, distance, time variant loads …). But more complex.  This theoretical approach matches the measured metric distributions, e.g., delay spread and average channel gain.
REF. A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, “Bottom‐up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling – Part II: Inferring the Capacity,” IEEE Trans.
Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2356 – 2363, Oct. 2010.
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Why a Bottom‐Up Approach ?
 The PLC channel can be time variant due to – Changes of topology
– Time variant loads connected to the network
 The bottom‐up approach allows to take into account these effects
 Examples of time variant loads are:
–
–
–
–
–
–
AC/DC converters and chargers
Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
Dimmers
Variant load banks
Industrial machinery
Overall “home load” changing with time
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50
Time Variant Loads and Effect of the Topology
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
 Time variance is less pronounced when the receiver is far away from the time variant load
Channel acquisition 1
Channel acquisition 2
 The channel can be modeled as linear periodically time variant (LPTV) because of the periodic change of load impedances with the mains cycle (2‐state cyclic behavior)
REF. F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez, and J. T. Entrambasaguas, “Analysis of the Cyclic Short‐Term Variation of Indoor Power Line Channels”,
IEEE J. on Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1327‐1338, Jul. 2006.
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51
MIMO Channel: Multiple‐Input Multiple‐Output
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
MIMO Channel Main Characteristics
 In the presence of more than two conductors, multiple input –
multiple output links are available
network
transmitter
transmitter
receiver
receiver
 The channels are strongly correlated
– The ratio between the minimum and the maximum eigenvalue has been shown to be constant in frequency and equal to 0.2 on average (for in–home channels)
 The noise is correlated as well
– Higher correlation in the lower frequency range
– P‐PE and N‐PE noises are the most correlated (more than P‐N)
REF. D. Veronesi, R. Riva, P. Bisaglia, F. Osnato, K. Afkhamie, A. Nayagam, D. Rende, L. Yonge, “Characterization of In‐Home MIMO Power Line
Channels,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC’11), Apr. 2011, pp. 42‐47.
REF. D. Rende, A. Nayagam, K. Afkhamie, L. Yonge, R. Riva, D. Veronesi, F. Osnato, P. Bisaglia, “Noise Correlation and Its Effect on In‐home MIMO
Power Line Channels,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC’11), Apr. 2011, pp. 60‐65.
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53
An Approach to MIMO Channel Generation
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
 We combine multiple transmission line theory with the bottom‐
up approach to obtain random MIMO PLC channel responses
0
Phase-Neutral / Phase-Neutral
Phase-Neutral / PE-Neutral
PE-Neutral / Phase-Neutral
PE-Neutral / PE-Neutral
-10
Amplitude (dB)
-20
+
unit N  1
unit N
unit 1
-30
-40
YBN
YI N
x axis
γN
γ N 1
ZC N
ZC N 1
lN ρ LI ,N
ZC 1
YBN 1 lN 1 ρ LI ,N 1
YI N 1
xN
γ1
xN 1
YB1
receiver port
transmitter port
-50
l1 ρ LI ,1
YI1
x1
-60
-70
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Frequency (MHz)
70
80
90
100
x0
REF. F. Versolatto, A. M. Tonello, “A MIMO PLC Random Channel Generator and Capacity Analysis,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun.
and Its App. (ISPLC’11), Apr. 2011, pp. 66‐71.
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Model Validation
 We have realized a T‐shaped MTL test network
 We have simulated and measured the coupled insertion loss
Yrtx
Yrrx
rx
r
V
V
Y rx
l2
-5
Ygrx
Vgrx
tx
r
4
Direct
br
g
Y
Yrbr
Direct Phase (rad)
Vgtx
0
-10
Insertion Loss (dB)
Es
l3
-15
-20
-25
Coupled Phase (rad)
l1
Zs
Coupled
-30
l1  5.22 m
Y
br
l2  2.30 m
l3  3.60 m
-35
-40
20
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
(a) Amplitude
80
Simulated
2
0
-2
-4
4
2
0
-2
-4
20
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
(b) Phase
80
Measured
 Strong matching between the measured and generated insertion loss
REF. F. Versolatto, A. M. Tonello, “An MTL Theory Approach for the Simulation of MIMO Power Line Communications Channels,” IEEE Trans.
Power Del., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1710 – 1717, Jul. 2011.
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55
Noise Characterization
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
PLC Noise Classification
 The PLC noise comprises five components
Impulsive Noise
Background Noise
Narrowband Noise
Colored Noise
Periodic Impulsive Noise Synchronous
Periodic Impulsive Noise Asynchronous
Aperiodic Impulsive Noise
channel
REF. M. Gotz, M. Rapp, K. Dostert, “Power Line Channel Characteristics and their Effect on Communication System Design,” IEEE Comm. Mag.,
vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 78 ‐ 86, 2004.
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57
Noise Characterization
Background Noise
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Background Noise Comparison
Noise PSD Comparison
-90
-100
In-Home (worst)
Outdoor Low Voltage
Outdoor Medium Voltage
PSD (dBm/Hz)
-110
-120
-130
 In‐Home PLCs experience the highest level of noise
 Overhead MV background noise due to corona discharges
-140
– The strong electric fields -150
determine the avalanche generation of free charges in the -160
surrounding air, which in turn 0
10
20
30
40
50
Frequency (MHz)
induce current pulses in the conductors
 Background noise has an exponential PSD
REF. Noise models from :
 Narrowband interference exhist 1. T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. Glenn Gulak,
“In‐Building
Power
Lines
as
High‐Speed
– FM disturbances (> 87.5 MHz)
Communication Channels: Channel Characterization
and a Test Channel Ensemble,” Int. J. of Commun.
– AM (< 1.6 MHz) Syst., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 381‐400, Jun. 2003
– Radio amateur (from 1.9MHz up to SHF) 2. EU OPERA Project, “Deliverable D5”, 2005.
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
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59
Noise Characterization
Impulsive Noise
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Impulsive Noise Components
0.15
 Periodic impulsive noise
0.1
– Synchronous: components with low
rate (50/100 Hz): rectifiers
– Asynchronous: components with high
rate (200 kHz): switching devices
– The amplitude is small with spectrum
confined in frequency
Amplitude (V)
0.05
-0.05
50
-0.1
40
 Aperiodic impulsive noise
30
0
5
20
Amplitude (V)
– Bursty nature: on‐off and plug in‐out
– Less frequent, but more disruptive
– High amplitude greater than 50 V
0
10
Time (ms)
15
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
Time (ms)
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Furthermore…
 Appliances generate asynchronous noise components that are periodic with the mains cycle
– We measured the noise by the inverters
0
Noise PSD (dBm/Hz)
-20
-40
Spikes of asynchronous periodic noise
Motor 2.2 kW
Motor 5.5 kW
Motor 7.5 kW
Inverter 10 kW
Inverter 3 kW
-60
-80
-100
-120
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
Frequency (MHz)
0.2
0.25
Measurements at the Micro‐Grid Test Lab Strathclyde, by WiPli Lab team
within FP7 EU DERrI Project
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Time‐Variant Analysis
PSD (dBV/Hz)
 The stationary characterization of the noise is not sufficient to get the picture of its whole complex nature -130
-135
-140
-145
0
20
5
15
10
10
5
Frequency (MHz)
15
0
Time interval (ms)
short term PSD during the mains cycle
REF. V. Degardin, M. Lienard, A. Zeddam, F. Gauthie, and P. Degauque, “Classification and Characterization of Impulsive Noise on Indoor Power
Line Used for Data Communications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 913 – 918, Nov. 2002.
REF. J. A. Cortés, L. Diez, F. J. Cañete, and J. J. Sanchez‐Martinez, “Analysis of the indoor broadband power‐line noise scenario,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 849–858, Nov. 2010.
REF. M. Katayama, T. Yamazato, and H. Okada, “A Mathematical Model of Noise in Narrowband Power‐Line Communication Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol.24, no.7, pp. 1267‐1276, Jul. 2006.
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Periodic and Synchronous Noise
 Time‐frequency characterization of the noise
– The noise PSD varies within the mains cycle of 20 ms
 Example of synchronous noise measurement at the source
Time instant
– Laptop PC battery charger
2
-128
4
-130
6
-132
8
-134
10
-136
12
-138
14
-140
16
-142
-144
18
-146
20
2
4
6
8
Frequency (MHz)
10
dBm/HZ
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
 Typical rate of 100 Hz
– The synchronous periodic noise
is generated by the input stage
of the rectifier circuit of the
power supply unit
 Noisy devices
– Laptop PC battery chargers
– LCD monitors, desktop PC, …
– Light dimmers
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Periodic and Asynchronous Noise
 The asynchronous noise causes spectral lines in the PSD
– It can be isolated from the synchronous noise components
 Example of asynchronous noise measurement at the source
– Flat LCD monitor
-110
 The asynchronous periodic noise
is generated by the switching
activity of the power supplies
 It is concentrated below 10 MHz
PSD (dBV/Hz)
-115
-120
-125
-130
-135
2
3
4
5
6
7
Frequency (MHz)
8
9
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
10
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Aperiodic Impulsive Noise
 The impulsive noise is generated by 25
– plugging in/out devices
– switching on/off devices
20
 It is characterized by
10
Amplitude (V)
– Amplitude A
– Inter‐arrival time tIAT
– Duration tW
A
15
tIAT
5
0
-5
tw
-10
-15
-20
-25
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time (ms)
3
3.5
4
REF. M. Zimmermann, K. Dostert, “Analysis and Modeling of Impulsive Noise in Broad‐Band PowerLline Communications,” IEEE Trans.
Electromag. Compat., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 249 – 258, Feb. 2002.
REF. T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. G. Gulak, “In‐building power lines as high‐speed communication channels: Channel characterization
and a test channel ensemble,” International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 16, pp. 381–400, 2003.
REF. L. Di Bert, P. Caldera, D. Schwingshackl, and A. Tonello, “On Noise Modeling for Power Line Communications,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power
Line Commun. and Its App., pp. 283‐288, 2011.
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66
Common Noise Model in the Literature
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Common PLC Noise Model
 Background noise
–
-90
Worst case
Best case
-95
 Two terms Gaussian
-100
p  v   1  P  N  0, b2   PN  0, K b2 
-105
b
Rn [dBm/Hz]
Sum of two Gaussian PDFs weighted by a Bernoulli process with occurrence probability P
-110
-115
-120
 Middleton Class A
-125
-130
-135
-140
0
5
10
15
20
Frequency [MHz]
PSDb  f   a  b f
25
c
30
 dBm 
 Hz 
a
b
c
‐140 38.75 ‐0.72 –
Weighted sum of Gaussian PDFs
 v 2  2  1  k A    2
e  A Ak
1
p  v   
exp   2   k  1  

 b
2



1
k
!
2




k 0
2 k
k 


80
Best case 70
‐145 53.23 ‐0.337 60
50
pdf
Worst case 40
Gaussian
Middlteon
A = 0.1,  = 0.001
A = 0.1,  = 0.01
A = 1,  = 0.1
A = 2,  = 0.1
30
20
10
0
-0.02 -0.015 -0.01 -0.005
0
0.005
Amplitude [V]
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0.01
0.015
0.02
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68
Physical Layer Techniques
Single Carrier Modulation (FSK)
Multi Carrier Modulation
Adaptation
Performance Increase
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Single Carrier Modulation: FSK
 Binary FSK
Modulated Signal
1
T
1
“1”
2 ES
cos  2 f H t 
T
0. 8
0 .
8
0 .
6
0 .
4
0 .
2
0. 6
0. 4
0. 2
0
- 0. 2
- 0. 4
“0” “1” “1” “0” “1” “0”
- 0. 6
- 0. 8
- 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2 ES
cos  2 f L t 
T
“0”
0. 8
- 0 .
2
- 0 .
4
- 0 .
6
- 0 .
8
0. 6
0. 4
0. 2
0
- 0. 2
- 0. 4
- 0. 6
- 0. 8
- 1
- 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
5 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 5 0 0
2 0 0 0
2 5 0 0
3 0 0 0
3 5 0 0
4 0 0 0
– Modulation index: h   f H  f L  T
– Normalized cross‐correlation:   sinc  2h 
– Symbol error probability in AWGN power spectral density N0:
 Es (1   ) 
Pe  Q 

N
0


 M‐ary FSK
“i ‐th symbol”
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
2 ES
cos  2 fi t  , i  0,1, , M  1
T
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Spread Frequency Shift Keying (S‐FSK)
 Spread FSK
– Adjustment of FSK for transmission in PLC channels
• Tones are now placed far from each other (usually 10 kHz)
fH – fL > 10 kHz
fL
fH
f
• M‐FSK is suited to be combined with a spreading code (a sort of
frequency hopping spread spectrum)
• Congruential codes have been proposed. They specify the hopping
pattern
• Immunity to narrow band interference can be increased with
erasure decoding of spread‐FSK
– The standard IEC 61334‐5‐1 uses a form of spread FSK
REF. T. Shaub, “Spread frequency shift keying,” IEEE Trans. Commun., pp. 1056‐1064, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1994
REF. A. J. Han Vinck and J. Haring, "Coding and Modulation for Power‐Line Communications," Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2000
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Unified View of MC Modulation
 b(k)(mN): QAM data symbols
 g(k)(n): sub‐channel pulses, obtained from the modulation
of a prototype pulse
 N: interpolation factor N ≥ M number of sub‐channels
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Cyclically Prefixed OFDM
 M tones (sub‐channels)
 Rectangular sub‐channel pulse (window) of duration N > M samples
 Cyclic prefix (CP) of length µ=N‐M samples (typically longer than the channel duration)
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Notching

It is fundamental to generate low radiations in certain parts of
the spectrum, e.g., Radio amateur signals

Further notching can be done beyond 30 MHz to grant
coexistence with other systems
Notching Mask
-40
PSD [dBm/Hz]
-50
-60
FM
-70
-80
917 tones out of 1536
-90
0
10
20
30
Example of spectrum mask up to 30 MHz in HPAV
40
50
f [MHz]
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60
70
80
90
100
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Notching

It is fundamental to generate low radiations in certain parts of
the spectrum, e.g., Radio amateur signals

Further notching can be done beyond 30 MHz to grant
coexistence with other systems
Notching Mask
-40
PSD [dBm/Hz]
-50
-60
- 80 dBm/Hz
FM
-70
-80
917 tones out of 1536
-90
0
10
20
30
Example of spectrum mask up to 30 MHz in HPAV
40
50
f [MHz]
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60
70
80
90
100
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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Spectrum of OFDM and PS‐OFDM
PS-OFDM
OFDM
0
0
-10
-10
-20
|G(f)| (dB)
2
-30
2
|G(f)| (dB)
-20
-40
-30
-40
-50
-50
-60
-60
-70
-70
-80
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
f  MT
1
2
3
4
-80
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
f  MT
1
2
3
4
 Use a root‐raised‐cosine window (or other), to fulfill the mask with a higher number of active tones
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Pulse Shaped OFDM
 It is a filter bank system with a prototype pulse equal to the window
 If no symbol overlapping exists, we obtain windowed OFDM
 It introduces a transmisison rate penalty. Overhead β=µ+α=N‐M
 The transmission rate is
M
R= M =
NT (M + m + a)T
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Filter Bank Approaches
 Can we increase the sub‐channel frequency selectivity ?
 Yes, by privileging the frequency confinement
 What schemes are available ?
 Wavelet OFDM (one solution adopted by IEEE P1901)
 Filtered Multitone Modulation (FMT)
 Other FB approaches are also possible (see the large signal processing literature on FBs) Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
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Wavelet OFDM
 Wavelet OFDM is a cosine modulated filter bank
 It was proposed in REF1 and called DWMT
 Example of spectrum
 Sub‐channels have high overlapping. Nevertheless, it is possible to
construct a perfect reconstruction critically sampled filter bank
 Channel distortion introduces ISI and ICI. Therefore, single tap
equalization is not sufficient and multichannel equalizers may be needed
REF1. S. Sandberg, M. Tzannes, “Overlapped discrete multitone modulation for high speed copper wire communications,” IEEE JSAC, Dec.
1995.
REF2. “Power Line Communications – Theory and Applications for Narrowband and Broadband Communications over Power Lines,” eds.
Ferreira, Lampe, Newbury, Swart, Wiley & Sons. Ltd., 2010. Chapter 5.
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FMT Basics
0
-10
2
|G(f)| (dB)
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
f  MT
1
2
3
4
 Pulses obtained from modulation of a prototype pulse
 Root‐raised‐cosine
 Time/Frequency confined pulses
 Perfect reconctruction solutions provided that N > M
REF. G. Cherubini, E. Eleftheriou, S. Olcer, “Filtered multitone modulation for very high‐speed digital subscriber lines,” IEEE J.
Select. Areas Comm. 2002.
REF. A. Tonello, F. Pecile, “Efficient Architectures for Multiuser FMT Systems and Application to Power Line Communications,” IEEE
Trans. on Comm. 2009.
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Efficient Realization
 Synthesis
 M point IDFT and Cyclic extension to M2  l .c.m.(M, N )  L1M  L2N
 Pulses: PP components of order N, i.e., g ( i ) (nN )  g (i  nN ) i  0,..., N  1
 Sample with period L2
 Analysis
 Dual operations  Complexity: M log2M + Lg,h (pulse length) operations/sample
REF. N. Moret, A. Tonello, “Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient
Realizations,” EURASIP Journal on Adv. In Signal Processing, 2010.
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How to Increase Performance ?
 Increase bandwidth
– up to 100 MHz or even above for BB PLC
– up to 500 kHz for NB PLC
 Use powerful channel coding
 Perform adaptation of the transmitter parameters:
– bit and power loading
– adaptive scheduling (exploiting cyclic SNR variations)
– cognitive use of spectrum  Use MIMO transmission
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What Can We Gain with Increased Bandwidth ?
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1600
Channels Class 5
1400
OFDM, 100 MHz, -50 dBm/Hz
1000
600
400
40


41
42
OFDM,100 MHz, -80 dBm/Hz
-80
800
-50 dBm/Hz
Rate (Mbit/s)
1200
43
OFDM, 30 MHz, -50 dBm/Hz
44
45
46
channel realization
47
48
49
50
4096 Tones in 100 MHz, fixed CP=5.57 us, PSD noise ‐110 dBm/Hz
PSD signal: ‐50 dBm/Hz + HPAV notching 0‐30 MHz, ‐50/‐80 dBm/Hz 30‐87.5 MHz
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What Can We Gain with Increased Bandwidth ? Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
1600
Channels Class 5
1400
Capacity
margin
1000
OFDM, 100 MHz, -50 dBm/Hz
Capacity
800
margin
Rate (Mbit/s)
1200
600
OFDM,100 MHz, -80 dBm/Hz
Capacity
400
OFDM, 30 MHz, -50 dBm/Hz
40


41
42
43
44
45
46
channel realization
47
48
49
50
4096 Tones in 100 MHz, fixed CP=5.57 us, PSD noise ‐110 dBm/Hz
PSD signal: ‐50 dBm/Hz + HPAV notching 0‐30 MHz, ‐50/‐80 dBm/Hz 30‐87.5 MHz
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Adaptive OFDM and FMT

We can adapt the pulse shape and the overhead β = N‐M such that capacity is maximized
1
R (b ) =
(M + b )T
(k )
æ
SINR
(b )ö÷÷
çç
log2 ç1+
÷÷
å
G
÷ø
k ÎKON
èç
[ bit / s ]
channel response
 For example, in CP‐OFDM we adapt the CP to the channel response
CP
CP
t
t
CP
t
REF. A. Tonello, S. D’Alessandro, L. Lampe, “Cyclic Prefix Design and Allocation in Bit‐Loaded OFDM over Power Line
Communication Channels,” IEEE Trans. on Communications, Nov. 2010.
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Example of Performance: System Parameters
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo

Number of carriers: M={256,512,1024,2048,4096}

SNR Gap for Pe=10‐2: Γ=3.4 dB

PSD of the transmitted signal: ‐50 dBm/Hz (in 0‐100 MHz) 
PSD of the Gaussian background noise: ‐140 dBm/Hz

Test channel response of class 5

Average SNR at the receiver: 44, 24 or 4 dB

Pulse‐Shaped OFDM: Raised‐cosine window

FMT: Truncated root‐raised‐cosine pulse
Single tap equalization
 Fractionally spaced sub‐channel equalization

REF. F. Pecile, A. Tonello, “On the Design of Filter Bank Systems in Power Line Channels Based on Achievable Rate,” Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2009.
REF. “Power Line Communications – Theory and Applications for Narrowband and Broadband Communications over Power Lines,” eds.
Ferreira, Lampe, Newbury, Swart, Wiley & Sons. Ltd., 2010. Chapter 5.
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Achievable Rate as a Function of N. of Tones
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Masked 2-100 MHz
Masked 2-28 MHz
Average SNR=24 dB
Average SNR=24 dB
Pulse-Shaped OFDM
FMT Equal. 1 Tap
FMT FS Equal. 2 Taps
FMT FS Equal. 10 Taps
FMT FS Equal. 20 Taps
500
Target notching mask below 30 MHz: HPAV
Pulse-Shaped OFDM
FMT Equal. 1 Tap
FMT FS Equal. 2 Taps
FMT FS Equal. 10 Taps
FMT FS Equal. 20 Taps
160
140
450
30
40
50
f [MHz]
60
70
80
90
100
300
250
80
60
40
200
20
150
0
M (Overall System Carriers)
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
M (Overall System Carriers)
4096
20
4096
10
2048
0
1024
-90
350
2048
-80
1024
-70
100
256
512
-60
256
512
PSD [dBm/Hz]
-50
400
Achievable Rate [Mbit/s]
Notching Mask
-40
Achievable Rate [Mbit/s]
120
A. Tonello
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FMT vs. PS‐OFDM

The lower the SNR the higher is the advantage of FMT w.r.t. PS-OFDM

FMT has better notching capability

FMT achieves the maximum rate with a smaller number of tones

Achievable rate can be used as a design metric to choose properly the
number of carriers and the equalization method in the system


Adaptation of the parameters is beneficial
The achievable rate increases significantly using 100 MHz band
(depending, however, on the transmitted PSD beyond 30 MHz)
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Physical Layer Techniques
Possible Capacity Increases from Extended Bandwidth and MIMO
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Inferring the Capacity Increase
 Used power Spectral Density of the Transmitted Signal and Noise Model
-40
Signal
-60
PSD (dBm/Hz)
-80
-100
-120
Noise
-140
-160
0
50
100
150
200
Frequency (MHz)
250
300
 Real capacity of PLC channels is unknown since the channel is not just Gaussian and disturbances are not fully characterized yet
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Inferring the Capacity Increase (In‐Home
Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo
Case)
 Capacity can be improved with MIMO and/or Bandwidth Increase  With MIMO (2 – 100 MHz)
 With extended bandwidth (SISO)
1
1
MIMO
SISO
0.95
0.9
0.9
0.85
0.85
C-CDF
C-CDF
0.95
0.8
0.75
simulated channels and noise as in prev. slide
0.7
0.65
0.6
0
2 - 100 MHz
2 - 300 MHz
0.8
0.75
measured channels
noise as in prev. slide
0.7
0.65
500
1000
1500
Achievable Rate (Mbps)
2000
2500
0.6
0
500
1000
1500
Achievable Rate (Mbps)
2000
2500
REF1. R. Hasmat, P. Pagani, T. Chonavel, “MIMO Communications for In home PLC Networks: Measurement and Results up
to 100 MHz,” Proc. of ISPLC 2010.
REF2. F. Versolatto, A. Tonello, "An MTL Theory Approach for the Simulation of MIMO Power Line Communication
Channels,“ IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 2010.
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Physical Layer Techniques
Other Modulation Schemes: Impulsive UWB
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Impulsive UWB: I‐UWB
 For low data rate: Impulsive UWB
PSD of the Transmitted Signal and Noise
-70
-80
 Symbol energy is spread in frequency by the monocycle (frequency diversity)
-90
PSD (dBm/Hz)
 Gaussian monocycle D=50‐200 ns, Tf = 2 us, R = 0.5 Mpulses/s.
Signal
-100
-110
-120
In-Home Noise
 The monocycle is spread in time via a binary code (time diversity)
-130
 Coexistence with broadband systems is possible due to the low PSD and high processing gain
-150
0
-140
20
40
60
Frequency (MHz)
80
100
REF. A. Tonello, “Wideband Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications,”
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2007, pp. 1‐14.
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Comparison of I‐UWB with NB‐OFDM
 I‐PLC may be suitable also for outdoor communications
– Same transmitted power: higher data rates with I‐UWB than NB‐OFDM
– Same data rate: very low transmitted PSD with I‐UWB
G3 Bandwidth = 54.7 kHz, PRIME Bandwidth = 46.9 kHz
(here, only G3 because they perform similarly)
MV Scenario
-40
O-LV Scenario
1
PSD (dBm/Hz)
-60
-80
0.9
Transmitted Signal
0.8
Broadband MV Noise
-100
Broadband O-LV Noise
-120
0.7
-140
0.6
5
10
15
20
25
30
Frequency (MHz)
35
40
45
50
CDF
-160
AVG RATE 3.9 kbit/s
0.5
-20
PSD (dBm/Hz)
0.4
-40
AVG RATE 114.8 kbit/s
0.3
Narrowband Noise
-60
0.2
-80
0.1
-100
50
100
150
200
250
300
Frequency (kHz)
350
400
450
500
0
-120
Power Gain
with Equal Target Capacity
-100
-80
-60
-40
PSDmax (dBm/Hz)
Equal Target Capacity
Power Constraint
-20
-100
-80
-60
-40
PSDmax (dBm/Hz)
-20
REF. A. Tonello, et al. “Comparison of Narrow‐Band OFDM PLC Solutions and I‐UWB Modulation over Distribution Grids,” Proc. Of
IEEE Smart Grid Communications Conference, Oct. 2011.
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Cooperative Algorithms
Relaying and Flooding
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Relay and Flooding Techniques
 Relaying (well studied in the wireless context) – Decode and Forward
– Amplify and Forward
– Opportunistic Protocols
 Flooding
REF. J. Laneman, D. Tse, and G. Wornell, “Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062–3080, 2004.
REF. D. Gunduz and E. Erkip, “Opportunistic Cooperation by Dynamic Resource Allocation,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1446–1454, Apr. 2007.
REF. A. M. Tonello, F. Versolatto, S. D’Alessandro “Opportunistic Relaying in In‐Home PLC Networks,” Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Florida, USA, Dec. 2010.
REF. S. D’Alessandro, A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, “Power Savings with Opportunistic Decode and Forward over In‐Home PLC Networks,” Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2011, Udine, Italy, Apr. 2011.
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Direct Transmission
Cx,y: Capacity of the link (x,y)
CS , R
CR , D
CS , D
0
t
Tf
time
• The source (S) transmits its data to the destination (D) during
all the time slot whose duration is Tf
• The relay is silent
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Decode & Forward (1/2)
Cx,y: Capacity of the link (x,y)
CS , R
CR , D
CS , D
0
t
Tf
time
• During the first part of the time slot the source (S) transmits
its data to both the destination (D) and the relay (R) • The relay is silent
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Decode & Forward (2/2)
Cx,y: Capacity of the link (x,y)
CS , R
CR , D
CS , D
0
t
Tf
time
• During the second part of the time slot the relay transmits its
data to the destination (D) using an independent codebook
• The source is silent
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Amplify & Forward (1/2)
Cx,y: Capacity of the link (x,y)
CS , R
CR , D
CS , D
0
Tf / 2
Tf
time
• During the first part of the time slot the source (S) transmits
its data to both the destination (D) and the relay (R) • The relay is silent
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Amplify & Forward (2/2)
Cx,y: Capacity of the link (x,y)
CS , R
CR , D
CS , D
0
Tf / 2
Tf
time
• During the second part of the time slot the relay amplifies
and forwards the data received from the source (S) to the destination (D)
• The source is silent
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Opportunistic
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DF (ODF): Capacity Improvements
 ODF uses the relay whenever it allows for capacity
improvements w.r.t. the direct transmission. Its capacity is:
CODF  t   max CDT , CDF  t 
where
CDF  t   min t CS ,R , t CS ,D  1  t  CR ,D 
CDT  CS ,D
t *  arg max CDF  t 
t[0,1]
 
CR , D P
 
CS , R P
 
CS , D P
0
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
t*
1
t
A. Tonello 102
Opportunistic
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AF (OAF): Capacity Improvements
 OAF uses the relay whenever it allows for capacity
improvements w.r.t. the direct transmission. Its capacity is:
COAF  max CDT , C AF 
where
CDT
1

MT
C AF
1

2 MT

kKON
 XY 
k
k

k
k  k  k 


PS, AF
 SR
PR , AF RD
k  k 
log 2 1 
 PS , AF SD 

k  k 
k  k 


kKON
 1  PS , AF SR  PR , AF RD

k 
k 

  
 SD
log 2 1  PS, DT
Gch , XY
2
 
Pnoise
.Y
k
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Application of Relay in Home Networks
MAIN PANEL
CIRCUIT BREAKER
DERIVATION BOX
D
OUTLET
S
REF. A. M. Tonello, F. Versolatto, “Bottom‐Up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling – Part I: Random Topology Model and Efficient Transfer Function Computation,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 26, n. 2, 2011.
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Relay Configurations
MAIN PANEL
CIRCUIT BREAKER
DERIVATION BOX
D
OUTLET
RELAY
S
 Source Derivation Box (SDB)
The relay is located in the derivation box that feeds the source node.
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Relay Configurations
MAIN PANEL
CIRCUIT BREAKER
DERIVATION BOX
D
OUTLET
RELAY
S
 Main Panel Single Sub‐Topology (MPS)
The relay is located immediately after the CB of the main panel.
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Numerical
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Results: Simulation Parameters
Parameter
Value
Flat Area
U(100 ‐ 300) m2
Cluster Area
U(15 ‐ 45) m2
Average Outlet / Area
0.5 outlets / m2
Probability of Open loads
0.3
Sample Frequency (1/T)
37.5 MHz
M
1536
1/(MT)
24.414 kHz
Considered Band
(1‐28) MHz
Transmitted PSD limit
‐50 dBm/Hz
Noise PSD
(‐110) dBm/Hz
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Numerical
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Results: Capacity Improvements
ODF
OAF
Noise PSD = -110 [dBm/Hz]
Noise PSD = -110 [dBm/Hz]
1
1
Source Derivation Box
Main Panel
Direct Transmission
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.94
0.92
0.92
CCDF(C)
CCDF(C)
0.96
0.9
0.88
0.86
0.9
0.88
0.86
@0.8 Gain:177%
0.84
0.82
0.8
Source Derivation Box
Main Panel
Direct Transmission
0.98
0
10
20
30
C [Mbit/s]
40
@0.8 Gain:61%
0.84
0.82
50
0.8
0
10
20
30
C [Mbit/s]
CCDF of capacity using ODF and OAF with the relay located according to the considered
configurations. For the DT configuration, no relay is connected to the network.
REF. S. D’Alessandro, A. Tonello, “On Rate Improvements and Power Saving with Opportunistic Relaying in Home Power Line Networks,” submitted to EURASIP JASP, 2012.
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Flooding for Large Scale Networks
 Multi‐hop communication protocol
 Suitable for command and control applications with large
number of nodes, e.g., lightning systems
 Network nodes forward the received packets altruistically
G
E
F
D
C
A
B
 A sends a broadcast packet that
is received by B, C, and G
 Nodes B, C, G forward the packet that will be now received
also by D, E, F
REF. G. Bumiller, L. Lampe, H. Hrasnica, “Power Line Communication Network for Large‐Scale Control and Automation
Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 4, April 2010.
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Flooding: Considerations
 Pros
– No routing overhead
– Robust against network changes
– Shortest path always used
 Cons
– Redundant transmissions
– Loop cycles
– Waste of energy for many retransmissions
 Improvements
– In highly populated networks, only a subset of nodes are allowed to retransmit
– Counters for packets (number of retransmissions)
– MAC protocol based on hybrid TDMA‐CSMA/CA
– The master broadcasts a network‐wide TDMA frame
– Within each TDMA frame there are contention free and contention based time slots
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Media Access Techniques
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MAC Aspects
 The media access scheme depends on the application and type of data traffic
– Metering, sensor network, QoS traffic (audio/video),… – Throughput but also latency are important
 Contention free and contention based schemes are used in PLC
–
–
–
–
CSMA/CA (hidden node problem)
Dynamic TDMA (some overhead is required)
Network synchronization can exploit the mains cycle
Scheduling of resources can exploit SNR cyclic behavior
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Media Access Techniques
Scheduling in Linear Periodically Time Variant (LPTV) Channels
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Optimal Time Slot over LPTV Channels
CCo
User 1
User 4
User 2
User 3
 The Central Coordinator (CCo) manages the channel access in a TDMA fashion
 We consider the downlink case
 The CCo sends training sequences to the users that estimate the periodic time variant SINR experienced in a mains cycle
 We want to compute the optimal slot duration, scheduling, and bit loading
REF. A. M. Tonello, J. A. Cortés, S. D’Alessandro, “Optimal Time Slot Design in an OFDM‐TDMA System over Power‐Line Time‐Variant Channels,” Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2009, Dresden, Mar. 2009. Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
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Optimal Scheduling
The optimal time slot scheduling and duration can be found maximizing the aggregate rate (AR)
AR  N ITS  = max

subject to
NITS : OFDM symbols in a time slot
T0 : OFDM symbol duration
u ,s 
u 1 s  0
1
s  0,..., NTS  1, and
NTS 1

(423 OFDM symbols in a main cycle)
Aggregate Rate [Mbit/s]
 

u ,s  u 

Rs  N ITS 

u 1
Example: 4‐users optimal slot s 0
60
p   NTS 1  u 
Rs  N ITS  
Rs  N ITS 

100 s 0
u  1,..., NU
u ,s  u 
u
α(u,s) : binary coefficient equal to one if slot s
is assigned to user u, zero otherwise
p(u) : weighting factor.
40
20
0
0
NU
NU NTS 1
10
20
30
40
50
NITS
60
70
80
90
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100
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Systems, Standards and MAC Details
Summary of Systems and Standards
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Protocol Stacks
 PLC specifications and standards typically cover layer 1 and 2 (PHY and MAC)
 Network layer and above, up to application:
– is specified by other standards, e.g., AMR (IEC 61334‐4‐32)
– convergent layers are under investigation, e.g., from IPv4 to IPv6 and/or protocols for certain applications Application
SG application
dependent
IP
PLC MAC
PLC PHY
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Narrow
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Band PLC Systems and Standards
UPB
Insteon
Konnex
X10
CEBus
Universal
PLC bus
Command
and Control
Home Automation
Single carrier
EIA‐600 Proprietary
Low data rate: some kbits/s
EN50090
Standard EN13321‐1
Proprietary
Proprietary
body
ISO/IEC 14543
Spectrum
CENELEC C CENELEC B CENELEC B
CENELEC FCC ARIB
HomePlug
C&C
CENELEC A
(Enel,
Endesa)
HomePlug
Consortium
CENELEC A C FCC ARIB
PPM
DCSK
differential
code shift keying
Modulation
BPSK
S‐FSK
PPM Bit‐rate
2.4 kbps
1.2 kbps
50 or 60 bps
8.5 kbps
240 bps
0.6 to 7.5 kbps
MAC
ND
CSMA
CSMA/CD
CSMA/CD
‐
CSMA/CA
Open Meter Project
CENELEC
BPSK
P1901.2
NB NB standard standard
Multicarrier
Prime
ERDF
ITU
IEEE
Alliance
data rate: hundred of kbits/s
CENELEC
CENELEC
CENELEC
A
CENELEC A
FCC
OFDM
DQPSK
DBPSK
Up to 4800 34 to
bps
240 kbps
‐
IEEE Metering
Automatic Meter Reading
Proprietary
Spread
Spectrum
Tutorial Advances in PLC – EUSIPCO 2012
Meters
PRIME
&
G.Hnem
PowerLine
G3‐PLC
More
Intelligent ITU‐T 9955
CSMA/CA
A, B,C,D
FCC
A, B,C,D
FCC
OFDM
D8PSK
DQPSK
DBPSK
OFDM
QPSK
16‐QAM
‐
128 kbps
up to 1 Mbps
‐
CSMA/CA CSMA/CA
TDMA
‐
A. Tonello 118
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Broadband PLC Systems and Standards
Standard body
Spectrum
HomePlug AV
HP Green PHY
HD-PLC
IEEE P1901
ITU-T G.hn
ITU-T G.9960
HomePlug
Consortium
HomePlug
Consortium
High Definition PLC
Alliance
IEEE
ITU
2-28
2-60 MHz
PLC, Coax, phone line:
up to 100 MHz (BB)
PLC: 100-200 MHz (PB)
Coax: up to 100 MHz
(PB, Fc=0.35-2.45 GHz)
2-28 MHz
Multicarrier
2-28 MHz
2/4-28 MHz
data rate: Over 200 Mbits/s
OFDM (HPAV)
(3072 tones)
Modulation
&
Coding
OFDM
(1536 tones)
Bit-loading
Up to 1024-QAM
Convolutional,
Turbo codes
OFDM
(1536 tones)
QPSK
Wavelet OFDM
(512 tones)
Bit-loading
Up to 16-PAM
RS, Convolutional,
LDPC
Bit-loading
Up to 4096QAM
W-OFDM
(HD-PLC)
(1024 tones)
OFDM
(up to 4096 tones)
Bit-loading
Up to 4096-QAM
LDPC
Bit-loading
Up to 32-PAM
Bit-rate
200 Mbit/s
3.8-9.8 Mbit/s
190 Mbit/s
540 Mbit/s
>200 Mbps
Up to 1Gbps
MAC
TDMA-CSMA/CA
CSMA/CA
TDMA-CSMA/CA
TDMACSMA/CA
TDMA-CSMA/CA
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Systems, Standards and MAC Details
Status of Standardization
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Standards: IEEE P1901 and ITU‐T G.hn
 IEEE P1901 covers both indoor (in‐home) and outdoor PLC (last mile)
– Two frequency bands
 2‐30 MHz: rate up to 200 Mbit/s. 2‐60 MHz: rate up to 545 Mbit/s
– PHY 1: Pulse shaped OFDM with turbo coding (from HPAV)
– PHY 2: Wavelet OFDM with RS/CC and LDPC (from Panasonic HD‐PLC) – MAC: TDMA for QoS traffic and CSMA for best effort traffic. Coexistence mechanism for the two PHYs (IPP, inter PHY protocol)
 ITU‐T G.9960 (G.hn)
– PHY and MAC for in‐Home devices that use power line, coax, and phone lines
– Frequency bands
• 2‐50 MHz (optional 50‐200 MHz): rate up to 1 Gbit/s
– PHY: scalable windowed OFDM (2048 tones for PLC)
– MAC layer: TDMA for QoS traffic, CSMA for best effort traffic
– Coexistence with IEEE P1901 devices but not interoperability
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Standards: IEEE P1901.2 and ITU G.hnem
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 IEEE P1901.2: to be ratified in 2012
– Narrow band (less than 500 kHz) PLC standard for both AC and DC lines
 low voltage indoor/outdoor, as well as medium voltage in both urban and in long distance (multi‐kilometer) rural communications
– Operating in the Cenelec and FCC bands (up to 500 kHz) – Scalable data rates up to 500 kbps depending on the requirements
– It addresses communication for:
• Grid to utility meter, management of local energy generation devices
• Electric vehicle to charging station
• In‐home networking for command‐and‐control
 ITU‐T G. hnem: ratified in Dec. 2011
– MAC & PHY for in‐home energy management, and LV metering – Operating in the Cenelec and FCC bands (up to 500 kHz) up to 1 Mbps
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Systems, Standards and MAC Details
MAC in Narrowband Systems
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MAC in NB‐PLC
 We consider, as examples, the MAC specified in the NB‐PLC systems:
– PRIME (power line intelligent metering)
– G3‐PLC (for meter reading)
– ITU G.hnem
 G3‐PLC and PRIME have been used as baseline for standardization in the working group IEEE P1901.2 and also in ITU G.hnem
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PRIME MAC: Definitions
 The subnetwork is a tree with two kind of nodes
– Service Node
 Can be either a leaf or in a branch point
 In Terminal state it can send its own data
 In Switch state it forwards data
– Base Node
 It is the root of the tree
 It assigns the network identifier to the Service Nodes
 It manages the channel allocation in contention free periods
 Each node has a MAC address (48 bits)
REF. PRIME Alliance Technical Working Group, “Draft Standard for PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution,” R1.3E.
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PRIME MAC: Address Resolution
 At the first step, only the Base node has an address
S=(Sub Net ID, Local Net (node) ID)
A: Base
S=(0,0)
B: Switch
B: Terminal B: Disconnected
T=(0,1) S=(1,0)
T=(0,1) S=(1,0)
C: Terminal
C: Disconnected
T=(0,2)
E: Terminal
E: Disconnected
T(1,1)
F: Terminal
F: Disconnected
T(1,2)
D: Terminal
D: Disconnected
T=(0,3)
 Nodes B, C, D ask for addresses to
the Base node A
 A assigns the address
 E, F are not visible from A but are visible from B.  B asks A to have a switch node
identifier too
 B becomes a switch node
 B assigns the network ID to E and F
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PRIME: MAC Frame and Channel Access
B B
1 2
Shared Contention Period (SCP)
(Optional) Contention Free Period (CFP)
 Beacon reserved to the Switch Node
 Beacon reserved to the Base Node
 Each Beacon contains information on the SCP and CFP
 SCP: based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
 The nodes contend to occupy the channel
 Priority mechanisms are provided
 CFP: based on TDMA where the slot are assigned by the Base Node
 In both SCP and CFP, the packets go always through the Base Node
 It is possible to establish direct connections for “peer to peer” communication
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G3‐PLC MAC
 Based on the contention access scheme of IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee)
 Two types of devices:
– Private Area Network (PAN) Coordinator (typically, the concentrator)
 It performs device discovery
– Reduced Function Devices (RFD)  Represented by meters
 Distributed access procedure (peer to peer communication is possible)
 Two priority levels are possible: high and low priority
 64 bit address (extended address) used to join the network by the node
 The address is reduced to 16 bit (short PAN address) once the node joins
REF. ERDF, “PLC G3 MAC Specifications,” online at: http://www.maxim‐ic.com/products/powerline/pdfs/G3‐PLC‐MAC‐
the network via the PAN
Layer‐Specification.pdf
REF. IEEE 802.15.4 Working Group, “Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low‐Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs),” 2006.
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G3‐PLC MAC: Network Architecture
PAN‐ID+node 3 address
PAN‐ID+node 2 address
 The PAN Coordinator defines the network ID
 Each RFD node asks the PAN Coordinator for a beacon with
the ID to join the network
PAN Coordinator
PAN‐ID+node 1 address
 The PAN Coordinator has the complete list of the network nodes
 Other PANs can be established
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G3‐PLC MAC: Channel Access
 The channel access is based on CSMA/CA
 Communication from the coordinator to the devices is done
under a polling procedure initiated by the device who asks
the coordinator to transmit pending data
 Communication from the devices to the coordinator is done
using CSMA/CA. The coordinator receiver is always on
 Note that the network devices are not synchronized at all
(unslotted scheme)
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ITU‐T G.hnem MAC
 Similar to the G3‐PLC MAC
– Based on IEEE 802.15.4 (CSMA/CA)
 Four priority levels are offered
– The fourth is reserved for emergency signals
 The network is split in domains (LV networks)
– Each domain is managed by a Domain Manager (DM) that acts as a data concentrator
– DMs can be connected to the utility head‐end through DSL or wireless
– Inter‐domain bridges are provided for communication between nodes
belonging to different domains
– More DMs are managed by a Global Master (GM) to reduce inter‐
domain interference
REF. V. Oksman, J. Zhang, “G.hnem: The new ITU‐T Standard on Narrowband PLC Technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.
49. no. 12, Dec. 2011.
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Systems, Standards and MAC Details
MAC in Broadband Systems
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MAC in BB‐PLC
 We consider the MAC specified in the BB‐PLC systems:
– IEEE P1901
– ITU G.HN
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IEEE P1901 MAC  Two kind of nodes
– Local Administrator (BSS): first node that joins the network
 Network setup, synchronization, coordination
– Station “slave” (SS)
 Nodes are identified by MAC addresses
 Multiple BSS can be located in the same network
 Channel Access – CSMA/CA for best effort traffic
 7 levels of priority are provided
– TDMA for QoS
 Two PHY layers coexist thanks to the inter PHY protocol (IPP)
REF. M. Rahman, et al. “Medium Access Control for Power Line Communications: An Overview of the IEEE 1901 and ITU‐T
G.hn Standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, June, 2011.
REF. S. Galli, O. Logvinov, “Recent Developments in the Standardization of Power Line Communications within the IEEE,”
IEEE Commun. Mag., July 2008.
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IEEE P1901: MAC Frame and Channel
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Access
Slot 1
Beacon Region
Contention Period (CP)
Slot 2
Slot 3
Slot 4
Slot 5
Contention Free Period (CFP)
AC line 50/60Hz
 Beacons are sent by the BSS to provide info on CP and CFP periods
 Nodes are synchronized with the AC line
 Stations can contend the channel using CSMA/CA
 Slots assigned by BSS to stations (TDMA)
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ITU‐T G.hn MAC  Two kind of nodes
– Domain Manager (DM): first node that joins the network
 Network setup, synchronization, coordination
– Station “slave” (SS)
 Nodes are identified by MAC addresses
 Channel Access – CSMA/CA for best effort traffic
 4 levels of priority are provided
– TDMA for QoS
REF. M. Rahman, et al. “Medium Access Control for Power Line Communications: An Overview of the IEEE 1901 and ITU‐T
G.hn Standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, June, 2011.
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ITU‐T G.hn: MAC Frame and Channel
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Access
TXOP
MAP
STXOP
TXOP
TXOP
TXOP
AC line 50/60Hz
 Medium Access Plan (MAP)
– Describes TXOP and STXOP of next cycle/cycles
 Transmission Opportunities (TXOP)
– Contention free TDMA access scheduled by the DM
 Shared Transmission Opportunities (STXOP)
– Contention based access (CSMA/CA)
– STXOP is divided into time slots
– Only some nodes can contend for a certain time slot
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Conclusions and Evolution of PLC
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Conclusions
 PLC technology has reached a certain maturity
– The in‐home BB market is significantly increasing
– PLC will play an important role in the SG (both NB and BB PLC)
 Importance of definition of applications and requirements in the SG (many domains) – Smart metering is probably the killer application in the short term
 Coexistence of technologies is fundamental
 Standardization needs to be completed for mass deployment
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Evolution
 New applications
 EMC, coexistence/interoperability mechanisms also with other technologies
 Advances at the PHY, e.g.,  filter bank modulation, MIMO, optimal channel coding, mitigation of interference and impulsive noise….
 Advances at the MAC, e.g.,  adaptation and applicable resource allocation algorithms, cooperative techniques, …
 New grid topologies, new cables, and possible new bandwidths might come out
 PLC network synchronization
 Routing with PLC technology
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References
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Useful Information Source

PLC DocSearch ( http://www.isplc.org/docsearch/ )
– links to papers published in IEEE journals and conferences since 1986, in Wiley, Elsevier, and Hindawi journals (likely incomplete)
– full text papers contained in the proceedings of ISPLC, the International Symposium on Power Line Communications, from 1997 to 2004 (those proceedings were not published by the IEEE)
– full text papers contained in the proceedings of WSPLC, the Workshop on Power Line Communications, from 2008

Best Readings on Power Line Communications (http://www.comsoc.org/best‐readings )
– a collection of selected books, articles, and papers on PLC.

IEEE Communications Society Technical Committee on Power Line Communications (http://cms.comsoc.org/eprise/main/SiteGen/TC_PLC/Content/Home.html )
– a good gateway to PLC research world
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References from WiPli Lab 1
Channel Characterization and Modeling
1) A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, B. Bejar, S. Zazo, “A Fitting Algorithm for Random Modeling the PLC Channel“, Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 3, 2012.
2) F. Versolatto, A. M. Tonello, "On the Relation Between Geometrical Distance and Channel Statistics in In‐Home PLC Networks," in Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2012, Beijing,
China, March 27‐30, 2012.
3) A. Tonello et al., “A Top‐Down Random Generator for the In‐Home PLC Channel,” Proc. Global Commun. Conf. (GLOBECOM’11), Dec. 2011.
4) F. Versolatto, and A. Tonello, “An MTL Theory Approach for the Simulation of MIMO Power Line Communication Channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 3,
pp. 1710‐1717, Jul. 2011.
5) A .Tonello, and F. Versolatto, “Bottom‐Up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling ‐ Part I: Random Topology Model and Efficient Transfer Function Computation,” IEEE
Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 891‐898, Apr. 2011.
6) M. Antoniali, A. Tonello, M. Lenardon, and A. Qualizza, “Measurements and Analysis of PLC Channels in a Cruise Ship,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, pp. 102‐107, Apr.
3‐6, 2011, Udine, Italy. Best Paper Award.
7) F. Versolatto, and A. Tonello, “A MIMO PLC Random Channel Generator and Capacity Analysis,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, pp. 66‐71, Apr. 3‐6, 2011, Udine, Italy.
8) L. Di Bert, P. Caldera, D. Schwingshackl, A. M. Tonello, " On Noise Modeling for Power Line Communications," in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, Udine, Italy, April 3‐6, 2011.
9) A. Tonello, and F. Versolatto, “Bottom‐Up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling ‐ Part II: Inferring the Statistics,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2356‐2363,
Oct. 2010.
10) F. Versolatto, and A. Tonello, “Analysis of the PLC Channel Statistics Using a Bottom‐Up Random Simulator,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC’ 2010, pp. 236‐241, Mar. 28‐31,
2010, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Best Paper Award.
11) A. Tonello, and F. Versolatto, “New Results on Top‐down and Bottom‐up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling,” in Proc. Third Workshop on Power Line
Communications (WSPLC 09) pp. 11‐14, Oct. 1‐2, 2009, Udine, Italy.
12) P. Pagani, M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, A. Tonello, F. Pecile, S. D'Alessandro, G. Mijic, and K. Kriznar, “PLC Channel Transfer Function Models for the OMEGA ICT Project,” in
Proc. ICT Mobile Summit 2009, June 2009, Santander, Spain.
13) A. Tonello, and T. Zheng, “Bottom‐Up Transfer Function Generator for Broadband PLC Statistical Channel Modeling,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2009, pp. 7‐12, Mar. 29 –
Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
Multicarrier Modulation and Resource Allocation
1) S. D’Alessandro, A. Tonello, “On Rate Improvements and Power Saving with Opportunistic Relaying in Home Power Line Networks,” subm. to EURASIP Journ. Adv.
In Signal Process. 2012.
2) A. Tonello, S. D’Alessandro, F. Versolatto, and C. Tornelli, “Comparison of Narrow‐Band OFDM PLC Solutions and I‐UWB Modulation over Distribution Networks,”
in Proc. Smart Grid Commun. Conf. (SmartGridComm’11), Oct. 17‐20, 2011, Bruxelles, Belgium.
3) A. Tonello, M. Antoniali, F. Versolatto, and S. D’Alessandro, “In‐car PLC Advanced Transmission Techniques,” in Proc. of the 5th Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal
Processing for In‐Vehicle Systems, Kiel, Germany, Sep. 2011.
4) S. D’Alessandro, A. Tonello, and L. Lampe, “Adaptive Pulse‐Shaped OFDM with Application to In‐Home Power Line Communications”, Springer Journal on
Telecommunication Systems, Jan. 2011.
5) S. D'Alessandro, A. Tonello, and F. Versolatto, “Power Savings with Opportunistic Decode and Forward over In‐Home PLC Networks,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, pp.
176‐181, Apr. 3‐6, 2011. Udine, Italy.
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References from WiPli Lab 2
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, and C. Tornelli, “Analysis of Impulsive UWB Modulation on a Real MV Test Network,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 11, pp. 18‐23, Apr. 3‐6, 2011,
Udine, Italy.
S. Weiss, N. Moret, A. P. Millar, A. M. Tonello, R. Stewart, "Initial Results on an MMSE Precoding and Equalisation Approach to MIMO PLC Channels,“ in Proc. IIEEE
SPLC 2011, Udine, Italy, April 3‐6, 2011.
A. Tonello, F. Versolatto, and S. D'Alessandro, “Opportunistic Relaying in In‐Home PLC Networks,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM’10),
December 6‐10, 2010, Miami, USA.
A. Tonello, S. D’Alessandro, and L. Lampe, “Cyclic Prefix Design and Allocation in Bit‐Loaded OFDM over Power Line Communication Channels,” IEEE Trans.
Commun., vol. 58, no. 11, pp.3265‐3276, Nov. 2010.
S. D'Alessandro, A. Tonello, and L. Lampe, “On Power Allocation in Adaptive Cyclic Prefix OFDM,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2010, pp. 183‐188, Mar. 28‐31, 2010, Rio De
Janeiro, Brazil.
A. Tonello, and F. Pecile, “Efficient Architectures for Multiuser FMT Systems and Application to Power Line Communications," IEEE Trans. on Commun., vol. 57, no.
5, pp.1275‐1279, May 2009.
F. Pecile, and A. Tonello, “On the Design of Filter Bank Systems in Power Line Channels Based on Achievable Rate,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2009, pp. 228‐232, Mar. 29 –
Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
S. D'Alessandro, A. Tonello, and L. Lampe, “Bit‐Loading Algorithms for OFDM with Adaptive Cyclic Prefix Lenght in PLC Channels,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2009, pp. 177‐
181, Mar. 29 – Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
A. Tonello, J. A. Cortés Arrabal, and S. D'Alessandro, “Time Slot Design in an OFDM‐TDMA System over Power‐Line Time‐variant Channels,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC
2009, pp. 41‐46, Mar. 29 – Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
A. Tonello, S. D’Alessandro, and L. Lampe, “Bit, Tone and Cyclic Prefix Allocation in OFDM with Application to In‐Home PLC,” Proc. IEEE (IFIP) Wireless Days
(WD’08), pp. 24, 27, Nov. 23‐27, 2008, Dubai, UAE.
A. Tonello, and F. Pecile, “A Filtered Multitone Modulation Modem for Multiuser Power Line Communications with an Efficient Implementation,” in Proc. IEEE
ISPLC 2007, pp.155‐160, Mar. 26‐28, 2007, Pisa, Italy.
J. A. Cortés, A. Tonello, and L. Diez, “Comparative Analysis of Pilot‐based Channel Estimators for DMT Systems over Indoor Power‐line Channels,” in Proc. IEEE
ISPLC 2007, pp. 372‐377, Mar. 26‐28, 2007, Pisa, Italy.
Ultra Wide Band
1) A. M. Tonello, S. D'Alessandro, F. Versolatto, C. Tornelli, "Comparison of Narrow‐Band OFDM PLC Solutions and I‐UWB Modulation over Distribution Grids," Proc. of
IEEE SMARTGRIDCOMM 2011, Brussels, Belgium, September 2011.
2) F. Versolatto, A. M. Tonello, M. Girotto, C. Tornelli, "Performance of Practical Receiver Schemes for Impulsive UWB Modulation on a Real MV Power Line
Network," Proc. of IEEE ICUWB 2011, Bologna, Italy, Sept. 14‐16, 2011.
3) A. M. Tonello, F. Versolatto, C. Tornelli, "Analysis of Impulsive UWB Modulation on a Real MV Test Network," Proc. of ISPLC 2011, Udine, Italy, April 3‐6, 2011.
4) A. Tonello, and N. Palermo, “Soft Detection with Synchronization and Channel Estimation from Hard Quantized Inputs in Impulsive UWB Power Line
Communications” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Ultra‐Wideband (ICUWB’09), pp.560‐564, Sep. 9‐11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada.
5) A. Tonello, “Wide Band Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications,” EURASIP J. on Advances in Signal Processing ‐
Special Issue on "Advanced Signal Processing and Computational Intelligence Techniques for Power Line Communications”, Volume 2007, art. id. 96747, pp. 1‐14,
2007. EURASIP 2007. Best Paper Award.
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References from WiPli Lab 3
6)
A. Tonello, and F. Pecile, “Synchronization for Multiuser Wide Band Impulse Modulation Systems in Power Line Channels with Unstationary Noise,” in Proc. IEEE
ISPLC 2007, pp. 150‐154, Mar. 26‐28, 2007, Pisa, Italy.
7) A. Tonello, “A Wide Band Modem Based on Impulse Modulation and Frequency Domain Signal Processing for Powerline Communication,” in Proc. IEEE Global
Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM’06), pp.1‐6, Nov. 27 – Dec. 1, 2006, San Francisco, CA, US.
8) G. Mathisen, and A. Tonello, “WIRENET: An Experimental System for In‐House Powerline Communication,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2006, pp. 137‐142, Mar. 26‐29, 2006,
Orlando, FL, US.
9) A. Tonello, “An Impulse Modulation Based PLC System with Frequency Domain Receiver Processing,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2005, pp. 241‐245, Apr. 6‐8, 2005,
Vancouver, Canada.
10) A. Tonello, R. Rinaldo, and M. Bellin, “Synchronization and Channel Estimation for Wide Band Impulse Modulation over Power Line Channels,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC
2004, pp. 206‐210, Mar. 31 – Apr. 2, Zaragoza, Spain.
11) A. Tonello, R. Rinaldo, and L. Scarel, “Detection Algorithms for Wide Band Impulse Modulation Based Systems over Power Line Channels,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2004,
pp. 367‐371, Mar. 31 – Apr. 2, Zaragoza, Spain.
Other: Smart Grid, Smart Home, In‐Vehicle
1)
2)
3)
4)
L. Di Bert, S. D'Alessandro, A. M. Tonello, "An Interconnection Approach and Performance Tests for In‐home PLC Networks," Proc. of IEEE ISPLC 2012, Beijing,
China, March 27‐30, 2012.
A. M. Tonello, M. Antoniali, F. Versolatto, S. D'Alessandro, "Power Line Communications for In‐car Application: Advanced Transmission Techniques," Proc. of the
5th Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In‐Vehicle Systems, Kiel, Germany, Sept. 2011.
A. Tonello, P. Siohan, A. Zeddam, and X. Mongaboure, “Challenges for 1 Gbps Power Line Communications in Home Networks,” in Proc. IEEE Personal Indoor
Mobile Radio Commun. Symp. (PIMRC’08), pp.1‐6, Sep. 14‐19, 2008, Cannes, France.
R. Bernardini, M. Durigon, R. Rinaldo, A. Tonello, and A. Vitali, “Robust Transmission of Multimedia Data over Power‐lines,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2005, pp. 295‐299,
Apr. 6‐8, 2005, Vancouver, Canada.
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Other References 1
PLC , Smart Grids, and Broad Coverage
1) S. Galli, A. Scaglione, Z. Wang, “For the Grid and Through the Grid: The Role of Power Line Communications in the Smart Grid,” Proc. of IEEE, vol.99, no.6, pp.998‐
1027, June 2011.
2) “Power Line Communications – Theory and Applications for Narrowband and Broadband Communications over Power Lines,” eds. Ferreira, Lampe, Newbury,
Swart, Wiley & Sons. Ltd., 2010.
3) Special issue on “Power Line Communications for Automation Networks and Smart Grid”, IEEE Commun. Mag., Dec. 2011.
Channel Modeling
1) F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez, and L. G. Moreno, “On the Statistical Properties of Indoor Power Line Channels: Measurements and Models,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC
2011, pp. 271‐276, Apr. 3‐6, 2011, Udine, Italy.
2) A. Schwager, D. Schneider, W. Bäschlin, A. Dilly, J. Speidel, “MIMO PLC: Theory, Measurements and System Setup,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, pp. 48‐53, Apr. 3‐6,
2011, Udine, Italy.
3) D. Veronesi, R. Riva, P. Bisaglia, F. Osnato, K. Afkhamie, A. Nayagam, D. Rende, L. Yonge, “Characterization of In‐Home MIMO Power Line Channels,” in Proc. IEEE
ISPLC 2011, pp. 42‐47, Apr. 3‐6, 2011, Udine, Italy.
4) D. Rende, A. Nayagam, K. Afkhamie, L. Yonge, R. Riva, D. Veronesi, F. Osnato, P. Bisaglia, “Noise Correlation and Its Effect on In‐home MIMO Power Line Channels,”
in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2011, pp. 60‐65, Apr. 3‐6 ,2011, Udine, Italy.
5) S. Galli, “A Novel Approach to the Statistical Modeling of Wireline Channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1332‐1345, May 2011.
6) M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, A. Moulin, and F. Gauthier, “Indoor Power‐Line Communications Channel Characterization Up to 100 MHz – Part I: One‐Parameter
Deterministc Model,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1392‐1401, Jul. 2008.
7) M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, A. Moulin, and F. Gauthier, “Indoor Power‐Line Communications Channel Characterization Up to 100 MHz – Part II: Time‐Frequency Analysis,”
IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1402‐1409, Jul. 2008.
8) F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez, and J. T. Entrambasaguas, “Analysis of the Cyclic Short‐Term Variation of Indoor Power Line Channels”, IEEE J. Sel. Areas in
Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1327‐1338, Jul. 2006.
9) S. Galli, and T. C. Banwell, “A Novel Approach to the Modeling of the Indoor Power Line Channel Part II: Transfer Function and Its Properties,” IEEE Trans. Power
Del., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1869‐1878, Jun. 2005.
10) S. Galli, and T. C. Banwell, “A Novel Approach to the Modeling of the Indoor Power Line Channel Part I: Circuit Analysis and Companion Model,” IEEE Trans. Power
Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 655‐663, Apr. 2005.
11) I. C. Papaleonidopoulos, C. Karagiannopoulos, N. J. Theodorou, and C. N. Capsalis, “Theoretical Transmission‐Line Study of Symmetrical Indoor Triple‐Pole Cables
for Single‐Phase HF Signalling,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 646‐654, Apr. 2005.
12) T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. Glenn Gulak, “In‐Building Power Lines as High‐Speed Communication Channels: Channel Characterization and a Test Channel
Ensemble,” Int. J. of Commun. Syst., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 381‐400, Jun. 2003.
13) M. Zimmermann, and K. Dostert, “A Multipath Model for the Powerline Channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 553‐559, Apr. 2002.
14) H. Phillips, “Modelling of Powerline Communication Channels,” in Proc. Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. Its App. (ISPLC’99), pp. 14‐21, Mar. 1999.
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Other References 2
Noise Modeling
1) J.A. Cortes, L. Dıez, F.J. Canete and J. Lopez, "Analysis of the Periodic Impulsive Noise Asynchronous with the Mains in Indoor PLC Channels," in Proc. IEEE ISPLC
2009, pp. 26‐30, Mar. 29 – Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
2) M. Katayama, T. Yamazato, and H. Okada, “A Mathematical Model of Noise in Narrowband Power‐Line Communication Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun.,
vol.24, no.7, pp. 1267‐1276, Jul. 2006.
3) D. Benyoucef, "A New Statistical Model of the Noise Power Density Spectrum for Powerline Communication," in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2003, pp. 136‐141, Mar. 26‐28,
2003, Kyoto, Japan.
4) T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. Glenn Gulak, “In‐Building Power Lines as High‐Speed Communication Channels: Channel Characterization and a Test Channel
Ensemble,” Int. J. of Commun. Syst., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 381‐400, Jun. 2003.
5) M. Zimmermann and K. Dostert, “An Analysis of the Broadband Noise Scenario in Powerline Networks,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2000, pp. 131‐138, Apr. 5‐7, 2000,
Limerick, Ireland.
6) R. S. Blum, Y. Zhang, B. M. Sadler, and R. J. Kozick, “On the Approximation of Correlated Non‐Gaussian Noise Pdfs Using Gaussian Mixture Models,” in Proc. 1st
Conference on the Applications of Heavy Tailed Distributions in Economics, Engineering and Statistics, Washington DC, USA, June 1999.
7) D. Middleton, “Canonical and Quasi‐Canonical Probability Models of Class A Interference,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 25, no.2, pp.76‐106, May 1983.
8) D. Middleton, “Canonical Non‐Gaussian Noise Models: Their Implications for Measurement and for Prediction of Receiver Performance,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn.
Compat., vol. 21, no. 3, pp.209‐220, Aug. 1979.
9) D. Middleton, “Statistical‐Physical Models of Electro‐Magnetic Interference,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol 19, no.3, pp.106‐127, Aug. 1977.
Physical Layer
1) V. Oksman, and S. Galli, “G.hn: The New ITU‐T Home Networking Standard,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 138‐145, Oct. 2009.
2) S. Galli, “Advanced Signal Processing for PLCs: Wavelet‐OFDM,” in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2008, pp. 187‐192, Apr. 2‐4, 2008, Jeju Island, Korea.
3) G. Cherubini, E. Eleftheriou, and S. Olcer, “Filtered Multitone Modulation for Very High‐Speed Digital Subscriber Lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 20, no. 5,
pp. 1016‐1028, Jun. 2002.
4) J. Campello, “Optimal Discrete Bit‐Loading for Multicarrier Modulation Systems,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (ISIT’98), pp. 193, Aug. 16‐21, 1998, Cambridge,
UK.
5) S. Sandberg, and M. Tzannes, “Overlapped Discrete Multitone Modulation for High Speed Copper Wire Communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no.
9, pp. 1571‐1585, Dec. 1995.
6) I. Kalet, “The Multitone Channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, pp. 119–124, Feb. 1989.
7) S. Weinstein and P. Ebert, “Data Transmission by Frequency‐Division Multiplexing Using the Discrete Fourier Transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol., vol. 19,
pp. 628 – 634, May 1971.
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Other References 3
MAC, Resource Allocation and Cooperative Schemes
1)
Y. Ohtomo, K. Kobayashi, and M. Katayama, “An Access Control Method Using Repeaters for Multipoint Cyclic Data Gathering Over a PLC Network,” in Proc. IEEE
ISPLC 2011, pp.376‐381, Apr. 3‐6, 2011, Udine, Italy.
2)
G. Bumiller, L. Lampe, and H. Hrasnica “Power Line Communication Network for Large‐Scale Control and Automation Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no.
4, Apr. 2010.
3)
N. Sawada, T. Yamazato, and M. Katayama, “Bit and Power Allocation for Power‐Line Communications under Nonwhite and Cyclostationary Noise Environment,”
in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC’09), pp. 307‐312, Mar. 29 – Apr. 1, 2009, Dresden, Germany.
4)
G. Kramer, I. Maric, and R. Yates, “Cooperative Communications,” Foundation and Trends in Networking, 2007
5)
D. Gunduz and E. Erkip, “Opportunistic Cooperation by Dynamic Resource Allocation,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., pp. 1446–1454, Apr. 2007.
6)
L. Lampe, R. Schober and S. Yiu, “Distributed Space‐Time Block Coding for Multihop Transmission in Power Line Communication Networks,” IEEE J. on Sel. Areas in
Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1389–1400, Jul. 2006.
7)
J. Laneman, D. Tse, and G. Wornell, “Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no.
12, pp. 3062–3080, Dec. 2004.
PLC Standards
1)
M. Rahman, et al., “Medium Access Control for Power Line Communications: An Overview of the IEEE 1901 and ITU‐T G.hn Standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.
49, no. 6, pp. 183‐191, Jun. 2011.
2)
HomePlug Powerline Alliance, “Home Plug Green PHY – The Standard For In‐Home Smart Grid Powerline Communications”, v. 1.0, Jun. 2010.
3)
V. Oksman and S. Galli, “G.hn: The New ITU‐T Home Networking Standard,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 138‐145, Oct. 2009.
4)
KNX Association, “KNX System Specifications ‐ Architecture”, v. 3.0, Jun. 2009.
5)
HomePlug Powerline Alliance, “HomePlug Command & Control (C&C) Overview White Paper,” Sep. 2008.
6)
HomePlug Powerline Alliance, “HomePlug AV System Specifications,” Version 1.0.09. Feb. 2007.
7)
S. Galli and V. Loginov, “Recent Developments in the Standardization of Power Line Communications within the IEEE”, IEEE Comm. Mag., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 64‐71,
Jul. 2008.
8)
Unversal Powerline Bus, “The UPB System Description”, v. 1.4, Apr. 2007.
9)
S. Katar, B. Mashburn, K. Afkhamie, H. Latchman, and R. Newman, “Channel Adaptation based on Cyclo‐Stationary Noise Characteristics in PLC Systems,” in Proc.
IEEE ISPLC 2006, pp. 16‐21, Mar. 26‐29, 2006, Orlando, FL, US.
10) OPERA Specification – Part 1: Technology, v1.0, 31/01/06, WP SSWG
11) ERDF, “PLC G3 MAC Specifications,” [online]. Available: www.maxim.com
12) IEEE 802.15.4 Working Group, “Part 14.4: Wireless MAC and PHY Layer Specifications for Low‐Rate Wireless PAN,” 2006.
13) PRIME Alliance Technical Working Group, “Draft Standard for Powerline Intelligent Metering Evolution,” R. 1.3E.
14) Insteon, “The Details”, [online]. Available: http://www.insteon.net/pdf/insteondetails.pdf
15) G. Evans, “CEBus Demystified”, McGrow‐Hill, 2001.
16) X10, webpage, [online]. Available: http://www.eurox10.com
17) Wavenis‐OSA, “Fact sheet”, [online]. Available: http://www.wavenis‐osa.org/documents/wavenis_osa_membership_pack.zip
18) IEC, CISPR/I/301/CD, Amendment 1 to CISPR 22 Ed.6.0: Addition of limits and methods of measurement for conformance testing of power line
telecommunication ports intended for the connection to the mains, 2009‐07‐31.
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Short Bio of the Speaker
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Andrea M. Tonello Bio
www.diegm.uniud.it/tonello
 1996‐2002: Member of Technical Staff, and then technical Manager and Director at Bell Labs‐Lucent, Whippany NJ, USA.
 2003‐to date: Aggregate professor at the University of Udine.
 PhD in Electrical Eng. from University of Padova, Italy.
 Founder and chair of WiPli Lab since 2005.
 Founder and CEO of WiTiKee s.r.l.
 Awards: Bell‐Labs Lucent Recognition of Excellence Award 1999, Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) Distinguished Visiting Fellowship Award 2010, IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Distinguished Lecturer Award for years 2011‐12.
 Paper awards: EURASIP Best Journal Paper Award 2007, IEEE ISPLC 2010 Best Student Paper Award (co‐author with F. Versolatto), IEEE ISPLC 2011 Best Student Paper Award (co‐author with. M. Antoniali, M. Lenardon and A. Qualizza), IEEE VTC 2011 Spring Best Paper Award MIMO Track (co‐author with N. Moret and S. Weiss).
 IEEE positions: Vice Chair of IEEE TC‐PLC, Chair of Awards and Nominations Committee of TC‐PLC, Steering Committee Member of IEEE ISPLC.
 Editorial positions: Associate editor of IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Editor IEEE Trans. on Comm., Member of the Editorial Board of ISRN Communications and Networking.
 Conference positions: Chair of WSPLC 2009, Chair of IEEE ISPLC 2011, TPC co‐chair IEEE ISPLC 2007, and several others.
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