dynamic optimization in natural resources management

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dynamic optimization in natural resources management
ASERS
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
J
ournal of Environmental Management
and Tourism
Biannually
Volume II
Issue 1(3)
Summer 2011
ISSN 2068 – 7729
3
Summer 2011
Volume II, Issue 1(3)
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Editor in Chief
Cristina Barbu
Spiru Haret University, Romania
Contents:
Editorial Advisory Board
Huseyin Arasli
Eastern Mediterranean University,
North Cyprus
1
Mădălina Constantinescu
Spiru Haret University,
Romania
Jean-Paul Gaertner
Ecole de Management de
Strasbourg, France
2
Andreea Marin-Pantelescu,
Academy of Economic Studies
Bucharest, Romania
Piotr Misztal
Technical University of Radom,
Economic Department, Poland
Laura Ungureanu
Spiru Haret University, Romania
Hans-Jürgen Weißbach,
University of Applied Sciences –
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Harjeet Kaur
DBA (UniSA), Faculty of Business,
Economics and Accounting, HELP
University College, Malaysia … 34
An Investigation into
Motivational Factors that
Influencing Foreign
Tourists’ to Visit Jordan.
Push and Pull Factors
5
Nonprofit, Criminal Hubs and
Rent Seeking. Evaluation of the
Calabrian Experience
Cosimo Magazzino
Roma Tre University, Italy
… 42
Bashar A. Alhaj Mohammad
and Abdelnaser Omran
School of Housing, Building and
Planning, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Malaysia
… 16
Rajesh K. Pillania
Management Developement
Institute, India
Dan Selişteanu
University of Craiova, Romania
Soft EMS, Hard EMS and
Environmental Performance
Relationships. A Review of the
Literature
Tapan Sarker
Asia Pacific Centre for
Sustainable Enterprise, Griffith
University, Australia
…6
Harjeet Kaur
HELP University College, Malaysia
Rachel Price-Kreitz
Ecole de Management de
Strasbourg, France
4
Mehdi Azam
Environmental Governance
Programme, Albert-LudwigsUniversität Freiburg, Germany
Shankar Gargh
Editor in Chief of Advanced in
Management, India
Nodal Lekishvili,
Tibilisi State University, Georgia
Green Tourism in the
Context of Climate Change
towards Sustainable
Economic Development in
the South Asian Region?
3
Evaluation of Urban Lentic
Water Quality using
Multivariate
StatisticalAnalysis
Debasis Guha
Department of MCA, Dr. B.C.Roy
Engineering College, PostFuljhore, India
6
Environmental Change and the
Challenges of Tourism
Patronage in the Obudu Ranch
Resort Nigeria
Pius B. Utang and Lydia A. Adie
Department of Geography and
Environmental Management,
University of Port Harcourt
...61
Sayantan Mandal
Department of Zoology, B.B.
College, Burdwan, WB, India
A. Dutta
Department of MBA, National
Institute of Technology, WB,
India
…24
ASERS Publishing
http://www.asers.eu/asers-publishing
ISSN 2068 – 7729
4
Call for Papers
Winter_Issue 2011Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism is a young interdisciplinary research journal,
aimed to publish articles and original research papers that should contribute to the development of both
experimental and theoretical nature in the field of Environmental Management and Tourism Sciences.
Journal will publish original research and seeks to cover a wide range of topics regarding environmental
management and engineering, environmental management and health, environmental chemistry, environmental
protection technologies (water, air, soil), pollution reduction at source and waste minimization, energy and
environment, modelling, simulation and optimization for environmental protection; environmental biotechnology,
environmental education and sustainable development, environmental strategies and policies, etc. This topic
may include the fields indicated above, but are not limited to these.
Authors are encouraged to submit high quality, original works that discuss the latest developments in
environmental management research and application with the certain scope to share experiences and research
findings and to stimulate more ideas and useful insights regarding current best-practices and future directions in
environmental management.
All the papers will be first considered by the Editors for general relevance, originality and significance. If
accepted for review, papers will then be subject to double blind peer review.
Deadline for Submission:
Expected Publication Date:
Web:
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15th November 2011
15th December 2011
www.asers.eu/journals/jemt/
[email protected]
To prepare your paper for submission, please see full author guidelines in the following file:
JEMT_Full_Paper_Template.doc, then send it via email at [email protected]
5
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
GREEN TOURISM IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE
SOUTH ASIAN REGION
Mehdi AZAM
Environmental Governance Programme
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany
[email protected]
Tapan SARKER
Asia Pacific Centre for Sustainable Enterprise
Griffith University, Australia
[email protected]
Abstract
This paper attempts to examine the environmental consequences and challenges of tourism development in
developing economies with particular focus on the South Asian region. South Asia is home to one-third of the world‟s
population and is experiencing a rapid growth in tourism due to its unique cultural and natural resources. The industry is not
only dependant on the natural environment, but also can significantly alter it, meaning many tourist destinations are highly
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These problems mean that developing nations need to take measures to
control tourism in order to ensure the sustainability of the environment, but are limited by their weak institutional framework,,
political instability and inegalitarian social and economic structures. This paper suggests a more effective environmental
governance mechanism through incorporating eco-thinking initiatives and climate change as a management challenge in
order to foster the development of eco-tourism.
Keywords: Green tourism, environmental impact, governance, local empowerment, South Asia
1. Introduction
The world is now in a stage of transition, triggered by environmental crises and vulnerabilities where
maintaining sustainability in all development initiatives is crucial, not only for scientist and decision makers, but
for long term survival of the earth system. The sustained period of economic growth experienced by developed
countries over recent years caused many to think that the historically recurring economic cycles of boom and
bust had perhaps ended (Bramwell, and Lane 2009). Despite the pressures of climate change, developing and
emerging economies are mostly concentrated on economic development, although substantial debates (Liu, and
Wall 2004), international pressure and country-based sustainability campaigns are influencing policy makers to
rethink development initiatives within the framework of a green economy. Instead of more opportunities bringing
crises, opportunities built on sustainability principles can create a better platform of problem solving initiatives in
business enterprises, production and consumption. The aim of the study is to suggest an environmental
governance mechanism dealing with tourism around the world that will add to the current trend of greening the
economy, particularly for developing and emerging economies. Based on an extensive literature survey, the
following research questions have been addressed, in order to achieve the following research aims:
 What are the environmental consequences of tourism and challenges of green tourism development?
 What are the significant impacts of greening tourism industry on environment, economic and social
development?
 What could be the institutional strategy for the governance of green tourism?
The plan for the paper is as follows. In the next section a background of the study is provided, which is
followed by a brief discussion on the role of green tourism in sustainable economic development. Then the
challenges towards green tourism development are discussed. The next section presents a governance
mechanism for green tourism. The final section offers some concluding remarks.
2. Background
Tourism is the world‟s fastest and largest industry and studies predict its increasing growth, particularly in
South Asia. The number of international tourist arrivals has grown from 25 million in 1950 to 842 million in 2006,
corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 7% (World Tourism Organization 2010). This future growth is
expected to continue. International tourist arrivals are forecast to reach 1.6 billion by 2020. Tourism is also a
lucrative industry, with receipts from international tourism (excluding international fare receipts) reaching US$733
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
billion in 2006. World-wide, the average receipt per arrival is around US$680. In addition, domestic tourism is of
major importance in many countries. All of the above means that the industry is a significant sector of the
economy of many countries. It also has a major impact on the management of many cultural sites and natural
areas. Being a people-oriented industry, tourism also provides many jobs which have helped revitalize local
economies and supporting global economic development. However, growth in tourism is now accompanied by
many problems and difficulties, such as conflicting demands on limited resources (e.g. fresh water, beach
access), loss of indigenous cultures, issues related to energy supply and waste disposal both in touristic and
ecologically sensitive areas (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010), which is
detrimental to the goals of sustainability (Gössling 2002a). In order to ensure a sustainable future it is becoming
crucial to develop a strategic governance mechanism for tourism management and development that could fit
with the current trend of economic development, while supporting ecological integrity and social interests. This
research is based on reviewing relevant literature related to tourism, economic development and sustainable
development. The study draws a roadmap to redefine institutional management strategy and develop a
sustainable framework to reframe the policy action for a more integrated and coordinated action of government
within an umbrella network of different stakeholders.
3. Green Tourism and Sustainable Development
Green tourism
Green tourism is the term used for sustainable tourism practices which takes into account the mutual
needs of the ecology and environment, local people, businesses enterprises and tourists itself. It enables us to
draw a framework of management and development, for both now and in the future. The aim of these strategies
to develop a governance mechanism with a prime attention to reduce negative environmental and social impacts
of tourism operations located in rural or urban areas of any country premises.
Environmental consequences of tourism
Ecosystems are the essential life-sustaining basis for the majority of the Earth‟s human population.
Human intervention is destroying the environment and degrading natural resources at an alarming rate,
increasingly jeopardizing efforts to attain sustainable development and effectively alleviate poverty (Strasdas
2000). While an avalanche of tourists has a positive impact on the local economy, modern mass tourism also
brings about negative externalities such as congestion, decline in quality of life, low access to socio-cultural
amenities and loss of local identity, to the extent that the sustainability conditions of a locality might be
endangered (Girard, and Nijkamp 2009, Weaver, and Lawton 2007). Tourist activities impact directly and
indirectly on ecosystems. For instance, coral reefs can be damaged through trampling, buying, or collecting reefs
species (a direct impact occurring locally), or through increased water temperatures as observed during El Nino
Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. ENSO phenomena have increased in frequency and intensity in
recent decades (International Panel on Climate Change 2001), which is likely to be a result of global climate
change related to human activities including travel, an indirect impact occurring on large regional scales
(Gössling 2002b). Gössling (2002b) discussed how present tourism activities occur locally or individually initiated
changes in the global perspectives, such as changes in land cover and land use, energy use, biotic exchange
and extinction of wild species, exchange and dispersion of diseases, and changes in the perception and
understanding of the environment. Infrastructure (accommodation, traffic structures etc.) for tourist destination
significantly change land cover especially in coastal zones. Land alteration is an important cause for release of
greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, and NOx (International Panel on Climate Change 2001), thus interacting with
other aspects of global environmental change. Those impacts are not limited to the built area only, but the
residual impact often goes outside the boundary. Such impacts are quite extensive in developing countries
because of their cheap land prices. For example, erosion rates in Bali, Indonesia is 2-7.5 m/year on the beaches
(Wong 1998).In the British Virgin Islands, the building of roads led to severe erosion and sedimentation problems
(Macdonald et al. 1997). Energy consumption and emission of CO2 in transport and destination places activities
are considered to be the long-term impacts of tourism on the local and global environment (Table 1). About 40%
of the distances covered in reforming countries are by car, 5% by aircraft, and 55% by other means of transport,
while in developing countries, distances traveled by car are assumed to account for 20% and other means of
transport are 80% (Gössling 2002b).
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Table 1. Global tourism-related energy use and resulting CO2-e emissions in 2001
Category
Transport (incl. ship, etc.)
Accommodation
Activities
Total
Energy use (PJ)
13,223
508
350
14,081
CO2-e emissions (Mt)
1263
81
55
1399
Source: Gössling 2002b
Tourism activities are influencing export and import of species through international trade, as well as
movements of species by tourists or tourist enterprise. This contributes to the extinction of species through
disturbance, collection, alteration of habitat, and trading of animal and plant species especially coral reefs as
souvenirs. It was estimated that about 12,000 flowering plants have been imported into Europe, out of which 687
have become naturalized (Sukopp 2001). Locally, new species may contribute to an increase in species
numbers, but from a global perspective transfer leads to the homogenization of the plant kingdom (Sukopp
2001). Leisure-related transport of alien species can also significantly change the host species location and
cause the destruction of native species. In the same way, tourism can contribute in different ways to the
exchange and dispersion of pathogens and diseases from tropics to temperate and vice versa. In addition to
these above impacts, local culture, tradition and ethnicity is significantly influenced by the incoming of outsiders
and also creates local unemployment problem through bringing skilled stuffs from outsides to run tourism
activities. Tourism, particularly nature tourism, is believed to foster environmental consciousness and to result in
an increased knowledge about the environment. However, while such changes of the perception and
understanding of the environment have generally been understood as supportive of sustainable development, it
is argued here that they may not necessarily lead to changes in attitudes and more environmentally friendly
behavior. In fact, there is some evidence that a paradoxical situation occurs: even though the knowledge about
the environment may increase among travelers, personal behavior may be characterized by increased resource
consumption (Gössling 2002a).
Linking green tourism and sustainable development
Since the introduction of the concept of sustainable development, it has been analyzed and discussed in
a range of activities related to economic development to support the survival of the earth in the coming future.
The tourism sector is increasing steadily, and will likely become one of the largest economic sectors in our
modern open global economy. Its importance has increased over the past decades, as a consequence of the rise
in spending power of increasingly mobile consumers and households, the increasing accessibility of tourist
regions or cities all over the world, the emergence of relatively cheap transport modes, and the changes in our
lifestyles and the trend towards internationalization in modern societies (Girard, and Nijkamp 2009). These
impacts occur because tourism, both international and domestic, brings about an intermingling of people from
diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and also a considerable spatial redistribution of spending power, which
has a significant impact on the economy of the destination (Archer et. al. 2005).
It is evident that tourism creates a range of impacts and consequences, which we cannot prevent
altogether because of its contribution to economic development. However, the importance of tourism does not
mean that we cannot plan and manage this activity in order to minimize the negative impacts and accentuate the
positive impacts of tourism. The importance of sustainability can be addressed as an integrated paradigm when
considering relationships between tourism and the natural environment (Throsby 2009) and in this century
tourism must be redesigned with reference to the changing global relationships and social structures,
technological innovations, growing spatial awareness and environmental concerns (Pigram, and Wahab 1997).
Integration of environmental activities into the broader development framework is at the heart of MDG Seven on
achieving environmental sustainability (United Nations 2000). In fact, although the issue of tourism was not
included in Our Common Future (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987), but since the
Earth Summit in 1992, pressure has grown for the tourism industry to lift its environmental performance in
common with other economic sectors (Pigram, and Wahab 1997), mobility towards green tourism development in
every corner of the world. In addition to the three principles of sustainability viz., environment, economic and
social, cultural sustainability is an important issue, particularly when the tourism practices in a certain location are
based on local or indigenous culture and tradition. Although sustainable tourism development on a global scale
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remains a telic concept, the journey toward the goal of sustainability is vital for current and future economic,
ecological, and socio-cultural well being (Murphy, and Price 2005) and should be integrated with communitybased economics, conservation with equity, and integration of the environment with the economy (Figure 1).
Figure 1. A model of green tourism values and principles
Social Goals
Economic Goals
 community benefits

Community
Based
Economics
participation

education

health

capacity development


economic benefits to
local and other
stakeholders

economically
visible industry
GREEN
TOURISM
visitor satisfaction
Integration of
Environment with
Economy
Conservation
with Equity

resource benefits

efficient resource utilization

acceptance of resource values

matching of supply and demand
Environment and
Resource Goals
Source: Adapted from Hall et al. 1997
4. Challenges towards Green Tourism Development
Prior literature suggests that majority of leisure-related travel takes place in industrialized nations
(Gössling 2002b). However, people‟s tourism preferences are diversified, and they are increasingly moving to
new places in the developing world as well. However, few developed nations pay attention to sustainability by in
awareness raising, energy consumption pattern, certification schemes, mobility and waste management sector to
support green tourism initiative. This problem is exacerbated in developing nations: despite the potential scope of
economic empowering opportunities through green tourism development, most of the emerging and developing
countries are still far below the desired goal of sustainability. Many developing and emerging countries are
suffering generally from external indebtedness, scarcity of foreign currency earnings, under-utilization of some of
their major resources, comparatively disadvantageous exports, inadequate development finance and poor quality
of life (Wahab 1997). Weak institutional frameworks and bureaucratic structures, lack of strong policy initiatives,
political instability and inadequate citizen understanding of environmental concern are also the major challenges
faced in moving towards green tourism. By contrast, although having strategic importance in their economic
futures and supportive policies, green growth of tourism in developed countries is confronted by challenges that
affect the ability of the industry to receive favorable policy attention from governments that limit the ability of
tourism business managers to make informed decisions and that influence (Smith 1997). In both developing and
developed countries, how these challenges are addressed will strongly influence the function of tourism as a
green economic industry.
Areas of concern: resources conservation and mitigation of climate change
Tourism induced land use change, climate change, biotic exchange, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2)
increase, and nitrogen deposition are the most important factors that will lead to the loss of ecosystems and
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biodiversity in the future (Sala et al. 2000). It is found that in the same way tourism has drastic impacts on an
ecosystem; it can also make a great contribution to economic development, resources conservation and climate
change mitigation. Nature-based tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism sectors worldwide, representing
7% of the total worldwide export of goods and services and its success depends on the conservation of natural
landscapes and wildlife, and using ecosystems in this way promotes both human well-being and biodiversity
conservation (Christ et. al. 2003). Many tourist destinations are highly vulnerable to climate change, because
they are commonly located in small island states and coastal areas. This means climate policies to reduce the
number of travelers and changes in consumption pattern can reduce the effect of climate change. However, the
issue of reducing travelers was counterproductive to development of economies of the developing world in Bali
conference (Becken 2008) but adaptation fund schemes in Copenhagen may help to implement more adaptation
project in tourist destinations and efficient energy use in transport and accommodation will foster climate change
mitigation.
5. Governance Mechanism of Green Tourism
Institutional governance: state action and certification
In the tourism sector, especially in developing and emerging countries, the governance arena has only
tangentially been addressed, and environmental policy-making has relied on traditional policy prescriptions,
where public administrations are assumed to play a crucial role as central planners (Blanco 2009). For example,
the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) is the national tourism organization under the Ministry of Civil
Aviation and Tourism, responsible to promote the tourism industry of the country. There were many objectives
declared by the National Tourism Policy 1992 with a view to positively change the socio-economic condition of
the country. However, BPC have experienced a lack of manpower, lack power to take decision-making, lack of
inter-ministerial coordination and budgetary constraints which make it difficult to proceed with the goal of
sustainable resources utilization and adequate infrastructure development.
Tourism-related coherent policy conception and plans, formulation and implementation are not well
structured in most of the developing countries (Wahab 1997), and have not generally met the expectations of
host communities, because of the contents of the plans themselves and the ways in which they have been, or
failed to have been, implemented (Liu, and Wall 2004). So a redesign of policy initiatives and their institutional
governance structure should be the top priority in order to green the new development paradigm that helps to
decouple economic growth from environmental damage (United Nations Environmental Programme 2007). The
active involvement of both the public and private sector under the same umbrella is a crucial step towards
sustainability in both developed and developing countries. Thoughtful policy making and planning can do much
to minimize or even remove these negative effects (Archer et. al. 2005). Supporting strategies (e.g. government
intervention, private initiatives and local capacity development) to action should take priority in the policies and
function of each actors, and implementation programmes should be clearly stated in the plan. Autonomous
government tourism institution having expert groups and enough power to exercise may be restructured to act as
network focal point with government and other stakeholders. Institutional strategies may include specifics of the
tourism facilitation, investment incentives, development research, marketing research, priority tourism
development areas and zones, marketing and promotional strategies in various niche markets including domestic
tourism, air transport and cruise strategies, and tourism education and training strategy (Wahab 1997) to achieve
the policy‟s goals and objectives. In addition to command-and-control initiatives, there is a wide range of
alternative institutional designs for the governance of natural assets (Ostrom 1990), such as market based
instruments that can be combined with a regulated approach towards a hybrid mechanism of application to bring
more efficiency in nature management and resources utilization. These could be tax deductions or subsidies for
energy efficient appliances (solar power, compact fluorescent lamp, natural gas driven car) in destination places
and transport sector, or in an economic point of view to value environment through imposing travel cost for
person driving to any recreational cites hedonic price of housing places for the benefit of living within easy
access of an environmental amenity (Challan, and Thomas 1996, Ison et.al. 2002).
Certification and product eco-level schemes are one of the crucial steps for green tourism in the
destination places. Many developed countries introduce these options in their common environmental
governance strategy. A tourism institute can fix certain standards and procedures to allow certified companies,
certified hotel and certified agencies or tour operator schemes, which will to support the competitive tourism
investment by private enterprise. Certification schemes have been successfully implemented by countries like
Costa Rica (Certification for Sustainable Tourism 2010). By contrast, potential tourist destination countries like
Bangladesh and Nepal have neither certification programmes nor eco-level schemes. All the strategies outlined
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
above for green tourism should be implemented in line with the ideas of transparency, accountability and the rule
of law to achieve better performance under the mutual cooperation of different stakeholders.
Private initiatives: green investment and green jobs
Although governments may have a range of powers and planning measures at their disposal to protect
the natural environment, the commitment of the private sector to environmental protection is essential to
enhance chances of success. The extent to which private organizations decide to take initiatives of
environmental protection will be dependent upon their philosophy, values and available resources (Holden 2008).
However, to achieve a truly sustainable improvement of the opportunities offered by tourism for higher
competitiveness and growth, many tourism initiatives must be fine tuned in order to guarantee an ecologically
efficient development in an age with increasing volumes of tourists (Girard, and Nijkamp 2009).
Governments should open the floor for private business enterprise or tour operators‟ investment on a
competitive basis, but their management should be regulated and monitored by respective tourism institutions. In
this case, the private sector may wish to develop their own policies of operation, with priority given to analysis of
the implication of sustainable operation, compliance strategies and codes of business ethics. These would form
the key documents against which the tourism institute may audit these companies in order to determine whether
they are really doing on the same way what they have written on the paper. Responsible investment and
government schemes of efficient environmental strategy will creates millions of green jobs locally, nationally and
internationally. In order to support local empowerment, consideration should be given to making it obligatory by
government to recruit at least 50% staffs locally at destination private facilities and arrange required training
facilities for them. In the EU, tourism has become a key sector expanding the economic base of destination
areas, stimulating foreign trade and exchange, and favoring employment in many branches of the economy
(Girard, and Nijkamp 2009). Tourism can be the driver of development in developing countries.
Local capacity development (LCD) through self-empowerment
Community participation in decision-making process and direct involvement in tourism management and
development is a key issue in ensuring acceptability of tourism, thus advocating ways to achieve sustainability
(Wahab 1997, Okazaki 2008) through local capacity development. This derives not only from fair and just rules of
democracy, but also from the fact that tourism should not expand at a rate beyond which citizens in a given
community actually desire and can control (Wahab 1997). Thus, tourism seems to be more effective than other
industries in generating employment, opportunities and income in the less developed, often peripheral, regions of
a country where alternative opportunities for development are more limited (Archer et. al. 2005, Tsaur et. al.
2005). Such growth can provide support to national economy and help to create market of traditional products.
This paper suggests a local capacity development (LCD) model by community based enterprise in two sections
of tourism management viz., accommodation service management and green/traditional product preparing and
marketing, to support local empowerment and environmental development (Figure 2).
Figure 2. LCD model of green tourism
Supporting
organization
Income generating
activities
Local community
Green tourism
Flow of
income
External
agency
(Tourism
institution,
Local
government,
NGOs)
Target groups
Local job creation
Local facilities improvement
Service
management
Traditional product
Bank/Micro-credit
organization
Benefits of sustainable
development
Local environmental
improvement
Economic gain
Improved social equity
Community group
Loan payback
Source: Adapted from Biswas et. al. 2001
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
As demonstrated above, external agencies such as tourism organizations, local governments and NGOs
can provide all types of technical and institutional support to develop a community group responsible for
managing accommodation services made by traditional materials, and preparation to market different traditional
product of high market value. The community group can get financial support from a simple loan, or a SME
(small and medium enterprise) loan from banks or a specialized micro-credit organization. Bangladesh is a good
example of where organizations like the Grameen Bank, BRAC etc. have operated effectively, but presently
these organizations only provide loans to individual persons in order to support small empowerment schemes.
Further, these community business enterprises are not common in Bangladesh and most other developing
countries. People currently involved in traditional product making are individually selling their products to different
shops in the city areas, and they are not well paid.
The proposed approach here seeks government action to encourage local tourism that might help poor
community groups to sell their services and products. The earning from the business might help to empower
local people and pay back their loans, resulting in final ownership of the enterprise. It will also prevent people
from changing their livelihood activities through destroying or harnessing environmental resources. Economic
improvement and community development will enhance tourism initiatives at local level and long term benefit to
country‟s economy and environmental development.
Network model: impact-governance-green economy
The whole discussion of green tourism movement here represented by a connected loop of different
action and associated impacts. Figure 3 here links how the socio-environmental problem runs by touristic
activities influence decision-maker to thinking about the issue of sustainability through incorporating new
strategies into policies and plans to support green tourism development. The strategies to incorporate regulated
private initiatives and support to local community initiatives will draw a new roadmap to sustainable development
in tourism sector around the world.
6. Concluding Remarks
Tourism, the world‟s largest industry and its role as a global employer and customer, is caught between
global environmental change and economic development. Accordingly, it is essential that sustainability is
integrated to enhance the potential benefits, and reduce the potential detriments, of this important industry.
Tourism may be self-destructive by contributing to severe environmental degradation but there is also scope to
bring significant enhancement of the environment through sustainable strategic application in the management
and development processes. The restructuring of the governance mechanisms of tourism management are in
the interests of the industry, as well as being necessary to deepen the debate on sustainability and broaden its
applied initiatives. To enhance green economic development, the sustainability strategies should address the
existing problems from a social, environmental and economic point of view. The governance strategies
suggested in this paper are simple and flexible, allowing the prioritization of a long term socio-environmental
benefit and allowing the community to choose its own vision and management decisions to support the tourism
industry for sustainable futures. One major step forward to achieving a green tourism industry is to bring
politicians, policy makers, planners, private investors, NGOs and the community itself together to raise the
challenging issue, develop policy and management strategies, in order to support the long-term benefits of
residents and tourists without compromising the environment.
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Figure 3. Governance of green tourism: impact to green economy (+ = accelerating; - = declining)
Tourism
activities
+
+
Decline native
culture and
ethnicity
+
+
Dispersion of
diseases
Emission of
pollutants from
energy use
Waste
generation
+
+
Global
environmental
problem
+ +
Unsustainable economic
growth
+
+
Local environmental
problem
+
+ +
Global pressure towards
sustainability
Loss of biodiversity
+
--
+ +
Climate change
-
+
+
Redesign policies
and plans
+
Green
Regulated private
Initiatives
+
+ Economy
Govt. strategies
(e.g., regulation,
certification, ecolevel, market based
instrument)
+
Socio-economic
development
+
+
+
New job
creation
+
Local capacity
development
Environmental
improvement
+
+
+
Green tourism
+
References
[1] Archer, B., Cooper, C., and Ruhanen, L. 2005. The positive and negative impacts of tourism. In, W.F.
Theobald (Ed.). Global tourism, pp. 79-102. USA: Elsevier.
[2] Becken, S. 2008. The UN climate change conference, Bali: what it means for tourism. Journal of Sustainable
Tourism, 16(2), 246-248.
[3] Biswas, W.K., Bryce, P., and Diesendrof, M. 2001. Model for empowering rural poor through renewable
energy in Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Policy, 4 (6), 333-344.
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AN INVESTIGATION INTO MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS THAT
INFLUENCING FOREIGN TOURISTS’ TO VISIT JORDAN. PUSH AND
PULL FACTORS
Abstract:
A. Alhaj Mohammad BASHAR
Omran ABDELNASER,
School of Housing, Building and Planning
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
[email protected]
Tourism sector in the Middle East which has undergone and rapid development has generated foreign exchange
and diversities the regional economies. In fact, World Tourism Organization has recognized this area as one of the fastest
growing in the world. Despite the growth, however, in terms of tourism research, the Middle East region receives limited
attraction. In Jordan, in particular, there are different types of tourism such as archaeological, cultural, historical, religious,
adventure, and eco-tourism. While motivations are critical to understanding travel behvaiour, little information has been
documented about travel motivations to Jerash city in Jordan. What little information there is, has most often been used to
determine destination quality or overall tourist satisfaction rather than identifying specific motivation dimensions. Thus, this
paper attempted to discuss the common travel motives of foreign tourists‟ to Jerash city in Jordan. In more broad sense, it is
purposing to analyze what are the travel motivations that influence those tourists to visit such place. Data were collected
from 58 tourists who had traveled to Jordan through questionnaires. Results have shown that there are many push and pull
factors that motivated foreign tourist to visit Jordan. One of these push motivational factors were “Getting a change from a
busy job” and “Indulging in luxury” while pull motivational factor was “personal safety”.
Keywords: motivational analysis, travel motivation, foreign tourists, Jordan, push and pull factors
1. Introduction
The concept of motivation was defined by many researchers and scientists in the world. Schiffman, and
Kanuk (2004) defined motivation as a driving force within individual that implies them to action to satisfy their
needs. Also, motivation is defined as a need or desires that energises behaviour and directs it towards a goal
(Myers 2004). Furthermore, Beerli, and Martin (2004) proved that motivation is the need that desires an
individual to act and a certain way to achieve the desired satisfaction. Although the decision to satisfy needs may
rely on other psychological variables to satisfy it by motivation. In more broad sense, tourist motivation can be
defined “as the global integrating network of biological and cultural forces which gives value and direction to
travel choices, behaviour and experience” (Pearce et al. 1998). The general motives underlined by research of
why nature tourism is the fastest growing segment internationally in tourism are: widespread changing
environmental attitude, development of environmental education, development of environmental mass media
(Lindberg 1998). A research by Pearce et al. (1998) presented ten trends which represent important issues of
content in describing tourists motives, it can mention four which are related to nature tourism motivation: motive
to experience the environment, motive to rest and relax in pleasant settings, motive to pursue special interests
and skills (scuba-diving, fishing), and motive to be healthy and fit. These motives are good starting points to
discuss motivation of nature tourism, but some appear to be just social changes or reasons that have affected in
some way the motives of the tourist. These motives do not give us clues in how to identify human motivation
towards travel, for that reason it can not be applied to further studies. So it is necessary to undertake an analysis
of travel motivation theories. The literature on consumer behaviour argues that motivations represent individual
internal forces that lead to action (Schiffman, and Kanuk 1978). Investigating reasons or motivations for travel
contribute to an understanding of tourism as a social and psychological phenomenon (Cohen 1974) and offer
practical managerial insights (Wight 1996, Young 1999). In this respect, the motivation to travel refers to a set of
needs that cause a person to participate in a tourism based activity. In this sense motivational factors are defined
as the psychological needs that play a significant role in causing a person to feel psychological disequilibrium
that may be corrected through a travel experience (Crompton 1979, Kim et al. 2000).
2. Literature Review on Tourist Motivation
Tourist motivations are characteristics of individuals that influence the choice of destinations, and the
effects of motivational influence of this nature on an individual have also been labeled as push factors (Gartner
1993, Kim, and Lee 2002, Sirakaya 1992, Sirakaya et al. 1996). Crompton (1979) stated in his theory that push
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
motives have been conceptualized as motivational factors that arise due to tension in motivation system. These
motivational factors attract the tourists to desire to travel (Crompton 1979, Dann 1977, Iso-Ahola 1982, Pearce,
and Caltabiano 1993). However, push factors or motives are regard specific that influence persons to tale
vacation. Travel motivation is regarded one of the significant subject of tourism researchers to better improve
tourists‟ behvaiour. According to theories that related to travel motivation, the push and pull motive has interested
most of researchers in tourists‟ motivation (Usyal, and Jurowski 1994, Hanqin, and Lam 1999, Jang, and Cai
2002, Kim, and Lee 2002, Kim, and Chalip 2004, Yoon, and Uysal 2005, Jang, and Wu 2006, Correia et al. 2007,
Rittichainuwat et al. 2008, Park et al. 2010). Moreover, people travel to satisfy their needs and desire. According
to Jang, and Cai (2002) defined push factor refer to internal environment that lead people to travel, while pull is
regarded about the external environment or factors in destination tat drive tourists‟ to identify when, where, why
and how they travel. Also, Uysal, and Jurowski (1994) emphasized tourists‟ travel due to their pushed by internal
factors and they pulled by external factors. Push motives have been useful for explaining the desire to go for
vacation, while pull motives have usefully explained the choice of destination (Goossens 2000). A research by
Hanqin, and Lam (1999), found 22 motivation by five factors: knowledge (i.e. increasing knowledge about new
destination), prestige (i.e. going to visit friends and relatives), and enhancement of human relation (i.e. meeting
new people), relaxation (refreshment body and mind) and novelty (i.e. finding thrills or excitement). Further, Jang,
and Wu (2006), found five push and three pull motivation factors. The push factors included ego-enhancement,
self-esteem, knowledge-seeking, relaxation, and socialization, while pull factors comprise cleanliness and safety,
facilities, event and cost, natural and historical sight. Most of tourism motivation researchers have been
concerned why people travel to exotic places and what are attracting them in these destinations. Campton
(1979) classified that people travel motivation to none motives: i) escape from a perceived mundane
environment; ii) exploration and evaluation of self; iii) relaxation this refers to refreshment body and mind; iv)
prestige, refers to potential with frequency of travel; v) regression; vi) enhancement of kinship relationship; ix)
facilitation of social interaction such as knowing more new people; ixx) novelty, and the last one is education
such as increasing information to as individual they do not know before. However, tourists‟ have motivations to
satisfy their needs, they are pushed by internal domicile then they feel to satisfy their needs through visit
destination (see Figure 1).
Tourism Motivation
Pull Motivations
Culture link, Products and
quality, Accessibility,
Advantage, Events, Ecological,
Shopping, Beaches
Push Motivations
Knowledge, Prestige,
Enhance relationship,
Escaping, Holiday, Desert
camping, Stimulus
avoidance, Social interest
Satisfy needs and
wants
Figure 1. Tourism Motivations
These factors are largely intangible and origin-related and they motivate or create a desire to satisfy a
need (Crompton 1979, Dann 1981, Uysal, and Haga 1993). Lundberg (1971) published one of the earliest
studies on what motivations people to travel. He developed a bundle of 18 motivations assumed to influence
travel. Crompton (1979) later identified nine motivations on the basis of several in-depth. Since Crompton‟s initial
empirical effort, many studies have attempted to find push and pull motivational factors in different settings, such
as by nationality (Cha et al. 1995, Yuan, and McDonald 1990, Zhang, and Lam 1999), destinations (Jang, and
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Cai 2002), satisfaction and destination loyalty (Yoon, and Uysal 2005), senior citizens (Jang, and Wu 2006), and
events (Lee et al. 2004, Nicholson, and Pearce 2001). Other researchers like Iso-Ahola (1982), looked at
motivations in terms of seeking escape, while Pearce (1996) distinguished between intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation. Cha et al. (1995) studied the travel motivational of Japanese overseas travelers and identified six
motivational factors: relaxations, knowledge, adventure, travel bragging, family, and sports. Based on these,
three marketing segments were identified: sports seekers, novelty seekers, and family and relaxation seekers.
Pearce and Lee (2005) noted that a core of travel motivation factors including escape, relaxation, relationship
enhancement, and self-development seemed to comprise the central backbone of motivations for all travelers.
Jang and Wu (2006) suggested that common push factors found in most of the studies included knowledgeseeking, relaxation, and family togetherness, while the most frequently seen pull factors were natural and historic
environments, cost, facilities, safety, and accessibility. Tourist motivations have also been studied extensively by
(Bansal, and Eiselt 2004, Crompton 1979, Dann1981, Fodness 1994, Hanqin, and Lam 1999, Josiam et al. 2004,
Kozak 2002, Nicholson, and Pearce 2001). However, few studies have specifically considered motivation in rural
tourism, and the resulting segmentation. This study aims at providing looking into the factors that motive tourists
to visit Al Jaresh city.
3. Research Method
The survey was conducted at the City of Jaresh, Jordan. The main instrument used in this study is
questionnaires. According to Brunt (1997) the questionnaires are considered one of the most important used
methods due to the fact that it saves time, money and efforts. The utility of using questionnaire is that a
questionnaire can deals easily be analyzed with a software analysis such as SPSS software, and the advantage
of questionnaire it is quickly answer, no writing, and take less time to distribute and return. These questionnaires
have given to the foreign tourists. However, foreign tourists were asked to complete these self-administered
questionnaires. In an attempt to obtain a reasonably representative sample, the survey was conducted for 2 days
during the weekend days from morning until evening and the data collection was done in June 2008, these
questionnaires were distributed by hand to foreign tourists‟ who have visited the city of Jaresh. Sixty five foreign
tourists‟ were participated and a total of 58 usable questionnaires were collected and analyzed with response
rate (89.2%), representing a highly satisfactory level of participation when compared to similar postal surveys
(Abdelnaser et al. 2006). The returned questionnaires were then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social
Science (SPSS); Version 11.5 for windows software. The importance levels of the foreign tourists‟ motivations
were measured on a five Likert-type scales (1 = not at all important; 2= least important; 3= fairly important;
4=important; 5= very important).
Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the respondents (N = 58)
Demographic
Profile
Gender
Male
female
Age
<-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
Over 60 years
Marital status
Single
Married
Windowed
Divorce
Monthly income
Less than 500$
500-999$
1000-1999$
Percent
35 (60.3%)
23 (39.7%0
3 (5.2%)
16 (27.6%)
20 (34.5%)
9 (15.5%)
5 (8.6%)
5 (8.6%)
3 (5.2%)
30 (51.7%)
18 (31%)
7 (12.1%)
2 (3.4%)
2 (3.4%)
14 (24.1%)
Demographic
Profile
Length of the stay
2-3 days
4-5 days
More than 5 days
Education level
Primary school
Secondary school
Diploma
Bachelor degree
Master degree
PhD degree
Purpose of the visit
Leisure
Business
Visited friends / relatives
Others
Race
UK
France
America
Percent
2 (3.4%)
10 (17.2%)
46 (79.4%)
3 (5.2%)
7 (12.1%)
15 (25.9%)
16 (27.9%)
11 (19%)
6 (10.3%)
28 (48.3%)
16 (27.6%)
7 (12.1%)
7 (12.1%)
12 (20.7%)
18 (31%)
8 (13.8%)
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Demographic
Profile
2000-2999$
3000-3999$
4000 and above
Occupation
Student
Professional
Retiree
Businessman
Government officer
Technician
Officer in private companies
Percent
20 (34.5%)
16 (27.6%)
4 (6.9%)
3 (5.2%)
3 (5.2%)
7 (12.1%)
15 (25.9%)
11 (19%)
5 (8.6%)
14 (24.1%)
Demographic
Profile
Asia and Pacific
Australia
Others
Number of visits
One time
Two times
Three times
More than three times
Percent
8 (13.8%)
7 (12.1%)
5 (8.6%)
35 (60.3%)
14 (24.1%)
5 (8.6%)
4 (6.9%0
4. Results and Discussions
Many of researchers such as Rittichainuwat et al. (2008), Chiang, and Jogaratnam (2006), Uysal, and
Jurowski (1994), studied tourist‟ motivations through tackling for same questions: why do people travel to exotic
places? What exactly have motivated them to travel to destination? What the main push and pull factors that
drive them to travel. According to Kim et al. (2003) push and pull factors playing significant role to motive people
to travel to Korean National parks. Chiang, and Jogaratnam (2006) stated that experience, escape, relax, social,
and self-esteem were the main factors that drive women to travel. The study proves that perceptions of tourism
destinations are formed based on push and pull factors, and this supports the view that all destination attributes
contribute to the perceived image of a destination (Correira et al. 2007). In other words, tourists decide to go on
holiday because they want to fulfill their intrinsic desires, and at the same time, their decisions on where to go
are based on destination attributes. Looking into factors identified as push attributes, the study claimed that the
needs for self-actualization and social interactions are among important motives which trigger the need to travel.
This evidence is consistent with Crandall‟s argument that people travel with specific motives to explore and
evaluate themselves, to gain prestige and to enhance kinship relationship (1980). The pull attributes, on the
other hand, demonstrate that Jordan, understandably, has a variety of offerings which could potentially extend
visitors‟ stay, expenditures and return visits. The country capitalizes on its heritage, natural attractions, food and
culture. The abundance and diversity of tourism resources are widely recognized as essential tourism assets for
a country to develop its tourism industry. Not surprising, tourist sites which are listed as World Heritage Sites by
UNESCO, should be treated as catholicons in promoting the tourism industry, as claimed by Yang et al. (2010).
Table 2 shows the importance ranking of the 52 motivational expression delineated into the push and pull
categories. With mean values 4.0, the most important push items included “Getting a change from a busy job”
and “Indulging in luxury” were ranked as number one. Followed by, “Enjoying holidays” as the second important
factor. While, factors like “Experiencing new and different lifestyles”, “Opportunities to increase my knowledge”,
“Escape from daily routine” and “Finding thrills and excitement” have ranked as the third importance push factors
for forging tourists to visit Jerash City in Jordan. Item like “trying new foods” was ranked as forth. Items such as
“visiting a place I can talk about when I get home” and “being together as a family” were ranked as fifth among
the listed push motivational items.
With regard to the pull motivation items, “personal safety” was ranked the highest among all the
motivational pull items, followed by “exotic atmosphere”, “outdoor activities”, “environmental quality, waste and
soil”, were ranked as the second important pull motivation items for the tourists to visit the city of Jerash. Other
items like “activities for the entire family”, “reliable weather”, and “convenience of getting visa”, were ranked as
the third among the listed important pull motivational items. While, items such as “traveling to a safe
designation”, “Taking advantages of night life”, “scenic attractions”, have shown some importance by the
respondents and were ranked as fourth important items. “traveling to a closer or nearby destination”, “traveling
to a cosmopolitan city”, “ variety of short tours” and “availability of pre-trip and in-country tourist info” were ranked
as a fifth pull motivation items. The least important pull items included “standards of hygiene and cleanliness”
has been ranked as the last one with 11 ranking (See Table 2). Interestingly, some of push motivational items
such as “Getting a change from a busy job”, “Indulging in luxury”, “Enjoying holidays” and “Experiencing new and
different lifestyles” were important in this study. The results were in tandem with Hanqin, and Lam (1999) findings
that examined Chinese visitors‟ motivation to Hong Kong. Also, the findings of this study confirmed by Cai et al.
(1999)‟s study, Liu (1998)‟s study, and Cai et al. (2001)‟s study. Gilbert and Terrata (2001) stated that Japanese
tourists to the UK ranked „escape” the common trigger to travel. In addition, Kozak, and Rimmington (2002)
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
stated that relaxation was one of the top push factors among tourists to reduce their tension and stress.
Recently, researches by (Yoon, and Uysal 2005, Jang, and Wu‟s 2006) also acknowledged that people travel
because they were pushed to relax and to be away from daily social life. The results showed that “Showing my
social status” was important push motivational items, which clearly indicated that tourists were pushed to travel to
increase their social status and self-esteem (Maslow 1970, Jang, and Wu 2006). On the other hand, a potential
explanation for these motives might be that foreign tourists in Jordan were motivated by destination attributes
were top pull factors among them, such as “Personal safety”, “Exotic atmosphere”, “Outdoor activities” and
“Environmental quality, water and soil”. The results supported Chi, and Qu‟s (2008), and Baloglu, and Uysal‟s
(1996) findings which claimed destination attributes were important to attract foreign tourists to visit a destination.
Hanqin, and Lam (1999), and Yuan et al. (2005) agreed that events and activities in destination allowed tourists
to increase their tourism experience.
Table 2. Motivational Factors of Foreign Tourists to visit Jordan: Importance Ranking of Push and Pull Motivations
Push Factors
Getting a change from a busy job
Indulging in luxury
Enjoying holidays
Experiencing new and different lifestyles
Opportunities to increase my knowledge
Escape from daily routine
Finding thrills and excitement
Trying new foods
Visiting a place I can talk about when I get home
Being together as a family
Going places I have not visited before
Going places may friends have not been to
Just relaxing
Exploring a different culture
Trying my luck in the casinos
Seeing people from many ethnic background/nations
Visiting friends & relatives
Showing my social status
Having fun, being entertained
Sightseeing of scenic attractions
Seeking novelty
Fulfilling dreams of traveling
Being free to act the way I feel
Doing nothing at all
Pull Factors
Personal safety
Exotic atmosphere
Outdoor activities
Environmental quality, water and soil
Activities for the entire family
Reliable weather
Convenience of getting visa
Traveling to a safe destination
Taking advantage of discounted fares and tour packages
Availability of night life
Shopping facilities
Scenic attractions
Traveling to a closer or nearby destination
Traveling to a cosmopolitan city
Variety of short tours
Availability of pre-trip and in-country tourist info
Public transportation such as airlines, etc.
Warm welcome for tourists
Mean
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
Mean
4.1
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
Ranking
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
9
10
Ranking
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
7
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Push Factors
Destination that provides value for holiday money
Restaurants
Traveling to a place people appreciate
Entertainment facilities
Gambling
Watching shows
Standards of hygiene and cleanliness
Mean
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.8
Ranking
7
8
8
8
9
10
11
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
After review of the literature on tourism motivation, it was noted that majority of the studies were applied
on quantitative approach to identify tourism motivations. Push and pull dimensions were found as considerable
factors that drive tourists to travel (Crompton 1979, Dann 1981). In current study, descriptive analysis has
applied to determine travel motivational behavior. This study tried to demonstrate that push and pull factors are
very important to travel to exotic places. The results indicated that there were many push and pull factors that
motivated foreign tourist to visit Jordan. One of these push motivational factors were “Getting a change from a
busy job” and “Indulging in luxury” while pull motivational factor was “personal safety”. Since Jordan is
considered open borders for multinational regions, and it “open door” for the tourism sector especially for tourists
who come from western countries such as America and Europe countries. In order to enhance and support push
and pull factors to attract more international tourists, the Ministry of Tourism (MOT), and Jordan Tourism Board
(JTB) should focus on marketing strategies and market segmentation on pull factors which found in this study by
of the high image of Jordan as a foreign tourist destination especially for western countries.
Hence, investigating to identify the variables that influence travel motivation very important to marketers
and decision makers to effectively understand motivations and the better tourism products for market segment
(Jang, and Wu 2006). Underlying and knowing the importance both of motivational factors (push and pull)
perceived from foreign tourists opinions will help the destinations to provide their needs in future. Dewar et al.
(2001) pointed out it is imperative to identify visitors‟ needs. This is why more attention should be given to
understand the motivations of visitors. Moreover, understanding tourist motivation is a very critical issue to travel
marketers and market segmentations (Crompton 1979). In term of marketing and promotion, mass media, at the
same time, should play a critical role in forming a distinctive destination image for Jordan, in order to distinguish
itself from competitors within the region. The strategic challenge for destination is not only on how to perform
positive images that induce travel to the country, but also on how to develop sustainable differential images from
other competing locations. A successful matching of push and pull motives is essential for a marketing strategy
in destination areas, and the examination of the motives are useful in segmenting markets, designing
promotional programs, and decision-making about destination development. Identification of a clearly defined
market segments permit specifically directed promotion programs. Thus, the tourism authorities in Jordan can
develop a variety of different marketing strategies based on specific motivations of tourist market in order to
satisfy their underlying needs. The study has provided important contributions to define push and pull
motivations. However, it has its own limitation as the study does not examine the interactions among them.
Moreover, motivation is only one of the many variables that explain tourists‟ destination attraction attribute
preference behavior. The focus of this study is solely on Jerash in Jordan. Nonetheless, the approach can also
be applied to other countries in the Middle East region that experience dramatic growth in tourism development.
Comparative studies may unearth a new understanding of tourist behavior and motivation factors in different
domains and various stages of progression. Finally, this study gave some recommendations to planers in the
Ministry of Tourism (MOT), and Jordan Tourism Board (JOB) to take priority development of Jordan destination
for repeated travel for international travelers in future.
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of the within-state tourism market. Ph.D dissertation, Brigham Young University.
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[4] Correia, A., Patricia, O.V., and Claudia Moc¸ O. 2007. Why people travel to exotic places. International
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[19] Kozak, M., and Rimmington, M. 2000. Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday
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[29] Schiffman, G.L., and Kanuk, L.L. 2004. Consumer behavior. International edition, Prentice Hall. Eight
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[35] Yuan, J., Cai, L.A., Alastair, M.M, and, Linton, S. 2005. An analysis of wine festival attendees‟ motivations: A
synergy of wine, travel and special events? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(1): 41-56.
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
EVALUATION OF URBAN LENTIC WATER QUALITY USING
MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Debasis GUHA
Department of MCA, Dr. B.C.Roy Engineering College, Post- Fuljhore, India
[email protected]
Sayantan MANDAL
Department of Zoology, B.B. College, Burdwan, WB, India
[email protected]
A. DUTTA
Department of MBA, National Institute of Technology, WB, India
[email protected]
Abstract:
The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the factors that significantly influence the surfacewater quality-parameters in the industrial town of Asansol, West Bengal, India. Composite sampling of water was conducted
at 5 major lakes spread across the city. This study also shows the effects of urbanization and industrialization on the fresh
water storage system. Not only that the results of this study clearly indicates the effects of coal mining on the ground water
quality.
Keywords: water chemistry, chemometric, cluster analysis, pca, limnology, urbanization, asansol.
1. Introduction
The rapid urbanization coupled with increasing discharge from industrial, domestic and agricultural
actions into the surface water regime, is a serious cause of concern. Such water bodies are essential in most
areas as they improve the local ecology and harbor multitudes of aquatic biodiversity. In many places such water
bodies are also in many places used as source of water for different domestic purposes. Thus regular monitoring
and assessment is required in order to maintain the water quality of water within the human consumption levels
and much within the limits of standards. The water quality testing in most places in India is done only to know the
parameter values and minimum statistical analysis and interpretations are conducted. These data may contain
several errors that may prevent them from being satisfactorily interpretation and without any conclusions. Most of
the data are not normally distributed, noisy, has outliers and may have autocollinearity, etc (Prans 2007). In order
to reduce and do away with such draw backs the statistical analysis of collected water quality data using
multivariate analysis should be conducted. Among the multivariate statistical techniques, Correlation Analysis,
FA (Factor Analysis) with PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and CA (Cluster Analysis) has been used for
proper identification, clustering, grouping, assessment and evaluation of water quality data as available in
literature (Zes 2005, 38, Prans 2007, Yeung 1999, Raghunath 2002).
Chemo metrics is the science of relating measurements made on a chemical system or process to 3the
state of the system via application of mathematical or statistical methods. Chemometric research spans a wide
area of different methods which can be applied in chemistry. There are techniques for collecting good data
(optimization of experimental parameters, design of experiments, multivariate analysis or multivariate statistics,
calibration, signal processing) and for getting information from these data (statistics, pattern recognition,
modeling, structure-property-relationship estimations). Application of chemometric techniques, viz, cluster
analysis (CA), discriminate analysis (DA), factor analysis (FA)/principal component analysis (PCA), partial leastsquares (PLS), etc, for interpretation of the complex databases offers a reliable and better understanding of the
hydrochemistry and hydro-chemical processes. These techniques also permit identification of the possible
factors/sources that influence the water systems and are responsible for the variations in water quality, which
thus offers valuable tool for developing appropriate strategies for effective management of the water resources
(WHO 1984).
The PCA is a useful tool and is principally used for the reduction of a large number of variables into
smaller components that may predict the variations. PCA estimates Eigenvalues (orthogonal principal
components) under a newly created coordinate system and can explain nearly all of the variability. The identified
components represent a different account for the observed variation, which in some cases may not be
measurable and quantifiable. The importance of the PC reduces from the first to the last and are selected based
on their Eigenvalues (>1) and Scree plot diagram.
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Cluster analysis on the other hand is a statistical tool that segregates the variables into homogeneous
groups that have similar properties among themselves and differs from variables in other clusters. The results of
such analysis are represented in the form of a tree-diagram known as a Dendogram with the increase in water
quality degradation and due to the lack of regular monitoring program, the water bodies in the city of Asansol are
heading towards disaster. In view of the present situation and for evaluation of a comprehensive monitoring plan,
the present study was taken up. The overall aim of the investigation was to analyze the water quality data of the
major lentic bodies in the study area using tool like Correlation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster
Analysis, and hence reduce the number of data and similar groups/clusters creating, that may help efficient
monitoring and identifying the pollution sources. Major objectives were:
 To study the water quality parameters of major lakes in the study area;
 To apply statistical methods including chemometric techniques, such as PCA and CA to interpret
surface water quality data bases and identification of the human influences;
 To reduce the number of water quality parameters for efficient assessment of urban surface
water resources;
 To identify the parameters which have strong correlation, and thus identify one of them for the
analysis and prediction of the related ones.
2. Material and Methodology
Sampling and Data Collection
Water samples were collected from five major water bodies during summer (March – 82.June); Monsoon
(July–October) and winter (November–February) seasons. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics were
estimated. Sampling locations in study area is shown in Figure 1. Water analyses, including the sample
collection and preservation, were carried out according to the standard methods (APHA 1999). Each water body
was sampled at least nine times during this period. The studied parameters included pH,emperature (T),
Turbidity (TU), Conductivity (EC), Total dissolve solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Total solids (TS),
Dissolve oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Total hardness (TH), Total alkalinity (TA), Chloride
(Cl), Sulphate(SO4), Phosphate (PO4), Nitrate (NO2), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Total Coli form (TC), Gross
Primary productivity (GPP), Community respiration (CR) and Photosynthesis Respiration (PR).
3. Data Computation
The result of laboratory analysis were stored in an EDMS (electronic database management system)
prepared using MS-Excel. The rows consisted of the analyzed water quality parameters (variables) whereas the
columns were of sample replicates. The data base was then transferred to Statistical package software, SPSS12 for further analysis. All chemometric analysis including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster
Analysis (CA) were performed by the SPSS package.
PCA was used for orthogonal linear transformation that of the experimental data to new. Coordinate such
that the greatest variance by any projection of the data comes to lie on the first coordinate (called the first
principal component), the second greatest variance, on the second coordinate, and so on. It was also used for
dimensionality reduction in a data set by retaining those characteristics of the data set that contribute most to its
variance, by keeping lower-order principal components and ignoring higher-order ones.
4. Results and Discussion
The computed data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and subsequent correlation analysis;
followed by chemometric techniques. The correlation coefficient, one of the most widespread and useful
statistics, is a single numeral that describes the degree of association amongst two variables under study. The
following Table 1 gives the descriptive statistics of the water quality parameters, whose correlation map is given
in Figure-3. The basic statistics of the physical and chemical analysis data for the surface water, groundwater
and soil samples is summarized in Table I. The correlation matrix of the groundwater samples (Table II) exhibits
excellent positive correlation values (r 2 > 115.0.8) between EC and TDS, Na, Cl and SO 4. This is due to the fact
that conductivity depends on total dissolved solids and the main constituents of TDS in water are Na, Cl and
SO4. A complete correlation (r 2 = 1.0) was observed between ECandTDSas theTDSvalues have been derived
from the EC. Asignificant positive correlation (r 2 > 119.0.6) between Na and HCO3 indicates that the main water
type in samples is Na-HCO3. Also, high correlation (r 2 > 0.6) between Na and Cl, Mg and Cl, Na and SO4, Mg
and SO4, Pb and Cl, Pb and SO4, Ni and Cl, and Ni and SO4 indicates that these soluble salts are predominant in
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
water samples. Significant positive correlations of NO3 with SO4, PO4, Ca and Cr suggest their identical source of
origin in the watershed. These are mainly emanated from anthropogenic activities such as application of
phosphate, sulfate and nitrate fertilizers, and discharge of industrial effluents, such as tanneries.
Table 1. Summarized descriptive statistics based on experimental data of water quality parameters of five lakes in Asansol
Standard
Water Quality Parameters
Units
Code
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Deviation
pH
pH
pH
7.10
9.40
8.3467
0.68751
Temperature
(0C)
T
21.00
31.00
26.6200
3.60321
Turbidity
(NTU)
TU
3.00
52.00
22.5333
16.84325
Electrical Conductivity
µmho/cm
EC
389.00
3,144.00
1,333.8000
881.94260
Total Dissolve Solids
mg/l
TDS
45.00
1,831.00
668.8667
600.57185
Total Suspended Solids
mg/l
TSS
79.00
2,319.00
711.7333
605.48050
Total Solids
mg/l
TS
187.00
3,218.00
1,380.6000
1,003.91205
Dissolve Oxygen
mg/l
DO
1.89
8.54
5.3413
1.81975
BOD
mg/l
BOD
8.50
218.35
49.4867
54.91353
T Hardness
mg/l
TH
128.00
926.00
535.8000
234.80028
T Alkalinity
mg/l
TA
127.00
386.00
240.3333
81.00676
Chloride
mg/l
Cl
5.00
117.00
31.5333
29.68373
Sulphate
mg/l
SO4
1.23
4.60
2.1547
0.86163
Phosphate
mg/l
PO4
0.93
2.98
1.9227
0.64864
Nitrate
mg/l
NO2
1.78
5.21
3.3100
1.06626
Calcium
mg/l
Ca
13.00
170.00
52.7333
40.69304
Magnesium
mg/l
Mg
7.00
89.00
27.0000
22.64950
Total Coliform
MPN/100 ml
TC
19.00
433.00
248.6667
141.56708
Gross Primary Productivity
GPP
132.00
252.00
200.9333
35.58585
Community Respiration
CR
94.00
210.00
138.5333
44.49537
Photosynthesis: Respiration
PR
0.54
1.80
0.9942
0.43054
The Eigenvalues, Percent of total variation explained, cumulative percent of total variance and rotated
loadings for day time data is given in Table 2.
Variable
pH
T
Tu
EC
TDS
TSS
Ts
DO
BOD
TH
TA
Cl
SO4
PO4
NO3
Ca
Mg
TC
GPP
CR
PR
Eigenvalues
Variability (%)
Cumulative %
D1
-0.4562
-0.2705
-0.1059
-0.5917
-0.8969
-0.5730
-0.8821
0.4197
0.0313
-0.8539
-0.7454
-0.1963
-0.2412
0.2532
0.1585
-0.8498
-0.8261
-0.5397
-0.1473
-0.0801
0.2836
6.7880
32.3239
32.3239
Table 2. Variance and rotated loadings for day time data
D2
D3
D4
0.2688
0.2928
-0.6434
-0.7665
-0.1385
0.0193
-0.9402
-0.0457
0.1465
-0.4226
0.4206
0.2983
-0.2320
0.2781
0.0125
0.1070
-0.2145
0.1718
-0.0743
0.0370
0.1111
-0.5629
0.2454
-0.1900
0.2330
0.2459
-0.0679
-0.2824
0.1376
-0.2620
-0.0300
-0.0791
0.2259
-0.1493
0.4484
-0.6524
0.1542
0.0315
0.0978
0.1010
-0.2794
-0.8574
-0.0226
0.3433
-0.8576
0.0665
0.0677
-0.0614
0.0972
0.1335
-0.0079
-0.4540
0.2361
-0.3473
-0.0813
0.9097
-0.2697
0.0389
0.9729
-0.0541
0.5436
-0.3049
0.0105
3.7959
3.6332
1.7120
18.0757
17.3011
8.1525
50.3996
67.7007
75.8532
D5
0.1185
-0.4801
-0.0034
-0.2519
-0.1047
0.6796
0.3473
-0.1817
0.8029
-0.1265
-0.0815
-0.2817
0.1447
0.1565
-0.0547
-0.0922
0.1345
0.4093
0.1294
0.0281
0.5224
1.5185
7.2309
83.0842
D6
-0.2683
0.1423
0.1500
0.1910
0.0620
0.2877
0.2107
-0.1578
-0.2241
-0.0925
-0.1436
-0.0126
-0.9336
0.1285
0.0712
-0.4664
-0.4038
-0.1447
-0.0778
-0.0209
-0.1269
1.0329
4.9187
88.0029
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
This table gives the relation of the factors with the water quality parameters. It is observed that the first
factor explains the highest percent of the entire variance. The subsequent factors have diminishing variance to
explain the water quality. Although all factors having value >1 can be thought to be significant, but this
significance diminishes after the first three factors. The first six factors explain 88% of the variance, whereas the
rest fifteen factors accounts for only 12% of the observed variance. Based on the strength of the Eigenvalues
and the Scree Plots, only the first six factors were selected for the present.study. In the Scree Plot, those points
on the vertical limb (steep portion), accounts for the majority of variance, whereas those on the horizontal, flat
limb accounts very less for water quality prediction, hence they were ignored. The Rotated Component Matrix,
using Varimax Rotation for the six factors is shown in Table 2. An absolute value of >0.5 has been chosen to
demonstrate strong association (Zeng et al. 2005). The first Eigenvalue is 6.79 and explains 32.32 % of the total
variance. The second is 3.80 and explains 18.08 % of total variance and third is 3.63 and explains 17.30% of
total variance. The fourth Eigenvalue is 1.71 and explains 8.15% of the total variance. The fifth is 1.52 and
explains 7.23% of total variance and sixth is 1.03 and explains 4.91% of total variance. The first six accounts for
a total of 88.01 % of variance and were identified as:
(I) Component 1: EC, TDS, TSS, TS, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, TC
(II) Component 2: Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolve Oxygen, P: R
(III) Component 3: Gross primary productivity, Community respiration
(IV) Component 4: pH, Chloride, Phosphate, Nitrate.
(V) Component 5: TSS, BOD, P: R
(VI) Component 6: SO42The first component is characterized by about similar loading (>0.8) of Total dissolve solids, Total solids,
Total hardness, Calcium & Magnesium, Moderate loading of Total alkalinity and lower loading of Total
suspended solids and Total Coli form.
Table 2. Variance and rotated loadings for day time data
Variable
pH
T
Tu
EC
TDS
TSS
Ts
DO
BOD
TH
TA
Cl
SO4
PO4
NO3
Ca
Mg
TC
GPP
CR
PR
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
-0.6434
-0.7665
-0.9402
0.6796
-0.5629
0.8029
-0.6524
-0.9336
-0.8574
-0.8576
0.9097
0.9729
0.5436
0.5224
The relationship between PC 1 (which explained 55.4% of the total variance) and PA 2 (Which
148.explained a further 22.9%) is shown, along with graphical representations of the contributions of 149.the
original variables to both PC 1 and PC 2. For example, EYEHD has a small contribution to 150.PC 1, as seen
from its small positive component on the PC 1 axis, but a large contribution to PC 151.2, as seen from its large
positive component on the PC 2 axis. These graphical representations of 152.the contributions of the original
variables to the PC axes are normalized on the graph to a 153 arbitrary, convenient scale, and reflect the relative
values of the component score coefficients.
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
5. Conclusion
This study clearly indicates that the lentic water bodies in Asansol Raniganj area are already done.
Remain below the standards of the drinking water qualities. Not only that even some times it is always below the
human use qualities. This method of water quality judgments can be introduced in all the urbanized lentic water
body which helps to assess the quality of water for human use.
6. Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to the authorities of Asansol Municipal Corporation for giving permission in the
sampling of waters from different storage systems. Authors are also thankful to the Director National Institute of
Technology, Durgapur for using their laboratory.
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[19] Singh, K.P., Malik, A., Mohan, D., Sinha, S., and Singh, V.K. 2005. Chemometric data analysis of pollutants
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Table 5. Pearson‟s Correlation Coefficient Matrix based on experimental data of water quality parameters of five lakes in Asansol
pH
T
TU
EC
TDS
TSS
DO
BOD
TH
TA
Cl
SO4
PO4
NO2
Ca
Mg
TC
GPP
CR
T
-0.2193
TU
-0.2904
0.7934
EC
0.0690
0.5409
0.5348
TDS
0.3543
0.4094
0.2770
0.8087
TSS
0.1482
-0.2191
0.0403
0.1799
0.3858
DO
-0.1251
0.2091
0.3940
0.1886
-0.0733
-0.4662
BOD
0.2932
-0.5507
-0.2809
-0.3162
-0.1350
0.3679
-0.3079
TH
0.4436
0.4692
0.2417
0.5781
0.9035
0.2527
-0.0846
-0.0794
TA
0.2796
0.2378
0.2338
0.5405
0.6130
0.3949
-0.2979
-0.1640
0.4816
Cl
0.6459
0.2446
0.1214
0.2318
0.2856
-0.3127
0.1793
-0.0961
0.4320
0.1475
SO4
0.3880
-0.2727
-0.2383
-0.0637
0.1153
0.0123
-0.0412
0.3344
0.1913
0.3506
-0.0465
PO4
0.3657
-0.1795
-0.1992
-0.5397
-0.3502
-0.0717
0.1218
0.1473
-0.1040
-0.3454
0.2933
-0.2197
NO2
0.4949
-0.0921
-0.1744
-0.1461
0.0235
-0.3188
0.4565
0.0412
0.1715
-0.4019
0.5563
-0.1919
0.6903
Ca
0.5369
0.1408
-0.0813
0.3956
0.7602
0.2727
-0.2671
0.0630
0.8300
0.6012
0.2328
0.6216
-0.2605
-0.0736
Mg
0.5298
0.0199
-0.1108
0.3841
0.7457
0.4199
-0.3099
0.2458
0.7455
0.5307
0.0362
0.6014
-0.2371
-0.0429
0.9113
GPP
0.5391
-0.1229
0.0129
0.3672
0.3793
-0.0910
0.2658
0.2645
0.3046
0.0372
0.6046
0.1167
-0.0843
0.5145
0.2045
0.2708
0.5194
CR
0.3573
-0.1342
-0.0729
0.3992
0.3072
-0.1713
0.1303
0.3312
0.2087
-0.0105
0.4800
0.0741
-0.2014
0.3434
0.1458
0.2206
0.2862
0.8906
PR
0.0748
-0.8052
-0.5013
-0.5951
-0.4994
0.3235
-0.1647
0.3639
-0.5565
-0.0354
-0.3471
0.2251
0.2516
-0.1056
-0.2574
-0.1823
-0.2832
-0.2247
-0.3356
30
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Agglomerative hierarchical clustering based Dendrogram using water quality data showing Similarity based on Pearson
Figure Fig:
1. Agglomarative
hierarchical clustering based Dendrogram using water quality data showing similarity based on Pearson correlation coefficient
correlation coefficient. Agglomeration method: Unweighted pair-group average
-0.044306901
0.355693099
0.555693099
0.755693099
Chloride
pH
Community Respiration
Gross Primary Productivity
Nitrate
Phosphate
Total Hardness
Total Dissolve Solids
Magnesium
Calcium
Total Coliform
Total Solids
Total Suspended Solids
Total Alkalinity
Conductivity
Turbidity
Temperature
Disolve Oxygen
Photosynthesis : Respiration
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
0.955693099
Sulphate
Similarity
0.155693099
31
Volume I Issue 3(3) Summer 2011
Figure 2. Map of study area showing sampling locations
Figure 3. Correlation Map showing association between surface water quality parameters
Fig: Correlation map showing association between water quality parameters
pH
Temperature
Turbidity
Conductivity
Total Dissolve Solids
Total Suspended Solids
Total Solids
Disolve Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Total Hardness
Total Alkalinity
Chloride
Sulphate
Phosphate
Nitrate
Calcium
Magnesium
Total Coliform
Gross Primary Productivity
Community Respiration
Community Respiration
Photosynthesis : Respiration
Gross Primary Productivity
Magnesium
Total Coliform
Nitrate
32
Calcium
Sulphate
Phosphate
Chloride
Total Alkalinity
Total Hardness
Disolve Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Total Solids
Total Suspended Solids
Total Dissolve Solids
Turbidity
Conductivity
pH
Temperature
Photosynthesis : Respiration
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Biplot (axes D1 and D2: 50.40 %)
after Varimax rotation
4
T emper at ur e.
Obs 7
3
Conduc t i v i t y
Di s ol v e Ox y gen
2
D2 (19.37 %)
T ur bi di t y
Obs 2
Obs
5
T al
ot al
Di s s ol v e Sol i ds
Chl or
i de
ObsT3 ot
Obs
6Har dnes s
Obs 8
Obs 10
1
Obs
Obs49
Gr os s PtTryiot
mar
yP
ri foduc
Communi
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al Col
pi
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ior
onmt i v i t y
Ni t r at e
T ot al A l k al i ni t y
T ot al Sol i ds
0
Cal c i um
Obs 1
M agnes i um
-1
P hos phat e
pH
T ot alSul
Sus
pended
Sol i ds
phat
e
Obs 13
-2
Obs 14 Obs 12
B i oc hemi c al Ox y gen Demand
-3
Obs 15
P hot os y nt hes i s :
Res pi r at i on
-4
Obs 11
-5
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
D1 (31.03 %)
33
2
3
4
5
6
7
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
SOFT EMS, HARD EMS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
RELATIONSHIPS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Harjeet KAUR
DBA (UniSA), Faculty of Business, Economics and Accounting
HELP University College Malaysia
[email protected]
Abstract:
An environmental management system (EMS) provides the framework for continual environmental improvement
through effective management of an organization‟s environmental impacts. The most well-known and accepted EMS is the
ISO 14001 standard on environmental management established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The literature suggest that the key components that impact on environmental management system (EMS) implementation
are a synergistic blend of „hard‟ and „soft‟ elements. The elements of soft EMS are essentially dimensions of human
resource management (HRM), while the „hard‟ elements are more technical-oriented. To ensure successful environmental
management, the „hard‟ elements of an EMS must be accompanied by equal attention to the „soft‟ elements. At the present
time, the nature of the relationship between the soft EMS elements, hard EMS elements and environmental performance
remains unclear. Specifically more effort should be placed in formulating theoretical models that can represent the complex
EMS practices-environmental performance relationships. This paper aims to provide a motivation for investigating the
mediating effects of hard EMS elements in the relationship between soft EMS elements and environmental performance.
Keywords: ISO 14001 EMS, soft elements, hard elements, environmental performance.
JEL Classification:
1. Introduction
The literature suggests that successful ISO14001 EMS implementation and hence improved
environmental performance can be accomplished through the use of „appropriate human resource management
(HRM) practices‟ (see for example Daily et al. 2003, 2007, Daily, and Huang 2001, Govindarajulu, and Daily
2004, Kaur 2010). Only Daily et al. (2003, 2007), and Kaur (2010) provided empirical support for the significant
contribution of soft EMS elements towards environmental performance. Besides the soft EMS elements, one has
to look at the hard EMS elements that are also very critical for the success of the EMS implementation. However
there appears to be no empirical evidence describing the impact of hard EMS elements on environmental
performance. Furthermore an empirical base for determining which of the EMS elements, i.e. soft or hard, is a
better predictor of environmental performance also does not appear to exist in the literature. In regards to quality
management, a similar endeavor to environmental management, Ho et al. (2001), and Rahman, and Bullock
(2005) suggest that it is more appropriate to investigate the direct impact of soft TQM elements on the diffusion
of hard TQM elements, and then assess the direct impact of hard TQM elements on performance. The authors
emphasize that organizations must have appropriate soft TQM elements in place to create conditions that allow
effective diffusion and utilization of hard TQM elements. This paper aims to provide a motivation for investigating
the mediating effects of hard EMS elements in the relationship between soft EMS elements and environmental
performance.
2. Literature Review
Several researchers advocate that the total quality management (TQM) elements should be incorporated
in the organizations culture to ensure successful environmental management (see for example Hart 1995,
Kitazawa, and Sarkis 2000, Klassen, and McLaughlin 1993). The elements of quality management practices can
be grouped into two distinct dimensions: „infrastructure‟ and „core quality management elements‟ (Flynn et al.
1995) or commonly referred to as „soft‟ and „hard‟ elements (Lam 1995, 1996, Wilkinson 1992, Rahman, and
Bullock 2005, Lewis et al. 2006, Ho et al. 2001, Samson, and Terziovski 1999, Thiagarajan, and Zairi 1997,
Powell 1995). The infrastructure elements pertain to behavioral attributes of quality management, whereas the
core elements relate to the technical aspects (Naor et al. 2008). The core quality management practices are
expected to contribute to quality performance directly. Whereas the quality management infrastructure practices
are proposed to support and facilitate the effective use of core quality management practices (Flynn et al. 1995).
Rahman, and Bullock (2005, 74) defined soft TQM as essentially dimensions of human resource management
(HRM). According to Lewis et al. (2006, 551) „soft‟ elements are those intangible and difficult to be measured,
34
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
while „hard‟ elements are more systems-oriented. In general the „soft TQM‟ elements include top management
leadership, employee involvement, employee empowerment, employee training, teamwork and communication,
strategic quality management, customer focus, workforce commitment, supplier relationship and shared vision.
The elements of „hard TQM‟ include the use of advanced manufacturing systems, JIT principles, process
management, quality data and reporting, design quality management, SPC usage, benchmarking, zero defect
mentality (see Rahman 2004, Rahman, and Bullock 2005).
The relationship between TQM elements and organizational performance can be classified into two forms:
individual and group. The individual form investigates the impact of each element of TQM on performance
separately whereas in the group form, elements of TQM are grouped as „soft TQM‟ and „hard TQM‟ first and then
the impact of these groups on performance is investigated (Rahman 2004). The quality management literature
provides empirical support for the significant contribution of soft elements of TQM towards various organizational
performance measures. For example, Powell‟s (1995) empirical study in the US suggests that the key to TQM
performance relies not in TQM tools and techniques such as ISO 9000 certification and benchmarking, but in
„intangible factors‟ such as employee empowerment, open culture and senior management commitment. Powell
(1995, 15) concluded that „organizations that acquire elements of soft TQM can outperform competitors with or
without the accompanying TQM ideology‟. Using a large sample of Australian and New Zealand manufacturing
companies, Samson, and Terziovski (1999) showed by means of an empirical analysis that the „softer' elements
of TQM, i.e. leadership, people management and customer focus were the strongest predictors of operational
performance, and the more systems and analytic oriented criteria (information and analysis, strategic quality
planning, process management) did not. In Malaysia, Lau, and Idris (2001) examined the influence of soft TQM
elements on various performance measures (growth, profitability, quality, market competitiveness). Lau, and Idris
concluded that culture, trust and teamwork were most influential in bringing about changes in the performance
measures. The findings suggest that the key to performance lies in the softer elements of TQM. In a longitudinal
study in the UK, Taylor, and Wright (2003) showed that senior management commitment in the TQM process
significantly affected performance outcomes.
On the contrary, Rahman, and Bullock‟s (2005) empirical analysis of 261 Australian manufacturing
companies provides evidence that certain hard TQM elements have a significant effect on performance and
suggests that for hard TQM to impact performance, it is essential that such hard elements are supported by the
elements of soft TQM. The authors emphasized that organizations must have appropriate soft TQM elements in
place to create conditions that allow effective diffusion and utilization of hard TQM elements. The simple
regression analysis was used to examine the direct impact of: 1) soft TQM elements on performance, 2) hard
TQM on performance and 3) relationship between soft TQM and hard TQM. To evaluate indirect effect of soft
TQM on organizational performance through its effect on hard TQM elements the hierarchical regression was
used. In another study, Ho et al. (2001) examined the link between „supportive‟ and „core‟ TQM practices and
their impact on quality performance using a sample of 25 electronics companies in Hong Kong. The authors used
the mean rating of all items within a subscale to create an index that reflects the extent to which that particular
dimension of quality management practices has been implemented. The hierarchical regression was used to
evaluate indirect effects of soft TQM on organizational performance through its effect on hard TQM elements.
The empirical results suggest that core TQM practices mediate the effect of supportive TQM practices on
quality performance when the practices are taken as two integrated factors (i.e. group form). In particular the
findings suggest that a complete mediation model appears to be a better representation of TQM practicesperformance relationships than a partial mediation model.
Effective adoption and implementation of ISO 14001 EMS must garner organization-wide support,
contributions and commitment (Pun, and Hui 2001). The weakness of organizations business culture and their
shortcomings in human resources may be important impediments in the process of environmental action
(Fernandez et al. 2003). According to Kitazawa, and Sarkis (2000) adopting ISO14001 EMS necessitates cultural
changes, the core elements of which are embodied by the TQM principles. Strachan (1997) suggests that the
systems of management recommended by BS7750, EMAS and ISO 14001 must be revised and stress on
mechanistic solutions should be replaced with more participatory forms of management. As companies shift to
more open forms of participative management, they begin the process of empowering their employees (Mallak,
and Kurstedt 1996). The literature suggests that successful ISO14001 implementation and hence improved
environmental performance can be accomplished through the use of „appropriate HRM practices‟. For example
Daily, and Huang (2001) proposed a conceptual model of the EMS-HR factors to assist in proper facilitation of
the environmental management program. The model emphasizes human resource (HR) factors such as top
management support, environmental training, employee empowerment, teamwork and rewards systems as key
35
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
elements of the implementation process of an EMS. Recently Daily et al. (2003, 2007) studied the impact of
human resource (HR) factors on 437 employees‟ perception of environmental performance in a facility currently
certified to ISO 14001. The findings suggest that management support, training, employee empowerment, and
rewards are related to perceived environmental performance. Moreover, teamwork played an important
mediating role between some of the HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Furthermore
Govindarajulu, and Daily‟s (2004, 365) theoretical framework provides practitioners valuable information for
developing plans to inspire and retain employee motivation for environmental improvement efforts in
organizations. The framework emphasizes the integration of management commitment, employee
empowerment, feedback and review, and rewards as key elements for successful implementation of an
ISO14001 EMS and hence enhanced environmental performance. Adopting the Govindarajulu, and Daily‟s
(2004) framework, Kaur (2010) ascertained the hypothesized relationships. Her study was conducted in five
manufacturing companies currently certified to ISO 14001 EMS. Moreover four of these companies are recipients
of the Malaysian Prime Minister‟s Hibiscus Award (PMHA), Malaysia‟s premier private sector environmental
award for business and industry. Her empirical findings suggest that management commitment, empowerment,
and feedback and review have a significant positive relationship to perceived environmental performance.
However, the link between rewards and perceived environmental performance was negative and statistically
insignificant.
Recent findings from a survey of Slovene manufacturing companies showed that certified enterprises
consider ISO14001 as a very useful tool in promoting and adopting new cleaner technologies, and furthermore
encouraged the development of environmentally conscious products (Radonjic, and Tominc 2006). In another
study, Radonjic, and Tominc (2007) survey findings indicate that besides improving environmental performance,
the ISO 14001 EMS influenced firms‟ economic performance through increased productivity. Again ISO14001
certification was shown to accelerate initiatives for the adoption of new and cleaner technologies within certified
firms in the Slovene manufacturing industry. In general, environmental investment can be grouped into three
categories: 1) pollution prevention technologies, which are structural investments that reduce or eliminate
pollution at the source, 2) pollution control technologies also referred as end-of-pipe technologies, are also
structural investments that ensure a proper disposal of waste, reduce the release of pollutants, or correct past
environmental damages, and 3) management systems which are infrastructural investments that improve
environmental performance (Vachon 2007).
Klassen, and Whybark‟s (1999) empirical findings showed that firms significantly improved their
manufacturing and environmental performance when a higher proportion of investment was allocated toward
pollution prevention technologies. ISO 14001 guidelines‟ strong emphasis on pollution prevention can save
companies money by improving efficiency and reducing costs of energy, materials, fines and penalties
(Rondinelli, and Vastag 2000). Pollution prevention essentially entails preventing the creation of pollution and
wastes through significant changes in existing production processes and requires a basic rethinking of product
design (Bansal, and Hunter 2003, Christmann 2000, Hart 1995, Klassen 2000).
Hart (1995, 1000) described pollution prevention as „people intensive, rather than technology intensive‟.
Bansal (2005) emphasized that pollution prevention requires employee involvement and empowerment.
At present, there are only a few studies in the existing literature on the critical factors contributing to
successful ISO14001 EMS implementation. For example, Sambasivan, and Fei‟s (2008) empirical study of the
electrical and electronics companies based in Malaysia identified the critical success factors for
ISO14001implementation. The choice of critical success factors were based on the five main clauses of
ISO14001 and the external factors that motivate a company to implement EMS. The five main clauses of
ISO14001 are: 1) environmental policy, 2) planning, 3) implementation and operation, 4) checking and corrective
action, and 5) management review. The first factor, „management approach‟, embraces three clauses:
environmental policy, planning and management review. The second factor, „organizational change‟, embraces
the third clause, i.e. implementation and operation. The third factor, „external and social aspects‟, deals with
aspects such as government regulations, market pressure, and customer requirements that motivate an
organization to adopt and implement ISO14001. The fourth factor, „technical aspects‟, embraces the clause that
deals with checking and corrective action. In particular the technical aspects of ISO14001 include: assistance
from environmental specialists, availability of monitoring and measuring equipment, and the production process
enhancement. The results of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) indicate that the critical success factors in
order of importance are: management approach, organizational change, technical aspects, and external and
social aspects that influence the implementation of ISO14001.
36
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Employing a sample of 36 Indian ISO14001 certified companies Padma et al. (2008) study‟s objectives
were threefold: 1) to indentify the critical factors (CFs) of ISO14000, 2) determine if ISO14000 certification results
in improved organizational performance, and 3) to analyze the levels of and changes in the CFs and
organizational performance (IOPs) due to certification. The critical factors consist of: 1) top management
commitment, 2) environmental issues identification and legal compliance, 3) environmental process
management, 4) emergency preparedness and response, 5) continuous improvement, 6) measurement,
monitoring and control and 7) human resource management. The indicators of organizational performance
(IOPs) include: 1) customer satisfaction, 2) employee morale, 3) growth in exports, 4) profitability, 5) overall
productivity, 6) reduction in quality costs, 7) overall financial performance, 8) overall operational performance,
and 9) savings in energy and environmentally desirable impact of product/service. The findings indicate that
firms‟ regard the preparation for emergencies as an integral part of environmental management systems (EMS),
and they seem to initially struggle to identify environmental issues that are to be given higher importance.
Furthermore, the certified firms find it difficult to continuously improve their environmental management
processes. Findings indicate significant changes in all the CFs and IOPs due to ISO 14000 certification.
Furthermore, more experienced firms have higher mean values for all the CFs in comparison with lessexperienced firms. Wee, and Quazi‟s (2005) empirical analysis of 151 Singaporean electronics and chemical
manufacturing companies identified and validated seven critical success elements of environmental
management which include: top management commitment, total involvement of employees, training, green
product/design, supplier management, measurement and information management. The authors however, did
not test the relationship between the critical success factors with environmental performance.
Zutshi, and Sohal (2004) presented the critical success factors for successful implementation and
maintenance of environmental management systems (EMS). The initial research was undertaken using a threephase approach: a questionnaire survey mailed to 286 Australasian organizations certified with ISO14001 and
interviews (nine preliminary interviews and 12 in-depth interviews) conducted with managers responsible for
various management systems, primarily environmental, quality and occupational health and safety. The critical
success factors are presented under four broad headings, namely: management leadership and support,
learning and training, internal analysis and sustainability. The first factor, „management leadership and support‟
deals with aspects such as top management commitment, cultural change and organizational vision, allocation of
resources, appointment of a champion, importance of communication and avoidance of personality clashes. The
second factor, „learning and training‟ includes: learning from other organizations experiences and benchmarking,
reference to industry guidelines/standards, employee induction and training, general training and awareness for
suppliers and other stakeholders. The third factor, „internal analysis‟ includes: conducting cost-benefit analysis,
Initial Environmental Review, IER / gap analysis, identification of aspects and impacts and setting of objectives
and targets, necessity and usage of audits, document control systems, and integration of existing management
systems. The fourth factor, „sustainability‟, deals with aspects such as Life cycle analysis (LCA), design for
disassembly (DfD) and industrial ecology.
Babakri et al. (2003) presented the results of an empirical study on 584 US industrial companies with the
aim of identifying some of the critical factors for successful implementation of the ISO 14001 registration process.
Out of the seventeen ISO 14001 elements, eight elements received high mean scores in the survey. The eight
ISO standard‟s elements requiring the greatest effort and time to implement are: identifying environmental
aspects, environmental management systems (EMS) documentation, training, EMS audit, operational control,
environmental management program, objectives and targets, and document control.
Kitazawa, and Sarkis (2000) case studies of the relationship between ISO 14001 EMS and the continuous
source reduction programmes of three industrial companies identified employee empowerment, their willingness
to make suggestions for improvement and management‟s effort to create employee participation in decision
making are three critical elements for successful continuous source reduction activities (i.e. reducing waste or
toxicity of substances).
Chin et al. (1999) studied the critical success factors to implement ISO14001 based EMS to be
considered by the Hong Kong manufacturing companies. The success factors for ISO14000 implementation are:
management attitude, organizational change, external and social aspects, as well as technical aspects. The first
factor, „management attitude‟ deals with aspects such as top management commitment and support, appropriate
environmental policy, and regular management reviews. The second factor, „organizational change‟ includes:
structure and responsibility, training and awareness, communication, documentation and control, and emergency
preparedness. The third factor, „external and social aspects‟, deals with aspects such as environmental
legislation, market pressure and employee relations. The fourth factor, „technical aspects‟ include: assistance
37
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
from environmental specialists, availability of monitoring and measuring equipment, and the production process
enhancement. The results of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) indicate that the success factors in order of
importance are: management attitude, external and social aspects, and organizational change. The findings
however suggest that Hong Kong manufacturing companies did not into consideration the technical aspects in
the implementation of ISO14001.
Quazi (1999) reports on the findings based on seven case studies conducted with companies which are
either ISO14001 certified or in the process of certification in Singapore. His findings revealed that management
commitment, consultants, availability of resources, employee cooperation, ISO9000 certification, strong quality
culture, and communication are critical success factors (CSFs). Other CFSs identified in the literature review
were not uniformly applicable to these companies. The majority of the sample (57 percent) identified
management commitment as one of the CSF during the implementation of EMS. Moreover about 30 percent of
these companies identified employee cooperation as a CSF. Two companies were in the process of
implementing EMS, and hence were not able to identify such factors at the time of interview.
In light of the preceding discussion the literature suggest that the key components that have impact on
ISO14001 EMS implementation are a synergistic blend of „hard‟ and „soft‟ elements. The soft elements are
essentially dimensions of human resource management (HRM), while the hard elements are more technicaloriented. Specifically the soft elements are essential for supporting and facilitating effective utilization of the hard
elements (Flynn et al. 1995, Ho et al. 2001, Rahman, and Bullock 2005). Furthermore, many of the studies
reviewed in the preceding discussion did not test the relationship between the critical success factors with
environmental performance. Very often survey-based perceptual measures are used to assess environmental
performance. Klassen, and McLaughlin (1996) acknowledged that because many different conceptualizations
exists as to how researchers and/or practitioners might operationally define the environmental performance
construct, hence the difficulty of defining environmental performance and then operationalizing the construct as a
measurable variable needs further attention. Further studies in this area are now required.
3. Proposed Theoretical Framework for Environmental Performance
In light of the preceding discussions, it seems both theoretically and empirically plausible that the
relationship between the soft EMS elements, hard EMS elements and environmental performance can be
categorized at the individual and group form. As shown in figure 1, the individual form investigates the impact of
each elements of ISO14001 EMS on environmental performance separately. To date the studies that belong to
this form are Daily et al. (2003, 2007), and Kaur (2010). However, these studies examined the impact of human
resource (HR factors) on perceived environmental performance at the individual level of analysis (i.e. employee).
Future researchers may wish to consider incorporating some of Wee, and Quazi‟s (2005) critical success
elements of environmental management which include: top management commitment, total involvement of
employees, training, green product/design, supplier management, measurement and information management.
Further studies in this area are now required.
Factor1
element
Factor
s 2
Factor3
Factor
r2 3
Environmental
Performance
Factor3
Factorn
r2
Figure 1. Effect of elements of ISO14001 EMS on environmental performance as individual factors
In the group form (shown in figure 2), elements of ISO14001 EMS are grouped as „soft elements‟ and
„hard elements‟ first and then the impact of these groups on environmental performance is investigated. At the
present time, the nature of the relationship between the soft elements, hard elements and environmental
performance remains unclear. Future researchers can attempt to examine the mediation effects of hard elements
in the relationship between soft elements and environmental performance. The mean rating of all items within a
subscale can be calculated to estimate the extent to which that particular dimension of environmental
management practices has been implemented (see for example Ho et al. 2001). In order to explore the
mediating role of hard elements, there are two possible kinds of relationships, i.e. partial and complete
mediation. A complete mediation model specifies the relationship between soft elements (antecendent), hard
38
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
elements (mediator) and environmental performance (consequence) in the form of soft elements → hard
elements → environmental performance. The soft elements influence the environmental performance only
indirectly through the hard elements. In other words, all the influence of soft elements on environmental
performance is transmitted by hard elements. Apart from the effect of complete mediation, partial mediation
would also exist. In a partial mediation model, soft elements have not only indirect influence on environmental
performance through hard elements, but also direct influence on environmental performance. That is, only part of
the total influence of soft elements on environmental performance is transmitted by hard elements. Perfect or
complete mediation exists when the soft elements has no effect on the environmental performance when the
hard elements is held constant.
Soft Elements
Soft elements
Environmental
Performance
Environmental
Performance
Hard elements
Hard Elements
a) Partial mediation
b) Complete mediation
Figure 2. Effects of ISO 14001 EMS elements on environmental performance as groups
To aid potential research in this area, the following research propositions are proposed for empirical
testing:
P1: soft EMS elements have direct affects on environmental performance
P2: hard EMS elements have direct affects on environmental performance
P3: soft EMS elements have direct affects on environmental performance on the adoption and utilization
of hard EMS elements
P4: soft EMS elements indirectly affect environmental performance through its effect on hard EMS
elements.
4. Conclusion
Because of the scarcity of research addressing the critical success factors of an EMS, more work is
needed to clarify the linkages between the soft EMS elements, hard EMS elements and environmental
performance. Indeed more broad empirical studies and large sample surveys methodologies will be required for
exploring these relationships particularly at the organizational level. Such empirically validated survey
instruments are essential to practitioners and academics as it provides a comprehensive framework on the
factors that can facilitate in environmental performance improvement efforts in organizations. Lastly, researchers
should place more effort in formulating theoretical models that can represent the complex ISO14001 EMS
practices-environmental performance relationships.
References
[1] Bansal, P. 2005. Evolving sustainability: A longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development. Strategic
Management Journal 26/3: 197-218.
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
NONPROFIT, CRIMINAL HUBS AND RENT SEEKING.
EVALUATION OF THE CALABRIAN EXPERIENCE
Cosimo MAGAZZINO
Roma Tre University, Italy
[email protected]
Abstract:
The study concerns rent seeking in the allocation of structural funds for cultural development in the Italian region of
Calabria. By statistical analysis the study shows that the variables relating to major cultural sites had no robust significance.
Rent seeking variables relating to non profits, criminal hubs and construction interests were statistically significant. This may
explain both the fragmentation of the projects and the difference between allocations and payments relating to the allocation
of the funds. On the other hand, the presence of major cultural sites is not significant in the allocation of funds to the criminal
hubs, likely because this type of projects would be closely controlled by the public authorities in charge of the preservation
and valorization of the cultural heritage. The anomalous discrepancy between allocation of funds and payments also may be
explained as a rent seeking phenomenon. Finally, discrete choice analysis show that municipal with an academic institution
have a 39.5% higher probability of receiving cultural funds; municipal with an airport or a seaport have a 33.9% higher
probability to catch some financings; whereas a marginal change in museums is associated with a 19.8% in participation.
Keywords: rent seeking; cultural goods; tourism; Calabria; ANOVA; discrete choice models.
JEL Classification: H4; R1; Z1.
1. Introduction
The study examines the rent seeking phenomena arising in the execution of the European Program 20002006 for the less developed European regions (so called Objective 1) focusing on the Operational Regional
Program of Calabria Region, as for the sector of cultural goods as touristic attractors. The focus on this Program
is of particular interest because it was managed by a center-right regional government from 2000 until spring
2005 and by central-left regional government from spring 2005 to the end, so that one may also try to see if the
change of Government from the centre right to the centre left has had an effect on the rent seeking. On the other
hand, Calabria, a Region of 2 million inhabitants, in Sothern Italia, is rich of cultural sites, dating from the
archeological epoch, that are not valorized and cultural tourism could be an important factor for its economic
growth .On the other hand Calabria is the headquarter of the most powerful Italian criminal organization of mafia
type, i.e. ndrangheta1. Independent variables were constructed to capture the main observable sources of rent
seeking in the various municipalities: i.e. their voting weight, the presence of non profits and of criminal hubs, the
presence of members of the Regional Junta ruling Calabria. To these variable, was added, the presence in the
municipality of important cultural sites, which could actually justified the allocation of funds to it. The variable
“cultural sites” was crossed with the variable criminal hubs to observe if the allocation of funds to municipalities
hosting these hubs could be justified by their nature of cultural sites. At the regional level the variable “type of
government” was tested so observe whether it made difference as for the type of projects approved,
distinguishing them in projects in investments and in services: the first more popular with pro business
Governments and the second more popular with Governments interested to sustain employment. It resulted that
most the considered rent seeking variables (voting weight, non profits, criminal hubs, type of government) were
relevant while the variable “cultural sites” was not relevant, both and as a per se variable and in association with
the variable criminal hubs.
The paper is divided into six sections. Section 2 provides a brief survey of economic literature on the
issues dealt with in the paper. Section 3 provides a brief survey of the European Regional Funds Policy, of
Calabria‟s Regional Program 2000-2006 for objective 1, as component of the e European Program 2000-2006
and of the section of this program regarding culture. Section 4 gives an overview of the methodology employed
in the empirical research and of the data used Section 5 presents the results. Section 6 presents our concluding
remarks, policy implications and suggestions for future researches.
1 The name “ndrangheta” is a corruption of the ancient Greek expression Andros Agathos, which means men of
honor. Actually the original stronghold of ndrangheta is in an area of Calabria where the ancient Greek dialect is still spoken.
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
2. Survey of literature
In spite of the optimistic reports of the European Community, (Commission of the European Communities,
2009), in the literature on the European Regional Policies for less developed regions, i.e. those of the so-called
Obiective 1 (Cini 2003, 2007) predominate the researches that demonstrate disappointing results. Some authors
argue that the results are poor in the case of regions with weak institutions and better in the other cases.
However, the regions for whom the financial aid is justifiable are the less developed ones. In addition, the
weakness of the institutions is one of the main characters of the less developed regions belonging to advanced
European countries. Basile, De Nardis, and Girardi (2001) demonstrate that in spite of the huge amount of public
aid to the poor regions of EU, the distribution of income, labour productivity and employment rates does not show
a positive relation with the allocation of the EU structural regional funds, particularly in the Nineties. Boldrin, and
Canova (2001), argue that to a large degree these policies operated mostly as transfer with redistributive or
assistance purpose rather than serving as agents to simulate or increase growth. Puga (2002) observe that, in
spite of the large expenditures on European regional policies, the disparities remained or even widened, mainly
because of factors connected with the location theory so that more emphasis should be put on the transport
structures improvement. Rodriguez Pose, and Fratesi (2003), show that the returns to the investments in
infrastructures and business support were not significant and that only investment in education and human
capital had medium term positive and significant returns. Ederveen, De Groot, and Nahuis (2006) show that
European structural funds were very largely ineffective in reducing the regional disparities, with the exception of
the regions were institutions have high quality. Bjorvatn, and Coniglio (2006, 2007) maintain that generally (not
only in Europe) the policies to promote regional development very often had disappointing results and connect
them with the weakness of the institutions. In this case, targeted policies create rents that attract rent seekers, so
that broad base policies would be more appropriate. The targeted plans should be adopted for the regions with
strong institutions. The first part of the conclusion seems reasonable. Nevertheless, the second part is
unconvincing. Indeed, where the institutions work well it seems better to apply the general EU rules on
competition and leave to the market economy system the decision on which sectors to make use of the subsidies
supposedly given to compensate for the regional global externalities (Van der Beek 2004). Eggert, von Ehrlich,
Fenge, and König (2007) analyze the impact of EU structural policy on the economic development of German
regions between 1995 and 2004, arguing that the EU regional transfers speed up convergence, but have a
negative impact on long run aggregate growth. Cappelen, Castellacci, Fagerberg, and Verspagen (2003) argue
that EU regional policies had significant and positive impact on growth of European less developed regions and
that the effects are much better in more developed environment. It follows the suggestion of improving the
competence of the receiving environment, which appears rather naïve considering that environment cannot be
changed as long as remain the traditional social structures. Beugelsdijk, and Eijffinger (2005) argue that the
structural regional funds of EU had a positive effect in the case of the poor countries as Greece, and add that the
less clean countries (i.e. those more corrupt) did not gain less economic growth from the structural funds. They
add that many of those who receive the structural funds are not eligible and therefore use them inefficiently. In
the Italian economic literature – see Giannola, and Imbriani (eds. 2003), Lo Cicero, and Reganati (2003), Viesti
(2003, 2009), Viesti, and Prota (2009) – there is a widespread consensus on the fact that the Italian public
interventions for the development of Southern Italy failed, in a large part, to reduce the disparities between
Centre-North and South, and on the fact that the Regional funds did not obtained their objectives. This occurred
both because due to the complexity of the procedures and to other factors, as a relevant share of the funds was
not allocated before the time limit, and it was diverted to other end; moreover, the share of the funds that was
utilized under the prescribed procedures was not properly allocated.
On the other hand, Loddo (2006) with a simplified econometric analysis argues that in Italy, in the period
1994-2004, the poorer regions have caught up with the richer regions, and that the European structural funds
had a role in this convergence. However, agricultural funds had only a transitory positive effect while the
resources allocated had dubious effects as from the distributional point of view and for the support of
employment, education and the human capital. Nonetheless, Vision, and Value (2007) shows that in the period
2000-2001 the regions of Southern Italy in Objective 1 grew at a rate of 1.23% per year, while those of the
Centre-North grew at a 1.24% rate, and EU-15 grew at 1.96%. Similar results appear in Svimez (2009), and
Svimez (2010). While Cancelo, Faína, and López-Rodríguez (2009) maintain that EU regional funds have been
effective in promoting growth in the case of Galicia, a Spanish peripheral region of Objective 1. Borbalá-Szabó
(2007) instead maintains that in Hungary the impact of the EU regional policies on economic growth was
disappointing. Ederveen, and Gorter (2002), Edereveen, de Mooji, Gorter, and Nahuis (2002), and Ederveen, de
Groot, and Nahuis (2006) extensive econometric analysis show mixed results both from the distributive and the
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
growth point of view, adding that the impact of these policies on national policies to reduce regional disparities
was negative. Tugores (2008), considering the EU-15 global macroeconomic results, concludes that the
contribution of EU regional policy to the convergence among states is unquestionable for Spain, and it
represented a factor for the Irish high growth. However, that there has not been generally a narrowing among
regions inside the states. The critical issues are the possible distortions as for the efficient assignment of
resources and the risk that the resources placed at service of cohesion may wind up in the hands of specific
interests.
This point leads to the consideration of rent seeking, in the terms of Krueger (1974) for less developed
economies, where rent seeking is the substitute to the missing stimulus to profit seeking. On rent seeking in EU
regional policies see also Bjorvatn, and Coniglio (2006), and Bjorvatn, and Coniglio (2007). Outside EU, for rent
seeking as a negative phenomenon in regional policies, see Zaostrovtsev (2003) for Russia, Dreger, Rahmani,
and Eckey (2007) for Iran, Fisher (2006) for Africa. Golley (2007) reaches mixed conclusions as for the Chinese
regional policies. On the rich literature on rent seeking after the seminal works of Buchanan, Tullock, and
Niskanen see, more generally, for all Cogleton, Hillman, and Konrad (eds. 2008).
In the specialized economic literature on cultural goods and on tourism, several contributions emphasize
the importance of the cultural goods as attractors of touristic flows. See, for example, Goldoni, Rispoli, and
Troncon (eds. 2006), Colbert (2000), Kotler, and Scott (1998), Nantel, and Colbert (1992), Grossi, and Debbia
(eds. 1998), Diggles (1986), Hirshmann (1983). More generally, see Forte, and Mantovani (2004), and Cooper et
al. (1998).
On the specific theme of this research, the Regional funds policies in the area of cultural goods and the
development of tourism in Southern Italy, the literature is not equally developed. See, Spadaro (ed. 2010), Forte,
Magazzino, and Mantovani (2010), Mantovani (2010), and LSE (2007), and Ferrari, and Cariola (2001).
3. Calabria’s POR for cultural goods as attractors of tourism and endowment of cultural
treasuries of Calabria
For the POR 2000-2006 of Calabria, as for any other regional POR of Objective 1, 50% of the funds
comes from the budget of EU. This total is composed for nearly 60% by funds of the European Regional
Development Fund (ERDF), devoted to productive investment and infrastructure projects, for about 20% by funds
of the European Agriculture Guidance and Development (EAGGF), and for another 20% by funds the European
Social Fund (ESF). A residual 0.94% of the EU funds come from Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance
(FIFG). The remaining 50% of the funds comes from the finances of the receiving country, in this case Italy. A
share of 80% is given by the Central Government and the remaining 20% is provided by the receiving Regions
and by local programs. Therefore Calabria contributes to the POR for 10% of its total funds. The projects
presented by private entities must be co-financed by them for 50% of the amount. Those presented by the public
entities are totally financed by the POR. But these projects may be a part of broader project financed for the
remaining part by the public entity applying to the POR.
The projects financed by the Calabria‟s POR were divided into six categories, which are referred to as
“Axes”:
 Axis 1 - Enhancement of natural and environmental resources.
 Axis 2 - Use of local cultural and historical resources.
 Axis 3 - Human resource development.
 Axis 4 - Expansion and enhancement of local systems development.
 Axis 5 - Improving the quality of cities, local institutions and social life.
 Axis 6 - Strengthening of networks and service nodes.
Axis 2, was directed to the enhancement of cultural and historical resources as attractors of tourism and it
divided in three “measures” respectively for interventions for the preservation and valorization of cultural goods,
for public services for the valorization of cultural goods, and for the development of entrepreneurial initiatives in
these areas2. Measures 2.1 and 2.3 were administered by the Regional Department of Tourism because cultural
goods were financed mainly as attractor of tourism.
Notice that by its nature the first division of Measure 2 included investment, while the second included
2
Project funds for development of entrepreneurial initiatives are granted within the limits of the de minimis rule.
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
only services related projects3.
The endowment of cultural goods of Calabria, as mentioned above, is very important in the area of
archaeological sites which begin with the pre-Greek era and in that of the ancient castles some of whom date
from the 900 B.C. The list refers to the classification by the Italian Ministry of Arts and Cultural Goods (MIBAC),
integrated with other cultural sites of notable importance selected by a team of experts of the University of
Reggio Calabria.
It comprises, among others, old castles still preserved not included in that list of MIBAC, one important
Opera Theater and one cultural centre entitled to Leonida Repaci a famous Italian literate, native of the region,
active in the XX century. We have adopted this extended list rather than that of MIBAC to avoid the possible critic
of having considered an ad hoc overly restrictive notion of cultural sites.
4. Statistical Methodology and Empirical Results
This section employs statistical analysis in order to shed light on rent seeking and cultural variables that
may have determined the funds allocation, as for Calabria‟s POR devoted to cultural goods as attractors of
tourism.
In Table 1 variables of the model are summed up.
Table 1. List of variables used in our statistical analysis.
Variable
Amounts_pc
Payments_pc
Projects
Nonprofit
Province
University
A&P
Museums
Cultural Sites
Criminal Hubs
Councillor
Population
Explanation
Amounts of POR funds that each municipality received, divided for its population
Payments of POR funds that each municipality received, divided for its population
Number of approved project
Number of nonprofit organizations of any kind in the given municipality
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if municipal is a Province, and equal to 0 otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is an academic institution, and equal to
0 otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is at least one airport or seaport, and
equal to 0 otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is at least one museum, and equal to 0
otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality might be considered as a cultural hubs and equal
to 0 otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality might be considered as a criminal hub according to
Gratteri and Nicaso (2007) classification, and equal to 0 otherwise
Dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality has been represented by a councillor as a member
of Regional Government during the period 2000-2006, and equal to 0 otherwise
Number of inhabitants for each municipal
Sources: our elaborations.
Some preliminary descriptive statistics are shown in Table 2 below.
Measure 2.3 comprised 23% of Axis II funds, and was allocated almost equally between the Chiaravalloti, and
Loiero Governments. Therefore, Measure 2.3 was not actively used to consider differences in Government project
allocation.
3
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Table 2. Exploratory data analysis
Variable
Amounts_pc
Payments_pc
Projects
Nonprofit
Province
University
A&P
Museums
Cultural Sites
Criminal Hubs
Councillor
Population
Mean
263.8494
192.6015
2.5524
25.1667
0.0238
0.0762
0.0524
0.2048
0.1143
0.2571
0.0714
7,419.995
Median
95.0588
62.83542
1
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,354.5
Standard Deviation
820.0023
516.8391
3.6953
73.2106
0.1528
0.2659
0.2233
0.4045
0.3189
0.4381
0.2582
16,529.06
Skewness
10.2923
8.1045
5.5770
6.5077
6.2470
3.1949
4.0182
1.4633
2.4247
1.1113
3.3282
7.0243
Kurtosis
126.3039
82.3115
41.9537
47.9020
40.0244
11.2075
17.1462
3.1412
6.8790
2.2350
12.0769
64.3256
Range
10,667.149
5,943.3540
35
656
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
179,978
Sources: our calculations on POR (2009) and www.regionecalabria.it data.
The dataset used is available in the official site of the Calabria Region in the Reports on POR 2000-2006 and is synthesized in Tables 2 and 3.
Table 3. Pairwise correlation matrix for our statistically relevant variables.
Variable
Amounts_pc
Amounts_pc
1
Payments_pc
0.9659
Projects
0.1644
Nonprofit
-0.0432
Province
0.1071
University
-0.0355
A&P
-0.0212
Museums
0.1503
Cultural Sites
0.0400
Criminal Hubs
0.1312
Councillor
0.0181
Notes: Bonferroni correction applied.
Payments_pc
Projects
Nonprofit
Province
University
A&P
Museums
1
0.1550
-0.0487
0.1049
-0.0320
-0.0133
0.1059
0.0334
0.1154
0.0263
1
0.8890
-0.0114
0.5461
0.4866
0.4329
0.4050
0.3315
0.3346
1
-0.0053
0.5995
0.5087
0.3724
0.3713
0.3277
0.3059
1
0.0494
-0.0338
0.1603
0.0799
0.3852
0.1361
1
0.3353
0.2991
0.1789
0.2828
0.2688
1
0.0926
0.2514
0.2040
0.1008
1
0.4483
0.2955
0.1800
Source: our calculations on POR (2009), and www.regionecalabria.it data.
- 46 -
Cultural
Sites
Criminal
Hubs
1
0.1996
0.3072
1
0.3445
Councillor
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Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
As the Table 3 above shows, there are only two high correlation coefficients, that of between Projects and
Nonprofit (r=0.8890), and – as expected – between amounts per capita and payments per capita (r=0.9659).
Moreover, the coefficient between University and Nonprofit is near 0.6, showing a relative high correlation for
these variables.
The tested projects – those of POR 2000-2006 Axes II as resulting from the regional Report of 29
February 2008 – were considered “non continuous” projects, which means they had a specific end date. This
specification allowed for simplified testing and analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted only for cross-section
containing municipals that received POR funds.
Testing concerns bivariate correlations, independent two-sample t-tests, One-way ANOVA, and other
comparison methods and tests which compare variable means of two data categories. All statistical significances
were taken at a 95% confidence level. Our empirical findings are summed up in Tables 4a and 4b.
First of all, the tests show that amounts, payments, projects, and nonprofit institutions were highly and
positively correlated with municipal population. Thus, in order to eliminate the bias caused by the size of the
population for various municipalities, the remaining tests were conducted in per capita terms.
Rent seeking by nonprofit institution proved to be important to the allocation POR funds. Per capita
amounts, per capita payments and projects were all highly correlated with the number of nonprofit organizations
per capita. In other words, in the municipalities with the higher number of nonprofit per capita, is higher the
amount of funds allocated and disbursed. The number of projects too is correlated with the number of nonprofit:
a logical result if the competition among nonprofit ends up with a dispersion of the funds in many small projects
in favour of a high number of rent seekers, in the attempt of the politicians and bureaucrats to minimize the
discontent.
Statistical analyses show that cultural sites were not determinanted of funds allocation. In fact, there isn‟t
a statistical difference into the mean of these two groups of municipalities. On average, municipals with cultural
sites (M=240.51; SE=82.38) didn‟t receive more per capita payments to municipals without cultural sites
(M=186.42; SE=38.88). Adjusting for unequal variances does not alter our basic conclusion. We can further
check these findings by trying a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test, also known as a Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
Assuming that the rank distributions have similar shape, the rank-sum test in Table 4 (see 1a.) indicates that we
cannot reject the null hypothesis of equal population medians. Moreover, the F-test for One-way ANOVA shows
that we cannot reject the hypothesis of equal means (P=0.6306), as well as the hypothesis of equal variances
(P=0.1060), according to the Bartlett‟s test. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis test, a K-sample generalization of the twosample rank-sum test, provides a non-parametric alternative to one-way ANOVA. It tests the null hypothesis of
equal population medians. The results agree with the One-way ANOVA ones, underlying not significant
differences into the groups. On the contrary, there is a significant difference at a project level. In fact,
municipalities with cultural sites received a statistically significant higher number of projects approved. The
comparison methods show how the hypothesis of equal means and equal medians can be rejected. The only
variable statistically significant is amounts at the project level for investment projects. While payments at the
project level are not relevant in relation to the investment project, this means that, while it was originally planned
for cultural hubs to receive significantly more Euros for investment projects, than non cultural municipalities, in
the end, the investments planned remained incomplete more than in average. This may have been due to errors
in the conceptions of the projects, mismanagement, or lack of initiative in pursuing the given objectives; or even
to a moral hazard behavior consisting in getting the first payment, at the beginning of the project, because at that
stage the private counterpart consists in a feasibility study and in the preliminary services. On average, non
cultural municipalities received 68% of the initial imports in payment while cultural hubs received only 45%.
At a first sight, it appears that criminal hubs do not impact decisions for POR funding. We find no
statistically significant differences between criminal hubs and non criminal municipalities beneficiaries of the
funds in terms of per capita amounts and per capita payments. Yet, as for cultural sites, we find a statistical
difference at a projects level. So, we can conclude that criminal hubs did not receive higher per capita payments
than non criminal hubs; but they received a higher number of approved projects.
However, considering all the municipalities and not only those who obtained projects, it results that
criminal hubs received both more per capita amounts and payments, on average, than non criminal
municipalities: 172 and 56 Euros per capita, and 56 and 42 Euros per capita, respectively. The ratio, as for the
funds allocated, is more than three times. On the other hand, for the payments it is a mere 25%. The reason lies
in the fact that for the projects assigned to the criminal hubs the ratio of payments to the funds allocated is only
50.5% while for the projects assigned to the other municipalities is 75%. As noted before, one way of profiting of
the European funds consists in minimizing the co-financing component and this may be done be leaving the
- 47 -
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
investment projects uncompleted.
Moreover, there are no significant differences in amounts and payments between criminal hubs and other
municipalities for service projects. The difference emerges for the investment project, which are mostly
construction related projects. Clearly, while it is profitable to leave unfinished the investment project, to minimize
the co-financing, the same is not true for the service projects on Axis II, Measure 2, whose costs are entirely born
by Calabria‟s Regional Program.
The effect of Province, University, A&P, Museums and Councillor is analogous to that of criminal sites and
criminal hubs. In fact, the two groups have statistically different means only at a projects level, and not for per
capita payments.
Further statistical results suggest that there are no statistically significant differences between Loiero, and
Chiaravalloti Government connected municipalities compared to other municipalities.
However, we find that the Chiaravalloti Government allocated all of the funds dedicated to Measure 2.1
projects, while the Loiero Government allocated at least 76% of Measure 2.2 projects. Thus, this strongly
suggests that the Chiaravalloti Junta had an agenda for investment projects over service projects, and the Loiero
one had an agenda service projects-oriented.
Yet, if we consider all Calabrian municipalities, empirical findings change significantly. In fact, for all our
control variables (Cultural Sites, Criminal Hubs, Province, University, A&P, Museums and Councillor) statistical
results indicate that the two groups have different means, both at per capita payments level and at a projects
level. So, i.e., municipalities with relevant cultural sites have a mean – both on per capita payments and on
approved projects – higher than that of municipality without these sites.
While, Criminal Hubs have a mean on per capita payments and on approved projects significantly higher
than that of non criminal municipalities. Analogous effects we find for A&P, Museums and Councillor. It‟s quite
interesting underline the effect of Province and University variable, since the five provincial municipalities, as well
as municipalities with academic institutions, have a statistically lower mean on per capita payments, whereas
they have a statistically higher mean on approved projects.
For investment projects only 58.4% of the initial import was ultimately awarded. Service projects where
there was no financing by the beneficiaries experienced a much higher final payment percentage of the initial
imports i.e. 81.3%. The fact that the entire sum was not disbursed means that many of these projects did not
appear enough serious to be financed until their termination.
- 48 -
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Table 4a. Paired Samples Statistics for municipalities that received funds (results for t-tests, ANOVA and other comparison methods)
Groups
1a. Cultural Sites (on
per capita payments)
1b. Cultural Sites (on
projects)
3a. Province (on per
capita payments)
186
38.88
530.28
with
240.51
24
82.38
403.56
without
2.02
186
0.2028
2.77
with
6.71
24
1.33
6.50
157.58
156
19.82
247.54
293.77
54
126.21
927.43
1.83
156
0.1153
1.44
with
with
4.60
54
0.8804
6.47
No
194.22
205
36.53
522.97
Yes
126.34
5
25.41
56.82
2.09
205
0.1248
1.79
21.40
5
4.38
9.79
197.34
194
38.36
534.33
135.13
16
52.75
211.00
1.97
194
0.1164
1.62
Yes
without
4a. University (on per
capita payments)
4b. University (on
projects)
-0.59
34.18
-3.50
24.09
-1.07
55.63
95%
Confidence
Interval
L: 109.71
U: 263.13
L: 70.10
U: 410.92
L: 1.62
U: 2.42
L: 3.96
U: 9.45
L: 118.43
U: 196.73
54.83
L: 40.63
U: 546.91
L: 1.61
U: 2.06
t
-3.15
No
3b. Province (on
projects)
Standard
Deviation
186.42
without
2b. Criminal Hubs (on
projects)
Standard
Error
N
without
without
2a. Criminal Hubs (on
per capita payments)
Mean
with
without
Degrees of
Freedom
1.53
34.70
-4.41
4.01
L: 2.86
U: 6.40
L: 122.20
U: 266.23
L: 55.79
U: 196.89
L: 1.85
U: 2.34
34.32
L: 9.25
U: 33.55
L: 121.68
U: 273.01
15.07
L: 22.70
U: 247.56
L: 121.68
U: 273.01
0.95
-3.04
- 49 -
Wilcoxon
test
Bartlett
test
KruskalWallis test
One-Way
ANOVA F
test
-1.617
(0.1059)
2.6118
(0.1060)
2.614
(0.1059)
0.23
(0.6306)
-5.099
(0.0000)
44.3605
(0.0000)
22.485
(0.0001)
40.80
(0.0000)
0.121
(0.9038)
163.32
(0.0000)
0.015
(0.9037)
2.81
(0.0952)
-4.152
(0.0000)
208.01
(0.0000)
14.908
(0.0001)
25.68
(0.0000)
-1.121
(0.2623)
12.7069
(0.0000)
1.257
(0.2623)
0.08
(0.7725)
-4.101
(0.0000)
72.5559
(0.0000)
14.545
(0.0001)
365.85
(0.0000)
-0.257
(0.7973)
14.4886
(0.0000)
0.066
(0.7973)
0.21
(0.6446)
-4.962
210.966
21.292
88.39
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
with
without
5a. A&P (on per capita
payments)
9.56
16
2.50
9.99
194.22
199
37.43
527.98
0.37
with
without
163.39
11
75.26
249.61
2.13
199
0.1495
2.11
-2.34
5b. A&P (on projects)
with
without
6a. Museums (on per
capita payments)
with
without
6b. Museums (on
projects)
with
with
without
7b. Councillor (on
projects)
11
3.43
11.39
164.89
167
25.59
330.76
300.21
43
143.22
939.13
1.74
167
0.0903
1.1666
-0.93
-3.66
without
7a. Councillor (on per
capita payments)
10.18
5.70
43
1.08
7.06
188.84
195
37.77
527.48
241.45
15
92.93
359.90
2.21
195
0.22
3.02
-0.52
-2.49
with
7.00
15
1.91
7.42
15.51
L: 22.70
U: 247.56
L: 120.41
U: 268.02
10.04
L: 4.30
U: 331.08
L: 1.84
U: 2.43
44.71
L: 2.53
U: 17.83
L: 114.36
U: 215.43
42.59
L: 11.19
U: 589.23
L: 1.56
U: 1.92
18.97
L: 3.53
U: 7.87
L: 114.34
U: 263.34
14.36
L: 42.14
U: 440.76
L: 1.78
U: 2.64
L: 2.89
U: 11.11
Notes: unequal variances assumed, after some checks. After ANOVA, Scheffé multiple-comparison test has been performed.
Source: our calculations on POR (2009) and www.regionecalabria.it data.
- 50 -
(0.0000)
(0.0000)
(0.0001)
(0.0000)
-0.543
(0.5872)
6.8411
(0.0090)
0.295
(0.5873)
0.04
(0.8478)
-4.228
(0.0000)
139.727
(0.0000)
15.464
(0.0001)
64.52
(0.0000)
0.128
(0.8981)
95.8739
(0.0000)
0.016
(0.8981)
2.36
(0.1261)
-5.291
(0.0000)
283.861
(0.0000)
24.213
(0.0001)
47.98
(0.0000)
-0.370
(0.7111)
3.0113
(0.0830)
0.137
(0.7111)
0.14
(0.7050)
-3.990
(0.0001)
34.8061
(0.0000)
13.768
(0.0002)
26.23
(0.0000)
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
Table 4b. Paired Samples Statistics for all Calabrian municipalities (results for t-tests, ANOVA and other comparison methods)
1a. Cultural Sites (on per
capita payments)
1b. Cultural Sites (on
projects)
2a. Criminal Hubs (on per
capita payments)
2b. Criminal Hubs (on
projects)
3a. Province (on per capita
payments)
3b. Province (on projects)
4a. University (on per
capita payments)
4b. University (on
projects)
Groups
Mean
N
Standard
Error
Standard
Deviation
without
48.09
384
8.65
169.44
with
82.26
25
35.07
175.37
without
0.57
384
0.0758
1.49
with
3.52
25
0.7328
3.66
without
42.26
337
6.17
113.35
with
87.25
72
37.85
321.18
without
0.48
337
0.0492
0.9033
t
Degrees
of
Freedom
-0.95
27.00
-4.00
24.52
-1.17
74.82
95%
Confidence
Interval
L: 31.09
U: 65.09
L: 9.87
U: 154.65
L: 1.62
U: 2.42
L: 3.96
U: 9.45
L: 30.11
U: 54.40
72.84
L: 11.77
U: 162.72
L: 0.39
U: 0.58
-3.47
with
2.00
72
0.4338
3.68
No
50.32
404
8.50
170.80
Yes
38.51
5
14.72
32.91
No
0.6114
404
0.0554
1.11
Yes
12.00
5
3.41
7.62
without
50.81
393
8.73
173.05
with
34.75
16
8.91
35.63
without
0.5445
393
0.0504
1.00
0.69
7.10
-3.34
4.00
L: 1.14
U: 2.86
L: 33.62
U: 67.03
L: -2.35
U: 79.38
L: 0.50
U: 0.72
55.67
L: 2.54
U: 21.46
L: 33.64
U: 67.97
15.03
L: 15.76
U: 53.74
L: 0.45
U: 0.64
1.29
-3.46
- 51 -
Wilcoxon
test
Bartlett
test
KruskalWallis
test
One-Way
ANOVA F test
-4.940
(0.0000)
0.0537
(0.8170)
17.459
(0.0001)
0.95
(0.3301)
-6.801
(0.0000)
62.4212
(0.0000)
33.514
(0.0001)
71.14
(0.0000)
-3.236
(0.0012)
176.955
(0.0000)
7.491
(0.0062)
4.20
(0.0411)
-5.032
(0.0000)
333.825
(0.0000)
18.352
(0.0001)
44.91
(0.0000)
-2.439
(0.0147)
8.5875
(0.0000)
4.256
(0.0391)
0.02
(0.8774)
-4.496
(0.0000)
125.299
(0.0000)
14.649
(0.0001)
356.17
(0.0000)
-3.507
(0.0005)
32.0703
(0.0000)
12.299
(0.0005)
0.14
(0.7113)
-6.572
283.313
43.189
183.58
Journal of Environment Management and Tourism
5a. A&P (on per capita
payments)
with
5.81
16
1.52
6.08
witout
47.20
377
8.57
166.44
-1.02
with
85.26
32
36.25
205.04
without
0.5437
377
0.05
1.06
-3.05
5b. A&P (on projects)
6a. Museums (on per
capita payments)
with
3.19
32
0.87
4.90
without
41.92
357
6.74
127.38
with
106.86
52
46.74
337.05
without
0.4538
357
0.0431
0.82
-1.38
-4.02
34.56
L: 2.57
U: 9.05
L: 30.35
U: 64.05
31.25
L: 11.33
U: 159.18
L: 0.44
U: 0.65
53.14
L: 1.42
U: 4.95
L: 28.66
U: 55.18
51.57
L: 13.03
U: 200.70
L: 0.37
U: 0.54
18.20
L: 1.63
U: 3.95
L: 32.20
U: 65.76
17.22
L: 20.39
U: 172.87
L: 0.48
U: 0.80
6b. Museums (on projects)
7a. Councillor (on per
capita payments)
7b. Councillor (on
projects)
with
2.79
52
0.58
4.17
without
48.98
391
8.53
168.76
with
76.24
18
45.80
194.32
without
0.6394
391
0.0795
1.57
-0.59
-2.55
with
3.17
18
0.9877
4.19
L: 1.08
U: 5.25
Notes: unequal variances assumed, after some checks. After ANOVA, Scheffé multiple-comparison test has been performed.
Source: our calculations on POR (2009), and www.regionecalabria.it .
- 52 -
(0.0000)
(0.0000)
(0.0001)
(0.0000)
-4.272
(0.0000)
2.777
(0.0960)
18.250
(0.0001)
1.48
(0.2239)
-6.237
(0.0000)
282.235
(0.0000)
38.897
(0.0001)
71.94
(0.0000)
-4.814
(0.0000)
128.130
(0.0000)
23.175
(0.0001)
6.73
(0.0098)
-6.699
(0.0000)
410.994
(0.0000)
44.875
(0.0001)
89.49
(0.0000)
-2.382
(0.0172)
0.6938
(0.4050)
5.674
(0.0172)
0.44
(0.5060)
-3.896
(0.0001)
57.945
(0.0000)
15.182
(0.0001)
35.43
(0.0000)
Volume I Issue 3(3) Summer 2011
From an econometric perspective, we applied models for discrete dependent variables, which cannot be
modeled by linear regression. In models of Boolean response variables, or binary-choice models, the response
variable is coded as 1 or 0, corresponding to responses of true or false to a particular question.
Using a latent variable is a useful approach to such an econometric model. We can express the model as
=
+
(1)
where y* is an unobservable magnitude, which can be considered the net benefit to individual i of taking a
particular course of action (e.g., receiving POR funds). We cannot observe that net benefit, but we can observe
the outcome of the individual having the decision rule
= 0 if
= 1 if
<0
(2)
0
(3)
That is, we observe that the individual did (y=1) or did not (y=0) received POR funds in 2000. We speak of
y* as a latent variable, linearly related to a set of factors x and a disturbance process u.
In the latent model, we model the probability of an individual making each choice. Using (1) – (3), we have
Pr(y*>0|x) = Pr(y=1|x) = Ψ(
)
(4)
Pr(y=1|x) =
(5)
where Ψ(·) is a cumulative distribution function of the logistic distribution, and for the logit model it can be
expressed as in (5). For the probit model we have Φ(·), the standard normal c.d.f. logit and probit functions are
symmetric around zero, and are widely used in microeconometrics (Hilbe 2009, Train 2009, Archer, and
Lemeshow 2006, Long, and Freese 2006, Cameron, and Trivedi 2005, Cramer 2003, Hosmer Jr., and
Lemeshow 2000, Aldrich, and Nelson 1984).
The dataset contains variables that might represent a determinant of cultural funds allocation. Projects is
the number of approved projects; Votes is the electoral flows at regional elections; Nonprofit is the number of
nonprofit organizations of any kind of the given municipality; Province is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if
municipal is a Province, and equal to 0 otherwise; Health structures is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in
the municipal area insists at least one hospital, a nuthouse or a fitness centre, and equal to 0 otherwise;
University is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is an academic institution, and
equal to 0 otherwise; Nursery is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality has got a nursery, and
equal to 0 otherwise; Soccer is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is at least one
professional soccer team, and equal to 0 otherwise; A&P is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the
municipal area there is at least one airport or seaport, and equal to 0 otherwise; L&P is a dummy variable, that is
equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is at least one library or local publisher, and equal to 0 otherwise;
Museums is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if in the municipal area there is at least one museum, and equal
to 0 otherwise; Cultural hubs is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality might be considered as a
cultural hubs and equal to 0 otherwise; Criminal sites is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality
might be considered as a criminal hub according to Gratteri, and Nicaso (2007) classification, and equal to 0
otherwise; Councillor is a dummy variable, that is equal to 1 if the municipality has been represented by a
councillor as a member of Regional Government during the period 2000-2006, and equal to 0 otherwise.
The results of our estimates are shown in Table 5. We performed four different models (robust logit,
robust probit, robust complementary log-log regression and linear probability model). In fact, OLS model is likely
to produce point predictions outside the unit interval (Cameron, and Trivedi 2010, Baum 2006). Yet, as wellknown in micro-econometric literature, we will focus on the first two models. All regressors are statistically
different from zero at the 0.05 level. It‟s interesting to note that Health structures, Councillor, Nonprofit, L&P,
Province, Projects, Votes, Soccer and Nursery are not statistically significant, so we excluded these variables
from our final regressions. For the logit model, the sign of the coefficient is also the sign of the marginal effect.
The iteration log shows fast convergence in four iterations for all models, and this may signal the absence of
multicollinearity problem (Cameron, and Trivedi 2010, Rabe-Hesketh, and Skrondal 2008). Moreover, to avoid
53
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
heteroskedasticity effects, we applied the Huber, and White sandwich estimator.
We estimate the parameters of the logit and probit models by maximum likelihood and the LPM by OLS.
Coefficients can be compared across models, using the rough conversion factors presented in Amemiya (1981).
As for the specification tests, in the Stukel score test for asymmetric h-family logit model (Stukel 1988),
the null hypothesis of corrected model specification is not rejected. In the linktest (Pregibon 1980), the null
hypothesis that the conditional mean is correctly specified is not rejected. In fact, the coefficient of ŷ2 is zero.
Because the logit and probit models have the same numbers of parameters, we can compare them
choosing the model with the higher log-likelihood. The logit model has a log-likelihood of -232.11, which is higher
than -232.21 for probit. This favors the logit model, although the difference is very small.
In the matter of the goodness of fit, for the logit model Mc-Fadden‟s Pseudo-R2=0.1231, a value slightly
higher than that of the probit model (0.1228). While the Hosmer-Lemeshow specification test doesn‟t reject the
null hypothesis of correct specification, for both models, another measure of goodness of fit is the percentage of
correctly classified observations. This value is the same for logit and probit model (73.11%). Moreover, for both
models, the ratio 47/143, called the sensitivity measure, gives the fraction of observations with y=1 that are
correctly specified. The ratio 252/266, called the specificity measure, gives the fraction of observations with y=0
that are correctly specified. The ratios 14/266 and 96/143 are referred to as the false positive and false negative
classification error rates.
Although the probit coefficients‟ magnitudes differ considerably from their logit counterparts, the marginal
effects at the multivariate point of means are similar to those computed after logit regression. Marginal effects
expressing the effect of an infinitesimal change in x on the probability of a positive outcome, evaluated ate the
multivariate point of means. Not surprisingly, the effect of all regressors increases the likelihood that the
municipal will receive funds. The marginal effects imply that municipal with an academic institution have a 39.5%
higher probability of receiving cultural funds; municipal with an airport or a seaport have a 33.9% higher
probability to catch some financings; whereas a marginal change in museums is associated with a 19.8% in
participation.
54
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Table 5. Regression Analysis, POR-Calabria (2000-2006): marginal effects
Constant
Cultural sites
Museums
University
Criminal hubs
A&P
Number of obs.
Wald χ2 test
RMSE
Log-Likelihood
Pseudo R2
% of correctly classified
Sensitivity Measure
Specificity Measure
BIC
AIC
Hosmer-Lemeshow
g.o.f. test
Stukel test
Robust Logit Modela
Robust
Probit
Modela
-1.0577***
(.1300)
1.6003**
(.7313)
.7581**
(.3899)
1.7182**
(.7458)
.5231*
(.2988)
1.4495***
(.5343)
409
39.6284
(.0000)
-232.4544
0.1219
73.59
32.87%
95.49%
500.9911
476.9088
14.65
(0.6208)
0.17
(0.6844)
f.v. significant
(f.v.)2 not
significant
-
-.6492***
(.0769)
.9112**
(.3970)
.4649**
(.2373)
1.0724**
(.4365)
.3301*
(.1821)
.8315***
(.3050)
409
44.7801
(.0000)
-232.5813
0.1214
73.11
32.87%
95.49%
501.2449
477.1626
14.82
(0.6083)
0.10
(0.7549)
f.v. significant
(f.v.)2 not
significant
-
Robust
Complementary loglog
Regression
-1.1965***
(.1091)
.8947**
(.3699)
.5584**
(.2606)
1.2252***
(.3878)
.4697**
(.2111)
.8030**
(.3187)
409
56.6432
(.0000)
-232.9204
-
Linear
Probability
Model
501.9231
477.8408
-
.2653***
(.0249)
.2430**
(.1014)
.1737**
(.0830)
.2033**
(.1044)
.1036
(.0651)
.2710***
(.0907)
409
23.49b
(.0000)
0.4437
-244.9292
0.1365c
525.9408
501.8585
-
-
-
f.v. significant
(f.v.)2 significant at
10% level
2.58
Ramsey o.v. test
(0.0534)
Area under ROC curve
0.6630
0.6631
2
Notes: a: Huber, and White sandwich estimator; b: F-test; c: R adj. Significance levels: * 10%, ** 5%, *** 1% (Robust
Standard Errors in parenthesis).
Link test
f.v. significant
(f.v.)2 not
significant
Source: our calculations.
As regarding the fitted probabilities, the difference between logit and probit models might be small,
especially over the middle portion of the distribution. On the other hand, the fitted probabilities from the LPM
estimated by OLS may be substantially different.
Table 6. Fitted probabilities of our four estimated models
Variable
POR
Pr_logit
Pr_probit
Pr_cloglog
Pr_LPM
Number of
observations
409
409
409
409
409
Standard
Deviation
0.4774
0.1885
0.1869
0.1835
0.1831
Mean
0.3496
0.3496
0.3495
0.3494
0.3496
Source: our calculations.
55
Minimum
Maximum
0
0.2578
0.2581
0.2609
0.2653
1
0.9933
0.9985
0.9999
1.2599
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
As shown in Table 6, the mean and the standard deviation are essentially the same in the four cases, but
the range of the fitted values from the LPM includes seven inadmissible values outside the [0,1] interval.
4. Concluding Remarks and Policy Implications
As the empirical analysis show, there is a significant statistical relation between the presence of non
profits in the different municipalities and the allocation of the projects both as for their imports and payments. But
considering the municipalities that received funds the regression show a negative relation with the amount per
capita. Likely the competition among these rent seekers has reduced the per capita amounts of the funds
received in their municipalities, in the attempt of public authorities of accommodating most of them to the table of
the beneficiaries. Thus one may argue that rent seeking of the local pressure groups has been an important
factor in the dispersion of funds, which also results in the deviation from their proper objectives of promoting the
important cultural sites and of employing them in cultural projects that may function as attractor of tourism.
Criminal hubs are relevant as for the choice of the municipalities‟ beneficiaries of the funds, and their
inhabitants have received a greater per capita amount of funds than those of the other municipalities. However
this is not true at the payment level. The spread between allocation and payments was realized in the investment
projects, which mostly consisted of constructions. They, in this way, extracted a greater benefit from their rent
seeking activity, because minimized their co-financing. On the other hand, there is no relation between the
important presence of major cultural sites in the criminal hubs and the differential allocation of projects to them.
Criminal hubs without major cultural sites received more per capita funds than the criminal hubs hosting major
cultural sites. Likely the explanation is that rent seeking by criminal organizations was preferentially developed
outside the constraints of the controls of the cultural public authorities.
In any case the Region has not promoted a policy for the enhancement of the cultural level of the criminal
hubs. While there is no significant statistical relation between the municipalities of residence of the members of
the centre-right or the centre-left Juntas, rent seeking appears to emerge as for the significant difference in the
allocation of funds by the two Regional Governments. The centre-right Government spent the funds for
investment projects mostly in construction. This industry is a most important one in a region as Calabria and it is
likely to exert a particular influence on a centre-right political coalition. The centre-left Government devoted the
funds to service projects and the unemployment of both unskilled labor and intellectual labor is another
characteristic of the region .And employment policy is a priority for governments leaning to the left. It should be
noted that this increase of employment is only temporary and that the investment policies in cultural projects
were to a large extent wasted because a share of them remained unfinished and because no priority ad been
observed on the allocation of the funds. Indeed, as noted, no statistical relation has been found between the
allocation of the funds and the major cultural sites and even between the preferential allocation of the funds to
the criminal hubs and the important cultural sites present in them.
Finally, discrete choice analysis show that municipal with an academic institution have a 39.5% higher
probability of receiving cultural funds; municipal with an airport or a seaport have a 33.9% higher probability to
catch some financings; whereas a marginal change in museums is associated with a 19.8% in participation.
5. Suggestions for Future Researches
There is a strong need for further research as for rent seeking in the allocation of European Structural
Funds in general, and in Italy in particular. Indeed, as the literature shows to a large extent, these ambitious
programs failed their convergence objective particularly in the underdeveloped regions of advanced countries
like Italy. And likely one of the main reasons of this failure it is that this type of planning may give origin to rent
seeking and related waste of resources.
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ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND THE CHALLENGES OF TOURISM
PATRONAGE IN THE OBUDU RANCH RESORT NIGERIA
Pius B. UTANG
Department of Geography and Environmental Management
University of Port Harcourt
[email protected]
Lydia A. ADIE
Department of Geography and Environmental Management
University of Port Harcourt
Abstract
Spatial reorganization in the Obudu Ranch has been massive since the last decade and this meant accelerated
changes to the biophysical milieu. This study sought to examine the reorganizational outcomes and changes in the
biophysical attractions as they relate to visitation (patronage). Patronage pattern was examined; observed spatial changes
highlighted; specific attractions and the observed changes identified; and relationship between environmental change and
patronage established. Data on vegetation change, patronage and physical infrastructure development in temporal context
were used. Also obtained was data on specific attractions and observed physical changes by respondents. Geographic
analysis was based on thematic maps, while statistical analyses were descriptive (including percentages, column and line
graphs) and inferential statistics (time series, using least square regression, and chi square) were employed. Findings
indicated that tourism, particularly international visitation, to the ranch followed a declining trend during the ten years of data,
and this trend or change was significant over time. Environmental changes appear to influence patronage as reported by the
tourists and indigenous population, while no difference existed between the tourist providers, tourists and local population on
the relationship between environmental change and tourism patronage. Deemphasizing further expansion and
encouragement of public mass transport and the cable car were some of the recommendations. Also recommended were
education on energy efficiency and less dependence on fuel wood, which triggers deforestation.
Keywords: Challenges, Environmental change, Patronage, Resort, Spatial reorganization, tourism
1. Introduction
Environmental quality and sustainability are fundamental to man‟s overall well-being and development
hence the degradation and transformation/reorganization of the physical environment either reduces or
enhances its quality and sustainability. Tourism is an economic, industrial activity in which many individuals, firms
and other organizations as well as government are engaged and which is directly concerned with and influences
the biophysical and socioeconomic milieu.
Tourism development has the potential to sustain the environment, which constitutes the impetus for its
development (WTO 1983). It also has the potential to destroy the once pristine environment. These interactions
and possible impacts appear to be over-looked by the development strides as considerations of tourism
development impacts have concentrated on the positive dimension such as job creation, increased foreign
earnings and revenue generation, preservation of aesthetics and environmental conservation and protection
(Aniah et al. 2006).
The first major source of environmental stress resulting from tourism development is permanent
restructuring of the environment brought about by a variety of major construction activities such as urban
development, construction of roads, etc (Pearce 1992, Matheison, and Wall 1993). Urban development on the
Obudu Ranch has been growing alarmingly and the positive side of this, such as the immediate and medium
term socioeconomic upliftment, has been the drive for all of these. This study focuses on the motivations for
tourism on the ranch, the changes in these environmental drivers and the probable implication for tourism
patronage.
The Underlying Research Impetus
The environmental aspects of the constructions and usage of facilities provided for tourism are quite
variable and complex and could result to various forms of environmental changes, such as severe erosion,
biodiversity loss, loss of stream sheds distortion of hydrological regime and attenuation of local air quality (Aniah
et al. 2006, Stoud 1983).
The Obudu Ranch area has witnessed tremendous spatial reorganization over the years, which involved
the removal of vegetation and replacement with built-up area, occasioned by the extensive as well as intensive
urbanized development. The hitherto thick forest with deep wooded valleys and rolling grassland and shrubs,
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
have been taken over largely by urban development. The change in the land-use pattern of the ranch as seen
over time in figures 1-3, implies changes in other aspects of the environment, which are attractions for tourism
development. For instance the Ranch has been noted for very cool temperature and high cloudiness, a plethora
of cascading streams (being a significant watershed in the region). Akpet (2001) in Aniah et al. (2006) recorded a
temperature of about 29.40C between June and September, the highest rainfall of about 76.2cm in August, the
relative humidity ranging up to 90% during the rainy season and the lowest ranging from 50-55% during the dry
season. The average sunshine per day between October and February is five hours and falls to two hours during
the rainy season. He noted that the ranch usually experiences intense harmattan period, which often mellows
down due to the foggy nature of the plateau.
Several factors including changes in scenic attraction, local weather and climate and an upheaval in the
global climate system can cause the collapse of the tourism industry (Boodhoo 2005). Lohman, and Kaim (1999)
found out that landscape was the most important aspect even before price considerations, while weather and
bio-climate were ranked third and eight respectively for all destinations.
Hu, and Ritchie (1993) in Scot et al. (2001) in their study also measured the importance of destination
characteristics reviewing several studies from the 1970s and found that natural beauty and climate are of
universal importance in defining destination attractiveness. Preliminary survey of different categories of people
on attractions to the Ranch indicates a hierarchy of environmental motivators as shown in table 1.
Weather and climate for instance, have a strong and direct influence on tourism and recreation sector and
at the same time tourism development and patronage has influence on the microclimate (Scott et al. 2005,
Mendelson, and Markowsi 1999, Parker 2001). Changing climate conditions and consequent environmental
changes may reduce the attractiveness of some destinations leading to reduction in patronage.
Table 1. Environmental Attraction by distribution of respondents
Options
Weather/Climate
Vegetation
Landform
Natural annuals
Water falls
Total
Percentage of respondents (%)
Tourist s
Service providers
50.00
28.57
14.28
17.14
14.28
28.57
7.14
11.43
14.28
14.28
100.00
100.00
Villagers (host community)
25.71
8.57
31.43
17.14
17.14
100.00
Source: Field survey 2010
Generally, attractions are the fundamental reasons why prospective visitors choose one destination over
another and since they are the primary elements of destination appeal, they are the key motivators for visitation
to destinations (Crouch, and Ritchie 1999).
Studies have justified that tourist respond strongly to environmental changes (see Uyara et al. 2004,
Richardson, and Loomis 2004, Agnew, and Palutikof 2001, Madison 2001, Scott et al. 2001). Uyara et al. (2004)
for example noted that eight percent (8%) of tourists indicated that they would not be willing to revisit holiday
islands for the same price if their preferred environmental features are affected negatively. The situation on the
Obudu ranch cannot be very different; hence changes in biophysical attractions would change the patronage of
the Obudu cattle Ranch.
Considering the level of environmental change already existing in the Obudu Ranch resort, such as,
vegetation change as well as changes in the River network and weather pattern, one issue is the willingness of
the tourists both total and foreign to revisit the Ranch and pay the same amount for services rendered to them.
The local tourists might still be willing to revisit since the man-made attractions such as the beautiful
house patterns, sculptures and road network form part of their motivating factors. Foreign tourists who are the
major contributors to the nation‟s foreign exchange earnings, might not be willing to revisit since these manmade attractions are not their motivating factors, such beautiful aesthetics works are what they see every day in
their country of origin, their main attractions are usually the natural attractions which are the most affected by
environmental change. The loss of environmental quality no doubt results in reduction in patronage, hence
foreign exchange earnings attrition, which adversely affects the nation‟s economy.
Issues raised for this study revolve around the extent of environmental change in the Obudu cattle Ranch
Resort; the level patronage in temporal context and how environmental change could affect the patronage
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Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
volume of the Obudu cattle Ranch tourism; and how future changes in the environment influences and would
influence the willingness of tourists to pay for services on the Ranch? The objectives of this are to: identify
whether there is observed changes in the natural landscape attributes that could directly or indirectly alter the
attractions of weather; determine the pattern/trend in tourism patronage over time; and relate the observed
patronage pattern to changes in spatial organization.
This study is based on the hypotheses that the Level of tourism patronage on the Obudu cattle Ranch
has not significantly changed in temporal context; and that there is no relationship between observed trend in
patronage and environmental change in Obudu cattle Ranch Resort.
Materials and Methods
Data was collected through a direct field visit to the Obudu cattle Ranch Resort-using questionnaires with
both open and closed ended questions, complemented by personal interviews and direct field observation. The
questionnaire issues were concerned with respondents‟ personal observation/experiences regarding
environmental changes, pattern of patronage over time, willingness to pay/revisit etc. Records of patronage
volume over a ten years period (2000-2009) was obtained from the resort gate and hotel facilities. In addition,
records of physical development structures and the sizes after 1999 were obtained from the tourism bureau,
while continuous data on vegetation change was obtained from aerial photographs, orthophotomaps and goggle
earth.
There are six villages located at the top of the mountain, namely, Okpazange, Kejiokwu Okwomu,
Akpajile, Kegol and the Anape, with the Range urban having a mix of visitors, tourist providers and those
engaged in government work and ancillary tourism formal/informal services. These form the target for the survey.
The age limit of 20yrs and above and residing or have been visiting the ranch over last ten years was
considered appropriate for the study, while only the literate population was sampled for survey. The age bracket
and residency time was considered most appropriate because of the assumption of better experience of the
environment.
A total of one hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered to individuals and groups which were
randomly selected with the assistance of key informants who were village heads, government officials and
tourism providers. 80 questionnaires were administered to the tourists 45 to the villagers and 25 to the Ranch
workers. This was estimated based on the proportion of the estimated population and convenience. However,
three communities were sampled randomly, but the systematic random sampling technique was used in the
administration of the questionnaires. For the visitors, those who were readily present were administered the
questionnaires instrument, while the remaining for intending visitors, a total of 50 questionnaires were left at the
Ranch‟s toll gate for visitors to fill and return. These set of questionnaires were collected during the third visit that
was after three month. The statistical tools employed in the analysis of data in this research were descriptive and
inferential. Descriptive tools were percentages and graphical representation. Inferential statistical tools were time
series based on least square regression methods, and Chi square non parametric technique for determining the
level of variation between the three categories of respondents on the perception of environmental change impact
on tourism patronage.
2. Results and Discussion
a. Attractions and tourism motivation
The summary of respondents‟ view on these variables is presented in Table 4 and 5.
Table 2. Perceived tourism attractions
Options
Climate/weather
Vegetation
Landform
Natural annuals
Water falls
Total
Percentage of respondents (%)
Tourist s
Service providers
50.00
28.57
14.28
17.14
14.28
28.57
7.14
11.43
14.28
14.28
100.00
100.00
Source: Field survey 2010
63
Villagers (host community)
25.71
8.57
31.43
17.14
17.14
100.00
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
From Table 2, about 50% of tourists, 28.57% of service providers and 25.71% of the villagers from the
host community perceived the weather/climate as their preferred attractions; 14.28% tourists, 17.14% service
providers and 8.57% villagers has vegetation as attraction; 14.28% tourists and service providers respectively
and 31.43% villagers attraction is the landform; 7.14% tourists, 11.43% service providers and 17.14% villagers
attraction is the natural animals. 14.28% tourists and service providers as well as 17.14% villagers has the water
falls as attraction indicating that the greater part of the sampled population are attracted to the ranch by its
weather/climatic conditions.
b. Pattern/trend in tourism patronage
This was taken from 1999 to 2009 and the monthly pattern for total, international and domestic patronage
are described graphically as shown in figs 1 - 3. The annual totals (time series) for the ten year period are also
described using graphs as shown in figs 4 - 6, and further subjected to least square regression analysis. The
monthly and annual trends are smoothed using the two period moving averages.
Figure 1. Monhly Total patronages (international and Domestic), 2000-2009
Figure 2. Monthly international patronage
The results as described in Figures 1-3 show that total patronage in the Obudu Ranch is high from
November to April, with peaks in December, January and April. The volume of international tourists on the other
hand is highly irregular, with peaks which vary considerably over the years. The smoothed monthly trend
however indicates that the trend follows the total patronage trend rising from November to December, up to
January, but declines from February, with a mid peak in August. The rise in November to January is accounted
64
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
for by the Christmas festival and the recent introduction of the Obudu Mountain race. The unsmoothed trend
however shows a rise in April accounted for by the Easter celebration.
Figure 3. Monthly Domestic patronage
Same goes for the Domestic patronage which begins to rise from November and gets to its peak in
December and begins to reduce from January due to the return of tourists to their destinations and rises again in
April all accounted for by festivity.
The highest patronage however was recorded in December 2001 with 4,240 and in December 2007 with
4,042 visitors, while in December 2008 patronage reduced to 3,065 and 2,729 in December 2009 indicating a
reduction in patronage which could be as a result of alteration in attractions
This trend follows a seasonality pattern indicating that seasons and festivals control the flow of patronage
in the Ranch as graphically represented. Winter periods are more patronized, coupled with festive period. The
total annual trend is graphical shown in Figures 4 - 6.
Figure 4. Yearly total patronage
65
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Figure 5. Yearly international patronage
Figure 6. Yearly domestic patronage
Table 3.Time series of patronage (least square method)
R
Domestic
International
Both
R2
F1 Change
.369
.560
.416
.136
.314
.173
Sig. F
1.260
3.659
1.674
.294
.092
.232
Table 3 shows that there is a significant relationship between patronage and the time. That is tourism
patronage has significantly changed, although with a low correlation. The F result and Sig F results show
significant relationship between time and patronage (calculated value > table value). However a higher
association exists between time and international patronage. A combination of both domestic and international
patronage also shows a relatively high patronage with time. To justify the level of effect of time on patronage or
the extent to which patronage has changed with time during the period of the study, linear Regression carried out
shows the following result.
66
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
DP = 20784.88 - .369T………….. (1)
t = (18.965) (-1.122)
Sig t = (.000)
(.294)
Int P = 1543.933 - .560T…………. (2)
t = (9.399)
(-1.913)
Sig t = (.000)
(0.092)
BP =.22304 .200 - .416T…………. (3)
t = (18844) (-1.274)
Sig t = (.000)
(.232)
International patronage alone indicates a weak trend or relationship between time and patronage. The
trend is negative indicating a reduction in patronage.
This is however not significant given Sig t less than 0.10. International patronage alone shows a high
trend. This is also negative but statistically significant. The t value is less than 0.10 hence the regression model
is not reliable, it requires longer time data to justify the relationship.
c. Changes in physical characteristics
From table 4, development on ranch was intensive in the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 while ion of the a
few projects were carried out in 1999, 2004 and 2008 and these declivities account for most of the environmental
change types which has resulted to a great change in the land use pattern of the Ranch. As observed from the
maps of 1976, 2002 and that of year 2009, there has been increased loss of most areas covered by forest and
vegetation with the areas now occupied by roads, buildings and various facilities. This is a manifestation that the
tourism industry in the Obudu hills is expanding fast.
Table 4. Projects and dimensions in temporal context
Year project Commissioned
Number with size
commissioned
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Yet to be commissioned
Total
Estimated area of the Ranch
3
1
4
0
4
1
0
0
1
14
67
Total Size project
(m2)
402.8
121.9
34990.84
0
1528.49
6.73
0
0
674
37724.74
104000 (104km2)
Project with size not
given
0
0
2
0
4
0
0
1
0
7
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
9° 2 1'38"
9° 2 2 '37 "
6° 2 4 '35 "
6° 2 4 '35 "
Ana pe
#
Y
0.2 0 0.2 0.4 Km
6° 2 3'36"
6° 2 3'36"
Legend
Roa d
Ra nch R esort
#
Y
#
Y
Se ttlem ent
6° 2 2 '37 "
6° 2 2 '37 "
Vegetation Types
Bech eve
#
Y
Bu ilt-up A re a
Ba re roc k
Farmlan d
Gra s slan d
Fores t
9° 2 1'38"
Fig.
9° 2 2 '37 "
Figure 7. Vegetation Map of Obudu Ranch Resort
Vegetation Map of Obudu Ranch Resort
Source: 1976 Air Photos
SOURCE: 1976 Air Photos
68
Map Pro duce d by Bridg et Nko r
Ca rt o U nit F orestr y C om m issio n
Ca la ba r
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Vegetation types and Total area over time
9° 2 1 '3 8"
9° 2 2 '3 7 "
6° 2 4 '3 5 "
6° 2 4 '3 5 "
Ana pe
#
Y
0.2
0
0.2 0.4 Km
6° 2 3 '3 6 "
6° 2 3 '3 6 "
Legend
R oa d
Ra nch R esor t
#
Y
#
Y
Se ttl em ent
6° 2 2 '3 7 "
6° 2 2 '3 7 "
Vegetati on T ypes
Bech eve
#
Y
Bu ilt-up A re a
Ba re roc k
F arml an d
Gra s sl an d
F ores t
9° 2 1 '3 8"
Fig.
9° 2 2 '3 7 "
Figure 7. Vegetation Map of Obudu Ranch Resort
Vegetation Map of Obudu Ranch Resort
Map Pr o duce d by Br idg et Nko r
Ca rt o U nit F or estr y C om m issio n
Ca la ba r
Source:
2002 Air 2002
PhotosLandsat Imagery
SOURCE:
Built – up area
Bare rock
Farmland
Grassland
Forest
Total
-
1976
0.23km2
1.37km2
0.33km2
0.95km2
3.87km2
6.75km2
2002
0.92km2
1.89km2
0.72km2
1.23km2
1.99km2
6.75km2
changes observed
0.69km2
0.52km2
0.39km2
0.28km2
-1.88km2
As at year 2002 the land use area of the Obudu Cattle Ranch has changed tremendously. The built up
area has increased from 0.23km2 to 0.92km2 an increase of 0.69km2. The Bare Rock from 1.37km2 to 1.8km2 a
difference of 0.52km2. Farmland increased by 0.39km2, grassland area increased from 0.95km2 to 1.23km2 an
increase of 0.28km2. The most affected is the forest area which has decreased by more than 50%.
69
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
A reduction in forest vegetation generates a climate problem as deforestation leads to increase in
temperature extremes indicating a rise in climate condition of the exposed area. Deforestation also generates a
hydrology problem and affects biodiversity. In the former, most rivers dry up as a result of exposure to direct sunrays, clean water and clean air is also destroyed by deforestation. The later occurs as deforestation destroys the
environment which in turn puts the plants and animal in that area in specter of extinction.
The maps indicate increase in grassland area, bare rock, built up areas and farmland but a reduction in
forest areas due to developmental activities. A reduction in forest area generates climate, hydrological and
biodiversity problems, when vegetation is removed the land is exposed to increase in temperature, and increase
temperature results to a rise in the climate condition, which has led to the temperature of the Obudu ranch rising
from cooler to warmer conditions. Reduction in forest area also generates hydrological problem as most streams
dry up when exposed to direct sun rays. This is the situation in Obudu cattle ranch as most streams within the
premises are dried up.
Table 5 shows that the most observed environmental change by the sample population is the climate
change with 50% of the tourists, 34.29% villagers and 28.57% service providers testifying to it. This is followed
by vegetation change which has 28.57% tourists and service providers respectively, and 22.86% villagers opting
for it. Only 11.43% service providers agree that there is change in landform. 7.14% tourists, 14.29% service
providers and villagers respectively agree that population of natural animals has reduced and for water falls
14.29% tourists, 17.14% service providers and 28.54% villagers agree that there are changes in surface
hydrology.
Respondents’ perception of environmental change
Table 5. Showing perceived type of changes observed
Options
Climate change
Vegetation change
Landform change
Changes in population of wild animals
Surface hydrology change
Total
Percentage of respondents (%)
Tourist s
Service poviders
50.00
28.57
28.57
28.57
11.43
7.14
14.29
14.29
17.14
100.00
100.00
Villagers host community
34.29
22.86
14.29
28.56
100.00
Source: Field survey 2010
Table 6. Showing the extent of climate change
Options
High (hotter)
Low (cooler)
Total
Percentage of respondents (%)
Tourists
Service providers
85.71
85.71
14.29
14.29
100.00
100.00
Villagers (host community)
91.43
8.57
100.00
Source: Field survey 2010
Table 6 confirms that climate change is the most notable. The climatic condition of the ranch is changing
from cooler to hotter. 85.71% tourists as well as 85.71% of service providers and 91.43% agree to this, while
only 14.29% tourists, 14.29% service providers and 8.5% of the villagers state that the changing climate is from
hotter to cooler.
3. Conclusion
Increased economic activities will lead to increased levels of leisure travel both domestically and
internationally as more citizens of the world discover the enjoyment that comes from tourism activities. Further to
this, increasing participation in travel will drive the development of new facilities and services. This could lead to
the acceleration of environmental change if these activities are added without environmental consideration as
70
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
well as the carrying capacity of the environment. The findings of this study show that there are possible
relationships and effects of environmental change on tourism development and patronage.
The Obudu Ranch resort, which has a high volume of foreign tourists‟ patronage, is likely to lose most of
these tourists because of the accelerated change which might alter the natural attractions of the resort. The
resort is presently one of best preferred destination in Nigeria by these foreign tourists and is the main
contributors to the state as well as national foreign exchange earnings.
The local tourists might still be willing to come for the sake of the structures and super-structures which
might serve as attractions to them but the foreign tourists see these facilities and infrastructure as not uncommon
as these are experienced every day in their country of origin. The loss of foreign tourist will lead to a drop in
income and foreign exchange. The need for caution in massive development characterized by landscape
changes is imperative. These changes would further trigger the already fragile environmental (climate)
deterioration, which threatens sustainable tourism.
References
[1] Agnew, M.D, and Palutikof, J.P. 2001. Climate impact on the demand of tourism in international society of
Biometeorology Proceedings of the first Int‟l workshop on Climate, tourism and Recreation.
[2] Aniah, E.J., Utang, P.B., and Adalikwu, P. 2006. Vulnerability of nature-based tourism to urban induced
climate variation: awareness and the imperatives of a microclimate station in the Obudu Ranch resort,
Nigeria. Tropical Focus, 8 (2): 17-31.
[3] Boodhoo, I. 2005. The value of weather, climate in information and productions to the tourism industry in
small island state and low lying areas. Meterological services Vacoas Mountains.
[4] Crouch, G.I., and Ritchie, J.R.B. 1999. Tourism competitiveness and societal prosperity. Journal of Business
Research 44:137-15 2.
[5] Lohma, M., and Kaim, B. 1999. Weather and holiday preference: image, attitude and experience. The
Tourism Review, 2: 36-64.
[6] Maddison, D.J. 2001. In Search of Warmer Climatic, the impact of climate change on flows of British tourist
climate chase 49:103-208.
[7] Mathieson, A., and Wall, G. 1993. Tourism Economic, Physical and Social impacts. Essex Longman Scientific
and Technical.
[8] Nebo, F. 2002. Sustainable Tourism, Environmental Protection and Natural Resource Managernent. Paradise
on Earth. Paper submitted to the international Colloquium on regional governance and sustainable
development in tourism driven economics Cancun Mexico 20-22 February.
[9] Mendelson, R., and Markowski, M. 1999. The impact of climate change on outer door recreation in the impact
of climate change on the U.S Economy R.O. Mendelson and I.E Neumann Cambridge Cambridge University
Press pp 267- 288.
[10] Parker, P. 2001. Physio Economics; the basis for longrun Economic growth, Cambridge the M.T. Press.
[11] Pearce, C.D. 1992. Tourism Development, New York Longman Scientific and Technical and John Willey
Planning, policy and Research department 2006. Calabar, cross Rivers Tourism Bureau.
[12] Richardson, R.B., and Loomis, J.B. 2004. Ecological Economics. 50: (83-99).
[13] Scott, D., Janes. B, and Whaled, H.A. 2005. The venerability of tourism and recreation in the National
Capital region to climate Technical report to the government of Canada‟s climate Aclion fund (impacts and
adaptations programme).
[14] Strand, H.B. 1983. Environmental Problem associated with large recreational sub-divisions. Professional
Geographer 35, (3) 303-313.
[15] Uyara, M.C. 2004. Island Specific Preferences of Tourist for environmental features implications of climate
change for tourism development states.
[16] World Tourism Organization (WTO). 1983. Study of tourism contribution to protecting the environment;
Madrid, World tourism organization.
71
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Programs and Publications
 Upcoming Events …
 Journals …
 Conferences Proceedings …
 Books Collections ….
72
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Upcoming Events …
„Global Trends in Finance’
Online Conference, 25th October, 2011
The annual conference of ASERS dedicated to finances intends to become an important forum for the
exchange of research findings and ideas. Our international Conference is a platform where Financial Sciences
and research can integrate with industry and policy. The conference welcomes papers that discuss the latest
developments in global finance research and application.
The conference provides a forum for disseminating new research findings, practices and techniques in the field
of finances, in general, and in global finance, in special.
This conference would encourage the young generation to pursue research interests in the all the areas
of finance to be considered for presentation at the Fist On line International Conference on „Global Trends in
Finance‟. Academicians and researchers are invited to share their unpublished research findings in all areas
mentioned below, but are not limited to:
■Monetary Economics,
■Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue,
■Money and Interest Rates,
■Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents,
■Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of
■ Currency Issues/ Manipulations/ Single World
Money and Credit,
Currency,
■Banking and Financial Services /Investment
■ Entrepreneurship/Venture Capital,
Banking,
■ Emerging Markets and Privatization,
■Country Risk/Debt Issues,
■Financial Accounting, Regulation and Taxation,
■ Insurance/Reinsurance,
■Financial Crises: Causes, Impacts, Solutions,
■Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance,
■Financial Engineering/ Derivatives/ Structured
■International Finance,
Finance,
■Macroeconomic aspects of Finance,
■Financial Information Technology and Systems,
■ Volatility Determination, Transmission and Risk
■Multinational Financial Management,
Management,
■Working Capital and Treasury Management,
■ General Financial Markets,
■Market Integration and Interest Rates,
■Financial Institutions and Services,
■ Valuation/Pricing,
■Corporate Finance and Governance,
■ Public Finance.
All the papers will be reviewed and published in the Conference e-Proceeding under an ISBN reference
on CD. The Proceeding will be indexed and listed in various reference search engines. The best papers selected
by the International Scientific Committee will be published in Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance
http://www.asers.eu/journals/jasf.html after a double-blind peer-reviewing and the payment of 150€ as
submission fee charged by the journal. Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance, currently indexed in CEEOL,
RePEc, EBSCO, ProQuest and IndexCopernicus.
Important Dates:
25th September, 2011 – Abstract submission deadline;
5th October, 2011 – Notification of acceptance/rejection;
10th October, 2011 – Deadline for payments (100€ for attendance at the Conference);
15th October, 2011 – Full paper submission in MS Word and PowerPoint format;
25th October, 2011 – Online International Conference.
General Chair: PhD Rajmund Mirdala,Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Economics
73
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
“Sustainable Tourism Development“
Online Conference, 25 November, 2011
Association for Sustainable Education, Research and Science has the honour to invite you to invite you to
participate at the 2th Online International Conference on “The challenges of sustainable tourism development
in time of climate change” in 25th November, 2011.
The conference provides a forum for disseminating new research findings, practices and techniques in
sustainable tourism, tourism management, and tourism marketing. This on-line conference brings together
people who can propose a vision of a greener tourism, a more sustainable tourism, to help more in keeping a
clean and durable planet.
Academicians and researchers are invited to share their unpublished research findings in all areas
mentioned below, but are not limited to:
 The sustainable tourism;
 The tourism management;
 Green tourism;
 Environmental Taxes and Subsidies; Environmental, Health, and Safety Law;
 Natural Resources; Energy and Environment;
 Environment and Economic Growth;
 Environmental and Ecological Economics;
 Sustainable Development;
 Renewable Resources and Conservation;
 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation;
 Valuation of Environmental Effects;
 Pollution Control Adoption Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects;
 Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling;
 Climate; Natural Disasters; Global Warming;
 Technological Innovation;
 Environmental Protection Technologies (water, air, and soil);
 Pollution Reduction at Source and Waste Minimization;
 Simulation and Optimization for Environmental Protection;
 Environment and Development;
 Environment and Trade;
 Sustainability;
 Environmental Accounts and Accounting;
 Environmental Equity; Population Growth;
 Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology;
 Mathematics Models of Environmental Processes;
 Risk Management;
 Environmental Economics;
 Environmental Management and Health;
 Environmental Education and Sustainable Development;
 Environmental Strategies and Policies, Government Policy.
We invite to submission original research contributions describing new results, original ideas and
applications related to the topics of the conference. Papers should be submitted electronically at this e-mail
address [email protected] in MS Word and also in PowerPoint (see Instructions for Authors).
74
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
All the papers will be reviewed and published in the Conference Proceeding under an ISBN reference on
CD. The Proceeding will be indexed and listed in various reference search engines. The best papers selected by
the Program Committee will be published in Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism
(http://www.asers.eu/journals/jemt.html) after a double-blind peer-reviewing and the payment of 150€ as
submission fee charged by the journal.
Important Dates:
25 October, 2011 - Abstract submission deadline;
5 November, 2011 - Notification of acceptance/rejection;
10 November, 2011 - Deadline for payments (100€ for attendance at the Conference);
15 November, 2011 - Full paper submission in MS Word and PowerPoint format;
25 November, 2011 – Online International Conference.
General Chair:
PhD Cristina BARBU
Spiru Haret University, Romania
Co-Chair:
Marin CRUCERU
Spiru Haret University, Romania
75
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Journals …
Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics –
Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD Mădălina Constantinescu
Co-Editors: PhD Russell Pittman and PhD Eric Langlais
Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics provides
readers with high quality and empirical research in law and
economics. The Journal publishes analytical studies on the impact of
legal interventions into economic processes by legislators, courts and
regulatory agencies. Finally, important developments and topics in
law and economics analysis will be documented and examined in
special issues dedicated to that subject. The journal is edited for
readability; lawyers and economists, scholars and specialized
practitioners count among its readers.
Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, starting
with its first issue, is indexed in RePEC, IndexCopernicus, CEEOL
and EBSCO databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/jarle.html
E-mail: [email protected]
Journal of Advanced Research in Management Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD Andy Ştefănescu
Co-Editor: PhD Rajesh K. Pillania
The Journal aims to serve researchers, scholars through prompt
publications of significant advances in any branch of management
science, and to provide a forum for the reporting and discussion of
news and issues concerning management science.
Journal of Advanced Research in Management starting with its first
issue is indexed in RePEC, IndexCopernicus, and EBSCO
databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/jarm.html
E- mail: [email protected]
Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance – Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD. Laura Ştefănescu
Co-Editor: PhD Rajmund Mirdala
The Journal aims to publish empirical or theoretical articles which
make significant contributions in all areas of finance, such as: asset
pricing, corporate finance, banking and market microstructure, but
also newly developing fields such as law and finance, behavioural
finance, and experimental finance. The Journal will serves as a focal
point of communication and debates for its contributors for better
dissemination of information and knowledge on a global scale.
Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance, starting with its first issue
is indexed in IndexCopernicus, RePEC, CEEOL and EBSCO
databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/jasf.html E-mail: [email protected]
76
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism – Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD Cristina Barbu
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism will publish
original research and seeks to cover a wide range of topics regarding
environmental management and engineering, environmental
management and health, environmental chemistry, environmental
protection technologies (water, air, soil), pollution reduction at source
and waste minimization, energy and environment, modelling,
simulation and optimization for environmental protection;
environmental biotechnology, environmental education and
sustainable development, environmental strategies and policies, etc.
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism starting with
its first issue is indexed in RePEC, IndexCopernicus and EBSCO
databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/jemt.html
E-mail: [email protected]
Journal of Research in Educational Sciences – Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD Laura Ungureanu
The Journal is design to promote scholars thought in the field of
education with the cleary mission to provide an interdisciplinary forum
for discussion and debate about education‟s most vital issues. We
intend to publish papers that contribute to the expanding boundaries
of knowledge in education and are focusing on research, theory,
current issues and applied practice in this area.
Journal of Research in Educational Sciences starting with its first
issue is indexed in RePEC, IndexCopernicus and EBSCO databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/jres.html
E-mail: [email protected]
Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields – Biannually
Editor in Chief: PhD Laura Ungureanu
Co-Editor: PhD Ivan Kitov
Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields publishes
original articles in all branches of economics - theoretical and empirical,
abstract and applied, providing wide-ranging coverage across the
subject area. Journal promotes research that aim at the unification of
the theoretical-quantitative and the empirical-quantitative approach to
economic problems and that are penetrated by constructive and
rigorous thinking.
The Journal starting with its first issue will be indexed in RePEC,
IndexCopernicus and EBSCO databases.
Web: http://www.asers.eu/journals/tpref.html
Email: [email protected]
77
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Conferences Proceedings …
Proceedings of the ASERS First on-line Conference on
World‟s Economies in and after Crisis: Challenges, Threats and Opportunities
Coordinator: Laura ŞTEFĂNESCU
Format: 17cm x 24cm
ISBN: 978-606-92386-0-8
Proceedings of the ASERS First on-line Conference on
The Real Environmental Crisis –
Effects in Tourism Development, Conflicts and Sustainability
Coordinator: Cristina BARBU
Format: 17cm x 24cm
ISBN: 978-606-92386-3-9
Proceedings of the ASERS First on-line Conference on
Competitiveness and Economic Development:
Challenges, Goals and Means in a Knowledge based Society
Coordinator: Andy ŞTEFĂNESCU
Format: 17cm x 24cm
ISBN: 978-606-92386-4-6
78
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Books Collections …
Management and Environmental Protection
A book edited by PhD Cristina Barbu
European Research Centre for Managerial Studies in Business
Administration
Spiru Haret University, Romania
[email protected]
http://www.asers.eu/asers-publishing/books
To be published by ASERS Publishing in CD-ROM format with ISBN.
Submission: Open
Download Call for Book Chapters at:
http://asers.eu/asers_files/books/Call%20MEP.pdf
Beyond Creativity and Innovation in the
Times of Knowledge Economy
A book edited by PhD Madalina Constantinescu
European Research Centre for Managerial Studies in Business
Administration
Spiru Haret University, Romania
[email protected]
http://www.asers.eu/asers-publishing/books
To be published by ASERS Publishing in CD-ROM format with ISBN.
Submission: Open
Download Call for Book Chapters at:
http://www.asers.eu/asers_files/books/Call%20BCI_KE.pdf
79
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
Mathematical Models in Economics
A book edited by PhD Laura Ungureanu
European Research Centre for Managerial Studies in Business
Administration, Spiru Haret University, Romania
[email protected]
http://www.asers.eu/asers-publishing/books
To be published by ASERS Publishing in CD-ROM format with ISBN.
Submission: Open
Download Call for Book Chapters at:
http://www.asers.eu/asers_files/books/Call%20ASERS_Book%20MME_extended.pdf
80
Volume II Issue 1(3) Summer 2011
ASERS Publishing
ASERS
ASERS Publishing
Web: www.asers.eu
URL: http://www.asers.eu/asers-publishing
ISSN 2068 – 7729
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