NAA.006.0335

Commenti

Transcript

NAA.006.0335
1I1111111111111111111111111111111111111
NAA.006.0335
SECRET
WEEKLY
INTELLIGENCE
REPORT
(W.1. R.)
rSSlTEPBY
THE
NAVAL
INTELLl;GENCE
DIVISION, NAVAL
STAFF,
A.DMIRALTY, FOR THE INFORMATION OF ALL OFFICERS IN H.M. NAVY
NUMBlm
61
9TH
MAY,
Attention is called to the penalties
attafhing to any infraction of the
Ojjicial Secrets Ac/!
1941
1
111111111 '111111111111'11,1111111111
NAA006,0336
REPORT is for the information of
and British Officials.
E FLAG OR COMMANDING OFFICER'S copies of vV.I.R.,
copies in H. M. Ships where a Captain is in
command, may be retained for reference. All other copies
are to be collected in each Ship or Establishment and burnt
before the next issue is put into circulation. Personal copies
are always to be burnt
le,Jrrlct:inn
on
receipt of a subsequent
number.
certificate is not required.)
that lectures should be given to Ships'
on the contents of W.I.R., care being taken to
any matter which Commanding, Officers consider
unimiltabJe for the purpose.
SUGGESTED
CONTENTS
WEEKLY NAVAL J;OTES
Current Events
The Lofol(:n Islands Raid
Hovv the' Palm-stan ,vas
Saved
Naval Episodes
(I) .Brock's Bencnt at
Cherbourg
(II) Good-bye, Arligliere /
PART III: NAVAL INTELLIGENCE
Pa.ge 19: Germany
I
26:
27:
30:
31 :
Icc Conditions
Italy
France
Enemy Submarine
Activities
32: U,S,S,R.
PART IV: POLITICAL
~:J:~:~~e on Merchantmen
Page 35: Germany
3H: Czechoslovakia
38: Scandinavia
41: France
43: Spain
44 : Switzerland
45: Italy
47: U.s.S,R.
47: Egypt
48: Iraq
49: Far East
Ilriti"h (;or,tn,b,cnd Control
1m,Darts in Convoy
Page 51 : Bomber Command
MERCHANT SHIPPING
German Shipping
Shipping
Losses up to
30th April
Convoys
PART V: SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS
1IIIIIIIIIIImlll:.11111111
SECRET
NAA.006.0337
WEEKLY
ISSUED
INTELLIGENCE
REPORT
BY THE NAVAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION,
STAFF,
ADMIRALTY,
FRIDAY,
9TH
MAY,
NAVAL
1941
PART I: WEEKLY NAVAL NOTES
Carrent Events
H.M. submarine Upholder has now reported that at 1533 on 25th
April she allacked and hit a northward-bound merchantman in the
position 34: 50 N.-II : 47 E., about 20 miles east of Kerkenab
Island. The ship, which was probably 13ainsizza (7,933 tons),
sank [,ve hours later. On the following day Upholder surveyed
the wreckage left by the 14th Destroyer Flotilla's attack on 16th
April. The wreek of the A ria was visited. The cargo was found
to be mainly motor-cycles, staff cars and lorries. A considerable
number of German dead were seen. The ship was set on fire and
bumt fiercely. It was found impossible to approach the gronnded
destroyer. On 1st May Upholder attacked a northbound Convoy
of five merchantmen and four destroyers in 34: 41 N.-ll : 3R E.
One Fels Line ship of about 6,000 tons was sunk and one of' the
13urgenland type (7,320 tons) was damaged. Later the damaged
ship was seen making towards the south-west with a destroyer in
company. H.M.S. Upholder approached agairr and sank her with
two torpedoes. H.M. submarine Taku sank an euemy transport
before 0450/7 off the north coast of Sicily, but no details are yet
available.
In addition to these successes of H.M. submarines Upholder and
Tak1f., the enemy has suffered other losses of merchant ships, in the
course of the week, chiefly by air allack, though the rtahan tanker
ReaD (S,S9R lons) was intercepted by H.M.S. Hilary on ::lrd May and
scuttled herself. On tbe 2nd May, two small ships of about 500 tons
are believed to have been sunk by aircraft off Borkum, and on the
following day another o[ similar size 0[£ Gravclines, and probably
a ship of 5,000 tons off Roulogne. On the 5th May, a ship of over
1,000 tons was sunk off Tcrneuzen. In addition to these, four
enemy ships with an approximate total tonnage of 10,700 tons,
received direct hits by bombs in Home Waters, and a ship of about
200 ft. in length was hombed and sel on fire of[ Benghazi on 3rd May.
I,
,I
\
Face page l.j
(C:41201-2)
B
The e~emy occupation of the islands of the Aegean now appears
to be fairly complete. Thc first to be taken was Samothracc,
will,*, :wa~ occ1fpied on 19th April by 400 Germans who came from
KayaJIa in seven motor caiques after a preliminary leaflet raid by
aircT,"ft to explain that they were fighting only the British and not
the/&teeks. On 23rd April Lemnos, with Mudros, was taken by
2;O()O,(}ertnans also from Kavalla, transported in two steamers.
Theltalians claim that they have occupied Mitylene and Chios,
and the small and undefended islands of the Cyclades, Amorgos,
Anaphe, los, Thera, Naxos and Paros.
The photograph facing page 1 shows the camouflaging of the
German battlecruisers in Brest. Nets have been spread between
the Gneisenau and the walls of the dock, so that this dock itself,
unlike its neighbour, is only with difficulty distinguishable from the
surrounding buildings. The Scharnhorst has been made to appear
" built in" to the quay, with the result that she looks like an extension
olthe quay itself.
. \Vith. the waxing. of the moon there has been a welcome increase
1n the air score agaInst the Germans in raids over this: Kingdom and
the Home area. , It comes t~ 48 ; 11 with 16 damaged, compared
With the reVised score of 22 : 3 With 15 damaged last week and 2-1 . 4
.
With 14 damaged in the week hefore.
April.
30
May.
1/2 night.
1
2
2/3 night
;j/4 night
4
4/5 night
3
6
5
5/6 night
1
1
"
6/7 night
II. M.S. Southdown, during the night of 415th ~!<ly shot d
.
~ p _. "ft f
.
'r. _ .
, o w n <in
tnem.,;. alf:Td" 0 un~pecl11ed type winch had unsuccessfully attacked
The German broadcast of 0700 on 1st May from Stavanger, in
Norwegian for Norw<lY, informed listeners on the supposed <luthority
of a message from New York that German raiders had sunk eight
BritIsh ships in the Indian Ocean. The ships were named and their
respective tonnages were given, amounting in <lll to 52,903 tons.
Five of the names can readily be identified: City of Baghdad, King
City, Scientist, Benarty and Commissaire Ramel, and the other three
may have been misheard or garbled versions of Athelking, Kemmendine and Teddie, although in these last three C<lses the tonnages
given in the broadcast are incorrect. All eight ships were actually
sunk, and by Gcrulan raiders in the Indian Ocean, but to have
broadcast the fact on 1st May, 1941, as if it were hot news, looks
very much like a propagandist attempt to rcap double credit for
the successes of raiders which were achieved between the beginning
of M<lY and the middle of October, 1940.
i
, i
In addition to its other activities during the week, the Coastal
Command of the RAY. provided air escort for convoys as follows ; On 30th April for 21 ; on 1st May for 23; on 2nd May for 20; On
;3rd and 6th May for 17 on each day; on 4th May for 16, and on 5th
May for 18; or for 132 during the week as compared with 124 last
week and 163 the week before.
bher.
II Anti-aircraft
't
d " firc ashore shot down 6 .. '1- du'
flng the wee k
_a aon nnl s an.
unknown causes" accounted for 4 : - and ni
fighters arc credited ,with 30 ; 12 and 12 damaged during the w~ek
compared With 16 : :; and five damaged last week, and 14; 22 with
four damal;ed the week before. It is now known that H.M. antiairClaft ship Palia destroyed the enemy arrer<lft of unspecified t )e
which bombed and sank her on 28th Apri!.
YI
ht
111111111!1~111111111111
NAA.006.0338
. There has been a sligh t decline in the <lir scare against the German'
tbe Mediterranean area to 23 ; 8 with 15 damaged compared wit~
25 ; 4 With four damaged last week and 53 : 19 for the week before.
III
~~~'IJU 88I n '126!Me 109.[ Me 110fus~ec I Total. jDamag,a.
1--
April.
28
2·
29
2,
2:
_:
I,
30
Ma.y
1
2
3
4
I~--\
1,-
i, -
2
-----
2
4: 1
['-'
-
=I
2;:J
'
1,-
=I
5 :-
3'
4,-
-
2:- --
4
~I
4
6
3
·A··' ···t.·. •••..•..•.. ft fire I'S credited with a score of 5 : 5 and three damaged
. n H"TcI;a •
.
J 88 over M aIta on
\r'hir2dwith fighters the destructiOn of a u.
~~ik~itll.i In .addition to all these, two Ju. 52's were destroyed on
..•..····i·. P 'd 'd' .'.
the night of 2/3rd May and at least five other
the.OToun . urmg
. , I I"
t'
t
.i·"·-f··d·
th t of 4/5th May. It ,s parbcu ar y mteres Illg a
,Brcra t unng a
W If C d '
rtot'e<"that among these were one or Inore Focke u on ors.
The Regia Aeronautica once again almost faded out of the picture
during the week. One S. 79 was shot down over Jimma in Abysslllla
on 30th April and one Cant. Z 501 was prohahly shot d~wn by
Blenheims off Kerkenah Island on 2nd May. Thus the a.1T score
was 1'1 for the weck compared WIth 1 : - last week and 6 . 3 Wlth
two damaged for the week before. Apart from thesc, two Hahan
aircraft were destroyed on the ground and five others were damaged
on the ground during the week. This ground score may be compared
with the two damaged and oue damaged on the ground last week
and 11 destroyed on the ground 111 the week before.
A minor problem which has arisen owing to the action of the
Italians in so carefully scuttling their merchantmen at Massawa
before its occupation by the British, is the prOVIsiOn of shipP111~ f~r
the transport of Italian civilian refugees who WIsh to leave Abyssima.
U to the end of April it was esbmated that there were 44,600 of
U;"se of whom 26,200 are women and 7,100 children. In addltl?n
to these civilians there is at present unspeClfied, but steachly
increasing, number of Italian military pnsoners and 1,500 policemen
for whom transport away from Abyssinia or Entrea WIll have to be
provided.
The fishing vessels Violet and Promote II of Fraserburgh, which
Naomi
were attacked
between 1100
and
were wark 1'ng wI'th the.
,
. '
h
'th
1130 on 22nd April by a German aircraft WhICh rmssed t em Wi
' No damage was done but the explOSiOns killed or
severaI b ombS . '
ddT
stunned quantities of cod and codling which formeda useful a I lOn
to the catch of the two fa'st-mentioned craft wInch contmued to
work after the attack.
4
The Lofoten Islands Raid
As we approached Norway ap the Vestfjord during the middle
watch of 4th March, landing parties and all hands were given a
shake at 3.15, and by 4,45-with a first class breakfast of porridge
and bacon and eggs inside us-we were in our boals at the davit
heads and waiting to be lowered, So far the operation had proved
uneventful. A week's training at Seapa; a few hours at the Faroes
for the destroyer escort to refuel; and then the final leg across.
We were to raid Stamsund and Heningsvaer whilc the landing
parties from our consort were to deal with Svolvaer and Brettesnes.
At exactly the pre-arranged time we eased down and our landing
craft were lowered into the water. Weather conditions were ideal,
falls failed to jam; motors started up at the first turn; in fact
everything seemed to be going almost ominously according to plan.
The first (and only) hitch in the proceedings occurred during the
trip inshore. We had left the parent ship in complete darkness
with the intention of scrambliug ashore at the fIrst stretch of dawn.
Half way in, however, the Northern lights got busy and we could
see every detail of the land for miles around. We were wrapped up
in leather jerkins, Balaclava helmets, and all lhe rest of the landing
paraphernalia, but the loss of the most important covering of darkness
made us feel uncomfortably naked. As we approached the shore, a
tot of rum was issued. This proved most welcome as by now
everyone was beginning to feel the effects of the extreme cold. A
sudden rat-tat-tat of machine gun fire brought all hands to the alert.
The troops fingered their Tommy guns hopefully, but it proved to
be nothing more than a suspicious fishing craft being stopped.
A few moments later we had swung into the narrow entrance of
Stamsund with its high rocks on either side. What a gift for hidden
machine-gun posts 1 Then all unexpected sound met our ears-the
sound of cheering from the crews of countless" Puffers" about to
put to sea for the early morning catch. As we passed close to a
" Puffer" our Norwegian pilot shouted for information as to the
number of German troops ashore. The old skipper cleared his throat
slowly and ominously. We waited feverishly for the reply. Then
at last it came-" TWO!" An embarrassing silence, broken by
someone whispering~" Take IIO notice, it's obviously a plant"then, as the boats came alongside the quays, ladders shot up and we
clambered out prepared for anything. The tops of the quays were
covered with frozen cads' heads, a most difficult surface to negotiate
with. either speed or dignity. Personally, f fell fiat on my face in
the first few paces and found myself staring at unpleasantly close
quarters into a pair of glisteIling cod's eyes which viewed rne with
unquestionable hostility.
1111111\lllllmlllll\II~~~
NAA. 006 .0339
r
i
I
,
i'
j3yno.,vrhecheers of the fishermen had awakened the rest of the
t?""".jVj'hoden shutters flew open and sleepy hearls peered out to
s~ewharall the commotion was about and before the last men were
a!>'J"fqFe;the owncrs of the sleepy hearls Were rushing down to greet
u~: 'j3lqndes and brunettes and children of all shapes and sizes
chtSfere~ Tound and greeted our sinister appearance and weapons of
d¢ath with gay shollts and happy laughter. All rather embarrassing
when one is full of rum and bloodthirsty intentions.
In a matter of minutes every vantage point and approach to the
town was occupied and the Commanding Officer was setting up
military headquarters in the local Police Station-cum-Fishery Control
Office. The Mayor proved most helpful and while his wife brewed
countless cups of coffee the Norwegians, who had landed with uS
were rounding up the Quislings and bringing them in for investigation.
There was one awkward moment. A local inhabitant, who spoke
perfect English and had been pointing out suspicious characters,
was asked if there were any more Quislings at large.
" You have yet to arrest the principal one," he replied, and
pointed up to the Mayor's cap which was hanging on a peg. As at the
moment we were drinking his wife's coffee, this was rather a bombshell, but on closer investigation it transpired that the informer had
recently been heavily fined by the Mayor, so his efforts to remove
him were more personal than politicaL
Meanwhile the main work of blowing up the cod oil factories was
in full swing, and it was amazing how well the Norwegians took it.
That they cheered on our arrival was hardly surprising. Anyone
living in an isolated village wbo failed to do so when overrun by a
strong and heavily armed body of troops would obviously be
unbalanced. But how would they react to the blowing up of their
factories and their livelihood? That would surely provide the true
answer to their sentiments. Well, the answer was never in doubt.
The way those Norwegians appreciated the necessity of what we
were doing and went out of their way to help was the most inspiring
example of how a small community-separated by hundreds of
miles frorn the real centre of hostilities--can maintain complete
loyalty and faith in their country's cause and that of her Allies.
';,
Li
i,
\, ,
\1
The demolition was in the hands of the Sappers, In each case
ample warning was given [or neighbouring householders 10 remove
their belongings in case of fire and they were warned that a long
blast on the whistle would indicate a quartel of an hour to go.
Short blasts were given as the fuse was hit. Since the night of my
small son's Guy Fawkes paTty, when one of }.IIr. Brock's lImiticoloured rainbow glories went off in my hand, I have always treated
fuzes with a wholesome respect. Not so the Sappers; it's a
tradition with them that a good Sapper never runs from his own
6
fuse~. This they certainly lived up to at Lofotcn, for while I was
beatmg a hasty retreat to the nearest effective cover they ambled
away: WIthout a care in the world. As the thirrl fact~ry was about
to dlsmtegrate, tW() of them paused to light cigarettes. I was
dehghted when a complete door fell on their heads.
Meanwhile the Germans and QuiSlings had been marched down
to the boats and taken off to the parent ship. At one house where
three Germans were discovered and led oul into the snow, ,; fourth
SUSpICIOUS character was seen lurking in the background. A soldier
approached Inm menacingly :._
« Are you a Nazi?
II
::he wretched man retreated petrified.
No, no, no, I am an Anti-Nazi."
lilllllillllllllllllllllll~
NAA.o06.0340
" I don't give a - what sort of a Nazi. Fall in with the others! "
By. noon, ,whe~ we were. due to leave, the (illays presented an
~mazmg.spectac1c- -NorwegIan volunteers bidding farewell to their
famIlIes, crowds cheenng and smging alternately anI' own and the
Norwegian NatIOnal Anthem; and in the background countless
NorwegJd.n flags, the remams of the German-controlled ships and
fa~tones, and clouds of black smoke pouring froni the oil tanks.
Ihe following night we listened in to the Be C
-" 0
]" ht f
h'
. . -. . news.
ur
Ig
orees ave earned out a daring raid on the Lofnten islands "
........ ?
H
How the Palmston Was Saved
J.
faptain
Gregory, Master of ihe British Palmstoll 430 ton,
tel show hzs shIp was so much damaged by the near miss~s of bomb;
dropped by an aircraft whzch the ship engaged that she began to sink.
She was, howe"er,left on some rocks at high water.- this made it possible
for the. crew to plug the holes when the tide fell and the ship was jinaU<>
towed tnto harbour.
'J
;We left Swansea on 27th March bound for Milford Haven.
AL, went well until 1500 on the same day when we were two miles
S.E. of 51. Govans Light Vessel. There was a heavy swell at the
tIme, .,md
' h all d
t'
·bT the wllld was N.W. , force
. . . 'J. The cloud w
as I l.lg
ne VIS1 _Llty clear. I. was in the wheel.house at the tinH~ whe~ I
saw three aeroplanes anead of us, bombing other ships. The planes
then turned back to us and dropped three or four bomhs more or
lCci' toge;ther which. fell nght aft hy the engine room on the port
51.e. Tne Mate, wllo was aft, saw columns of water 10--1'/ ft in
heIght thrown up from the bombs. As the 'planes approached' we
7
1
11'11111111111,11111111111111111
NAA.006.0341
opened fire on them and I am sure that we must have hit one of
them as a piece of bomb rack fell on to the deck opposite the
Hotchkiss gun. After attacking us the enemy 'planes went on
and attacked others further astern of us. I think the aeroplanes
which attacked us were Ju.88's. I did not see any markings Gn
them.
Immediately after the attack the Mate came and reported to me
that the engine room and stokehoJd were flooded and that the ship
was sinking rapidly by the stern; she was not listing but was going
down on an even keel. I ordered a lifeboat to be lowered and all
the crew, including myse.lf, got into it. We were then picked up
by the motor ship Edenvale.
When I get on board I went to the
Master and asked him whether he could tow my ship to Milford Haven
and he told me that he would try to do so. I asked for volunteers
to return to my ship, and I picked four of my best men to return
with me. We got aboard my ship and managed to get a tow rope fast
to the Edenvale, and she towed us in towards :Vlilford Haven, but
by this time the capstan was under water, so we agreed to put her
on the rocks.
When the tide left the ship the men and myself went under the
bottom of the ship and plugged the ship. The ship remained on
the rocks until 0500 the next morning, when I signalled to a patrol
boat and asked her to tow us in to Milford Haven and from there
we went on to Pembroke, where \ve are nov,! in dry dock.
H
Naval Episodes
I.-" BROCK'S BENEFIT" AT CHEBOURG
During the bombardment of Cherbour~ in the small hoclrs of
11th October, 1940, H.M.S. Revenge was escorted by Captain (D)
in H.M.S. javelin and six other destroyers of the Fifth Flotilla-jupiter, Kelvin, Kipling, Jackal, jaguar and Kashmir-while Motor
Gunboats Nos. 46, 40, 42, 43 and 44 of the Third :vJ.G.B. Flotilla
performed sweeping or screening duties and forces of cruisers and
destroyers covered the operation at a suitable distance to the east
and west. Excellent co-operation on the part of the RA.F. caused
Cape de la Hague to be illuminated at exactly the moment that light
was required in order to check the position of the bombarding force
and a bomb-fire was started in or near the target area. Indeed
it seems probable that for some time the Germans were
under the impression that the bombardment from the sea was a
continuation of the preliminary air raid and, in consequence, replied
to it with an intensification of the anti-aircraft barrage in the course
8
of which "flaming onions" and multi-coloured tracers were fired
and" searchlights gave a display worthy of a Tattoo-the whole
combining to make a veritable 'Brock's Benefit,' a sight worth
seeing."
H,M.S. Revenge began to bombard at 0333 and fired for eighteen
minutes at an average range of 15,700 yards, spreading for line and
laddering for range. In all, 120 rounds of c.P.c. IS-inch were fired
in salvoes. The destroyers fired for the first four minutes of the
bombardment-in all, 801 rounds of 4·7 H.E .. at an average range
of 14.400 yards. The bomb-fire started by the R.A.F. died down
after a little, but a second fire was started by the bombardment to the
westward of the first and sent up flames several hundred feet into the
air. By the light of these several salvoes were seen to fall in the target
area and the fire itself could be seen from forty miles away. When
the enemy realized that a bombardment was in progress he opened
fire with what may have been 13'5-inch guns and continued to do
so during the withdrawal of the ships up to a range of about 36,000
yards. The extreme accuracy of the enemy's fire was taken to
indicate that some form of R.D.F. was being employed but as the
flashes were observed avoiding action was taken by frequent
alterations of course. Tn spite of her age H.M.S. Revenge was able
to retire at 21·5 knots and no casualties or damage were inflicted
on any of the ships engaged in the bombardment.
~llllllilllllll!IIIII~1111
IT.-" GOOD BYE, , ARTTGLIERE ' ! "
NAA.006.0342
At 0829 on the 12th October, 1940, H.M.S. York was sent to deal
with an Italian destroyer which had been disabled by H.M.S. Ajax
on the previous night. The destroyer had been reported lying
stopped in a position 35' 55' N., 16' 29' E.
H.M.S. York was told to order the destroyer to abandon ship
and then to sink her. H.M.S. York" elosed " the damaged destroyer,
circled round her and identified her as the A rtigliere. The forecastle
of the ship appcared to be scorched and discoloured and it was
evident that there had been a serious internal fire forward and a
little smoke was still rising from it. The [orepart of the bridge
structure had collapsed forward, but there were no visible signs of
shell-bursts on the ship and she seemed quite undamaged abaft the
bridge. Right aft on the quarter-deck there was a crowd of men
and a few more were on the after main deck, ma.king about 80 ill all.
Some of them were waving white sheets and towels in obvious
surrender. They seemed to be thoroughly demoralized and no
officers were to be seen. There were also soUle nlcn on a float ill the
water and others all various pieces of wood. An empty fioat lay
alongside the ship and another one a short way astern of her.
9
Foa page 9:;
The starboard ,boats had been lowered and the starboard accommodation ladder was down. A motor boat and.a skIff were at the
port davits and three apparently undamaged Carley floats were m
their stowage posltlOns on the funnel.
RM.S. York approached with the International signal" Abandon
ship" and also made a signal by light" Andate del batello." After
this signal had been made repeatedly, it was apparently taken m on
belard the destroyer which replied that dead and wounded were on
board and other signals were added which were quite incomprehensible. It was, however, clear that the Italians hoped to be taken
on board the British ship.
At 0850, when it was obvious that the Italians would make no
melve to help themselves or to abandon ship, a warning shot was
fired wide of the ship from a 4-inch gun and H.M.S. York steamed
close under the Italian's stern and dropped a large and a small
Carley float and another raft, after which thc signal was n;~de
Vado cannonere .. to show that she was about to open fire. I he
Italians then started to abandon ship on to the floats and into the
water, but made little effort to get clear of the ship.
At about 0910 H.M.S. York circled across the destroyer's bows
and at 0915 opened fire with her 8-inch guns at the Artigliere's port
side. Fourteen rounds were fired from a range of about 1,500 yards
and hits were obtained amidships and fires started. A torpedo was
fired at 0918 as it was clear that gunfire would take too long to sink
the ship, and at the same time one or two hits were obtained with
another salvo of 8-inch. The torpedo appears to have hit the after
magazine as a trernendous sheet of flame and a colurun. of stlloke
several hundred feet high burst from the stern of the Shlp and she
sank almost immediately. The lateral force of the explosion was
surprisingly small; hardly any shock was felt in H.M.S. York and
the Cariey floats near the destroyer were still afloat when the smoke
cleared away.
H.M.S. York then proceeded.
1('
PART II: MERCHANT SHIPPING
German Shipping
European Walas
A report ddted 24th April states that since 1st January, 1.6 ore sl~ivs
have left Narvik, and that three ore trains reach the Gfotcn raIlway dally.
According to one report the Savona, 2,120 tons, the Bellona, 1,297 tons,
the Spezia, 1,825 tons, and the 'Finos, 2,B26 tOll.';;, are to be taken over by
the German Navy hut there are other indications that, as the orange
10
J
t
I
II
I
I
i
I
i
season is now almost at an end, these ships and oUIers engaged in the
fruit trade between Spain and Italy may be used regularly for carrying orc.
The Lisboa, 1,799 tons, which ieft Castellon for Marseilles with fruit
on 28th April, arrived at Cartagena on 3rd May. The Spezia, 1,825 tons,
left Valencia on 28th April and t.he rinDS, 2,826 tons, sailed from Cartagena
on 1st May, both bound for Marseilles with orauges. The Savona, 2,120
tons, arrived at Cartagena on 29th April and is being loaded with
magnesite and the SuUberg, 1,662 tons, is also being used in the orc trade.
The Ernst Hugo Stinnes 11,3,295 tons, and the Else Hugo Stinnes 15,
3,291 tons, are reported to be sailing soon to GothenburR for conversion
to salvage ships for usc in Norwegian waters.
Th.e tanker Nord Atlantic, 9,897 tons, sailed from Vigo 011 4th May, and
arrived at Ferrol the same day, and the Gerda Vith, 1,312 tons, left Ferro!
on the night of 3rd/4th May for an unknown destination.
The Black Sea
The Delos, 2,589 tons, which entered the Bosporus from the Black Sea
on 5th May loaded with petrol, provisions, and fodder for Salonika, was
reported to have been used for landing troops in Lemnos. The Ithaka,
1,773 tom, passed Chanak on the morning of 6th May, hound for Constanza.
The Salzburg, 1,756 tons, sailed from Batum on 27th Apri! for Poti and
the Yalova, 3,750 tons, was loading at Batum on 26th April and on
completion was expected to load 1,000 tons of kernels at Trebizond.
The agents at Burgas received instructions from Hamburg on 28th April
to send the Arkadia, 1,756 tons, and the Cordelia, 1,357 tons, to ConstanzB
in ballast. On arrival tile masters were ordered to report in person at the
Consulate. The Cordelia is known to have left Istanbul on 3Id May ror
Braila and at Constanza her crew is to be augmented by three cngiIl(''ers,
three sailors and one stoker.
The Atlantic
The Natal, 3,172 tons, speed 10 knots, arrived at Santos, Brazil, on
29th April. A report graded B.2 states that she was accompanied by two
submarines and a press message says that she was 32 days out from
Hamhnrg. This is the third ship to cross the Atlantic from East to West,
the others being the Hermes (ex Karnak) which arrived at Rio de Janeiro
on 9th April and the Leeh which reached the same port on 3rd JlIarch from
Bordeaux and sailecl again Witll a cargo of hides on 28th April. According
to a B.2 report the Leek, 3,290 tons, was to meet the submarines which
had escorted the Natal, but an unconfirmed press report from Rio states
that she was encountered and sunk.
The Maceio, 3,236 tons, at Bahia, Brazil, is reported to have asked for
her clearance papers and the Norderney, 3,667 tOllS, at Para, to have
stowed and secured her derricks and raised steam, though it is not known
whether her clearance papers have arrived.
A report dated 3rd May and graded C.4 stated that there had been great
activity on board the Windhuk, 16,662 tons, at Santos, during the previous
two nights. The shlp is, however, still under an embargo and Customs
and Police Guards are remaining on board.
illllillilillillllllll~
NAA.006.0343
II
Italian Shipping
Tk~:MHdit"rtanean
Tbed)erna , 1,769 tons, left Barcelona on 30th April, and the Luigi,
4,2$3 t?n~,left Valencia on 4th May, both bound for Genoa.
FroJ11. .!he captured Port Records of Benghazi for January it is known
that the Maria Eugenia, 4,702 tons, was sWlk in the harbour before the
British occupation on 7th February and that the Gloriastella, 5,490 tons,
and the Snia Amha, 2,532 tons, were damaged at the same tinlC. The
Snia Amba was believed to have been sunk by H.M. subnlarinc T drarck
on 4th Nov., 1940, but must bave reached harbour and was probably
destroyed- in latcr air raids, and it is possible that the Gloriastella was
one of the derelict vessels reported by aircraft on 16th April.
The Black Sea
The Abbazia, 3,706 tons, the Caterina Madre, 4,020 tons, and the Pier
Luigi, 2,571 tons, have all been chartered by the Deutsche Levante Linie.
The Abbazia, which left Istanbul for Braila on 29th April, was due to sail
again from Braila on 4th May for Cherson with grain, and the Pier Luigi,
2,571 tons, was ordered to Cherson on 30th April for wheat to be discharged
at Braila.
The tanker Celena, 3,741 tons, left Constanza for Batnm on 26th April.
I
Arcola, 6,349 tons, Taigete, 4,672 tons and Todaro, 5,162 tons, were
reported on 5th May to be making preparations for departure from
Teneriffe.
The Monbaldo, 6,214 tons, at Para, Brazil, raised steam on 4th May.
Gulf of Mexico
Three more Italian tankers besides the two mentioned last week which
have been seized by the Mexican Government, arc to be used for Coastal
and Gulf trade and as a reprisal Italy is said to have confiscated the three
10,000 ton tankers now building lor Mexico in Haly.
The Pacific
The Conte Verde, 18,765 tons, which was reported to have left Shanghai
on 1st A pnl escorted by Japanese warships, was still in that port on
3rd April.
Enemy Losses up to 30th April,
/94/
I
I
I
--~----.--------
Gennan.
The Persian Gulf
On 26th April the Lloyd Triestino Agent at Teheran enquired 01 the
Head Office at Trieste whether it was willing to sell the Hilda, 4,901 tons,
at Banda Abbas, and the Caboto, 5,225 tons, at Bandar Shahpur, as the
rranian
Government wished to make sure of possession.
The Atlantic
At Las Palmas ou 29th April, the. Trovatore, 4,700 tons, was coaling the
Orata, 8,631 tons, and the Ernani, 6,619 tons, was loading manganese
are from the Chercha, 5,346 tons.
The tanker Sangro, 6,466 tons and 10 knots, which left Teneriffe loaded
with fuel oil 011 19th April, was intercepted by lLM.S. Cavina on 1st May
about 275 miles north of the Azores. The crew tried to scuttle the ship
and the pump room was flooded but a prize crew was put on board and
the water was soon under control. On the night of 5th/6th May, however,
while being escorted to a port, the Sangro was torpedoed by a submarine
and sank in position 50 : 42 N., 20 : 20 W. The tanker Reeco, 5,595 tons,
speed 9t knots, sailed from Tcneriffe with fuel oil fot Belle Isle on 19th
or 20th April and was intercepted by H.M.S. llilary at 1130/3 abont
350 miles north of the Azores. The crew scuttled the ship and all efforts
t.o savc her werc unsuccessful. The master, eight officers and 21 men,
were taken prisoners.
The Andalusia, 4,499 tons, and the Teresa SchiaJfino, 5,189 tons, at
Teneriffe, are reported to have been earmarked Jor use as accommodation
ships for interning pro-British Spaniards and possibly also for .Britlsh
subjects should Spain become involved in the war. The three tankers,
12
N0'1I
I
--Captured or seized ..
Scuttled or :iunk
Unidentifwd ships reported
by submarine, aircraft,
etc., as sunk or destroyed.
(Tonnage estimated)
Tons.
Italian.
I No.
Gross
Tons.
TogetheL
I No. I
Tons.
--~----
61
102
274,000
587,000
39
70
384,000
100
172
458,000
971,000
171
855,000
95
475,000
266
1,330,000
334
1,716,000
204
1,043,000 1 538
2,7059,000
184,000
In addition, 37 ships of 66,000 tons under enemy control or useful to
the enemy have been sunk.
Some 53 ships totalling nearly 300,000 tOIlS have been placed under
protective custody in U.S.A. and South Atnerican ports in order to prevent
sabotage by their crews.
British Convoys
I1II111111111
~!1I1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
NAA.006.0344
~ONVOYS.
The following table shows the number of ships. British,
Allied and Neutral, which have sailed in escorted convoys during the last
week and sbce the beginning of the war; together with the losses from
enemy action :-
13
Attacks on Merchantmen
BRITISH
-----
.8
-
~!IIIII!II~!lIII~~i!!I~
Home Waters
NAA006.0345
On 28th April, Convoy HX.121 was attacked by submarines about
130 miles N.W. of the Butt of Lewis, and three British ships were sunkThe Caputet, 8,190 tons, bound from Curacao to Scapa Flow with benzine,
the Port Hardy, 8,897 tons, bound from Dunedin to Avonmonth, with
a general cargo, and the tanker Oitfield, 8,516 tons, bonnd from Aruba
to Loeh Ewe with benzine. Ninety-seven survivors from the Port Hardy,
17 from the Caputet and eight from the Oilfield were landed at Greenock,
and 18 others from the Caputet reached Londonderry on 30th April.
The British Grange, 10,160 tons, bound independently from the Tyne
to Bnenos Aires was torpedoed and snnk on the 28th April about 300 miles
W.N.W. of the Butt of Lewis.
Forty-one survivors were picked up.
During an attack by E-boats on Convoy E.C.13 on the night of 28th _
29th April, near No. 58 Buoy, off Cromer, the Ambrose FleminK, 1,555 tons,
was torpedoed and sunk. Eleven survivors were picked up and eleven
are missing. The Ambrose Fleming which was bound from London to
Bumtisland was the only casualty out of the convoy which consisted
of 57 ships.
The Katua, 722 tons, was bombed and sunk OIl 29th March, of[ the
Tyne, but there were no casualties. During the same attack the Corglen.
2,822 tons was damaged by a direct hit and one of the crew was killed
and two others were wouIHled.
The Nerissa, 5,583 Lons, bound independently from Halif~x to
Liverpool, was torpedoed and sunk on 30th Apdl about 92 miles
KW. by W. of the Bloody Foreland. Ninety survivors have been landed at
Londonderry.
Three men in a lifeboat from the Henri lYfory, 2,564 tons, have been
rescued and report that their ship, bound from Pepel to BemlUda,
was torpedoed on 28th April, abont 300 miles W. of Achill Head. It is
feared that there are no other survivors.
The Sea Fisher, 2,952 tons, bound from Greenock to the Tyne, was
mined on the night of 1st/2nd May, 12 miles S.E. of Holy Island, but has
been refloated.
The Lycaon, 7,350 tons, homeward bound from Hong Kong and
Freetown, reported being shelled and chased by a submarine from 2155/3
to 01l8/4 about 315 miles S. W. of Rockall.
The Coaster Corbet, 468 tons, was mined and sunk in the Herculaneum
Dock entrance, Liverpool, on ~kd May. It is feared that there was only
Clne sl1rvivor.
The British Royston! 2,730 tons, was attacked by aircraft 17 miles
E.N.E. of Spurn Point during the night of 4th/5th May and was later
reported to have sunk. There were no casualties.
14
15
The foll(j)¥ing sbips were sunk or damaged on
intheair'r'aidon Liverpool : Tonnage.
Name.
6,598
-< Elstree Grange - .
1,453
. Domino
10,224
'Europa
4,672
C14 n Macinnes
7,924
Tacoma Star ..
7,801
Roxburgh Castle
8,663
Baronesa
12,435
Waiwera
6,479
Lobos
7,649
~, Malakand
3,563
Romnanie (Belgian)
6,447
Salland (Dutch)
3,778
"Bra-Kar (Norwegian)
274
Bison (tug)
208
Wapiti (tug)
582
Skirmisher (tender)
6,770
Silversandal
the night of 3rd/4th May
Result,
Burnt out.
Burnt out.
Burnt out.
Badly damaged.
Submerged in docks.
Submerged in docks,
Slightly damaged.
Slightly damaged.
Slightly damaged.
Blown up.
Burnt Qut.
Slightly damaged.
Burnt out.
Submerged.
Damaged.
Damaged.
Reported to be on nre.
Western Approaches
On 29th April the City of Nagpur, 10,146 tons, was torpedoed about
600 mile':'> W. of Valentia and 462 survivors (crew and passengers) from
nine lifeboats have been picked up. Three men were killed and 13 of the
native crew are missing.
Mediterranean
During the evacuation of the Imperial Forces from Greece, the
Glenearn, 9,784 tons, was bombed before embarkation and taken in tow,
and the Gkngyle, 9,919 tons. was damaged by near misses, but managed
to reach Alexandria.
The crew of the tanker British Lord, 6,098 tons, which was bombed by
aircraft and abandoned S.W. of Crete on 21st April, returned later and
the ship arrived at Port Said on 29th ApriL
Ajrican Waters
The Wray Casile, 4,253 tons, bound independently from Mauritius to
Freetown, was torpedoed and sunk 110 miles S.S.W. of Freetown on
3rd May, forty-three survivors were picked up by tbe Portuguese
A ngola. and onc man is missing.
ALLIED SHIPS
n'aters
On 3rd May the Norwegian
Home
Tarangcr, 4,873 tons, independently routed
from Liverpool to Los Angeles, which was chased and machine-gunned
by a submarine about 180 miles S.'S.vV. of Reykjanes, Iceland, is now
known to have been sunk. Some survivors were picked up and a boat
'Nith 17 of the crew was seen under sail on 4th May.
Tbe F.S. 79 Convoy was attacked by aircraft on 3rd May about 19 miles
N.N.E. of Crmner and the NUfwcgian ships Trajan, 1,317 tons, and
Sitona, 1,143 tons. were sunk. Both crews were picked up.
16
The No~egian Caledonia, 9,892 tons, bound from Aruba to the Cl de
was sil.uk ill the submarme attack on Convoy nx. 121 all 28th
rll
130 mIles N.W. of tbe Butt of Lewis
Twenty-fi
.
p
landed at Greenock.
.
ve surVIvors were
1
Mediterranean
During tl~e ,evacuation of Imperial Forces from Greece. the Dutch
i1:~~~\~;p~3~:::~I~,;;;a;~eis~ntfire by daircraft and abandoned and the
b b d
d
" o n s an Costa R,CIl, 8,672 tons. were
om e an sunk, but therc were no serlous casualties in either ship.
The followi.ng . Gr~ek ships arc casualties as the result of
attac ks on shll'pmg m Greek waters :_
enemy air
- ----'-Date.
___
N_a_me.
__
~onn:ge'l
Louloudis
6th April 1 Constantinos
Teti
22nd April Ky iak·
24th
24th
24th
25th
27th
27th
27th
29th
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
t'
. ~
.'
T eti N omikou .'
Dimitrios Nomicos
George A. Dracaulis
Danapris
Ypanis ..
Matolis "
Kanistra
I 4~
2,747
5,528
1,882
1,171
1,570
2,113
1,459
1,712
3,5~n
Position.
P"
p;~~~:~ss. .
•
Suda Bay
P
iraeus..
Piraeus
Piraeus
Not known
Not known
Not know"
5\1(1a Bay •
Result.
--1--"-'-
Seriously damaged.
Seriously damagod.
Sunk.
Sunk.
Sunk.
Sunk.
L
L~:~:
I t
-os. ashore.
Went
---'---- --_.-The Greedk ships Messarya Nomikou, 985 tons and Sofia 17?? tons
are
been .sunk b. y e nerny ac f IOn.'.III GTrcck waters
" ........before
26tl reporte
A·1 tod have
h G
l p n , an t e reek Aghtos Markos 4514 tons is re orted h
Lloyds to have been lost through enemy action' before :iOth Aprh.
l y
NEUTRAL
Iv! editerranean
The Turkish Trahzon, 2,485 tons, was bombed by aircraft and sunk
between Istanbul and the Piraeus on 4th May.
11111111111111111111111111111
Overdue Ships
NAA.006.0346
~!Thbe
Carld/ord Chirle, 3,.364 tons, overduc in the River Platc since 19th
. arc,
4 :101 t OTIS,
- - 0\,,[
'.. . d ue at HalIfax
..
1st
A ·1an1. the NorwegIan
b ,Horda
"~..
SlIlce
prJ, lave now een posted overdue by Lloyos.
.
N There is no furt~er news of the PastLea, 4,267 tons (due at New ort
' ews on 17th Apnl), the Craftsman, 8,022 tons (uue at Capetowlon
2 1st17th
Apnl),
- 0"7"tons (d ue at Capetown
A illtbeth. Swedish
E
- . J'yolteh
~,o Im, ;:},
on
21 t A 'IP)r , Ie Ggyptlan .Lamzam, 8,299 tons (due at Capetown on
or be reek N,eotaus D .L ., 5 ,4Q0 6 t ons (d ue at Capetown
April).
ons 24thprJ,
1:
(C.tI20I-2J c
17
I
Tll"t\\)}k"r(o?\l's, 8,132 tons and to knots, under Government charter
whichleft)\ifilford Haven on 29th March has been overdue at Curacao
since 24thAptil and the Clan B"chanan, 7,266 tons and 16 knots, which
sailed from Du;ban on 19th April, has not reached Colombo where she
was due on 1st May.
The following ships, long overdue at their destinations, are now presumed
to have been the victims of enemy raiders : Name.
··-[:;:n-I __
Stanpark ..
..
LuslYous {tanker)
Sandefjo'Yd (Norwegian tanker).
Grootekerk (Dutch)
Marathon (Greek)
-[-_. I
F_rom
To
Capetown. 12th Jan.
Loch Ewe. 13th Fcb.
Capetown. 9th Jan.
Freetown
27th Jan.
6,156
8,038
Curacao
9th Mar.
Freetown
23rd Jan.
19/1/41
22/2/41
17/1/41
8,685
7,926
Swansea. 18th Feb.
Azore;;, 5th Mar...
Freetown 9th Mar.
Freetowil . 13th Mar.
5/3/41
10/3/41
-5,103
Date Due.
Probable
Date of
Attack.
----
British Conlraband Control
During the months of March and April, 4,470 tons of cargo destined
for the enemy were seized in prize. The main items were 2,183 tons of
oilseeds, mostly from French ships, 821 tons of metals, 428 tons of gums
and resins and 362 tons of fats and oils. The total seizures siIlce the
beginning of the war amount to 781,211 tons.
PART III: NAVAL INTELLIGENCE
Germany
Based on Information received up
Imports
In
Convoy
Imports into Great Britain by ships in convoy during the week ending
3rd May, totalled 557,968 tons compared with 796,426 tons during the
previous week and all average of 663,114 tons during the past ten weeks.
Fourteen tankers brought in only 171,809 tons ot oll compared with
340,093 tons last week. Mineral imports were 123,180 tons compared
with 178,893 tons in the previous week but 12 ships were fully laden with
iron ore, three with pyrites, one with pig-iron, one with copper and Oile
with manganese ore. Timber imports totalled no morc than 9,582 tOIlS
and cereals, 97,566 tons, the corresponding figures last week being
27,186 ton, and 134,361 tons. Six ships were fully laden with wheat
and two with grain. Other food imports amounted to 106,405 tons, a
satisfactory innease on the 48,058 tons of last week Two ships were
fully laden with sugar and one with sweet oranges, and the total included
quantities of ground nuts, tea, butter, cheese and cocoa.
Among unclassified imports were many tons of rubber, cotton, copra,
jute, 10,807 bales of wool and 424 crates of garlic. There were also lorries,
tractors, petrol tanks, 22 heavy lifts, field kitchens and aeroplanes.
18
May, 1941
Main Units
1. Battleships:~
Bismarck
Tirpitz
Battle-cruisers :Gneisenau
Scharnhorst .
Pocket Battleships
Admiral Scheer
LiUzow
8-in.· Cruisers : Prinz EUKen
Hipper
Seydlitz
6-in. Cruisers :Leipzig
Nurnberg.
KOln
•
w 5th
Emden
Aircraft Carrier:
Gra] Zeppelin
Destroyers:-Kid
Bremen "
Bremerhaven
Wilhelmsha ven
La Pallice
Reported at Gdynia, 20th April (B.2) and
again at Gdynia, 24th April (C.2).
Reported at Gdynia, 20th April (B.2).
•
At Brest m dry dock, 5th May.
At Brest alongside, 5th May.
!
illlllllllililiIIIIIIMI!~
NAA.006.0347
At Kiel in dry dock, 3rd May.
Reported in Baltic, 3rd May (B.2).
At Kiel, 3rd May.
At Kiel, 30th April, not seen there on 3rd May
but harbour was not completely covered.
At Bremen, 2nd May.
At Kid, 18th March, not since located.
Reported in Eastern Baltic, 20th April (13.2).
Reported at GdYllia, 20th April (B.2).
Reported in Baltic, 20th April (B.2).
Believed at Gdynia.
30th April. Three (one fitting out).
2nd May.
Six (three fitting out).
30th April. Nil.
30th April. Two.
21st ApriL Three.
Gne£senau and Scharnhorst
2. Examination of all the eVIdence available points to the Gneisenau
having been hit on three occasions in April, once on the night of
4th/5th, once on the night of 6th/7th and again on the night
of 10th/lith. It is possible Scharnhorst may have suffered underwater
damage from a hit or near miss.
3.. It w':lllld seem that, after being damaged on the night of 4th/5th
Apnl Gne1,senau was moved into the Radc Abri, either 'Ni.tt the object
of an early departure from the port or to minimize danger of further
damage. The possible hit on the night of 6th/7th April mav have caused
her to re.. . enter dock to repair underwater damage.
~
19
'
;1;
Raider A otivity
4. From its appearance, a mine washed ashore near Norah Head,
New South Wales, on 7th April had been recently laid.
.5. S.S. Trafalgar (British, 4,530 tons) made a disguised merchant
raider distress message on 30th April in position 44 43' N., 2W 32' W.
(about 550 miles N.N.W. of the Azores) and reported being followed by a
suspicious vesseL ThIs message has not yet been cancelled. The
Trafalgar is not due at Capetown till 30th May and her fate is still unknown
on going to press.
6. An incomplete raider distress message was intercepted at 0102
G.M.T. on 28th ApriL It is now thought that this message was made
by S.S. Clan Buchanan (British, 3,692 tons) who was in estimated position
005 0 24' N., 062 0 46' E. (about 1,000 miles W. of Colombo), and who has
been overdue at Colombo since 1st May. If her loss is due to a raider,
an armed merchant cruiser must have been concerned.
E-Boat A<tivity·-28/29th April, 1941
7. On 29th April at 0015, Captain D.16 in Worcester with Cotswold
sighted six E-boats ahout 15 miles north of Cromer, but lost contact at
0044. It is cousidered that one E-boat was damaged.
8. At 0203 Eglington and Whitshed engaged one E-boat in about the
same position. It is considered certain that the enemy was damaged,
but he was lost in a smoke screen.
9. At 0207 Wallace drove off two E-boats to the eastward.
10. At 0345 the 1st Motor Launch Flotilla, patrolling near Smith's
Knoll, engaged two E-boats for about seven minutes, claiming one hit
with a three-pounder before the enemy escaped.
11. At 0500 M.G.B's 61 and 59, on patrol abont 45 miles east of
Lowestoft, had a running fight at high speed with two E-boats; the
action lasted for 25 minutes endinR within about 25 miles of Ymuiden,
when the enemy escaped to the eastward. Several hits with Oerlikon
and machine guns were observed.
12. During these engagements an attack on Convoy E.C.13, of
57 ships, materialized, bnt only one casualty was sustained-the British
Ambrose Fleming (1,550 tons) heing sunk. No casualties were sustained
in H.M. ships.
0
Air Activity
13. The scale of enemy air activity against this COll11tf}r during the week
has remained the same with a slight intensification of night bombing
activity.
14. Meteorological activity has continued on a normal basis. The
flight from Trondheim opef8Jing to the west and north-west of its base
on 2nd 1fay covered the area of the Faroe Isles in some detail, and on
4th May operated to the north, reaching a point 200' to the west of the
Lofolcn !.sles and extending almost to the Jan Mayen Isles.
15. A F.W. aircraft operating frorn Norway now appears to be making
a regular daily weather flight covering the area between the Faroe Isles
and the south-cast coast of Iceland. Other activity by P.W. aircraft
during the week has been confined to shipping reconnaissance flights
20
by two or three aircraft each day, operating from Stavanger and
Gardemocn and working in an area to the south and south-west of the
Faroe Isles. No report of shipping being attacked has been received.
A F.W. aircraft was engaged and damaged by a Sunderland 90' W. of
the Faroe.s on. 28th April and jettisoned its bombs before disappearing in
a N.E. drrectlOn. From the search made by another F.W. aircraft in
this area on the following morning iUs supposed that this aircraft crashed
as a result of the combat.
16. During the last few days reconnaissance aircraft from the Brest
area have been active on flights off the sonth-west and west coast of
Ireland. This activity, which has taken place in the afternoons, may
be a continuation of the previous activity in this area by F.W. aircraft
which has practically ceased in the past fortnight, as most of the F.W.
aircraft have moved to bases in Norway.
17. There ha.', been almost a complete cessation of attacks on shipping
by day and the previous tendency for these attacks to be made at dusk
and during the night has continued. Several convoys on the east coast
have been bombed; two ships were lost and several damaged.
18. Offensive activity overland by day has been on a very small scale
indeed; attacks were made at a few points on the east coast of Scotland
on 28th April and at Weymouth ou 1st May, wheu some damage was
done to an important factory.
19. The increased scale of night bombing activity has included an
attack on Portsmouth on the night of 27th April, two further heavy
raids on the Plymouth/Devonport area on the nights of 28th and 29th
April, and one small and two heavy raids on the Merseyside area on the
nights of 1st, 2nd and 3rd of May, the latter being combined with an
attack on the Tyncside area and further minor attacks at Portsrllouth
and Barrow-in-Furness. During the night of 3[(1/4th May, no less than
fifteen aircraft were shot down by our night fighters, by A.A. fire, and one
hy hitting a balloon wire; there were also four prohables and three
damaged.
U-Boats
20. During the week there have been about eleven U-boats present
in the N. W. Approaches and activity has tended to be closer to the
Britlsh Isles than in the recent past. .
21. A daylight attack was made ou the 28th by one or more V-boats
on a homeward bound convoy about 300 miles ,"-Y. by N. of Butt of Lewis,
where four shiP.s, the Bri~i~h tankers Capulet and Oilfield, the Norwegian
tanker Caledonza, and :BntIsh 5.s. POtt Hardy, v,Iere torpedoed and sunk.
Destroyers carried out two promising counter attacks.
22. On the 28th or 29th April the independent outward bound British
Beacon Grange was torpedoed and sunk in the same vicinity as the attack
on the convoy.
.23. During the morning of the 29th a flying-boat sighted a lifeboat
With snrVIvors (probably from the Henry Mary) about 300 miles west of
AchlllHead, also lifehoats of snrvivors from the sunk City of Nagpur,
600 mIles west of Valentia.
21
11111111111111111111111_1111111
NAA.006.0348
~
i
I
i
24. The independent British Nerissa was torpedoed and sunk On the
30th about 90 miles N.W. of Bloody Foreland.
25'. Iti the nis-ht of 2nd/3rtl May the Norwegian Taranger was chased
180 miles S.S.W. of Reykjanes.
26. The British Lycaon reported that she Was fired on and chased
during the night 3rd/4th May, 300 miles W.s.W. of Rockall.
27. Two U-boats are patrolling in the Freetown area and one to the
westward 01 Cape Verde Islands.
Mining
28. Parachute mines were dropped in the course of bombing raids
last week on Portsmouth and Liverpool. A harbour launch was
destroyed between the dockyard and Horsea Island, and a coaster was
sunk in the Mersey.
29. The suspected area reported last week fifty miles west of the Butt
of Lewis has been searched without result.
30. Numerous German conical explosive floats have appeared recently
between Dover and the North Foreland. They are in good condition,
but not newly laid. Searches to the north-east have not yet loc8.ted the
source of these floats.
31. Casualties remain low, and were mainly amongst small craft.
32. Two further mines have been swept off Cape Otway, Melbourne)
near the position where the City oj Rayville was mined on 8th March,
1940, and on 26th March a trawler was mined off Newcastle, New South
Wales, through an old and encrusted mine fouling her trawl. On 7th
April, however, ten miles farther south, a mine was washed ashore which
had the appearance of having been recently laid.
33. During the week ending 25th March, according to the Air Ministry,
there was a decrease in the number of minelayers to 20 from a total of 205
in the previous week. Germany is believed virtnally to have exhausted
her stock of magnetic mines and to be relying on· current production,
which has been previously estimated at 200 per week. The sudden
drop in the scale of minelaying attack may therefore have been due to
excessive expenditure of mines in the previous week.
GERMAN ACTIVITiES AND POSSIBLE INTENTIONS
United Kingdom
Information has been received that the movement of German fighter
aircraft to the Mediterranean theatre continues, but reliable reports
suggest that the invasion of Britain has only been postponed and that a
decision will be taken when the situation in the Mediterranean has
become clearer. There are no indications at the moment of the return
to the Low Countries and France of German Air Force or armoured units,
which it is considered wouW be the surest indication that the operation
is projected.
Norway
There has been continuance of shipping activity in Oslo, Kristiansand
(S), Stavanger and Bergen, but no significant c.oncentration has so far
been observed. In North Norway (i.e. J north of Narvik inclusive) there
22
il
are some, thr~e .divisions. but as these troops include a large proportion
of reserVIsts It IS not felt that an overseas operation is contemplated at
present.
!:>pain
While repo~ts conti:lUe to .be receiv~d th~t Germany is putting pressure
on Franco to Induce 111m to sIgn. the Tnpartite Pact and pennit the passage
of German troops through Spalu to GIbraltar, there has been no definite
report of, a ~erman,ultimatum ;. ?ut there is good grouud for believing
that Spam IS res~rvmg her deCISIon until the outcome of the Genuan
attack on Egypt IS known.
Reports have been received" of military preparations in Southern Spain
and of the presence there of German officers; in Madrid the members of
the German FIfth ColUmn are reported to have had a mobilization
rehearsal on 20th April, Hitler's birthday.
It lSreported, tholl((h not confinued, that on 22nd April Franco declined
an lllvItatlOn from HItlcrto VIsIt Berlin, but that he will probahly agree
t~ receIve Rlbbentrop, ::illlCe that date the tenSIOn seems to have eased
sltghtly.
Reconl?-aissance of the Franco-Spanish frontier shows numerous dumps
o~ ffiCl:tenal, ~nd other reports S"t:ggest that troop movements in that
dl~~chon arc mte~ded or are pOSSIbly already in progress,
Ihough ther~ IS u<;> reason to believe that Germany has abandoned
her predatory 1TItentIo~s t?wards Spain, the prospect that aggression
may be postponed awhIle 15 slightly brighter.
Portugal
Althongh the possibility of a German drive towards Gibraltar and the
battle III the .Western Des~rt are at present to the fore, a surprise attack
on Portugal IS also a contmgcncy to be reckoned with.
One r~port alleges t,holt two German residents in Portugal were invited
by the German LegatIon to complain of ill-treatment at the hands 01 the
Portuguese, and Gcrrna~l propaganda still stresses British designs on
Portugal and the neceSSIty of affording her Genua.n "protection."
Morocco
Germa~ in~tration i_~lto French Mo[occiJ continues, and the Germans
:=tre sh<:wmg mte.rest 1ll th~ commu~ication.s
of that country,
The
~nfiltratlO~ apP~~Hs to he ,talnng plaCl~ In part through Spanish Morocco
and TangIer: Ihe~e tacttcs, :nay be m preparation for German activity
on the SpaI~lsh m~lIlland, .1 hey .are also no doubt intended eventually
to weaken Fre~'lch mfiuence ill Afnca and thcrehy deprive Marsha.l Paain
o,f ,:"hat constItutes a most valuable bargaining counter.
Syna
..~I~h:)Ug~ <:ur. consular representative in Beirut minimizes German
actIVIties III Syna, rep~rts indicate that the Disarmament Commission
h~ been makmg certaIn preparations to fac.ilitate the arrival ofAxi-'
aIr-borne troops.
- ::)
Iran
The persistence of German interest in Iran is illustrated inter alia by a
report of Gcrm;;n infiltration through the U.S.S. R. and by the Press
report tha.t a German delegation, which includes a well-known Nazi
propagandist and a Foreign Office official, is leaving Ankara for Iran,
i\lllllilll\llilllllll\l~
NAA.006 .0349
23
(e)
r;'rkey
'-',There:has ,been
" '
nO further news of. a Gcr:nan-T urk'15h non-aggre.:.51On
act. 'andin spite of a report of a thmly veIled threat to Turkey not to
;bst~ctthe German adv~ce on Palestine and Egypt, the two countnes
areAncoIIlmereial negotiatIOn; thlS suggests that Germany may endeavour
to,;G0l1tro1 Turkey by economic pressure.
.
'Unconfirmed reports have been received of the assem.blmg of boats,
tank-carrying craft and other war material at Gennan-controlled Black
Sea ports.
. .
'I
The general conclusion is that the Germans arc usmg
pressu~e
litics" towards Turkey and that every sort of political and economiC
~
'
pressure is being and will be uscd"In Increasmg
measure.
Russia
.,
h 'l't'
b t
There are no reliable indications of Immment ash 1 les e ",~een
Gennany and the U.S.S.R., but there se~ms little doubt that the relabons
between the two countries remam straIned. The return t~ ~osco~ of
the German ambassador and delegation may reveal the posItion a little
more clearly.
HOLLAND, BELGIUM, FRANCE
Construction of Shelter Pens
In January, 1941, reports began to COll1e in of submarine shelters at
various occupied ports.
.
Reconnaissance at an early stage showed work at Ostend, but that ill
other ports work has only recently begun.
.
These reports varied considerably in the. position:, of the pens ~d I?,
details of construction, but all referred to theIr use for small submannes
l
1
.:
..
1
.•
" l.•
or A
" subnlarines.
B.3 report has stated that the costs ~f these works .in France are •.·.f
being debited to the French Govefl.lment; It appears pOSSIble that these
pens are an insurance and that theIr eXIstence docs not necessanly mean
the establishment of a U-boat base. They coul~, of course! be used for
E-boats DI similar small craft intended for combIned operatlons·'l
The sheltN pens consist of parallel walls built out either from a. qua.y .~.
O'r into a w-?:t basin, and covered over. The speed of constructIOn IS 'i
remarkable, particularly at St. Nazaire.
.~
The following is an analysis of the present position :-1. The construction of pens has becn confIrmed at
(a) ROTTERDAM. Sixteen pens in the Vilaalhaven are now being
covered over.
Measurements: 140 by 15 to 20 ft.
Height I S to 20 It.
1
(b) OSTEND. Five, possibly six, covered shelters in the Bassin de la I,',
Marine.
5
Measurements: 330 by 40 ft.
_
j
Height estimated as between to and 20 ft,
;1
l
: j
*
l'
.I
It has also been reporled that shelters built in 1914-18 at I".""'.'
Bruges have been restored for use,
••
24
Photographs show that two or three pen-type
constructions arc being built into the Bassin Loubet, but
dimensions cannot yet be distinguished.
(d) LORIENT. Reports, though varied as to position, numbers and
tjrpe of shelters, ha~ been persistent, and recent photographs
of work at the site of a projected dry dock south of Keroman,
at the radial slips at Keroman and north of the oiling jetty on
the east bank of the Scorff, indicate that the erection of shelters
here is probahle.
The work south of Keroman may prove to be for a dry dock
or for shelter pens. A dry dock had been previously projected
by the French.
At Keroman Fishing Basin radial slips have been completed.
and it seems likely that two long buildings over both these
slips act as shelters for any boat hanled out and slid underneath
theln.
The work at the oiling jetty suggests two or three small drY
docks which. may he eventually roofed in and measure 400 ft·
by 80 ft.
(e) ST. N'AZAIRE. Photographs now show rallid work at the west
bay of the Bassin de St. Nazaire which has been dammed and
drained. ft seems that about seven pen shelters will be
constructed, 250 ft. by 25 ft., and the speed at which the work
progresses is remarkable.
BOULOGNE.
2. Submarine shelters at Le Havre, St. Malo, Brest, Vannes (near Brest),
Alderney (Channel Islands), La Rochelle and La Pallice have also been
reported; but they are as yet quite unconfIrmed by aerial reconnaissance,
with the exception of Brest, where the jetty opposite the Torpedo Boat
Station has been widened possibly for the building out of pens.
3.
hoth
were
from
It will be seen that the dimensions vary, but it is considered that
V-boats and E-boats could use these shelters as the Brugcs shelters
used in the last war. Reports of the thickness of the roofing vary
6 ft. to 26 ft. and it appears that reinforced concrete is being used.
Floating Docks
ST. NAZAIRE.--Photographs show, under construction, eight probable
floating docks (three ~I 200 ft. by 40 It., and four of 280 It. by SO ft.)
and one of 280 ft. hy 00 ft. recentlv launched. The distI;blltion of these
docks along the coast for r-boats ~or E-hoaLs seems very probable.
GERMAN AIR FORCE
. The following notes are based on information obtained from prisoners
of war and are not necessarily established facts;Tactics against Shipping
Flights against shipping arc usually carried out at a height of less than
300 feet. It is easier when flying low to detect ships silhouetted against
the horizon, and lt is also bel1evcd that British Detector Stations on the
coast are unable to detect aircraft flying below 300 feet.
(C41201_2)
11
D
illllllll~~~I~IIIIIIII!1
NAA.OO6.0350
I
,I
I
~
The chief difficulty of Jow flying over sea at night is that a change in
the: weather can throw out the altimeter by as much as 600 feet. On
really dark nights it is largely a matter oj luck if ships are located, because
y~e1\,if their position has previously been reported, by the time the
att<ic'lcing aircraft arrives the ships will h.ave moved OIl, and from a low
level. are hard to locate.
The form .pf attack now most generally adopted is across the beam of
the, ship, approaching with the airscrews almost touching the water,
and rising to mast-head level just before the bombs are released.
This method is considered to afford the greatest chance of obtaining
.direct hits, owing to the forward throw imparted to the bombs by the
speed of the aircraft.
It is also thought that at this height it is most difficult for the vessel
or its escort to bring A.A. fire to bear, especially in view of the elements
of speed and surprise. During part of the attack the aircraft is screened
by the ship itself from any escort au the far side.
After passing over the ship, the aircraft would again come down to
water level.
The most feared defensive armament for merchant shipping i" the
2·cm. A.A. gun, and both Kondor and He. 111 crews have expressed
the opinion that their present tactics would become suicidal if merchant
ships were generally equipped with these guns.
Submarines would never be attacked unless from their position, e.g.
in harbour or obviously escorting a convoy, they were obviously enemy.
(iii) BALTIC Sl·:A. Normal except to northward of Gotland where ice
is still causing some hindrance near the Swedish coast.
North Sea
Norma1.
Denmark S'trait
, The edge of the pa~k ic:- probably rUns f~~m the vicinity of Jan Maycn
U1 a sOl1th-wcsterlydlrectlOn throl1g·h a positlon 50 to 60 miles north-west
of Iceland, and thence in a direction about 240 0 for at least 150 miles.
Italy
Based on information received up to 5th May, 1941.
I'.'
•.
·1
;
1
.
l
:,I
.•,
Co-operation bdween Aircraft and Na1Jal Units
.C:
It dhas allread y been repodrtejd thhat tdhe Kondors of K.G. 40 habvle behen 1
place une er the comman 0 teE.. U. It now seems proba e t at •
since two further Gruppen have been added to K.G.40 these Gruppen 1
also come under the same command.
There seems nO doubt that there is a form of communication hetween:~
aircraft of K.G.40 and V-boats, and it has been stated more than once ',}
that in the case of the Kondors this communication is dired.
Tn the case of other aircraft of the Gcschwader, messages are sent :,
from the air(:raft to the ground station and relayed to the U-boat
Command.*
j
i
J
)
Ice Conditions
White Sea
Navlgation will probably be resumed towards the middle of this month.
;'£
..~
R a l t i c i
(i) GULF OF BOTHNIA. Poris In the sonthern part to southward of ~
Henlosand are now open with icebreaker assistance. Lulea may be ~.-.:
expected to be opened at the end of this month.
_
(ii) GULF OT FINLAND.
Ports at the eastern end will be open within ~.
~~~~~
I
~
~lllllllrullllllll~111
NAA.006.0351
1
.~
I
Enemy Surface Craft.
The following are the latest known disposit.i.DIls of main units of the
Italian I 1eet: 1
Unit.
Location.
Battleships. Lit/orio Class :Vittorio Veneto
Damaged by F.i\..A. during battle of Cape
Matapan, 28th March (A. I ); reported to
have arrIved Taranto having been. hit by
two torpedoes (C.2.)
Reported will proceed to Trieste for repairs.
Not at Taranto 19th ApriL
Littorio
Damaged 11th/12th Novemher, 1940.
At Ta.ranto 26t.h March, repairs nearly
completed (C.3). Not at Taranto, 19th
ApriL
Battleships. Cavour dass :
Cesare
:: }At Naples, 4th }fay (A.I).
Doria
Duilio
Damaged 11th/12th November, 1940. Sailed
from Taranto hetween 10th and 16th
January for unknown destination. Reported
repairing at Trieste, 28th February (C.2) .
.8~in. Cruisers :Gorizia
'. At Taratlto, 19th Fehruary (C.2).
Trieste
: . }At Messina, 7th February (B.2) .
Trento
Balzano
At Naples, 26th January (B.2).
u-in. Cruisers : D-i Giussano
At Monfalconc, 18th January (A.2).
C'adorna
At Leghorn, 19th February (C.3).
D'Aosta
At Spezia, 18th January (A.2).
(C41201-2)
D2
27
6-in, Cruisers---'-Contd.
Da· Barbiano
Bande Nere
Attendolo
M ontecuccoli
Reported pa.'Sing Keliba (Tunisia) 24th:
February (B-2). At Pola, undergoing minor
repairs, 20th March (C3).
Possibly damaged in Battle of Cape Matapan,
28th March.
Proceeded to diller Taranto or Spezia for
repairs before 29th July, 1940.
Reported at Naples, 11 th March (C3).
Tunisian Coast
Recent reconnaissances reported the sighting of the following convoys
and ships of the Eastern Tunisian Coast : 1st May.~Six medium M.V.s escorted by six destroyers, course
180°, speed 12 knots; five small M.V.s unladen.. escorted by four
destroyers, course 060°, speed 10 kJ!.ots; and SIX destroyers were
also seen near Lampedusa, course 210°, speed 15 knots.
2nd May.-One destroyer, 6 miles S.E. of Keliba; one patrol vessel
and four medium M.V.s west of Djerba.
3rd May.-Five small M.V.s of 500 tons, also three minesweepers <lnd
two sloops.
Western Sicily
A Glenn Martin speCial patrol north and south of \Veslcrn Sicily
reported having sighted a convoy of one large and three small M.V's
escorted by two destroyers.
Tripoli
A reconnaissance of Tripoli on 2nd May reported sIgh ling Utree
destroyers, nine T.B.s, eleven medium M.V.s and sIxteen smaller M Y.s
obviously intended for Benghazi traffic.
Tobruk
There has been considerable activity in this area during the past week.
Enemy defensive positions opposite the western perimeter have bee?
developed, \vhile aUf own active patrolling continues. On the 27th April
our A.A. positions were di.ve bornbed by Gennan ai.rcraft and there was
some damage to guns and equipment which is being repaired.
There were six enemy attacks on Tobruk d.uring the night of 29th/30th
April, including three by twenty to thirty Ju.87s escorted hy fighters.
A.A. fire destrovcd two and damaged two. Our casualtles were four
killed and twelve wounded.
On 1st 1Iay the enemy launched a deterruined attack from Ute direction
of Acroma and captured our forward linc of defended localities OIl a five
thousand va:d front. Our tanks counter-attacked, ann a portion of the
enemy withdrew afteI" losing four ta.nks in minefields, at least threc by
Molotov coc.ktails and four knocked out by our tanks. We lost three
infantry tanks and four cruiser tanks. ~nemy ai~c:raft made several d~ve
bombing attacks on our troops and artll~ery r?SltlOns. On the IIlOn~ll1g
of 2nd May thirty tanks and two compames ot mfantry advanced agamst
our new linc but were stopped by artillery fire.
28
In theSollum area there hasheen a slight increase in activity south of
the escarpment. H.MS. A phis bombarded this arca on 29th ApriL
Enemy Aircraft Activity
Thcre have becn several attacks by cnemy aircraft during the
On the evening of 29th April eight Ju.88s escorted by ten
Me. 109s high levcl bombed the dockyard. A.A. engaged, splitting up
the bombers. One Ju. 88 was hit and after being attacked by Hurricanes
crashed on land. The crew of four baled out and were made prisoners.
One Me. 109 was also probably destroyed by Hurricanes. The same night
a heavy raid was carried out by two waves of about seventy In. 885 and
He. 1115 beginning at 1850 and lasting until 0115. The main target was
the dockyard and Takali aerodrome, and some bombs were dropped at
I.:uqa. A.A. barrages and searchlights were employed over Grand
Harbour. One In. 88 'vas destroyed. Again during the day of 30th April
there were two high level raids on the dockyard by a total of ninc J u. 885.
six Me. 109s and ten Macchi 200s. All the raiders were heavily engaged
by A.A. Damage and casualties were caused in all raidf;.
MALTA.
week.
Attacks on Enemy Ports and other Objectiv3S
LIBYA.
On 23rdj24th April four Wellingtons, unable to locate
Benghazi owing to cloud, bomhed 1JLT. on the road. east of Tobruk
causing several explosions. Another Wellington bombed M.T. on the road
ea..-;t of Benghazi. On the 27th April a Hurricane, which was despatched
to Benina aerodrome with the specia1 object of interfering with movelnent
of transport aircraft to t.he forward area, machine-gunned eight lu. 52's
embarking troops. The Hurricane destroyed one and severely damaged
the remaining seven, inflicting casualties. Three enemy motorised
columns moving eastwards during the day along the Ruq Buq road and
escarpments were harassed by our mobile covering forces. The latter
were 2.ttacked by Me.110's, one of which was shot down by a Hurricane,
and the enemy withdrew to the Capuzzo area.
During the day of 30th April fourteen Hurricanes machine-gunned
about three hundred M.T. moving eastwards in small columns between
Ga:z..-"1la and Bardia: a la.rge nm-n ber of vehi.clcs was damaged and the
. convoy thrown into confusion. One Henschel 126 was destroyed over
Gambut.
South of Sollum on the 30th April, one Hurricane eng<lgcd four Me. 110'5
machine-gunning our troops and probably destroyed one and damaged
another. At dusk on the sam.e date Blenheims bombed Gazala landing
grounds and M.T. on the Tobruk-Bardia mad; one Fighter Blenheim
equipped with cannon destroyed ten velricles.
BENGHAZI.
On 1st April Blenheims bombed Benghazi harbour, setting
fire to a ship.
It-alt"an Submarines
Five Italian V-Hoats have been present in the North \IVestern Approaches
during the week. On 4th May one was in the M.adeira area and one to
northward of the Canaries.
Mining
SICILIAN CHANNEL.
A contact mine was cut on 4th May, nineteen miles
to the· north-east of Cape Bon in the northern approach to the Sicilian
ChanneL
29
1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIImlili
NAA.006.0352
MALTA.
Aircraft mining of the Grand Harbour has become more
Provence
intensive.
RED SEA.
On 30th April thirty moored mines were found in 13° 11' N.,
42°'54' E.--'---43 miles north west of Perin.
IRAQ. The intransigence of the Iraqi Government led by Rashid Ali
clllmiriatcd in an attack on the Habbaniya aerodrome by Iraqi forces,
and hostilities which bega.n in the early hours of 2nd May arc still
proceeding, Some artillery moved up from Baghdad has been silenced by
our bombers. British troops have occupied the airport, docks and power
stahon at Basra. TIle Regent, the Emir Abdul I\blt illegally deposed hy
Ali's coup d'etat, has issued a proclamation calling upon the people to
drive out" the group of military tyrants led by Rashid Ali who have been
hought by foreign gold." He decla-red that his duty was to restore the
honour of his native land and to lead it back to peaceful prosperity under
a lawfully constituted Government.
8-in. Gun Cruisers
Algerie
Foch
Dupleix
Colbert
,,}
:~
"
6-in. Gun Cruisers:~
La Galissonniere . . }
Jean de Vienne ..
Marseillaise
..
Primauguet
..
(;eo1'ges J.eygues .. }
~fJ,1ontcalm. .
France
..
Claire
THE VICHTEN FLEET
The following is the latest information regarding the state of readiness
of the prirrcipal units of the Vichy French Fleet in home and African
waters : At Dakar. One IS-in, gun in forward lower
Richelieu
turret out of action. Otherwise both main
and secondary armament complete. Steel
plate being fitted to hole on starboard side
by means of a caisson. It is not known
whether this work has yet been completed.
Three shafts are believed serviceable and
ship capable of 14/18 knots. She has net
yet been seen to move under her own steam,
At Casablanca. Forward lower turret only
Jean Bart
mounted, but guns have no breech blocks.
There is no centralised fire control and"
secondary armament as such does net 3
exist.
Anti-aircraft defence has been l
improvised loeajlly . BRoth stid; andbdeCk .'
annonf are 1ll p ace.epor eu capa leo f .It'
20/25 knots.
Upper stmeture has been ~~
painted ydlow to blend with nearby ;;f
buildings. Hull grey.
At Toulon. In full commission. Reported ..
Ii
Strasbourg
(B.2) to he at two days' n o t i c e , , ;
At Mers-el-Kebir (Oran). In full commi~sion·i
DutLkcrque
Temporary repairs believed completed, but Ii
ship requires dry docking. In present
condition believed capable of 18 knots on .~.'
three shafts. Starboard outboard shaft is
out of commission from effects of shell fire . •
during action last July.
i..
30
~.'
§
I
'I
I
I
At Toulon. Last seen on 20th March 1941
(air recotmaissancc) in dry dock undc~going
repair. Completion date reported (B.2) to
be 25th April, 1941.
Four at TOUlon.
In full commission.
Three at Toulon.
~
,
In full commission.
One at Casablanca.
In full commission.
Two at Dakar.
In fnll commission.
One at Dakar.
In dry dock.
1!11111!1!11!1~1~llllr
NAA.006.0353
~
Enemy Submarine Activities
Tn the regional grouP"ing of. the followin~ reports of submarines or of ships
attacked by them the lollowmg geographIcal cXllresslOus are used :_
" North-Western Area" North of 55 : 00 N., and West of the Orkneys and
Shetlands, and of 0 [ : 00 \V.
" Coast of Norway"
The area East of 02: 00 E., to the North of
50: 00 N., and East of C1 -, GO W., to the North
of61:00N.
" NOTth Sea"
The area between that line and a lille running
from Dover to Cap Gris Nez.
" The Channel"
'Nest of that lille as far as ;>~ line running from the
Lizard to Ushant.
" Vlcstr.rn Area"
,,,,'-est of the Channel, South of 55
00 N awl
North of 36.00 N.
.,
" Afriean Coast"
The area South of ::So : 00 N., and \Vest of Tariia,
Straits of GibralLar.
NOKIH-VVESTERN AREA
28th or
GO
2116/28
59 , 55 N.
About 28
VIlest of 53
50 N.-IS
18 \.Y.
300 m. V'l. of Achill Head,
59
36 N.----12
50 W., 210 m.
W.N. W. of Butt of Lewis.
59: 21 N.-07 : 48 W., 70 Ill. 318'"
Butt of Lewis.
10 N.- -15 45 W. (approx.),
29th AnriJi
~mo tn. vV,N.VV. of Butt of I.e,vis.
l8.10/28·
60
1-1 N,- IS
20 Vi., 300 III,
W.N.W. of Butt of Lewis.
1202/29
1524/30
W.N.~r. of
-IS . 40 vV., 290
fn.
British Beacon Grange
attacked.
British
Oilfield
and
Port Hardy and Norwegian Caledonia at-
tacked.
R.eported by H.M. ship.
Butt of Lewis.
I1ritish Henri Mary
attacked.
Reported by aircraft.
f{eported by aizcraft.
31
I}
NORTH-WESTERN AREA-con/d.
1900/30
:
W., 85m., 317 I Reported
'S9Butt
of
: OS N.-tO : 27 W., 92 m. 306° British Nerissa attacked.
i 56Bloody.Foreland.
30N.--O~ :20
LewIS.
2330f30
0
by ail"Craft.
.
2145/1 May 55: 45 N.-12: 30 W., 150 m. W. by
'.
N. of Bloody Foreland.
.
.
0030/2
' 55: 13 N.~16: 14 W .. 275 m. W. of
Bloody Foreland.
1512/2
55: 57 N.-I3 : 33 W., 150 ill. 285 0
,
Bloody Foreland.
61 : 07 N.-25 : 20 W., ISO m. 205 0
0050/3
Reykjanes, Iceland.
55: 00 N.-22 : 01 W., 315 m. 241 0
2155/3
I
I
I
Reported by aircraft.
Reported bv aircraft.
Reported by aircraft.
Norwegian Ta·ranget·
attac~ed,
British L ycaon attacked.
Rockall.
2230/4
1019/5
1700j5
0722/5
030016
04IOj6
2354/29
1220j30
1345/4
2045/3
032.5j6
20 N.-20: 15 W., 475
I 62:Butt
of Lewis.
1l1.
298 0
62: 11 N.-14: ·44 W., 330 ill. N.W.
01 Butt of Lewis.
59 : 18 N.--··08 : 40 '.iV. 90 Ill. 300 0
Butt of Lewis.
62: 58 N.-- -16 : 35 W., 405 m. 312 0
Butt of Lewis.
50 : 34 N.-21 : 40 YV., 425 m. 260"
Valencia.
50: 42 N.~21 : 20 \V., 420 ffi. 26r~
Valencia.
WESTERN AREA
51 : 00 N.-21 . 52 "V., 440 m. 263 0
Valencia.
46: 29 N.-06 : 34 W., 125 m. 209 0
Ushant.
Reported byR.M.ships.
Reported by H.M. trawler.
Reported hyaircraft.
Reported by H.M. ship
Reported by H.M. ship.
Ita.lian prize Sangro
attacked.
Reported by H.M. ship.
Reported by aircraft.
COAST OF NORWAY
; 58; 10 N.-04 : 40 E., 40 m. W.S.W. 'I Reported by aircraft.
I of Egersund.
AFRICAN COAST
06:4SN.-13:55W.,1l0m.S.S.W.
of FrL'Ctuwn.
08: 33 N.-~15. 17 W, 13\l m. W. of
British W ray Castle
attacked.
British Slim! attacked.
Freetown.
U.S.S.R.
SOVIET MERCANTILE MA1UNE
That all is not well with the Soviet Mercantile Marine was openly
admitted once again, as in previous years, at the recent Conference of
the Bolshevik Party held ill Moscow. The Commissar of the Merchant
Fleet was severely reprimanded and warned that if the work of his Commissariat did not improve he would be expelled from his position as a
member of the Revisionary (Anditing) Committee of the Party.
32
.I.I~.,hisadd~css ~. Dukelski stated that .the present unsatisfactory state
oJ; hIS . Commlssanat was due to two mam Causes:(1) The Mercantile Marine in general is not. fUIlctioning properly
smce for eIght months out of the year ships are to be found in
harbour and not at sea.
(2) Casualties t.o vessels, unsat.isfaet.ory and lengthy refits and bad
organization of the shipping industry as a whole all make for
inefficiency.
M. Dukelski also alluded to the following interesting points ;_
(1) The most backward Fleet of the Soviet Union is t.hat of t.he
Caspian, .Practically all the ships are well over age and
?ailly eqUIpped. New harbour plant for dealing with cargoes
IS urgently required in the Caspian (and also for that matter
on all the inland waterways).
(2) A special Commission left Moscow OIl the 20th February this
year ~or. Baku to take immediate action in regard to
dIe b11l1dmg of tugs and barges urgently reqUired for work on
the Caspian.
.
(Note.-Owing to the rapid decline of the level of the Caspian
Se.a, vessels with cargoes bound for Astrakhan and the Volga
~lvcr have to unload into lighters when over 60 miles
dIstant from the southern limits of the Volga Delta. Hence
the urgency of the tug and lighter quest.ioIl.)
(3) Although inland water transport throughout. the Soviet Union
ir,lCreased in 1940 the position is still unsatisfactory. In 1940
tne plan for t.he transport of oil from Astrakhan to the Upper
Volga was not fulfilled since the full navigation season (May-November) was n~t m~de use of. The majority of ships had
not completed theIr wlIlte-r refits when the rivers were fit for
navigation.
It is quite evident from the adrnissiuns cited above that ;_
(I) Th~ level of the Caspian remains a serious problem and the
~lfficulty of the falling water is to be met by the usc of tug and
lIghter transport. The passage of destroyers and submarines
from the. Bla.ck S.ea to the North i~ an impossibHlty as long as
the CaspIan contmnes to fall; until about two or three vears
ago it w~,s hoped to .ac1~ieve this project hy the completi~n of
the Mamch Canal Imklng the Azov and Caspian SCSi), hut
there are now insufficient depths in the Volga Delta Canc<J for
the transit of such vessel".
(2) The expansion of the Soviet Ivlercalltile IVlarine which has been
planned cannot be carried out on an immense scale and at
great speed since so illllc:h effort has to be used to maintain the
existing merchant service.
During the Conference a reference was made by M. Malcnkov to the
heavy load that the railways arc carrying and he stated that mOre use
ShOll1rl be made of the Marinski system {connecting the Upper Volga to
1IIIIIIIIiill\\III~\I~
NAA.OO6.0354
:J:J
Leningrad). Only in the U.S.S.R. can a responsible Government administrator '. get away with such a misleading statement. Actually the
reConstruction of the Marinski system-was only projected just over two
years ago and is not due for completion until 1942--43. In fact the work
on this important waterway was only started last year and it 15 more than
p1'{Jbable that nothing has actually been done, for another Party member
has referred to the distressing question of the modernization of the
reaches of the Uppcr Volga, which, although planned several years ago,
has not even been begun.
The unsatisfactory condition of the Mercantile Marine must rcact on
the Red Navy. In war time a Navy always requires immediate reserves
of transports, oilers, tugs and every variety of small craft. The present
position must be regarded with some anxiety by the Soviet Naval Staff.
P ART IV:
POLITICAL
Germany i
J~~rl~~~III~~~
In his address to the Reichstag Hitler said that in these times
He could
deeds are everything and words count for nothing.
not have given a happier description of his own speech, which
was the usual mixture of boasts and lies. Many of these dp,alt
with the Balkans, but the stress laid Dn the actual and pot~ntial
econDmic advantages of that area to Germany was no doubt
sincere enough. According to a German news agency, an
administrative council has already been formed in Serbia, its
duty bemg not on ly to co-operate with t.he German military command, hut to " take measures to utilize to the fullest extent the
economic possibilities of the country."
Individual reports on German morale, even when made by
reliable observers, necessarily vary according to circumstances,
particularly the length of the period in which it has been studied.
On some points there is common agreement-for example, that
German clvihan morale does not stand up well to bombing, but
that practically everyone in Germany believes that she will win
the war. One very good source considers that only 30 per cent.
of the German pcopie are really Nazi sympathizers, and that the
rest arc merely acquiescent.
Another report says that the
higher one goes in the social scale the marc criticism there is,
and tha:t criticism is most vocal among well-to-do people in
Hamburg. This report says that the absolute belief in Hitler
takes extraordinarv fonns.
A solid Gennan business Inan
assured the writer that the Fuehrer himsel[ had thought ont all the
plans of attack on Norway, the Low Countries and France, that
the General Staff had been horrified at first at these proposals,
but the more they had studied them the more they had convinced
themselves that the plans were the work of a military genius:
Hitler, moreover, was never shown the plans of a new submarine
or aeroplane withont being able to suggest alterations and
lmprovements.
This ahsolute belief in Hitler, which is nearer to religious faith
than common sense, may be partly attrihuted to the fact that
nothmg sllcceeds like success, but it is largely the creation of
German propaganda., which does everything possible to mainta!n it. Thus Dr. Ley, in an article in the Angritf in honour of
Hltler', birthday, calls Hitler" the grcotest military commander
of all time ": -35
,
11
:<f;lt is simply incredible, unique and overwhelming how this Titan
Hitler turneu his will into action . . .. He knows everything . . . .
Feidherr Adolf Hitler designed, in the course of mouths of labour,
every pillbox iu the West Wall, aud worked out to the smallest
detail the plans for attack au Poland, Norway and the West. There
is 00 weapon, either on our side or the enemy's that the Fuehrer does
not know exactly down to its .last detail. I am convinced that the
Fuehrer is better acquaiuted with the Balkans thau all the Balkan
peoples together. There is not a single mule-track in the wilds of
the Balkans that has not received consideration in his plan.
In
short~ it is inconceivable with what absolute pedantic care 'the
Fuehrer works out every problem aud every responsibility. The
significance of this can only be estimated. when one realizes the
greatness of this man as an artist . . .. The greatest and unique
pheuomeuou iu the history of maukiud till uow is Adolf Hitler."
Abjectfiattery could go no further, but even these excesses do
not appear to have persuaded the bulk of the German people not
to hope for an early end to the war.
It is believed that all managing directors of German heavy
industries have been told! that, since replacement work often
takes up as much as 20 per cent. of the whole productive
capacity, such work is to be reduced, provided that the effect is
not felt in production. Although the postponement of certain
replacements may very well not affect production for some
months, a time must come when production will inevitably
decliue. It is kuown that ever since the war began the German
war effort has partly been fmanced at the expense of industrial
replacements. This would be natural in the case of iudustries
not connected with war production, but its extensiou to heavy
industry is of great signiflcance.
The recently published annual reports of various German firms
reveal the difficulties of carrying out renewals and improvements
nnder wartime conditions. The Krupp report states that the
repairs which can be carried out are quite inadequate in the face
of the very considerable wear and tear which is being caused by
w"rtime production.
(According to a reliable neutral source.
Krupp's are" catering for a short W3r and making no provision
for the future. ") The .report of the Stahlverein at DusseldorL
while emphasizing the difficulty of carrying out repairs, also
states that extensions which became urgent owing to the increased
war requirements could only be carried out in part during 1940.
Krupp's balance sheet shows a fIgure of 10 million rcichsmarks
for" repairs which have not been carried out," for want, it
appears, of sufficient labour and raw materials.
"The German labour shortage," a Swedish newspaper
observes, "becolnes more apparent Managements of large
concerns are compelled to take more drastic steps to fill vacancies.
36
The shortage is noticeable in many ways: for instance, visiting
.cards may no longer be printed. a tailor"made suit takes three
IUpnths to be finished, shoe repairs average one month, and clocks
arid Watches are nO longer accepted for repair." An indication
oJ .the shortage of raw materials is to be found in reports from a
number of sources which reveal that the Germans are
mtensifying their efforts to obtain Spanish ore. It is apparently
proposed to ship Bilbao ore to Nantes in German bottoms.
From Nantes the ore will be railed to Paris, thence by river
1ighte~s to the Ruhr a:,d the Saar. These complicated. routes,
irnPosmg a severe stram on mternal transport faCilitIes, mdIcate
the German need for high grade are.
Recent R.A.F. raids aTe reported to have made a tremendous
impression on the population of Berlin, who are said to be
bewildered at the extent of the damage. Reports continue to be
received of major damage to railway stations, factories, and
house property. The German Minister of Health was wounded
as a result of a hit on his house in the Knrfiirstendamm. The
raid on Emden, when the new H.E. was tried out, is reported to
have been very effective. The great destruction caused by few
bombs is described. as " amazing." A bomb which fell near
the post office turned the whole quarter into a heap of ruins, and
houses which were 300 and even 500 metres from where the
bomb fell had window frames, doors and parts of their roofs
blown out. Seventy houses were completely destroyed, and
25 of these were just heaps of bricks: altogether, 200 houses are
said to have been damaged (broken windows not included).
Photographs taken Oil 25th April reveal major damage, not
previously reported, at the Germania Yard at Kiel. They also
show that larger areas at Gaarden (south-east Kiel) have been
completely wrecked than were at first reported, and that throughout the western districts of the town there is lIlajar damage to
house property.
Great damage was caused to the whole of the Navy Yard at
Wilhelmshaven. The provision and equipment depot was badly
danlaged and large quantities of clothing lllaterial \vere
destroyed. After the two January mid, over 5,000 men were
out of work. At the end of February and the begining of Mareh
considerable damage was caused to wharves and foundries OIl the
right bank of the Rhine at Cologne. and to steel works at
Mulheim. Casualties were said to be 600 killed and 1,900
injured. One of the power statious at Hamburg was hit in the
March raiels, and in the middle of April half of it was stin
affected.
111111111111~11111111~1~
NAA.006.0356
37
\
Czechoslovakia
S~nW¢e)<ploiting the news of their military successes in order
to, tty <!-nd, win over the less resolute Czechs, the Germans contimially complain of Czech obstinacy. The" intellectuals " not
0111y f<Iil to exhibit any ability to co-operatc with the Germans
alldpersist in an unaccountable fidelity to Dr. Benes, but are
accused of making " spiteful attacks calculated to undermine
public confidence in the representatives of tl,1e autonomous
Government." The irritated German authorities have issued
decrees instituting penalties of imprisonment up to five years for
such attacks, and punishment will even be inflicted for utterances
made in private which have later been circulated in public. But,
according to a report from a Czech who arrived recently in
Sweden, morale is still high in the Protectmate in spite of the
Allied reverses in the Balkans, <Ind 80 per cent. of the population
arc still behind Benes. In Slovakia too there are complaints of
whispering propaganda by " ignorant and naive people" who
persist in spreading falsehoods about their" German friends,"
thereby running the risk of severe punishment and" exclusion
from the national community." .
It is stated that in the Protectorate there are now at least a
million and a half refugees from Berlin and other bombed areas,
and some Czechs in the Protectorate have bcen expressing a wish
for a reminder from the R.A.F. to the Germans in this area that
it is not as safe as it appears. The inftux of refugees from the
Reich has caused a further dcterioration in the already straitened
fo,?d situation; th~re is a very serious shortage of meat, and
pnces are still soanng on the black market. One instance 01 the
shortage of commodities is a newspaper article entitled
" Pr,:ctical Hints for Protectorate Shopkeepers," urging that
unratlOned goods should not be exhibited in the windows unless
they are for sale, as the sight of them only causes dLscontent
among passers-by; articles marked" Sold" or " For decoration
only" must no longer be shown.
Scandinavia
The authorities in Norway decreed that work should continue
as usual on 1st May (Labour Day) and 17th May (Constitution
Day), and forbade demonstrations. On 1st May, Terboven, the
ReIehskommlssar, deltvered a speech in which he made a
number of admissiotE which show that Norwegian dissatisfactIon WIth the present regime is undiminished. He complained
38
':':':.":/
~f,wro.-British
~i1:Iij\ters, and
feeling,. of loyalty to King Haakon and his
of a whlspenng campaIgn which allegcs that the
!:';."~Y)+lians are fostering public works in Norway solely for their
!i"!~~i;lJ.enefit. "I can forbid nobody," he said, " to bank his
!;,,~OP~s on a British victory, but I can warn you most urgently
",,,against actmg m accordance with such hopes," and he hinted
}.tl1,~tin future greater severity might be displayed towards the
3j"position.
. ' .;."The Swedish. press reports that 22 organizations, representing
,State and publIc employees and officials, doctors, nurses, architects, engineers, jurists and the chief trade union, have sent
Terboven a joint letter protesting strongly against the present
nlythod of making political opinion, instead of skill and knowledge, the deciding factor in public appointments or promotions.
The dvctors appear to have taken a particularly strong line, and
to have threatened to resign if the medical profession were not
treed from political interference. Under Quislingite law, professional secrecy has been abolished, and doctors are told that
they must, if required, give evidence against their patients
to the police or judicial authorities. Both the Norwegian and
the Swedish newspapers continue to afford many instances of the
restlessness of the people, of oppression by the Germans and
Quislingites, ana of wretched living conditions.
At various
places German placards have been destroyed and the inhabitants
punished; a Quislingite complains of an attempt to dynamite his
house; and 150 people arrested in the Lofoten Islands are said
to be in a concentration camp near Oslo, denied elementary
comforts, and awaItmg tnal by a German court-martial.
Stomach troubles, caused by the excessive use of substitute
foods, are said to be prevalent, and although it is in the north of
!'!orway that privation is I?~eatest, an exhibition is to be opened
m Oslo showmg the posslbllIltes of thIS regJOn. It was explained
to press representatIves that the fish supplies of North Norway
are important, not only for Norway herself, but for the whole
of Central Europe-" We ho.ve much to defend up there, not
only for ourselves but for the whole German race."
The action of M. Kauffmann, the Danish Minister in Washington, In concludmg the Greeuland agreement with the United
States IS reported to have greatly increased his popularity in
Denmark, and no fewer thall 35 members of the l-<igsdag have
eXJ,lIessed theIr approval of his action. M. Stauning, the Danish
Pnme Mlmster, m SpIte at hIS recent advocacy of co-operation
with Germany, is said to be widely regarded by the Danes as an
obshcle in the way of a rapiel advance of German c<mtrol and
N azification. This vi~w is believed to be shared by the German
authontles, who arc shl! reported to be working for his removal.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII!I~IIIIIIIIIII~~II
NAA.006.0357
:'\9
I
I
t~<
I
,
t
l'l\er~
is a widespread belief in Denmark that a reconstruction
ottheGovemment, giving it a ':lore pro-German character, lS
T~.~reis some. apprehension that Sweden may be asked by
iJ;tullinent. According to.a Sweclish.press re!;>?rt, Dem;;alk and
'.,~?rlfl~ny to Jam the. T.hree Power Pact, but in the present state
Germany made in Apnl some kmd of
contract,which
8f•.~~~dlsh pUbhc OpUllon the ~wcd!sh Government could hardly
inllolved a yielding to ce;,taIn German demaIlcds, b,t;t not to any
Y'.~ntme to accept ~uch an inVItation. Finland could only take
claims affecting Damsh fundamental pnnCIples. . The same
t,11(C a step by VIOlating thc terms of her peace treaty with
report stresses the "eal with which· G<:rman exammers watch
\~~~Ia, WllIch laId down that she should not bind herself to any
what is written in-and between-the hnes of newspapers, and
. )·pre1gn alhance. A fresh run of rumours that Germanv intends
gives instances of heavy fines for '!'mor offences, of the suspenJpattaek Sweden before taking any other action in fhe north
.;;uggests that Gemlany may be trying to test Swedish reactions
sion of a newspaper and the d,smlssal of Its edItors,. and of the.
penalizing of a number of Damsh broadcasters for fallmg to talk
as a prelude to imposing political Or military dema nds on
Sweden.
optimistic~lly . about Denmark's agncultural. prospects. A
recent arilde m a Copenhagen reVIew com1;'lams of the proBritish leanings of the Danish Youth Association.andlts .leader,
!I,IIIIIIII!!I!I!IIIII~IIIII~
Hal Koch.
" National meetings and commumty smIPng ~re
NAA.006.0358
being arranged everywhere in Denmark in collaboratIOn WIth
politicians and ~ayors. These are really Bntlsh evemngs whIch
The First 01 May is more of an occasion in Continental
develOp and umte the qmet expectatlons of all .pro-Bntish Danes
than it is in England, and is a"sociated particularly with
countries
who hope that the British will bom~ and Invade Denma~k.
movements of SOCIal revolutlon and lIberation. It was chosen
This national movement tnes to prevent people from buymg
this year, iro~ically enough, for the delivery of a speech by
German goods, and is fostering a fi~m be!ief that Bnt~I,n after
Marshal Petam on the theme, "What is the New Order? "
the war will resume her former tradmg WIth Denmark.
Marshal Petain ha d previouslv shown himself skilled in the art
German propaganda has led IDany pcople in both Sweden and
of
saying nothing: he recently capped a series of broadcasts
Finland to believe that Germany mtends to attack RUSSIa In the
dIrected
agall1st General de Gaulle with a speech which comncar future. At the same time it hints at aggressive intentions
pletely
Ignored
General de Gaulle, and the omission had to be
on the part of Russia, hoping thus to persuade both Sweden and
ingeniously
explained
away byth" propagandists of Vichy and
Finland that Germany is the true protector of theu' mterests.
Pans.
HIS
May
Day
oratIon
dId, It IS true, tOuch on traditional
This propaganda is particularly active in Finhnd, where It
French
workers, he said, wished to
social-revolutionary
topics:
naturally makes some appeal to those numerous hnns who had
~ave
1!'an-to-man
relations
WIth
theIr
employers, to partake,
to leave their native regions as a result of the Russo-Fmmsh
lthm reasonable lImIts," of the fruits of the enterprises in
'
Y
war, and who cherish hopes that the lost terntory may be
whlell they worked, and to exchange unemployment for
restored to Finland. The President and the Fmmsh Governsecunty.
But though he declared that these legitimate aspirament-which, under a new Emergency Powers Bli!, has. been
tIons
would
be satIsfied by the New Order, he was speaking, as
given practically dictatorial powers over the economIc hfe of
It
appeared,
of a localIzed and utopIan New Order in Francethe country~are mamly concerned to keep out of the war, bul
the
hoped-for
achievement of the R(ivulution. N ationale, based on
in the event of a conflict between Germany and RUSSIa theIr
purely. domestic administrative reorgani7,ation.
Of the chief
sympathies conld not be expected to lie with the latter.
The
factor In the future of Francc~Hit!er's New Order in EuropeRussians arc showmg sorTIe Signs of a war~ness of Gern1an~,
the Marshal said nol a word, nor did the" collaboration" which
activities, and Pravda and the Moscow WIreless ha.ve hcen ~ IS
the daily theme of the propagandists find a single mention in
hiS
.speech.
These omissions were, however, made good hy
puttinglanding
ont a story,
which of
appears
have notroops,
foundatIOn,
of a ..'·•f~."'~
recent
in Finland
12,000toGerman
WIth tanks
r~dlo
speakers
bter; and the first week in May saw manv fresh
and eqllipment.
The Germans have long had an agreement
subservience, political and economic, 'to the
sIgns
of
Vichy's
with the Finnish Govemment allowing the transit of troops to
German order.
Northern Norway, and it is conceivable that wintrv conditions
Dar!an has paid Z~rther visits to Paris, the import
1 of Adn;iral
have until recently held np these movements.
whIch remams obscure. 1here IS Some evidence that his
Swedish opinion as a whole remains solidly anti-Nazi, but has .~
at " collaboration" have not been altogether successful:
been somewhat discouraged by the news from the Balkans., efforts
certamly he continues to give more than to take. The French
11,
France
I
•.•
~
I
I
41
.'.•....:.:;
motor industry-largely concerned in alwS production since the
war-has been forced to sign away its inde~,endence to an Axis
cQmmission under German presidency; but nothing further
(save the usual blackmail in the Paris press) has been heard of
the promised reward for good collaboration-the return of the
french prisoners. On the other hand a less welcome returnthat of Laval---<:ontinues to be rumoured as likely in the very
near future. One of Laval's henchmen, who shared in his fall
in December, lean Montigny, is reported to be the chief organizer
in Vichy of aJ new Groupe de Collaboration whose aims are
Europe for the Europeans, and America for the Americans;
" pan-Continental" organization of commerce and industry;
the exclusion of Great Britain from the Continent; a radical
change in the relationships between small powers and great; and
the adherence of France, as of all deserving European and
Eastern powers, to the Three Power Pact. So far as these aims
are economic, they will not appear to Marshal FHain to be inconsistent with his obligations either under the armistice or to his own
people and conscience; and it is becoming daily more doubtful
whether he will be able to withstand the pressure designed to lead
him irrevocably beyond those obligations. His frequently
expressed determination not to quarrel openly with his country's
former ally assorts ill with the known anti-British feeling, and
increasingly anti-British policy, of his second-in-eommand.
There is perhaps some comfort to be extracted from the
extent of anti~British propaganda in France. It is obvious that
repeated press articles on the treachery ·of the British at
Dunkirk are occa.sioned, not by popular demand, but by the
Germans' determined effort to counteract a widespread and
growing return of pro-British feeling. One of the best known of
French weekly newspapers, L'Illustration, now in German hands,
has nqt been content to give a great part of its space to praise of
Germany and photographs of Ribbentrop: in an issue as recent
as the end of March it printed atrocity stories and atrocity
pictures of .the Oran incident, with the evident intention of
reviving popular indignation. Similarly, attempts are made to
connteract sympathy with General de Gaulle's movement by
atrocity stories of the Free French seizure and administration
of Eqnatorial Africa,
Reports of the lood situation in the unoccupied zone are conflicting,
thongh all agree th<lt it varies from district to district, chiefly owing
to the f<lilure of transport. According to an English observer, who
only recently left the south of France, the bread ration is small and
the quality of the bread poor; milk is not issued to anyone between
the ages of three and 75; the lack of Vitamin A, dne to sh()rt;lI,e
of dairy produce and of oils, is undermining health, rickets
42
ij}(;reasing to. an alarming extent eyesight· ff t I
.
f9:~lU.(){skiIl-disease is becoming' COM
,IS
ec ec , and a ViOlent
""~viefil potatoes were unobtaina.ble .. ~~: 'm or two months .on the
C'a:Btpl1rposes, personal and laund . ' .
onthly soap rallon for
/c.'oaJ is very short though the b r y , IS a plCce the size of a matchbox;
.. , ofGerman
,... ,
' fr011l R A Fet tb
er class
refugees
' hotels. , Wltl1 th'
elr cI'len t'l
ee
X·C''''
.
.
'.'
ombmg have bee bl t
. "l1ccntral heating after 4.0 m Thi"
..n a e ° put
tb,a:t both men and women aY~ il;solent ~~~serve~ saJ:s of the r~fugees
he a:dds, would riot i[ it Were not for th . o¥er Ieanng. The .hench,
Petain and their confidence I'n a 0 ·t. hell at ,"0 ute faith m Marshal
.
un IS ViC ory' they k
over, that If they did riot the Gc
. Id .
now,. mOrc.
, r m a n s Wall occupy the
t
III force. Another observer reports thal ' .
. coun ry
commodity is taxed, it <lisa ears alt~Sesoon as any food or other
the bl
.lher from the shops: to
reappear at f<tntastic prices
[01'
tI,e
p
I
ac
market. The resull lS a
senous
hardship
..
~
- oorer c asses.
t
it
f
~11f11111~~lil!lmlllll~
Spain
NAA.006.0359
A reconstruction of th S
. h C'
.
Serior Vale~ltin Garlarza a~ Mk~~t~r of ~bl~ct IS announced, with
held by Senor SU11er before he moved t~e tl)~t~lOL T~.P?st was
193.9. Senor Galarza is believed t
1
orelgn mlstry In
policy of his predecessor to be on 0 f~hgerjerafllJi 0l.'posed to the
.'d
e o . e c 11e clvlhanlcaders of
anti-Gernlan 0 in'
anti-German Cen~~~\sanA}aoncl~e 111 dI~loVse tOlllch with the leading
• , "
a an
are a
Oth
.
1 C·) rgaz
.
er appo111tments recently reported include Ge
"
.
,
.nera
ao
Hl
h
C
IlllSSlOner m Morocco, and G
. ' .> • g
.0111General Staff, Madrid. both ~fe:a~ DaVila, as ChIef of the
borrt.' are conSldered to be
opposed to giving wav to Gerlnan
J
•
an1
1
LOns.
The 2nd May was celebrated thron h t S .
Spanish Independence, this bein u thegq,:'u i pam as the fiesta of
lllg to the Spanish wireless, "the "v' .'1
y ~ 1808 when, accordrose up in arms. not only agaiIi'st't'l' e ~nd dactlve SpaI11sh people
' agams
. t tie
I 1<- rancophl'ls 'th' leth'
mva mg Frol'chme h,u t
also
.
.
WI m elr g·ltps" v "A I' .n,
I
.
:~lass meetlllg was addressed bv Seno . S _. •..
.. <a anglst
pInto-democratic nations whi I h [. ~ner, ,,:,ho attacked the
and which are now t '
c I ave (elUed Spam everythinrr
declared tl t S·· . rymg to rretend to want to save us" He'"
,
la pam was purs
f'
.
.,
national interests. In 1808' ~l:~;'l 2,rclg,n polley hased ?n her
had no wlsh to be dominat';d bar s demonstrated thal they
fought in order that Spain sho ld h Y ~hPDlcon:. 1ll 1936 they
Incidentally. during these his~oric~ 'fl·l I er RUSSian no; English.
Ig lts over Spa111 s War of
Inuependence Senor Suner . d .
help, in aCkn~wledgr';ent of ~~i~hn~h~"8~J;on Off ,fj,rell,:t Britain's
,-,On e Ington was
43
:f
;;, ?S'f'(;'
>,.:,<.:,
d' eneralisimo of the Spanish Army and
created a grandee !in :Jlusia. Other Falangist speakers were
awarded anestate III A "
Great Britain as the eternal enemy
equallY belhcose, denouncmgthe readiness of the Falange to fight
S ain arid laymg stress on
,
of ·fte redestined greatness of Spam.
,
for
p
her hold on Tangier by as~uml1~g
Spain has strengthene1t' believed however, that thlS only
control of the Customs.
lS I d that there will be nO change
. olves a change of personne an
mv
h'
in the customs du es.
Switzerland
,
not had an encouraging effect on
Events m the Balkans. ~av~h r to abandon their neutrahty or
the Swiss, who do not W1S e, e here are reports that in recent
to see their country mvaded.iard t t~ in Switzerland have taken
weeks German and. Itahan l).~~h~eat was more explicit in an
a somewhat menacmg tone, Z '/
wrlioh advised the SWISS.
' h B I' Boersen e1 uno,
'.
1 . "
article III t e e~ In
f
t l " c~tastrophe of Yugos aVla,
people to take a lesson rom e~ewhen there is a " dangerous and
and to reahze what may happ r
f 'he Government and the
fatal rift between the foreign POthY °re~s and public opinion."
internal pohcy represented by' e p "stated that a WilhelmTransocean, the German new, edg~~f';;;ish~ent at anti-German
strasse spokesman, h",d express nd had said that" one day the
utterances III the Sw~ss pr~~s, a
- ,
. .
Reich might lose pahence.
Ih
h their country 15 ISolated and
There is no doubt that a t DUg 's ,,' f r the most part
b the AxIS the . W1SS 0
and surrounde d Yh .- d. t',C traditions. The German. h to SdC
' k to. '+ elr 'fcmocra
,
. a tt't
W1S
th' g a firmer an!l-Axls
1 t lde
speaking cantoIls show , 1 anfYAln 't'11'reats however the SWISS
Tn f aGe 0 ,. X1S t' t'" dl'scretion ' in pllbl'Ie
than the a thers. . [the
opllllOn ""b
d
are no
. load 0 f va
- Iour. "nr
a recent
.o.u tht o
better
,', example,
" A'
utterances IS C
'
~'.sS wireless ran as foHows:
If
war commentary .on the SWd
d by the Germans over.
activity by the BIlt~sh o;er II :~~~ny B~th sides claim that little
Bntalll was on a fa.dTYh·;matt'~tudo 1'~ understandable, ,mee one
d
done
1S a I e '
"
S h
amage \V,as .1 '-~ rtime is to keep up n10ral~.
I;: {'
of the mam obJeeb m w~!'ttl to the bste of the AXIS, and me,
's
objectiveness, however'k
e
sho''v'
'of friendliness, at least
rna 71ngI some
1
v
I .
SWISS press lS now
l'd
that Italy has been helpfu m
,
According to the Rome:
towards Italy, ?-nd acknow e ges
allowing Swiss nnports ,~hrfoughoGI·r~ffinoctl inspiration" has been;
, 1 .. a statement
..
h
t f th
'."Ire
ess,pubhshed
'.
'll1s• Wl'ta zerser
Ian"
d expre'smg
t e regre 0
00,
widely
~
>_
•
44
"
T
i"S:W:iss people that relations between the two countries shonld haye
peelldisturbed by the agltahon of cerlam sectIOns of SWISS
::".R~blic opinion,
',:"Z'A.if il-greemen~ has been signed hetween Spain and S,,:itzerla.nd
:\f~';':atding !l'anslt traffic. In return for a dDllar creart whic!:,
:.wilI'be provided by Switzerland, Spam ha~ pro~nised to penmt
l:he transIt over her raIlways of goods destined ,or SWItzerland,
;1"rl to place at the dis,posal of the Swiss ~O ,000 tollS of shipping
.' $pace monthly for shlpment between LIsbon, Barcelona, and
Genoa.
Italy
~illlll!ll!i~11111111111
I
NAAOO6,0360
Members of the Italian colony in Berlin are reported to be
givin" themselves the airs of " conquerors," and in Italy itself
the F"'ascist Party is exultant over' the turn of events in the
Balkans, The Fascists no doubt feel that, in spite of Italian
,SUbservience to Germany, their position is now much more secure
than when Italian morale was at a low ebb. Their enthusiasm,
however, does not appear to be shared by all of the Italian
people, and indeed the pr~ss and wireless 12r?pagandists tempe~
their reJolcmgs over Italy s terntonal acqUlsltlOns-thc latest ot
which appears to be the island of Corfu-with warnings that the
.struggle may still be long and hard, and their malignant ahuse of
President Eooscvelt is a sign of their anxiety over American aid
to Britain and the possibility of direct American intervention in
the war. Meanwhile therc is a revival of agitation for the
acquisition by Haly of Nice; Switzerland is being told bhllltly
that the Axis now dominates Europe, with implied warnings that
she had better behave herself; and hints are givcn out to Portugal
that she cannot expect to remain aloof.
The budget estimates for the financial year 1940-41 show a
lessening uf revenue and a large increase in expenditnre, with a
consequent deficit (65 milliard lire) more than double that for
the preceding year. It is evident that, unlike Germany, Italy is
finding it impossible to cover any of her increased war expenditure by taxation.
Although consurnptioll and private invest.
ment have been cut down drastically, expenditure for the current
financial year can only be met by heavy drains on capital
resonrces. The Government absorbs at least 84 per cent. of the
national income, compared with a little over 60 per cenf. in the
-case of Germany. For the present the liquidation of stocks and
the postponement of capital maintenance is providing the
Government with adequate resources to cover the deficit. At the
present rate of expenditure these resources will rapidly be
4S
exhausted aud the Government will then be forced either into,
inflation or into taking far more drastic measures to cut down
consumption and to control prices. In either case it is evident
that the war effort cannot be maintained on the present scale
withqut German help. Italian war expenditufC for 194(}-41,
itrhay be noted, is estimated as approximately one-eighth that of
Germany.
Some prisoners of war taken in Libya have complained that
Italian trooJ.'s are being employed in digging trenches and
generally domg coolie work for the Germans. They report also
that there has been considerable discontent and lack of discipline
in Jtalian labour battalions. It appears that Italian Air Force
pilots were given a silver medal for each separate raid on
Alexandria. The medals were not therefore held in the highest
esteem.
One oflicer, now a prisoner, had collected three of
them. Thc diary of a young Italian Air Forcc officer who arrivcU
in Italian East Africa in December, 1940, provides a tale of quick
disillusionment. He was keen on his job when he left Italy but
Italian civil and military administration in East Africa soon
damped his ardour. He was contemptuous of the state 01
Addis Ababa, where he found the Italians" living like natives."
Even early in December he speaks of the prevailing nervousness
of the Italians at the activities of the Abyssinian patriots. He
cedIs the sItuation" very grave," and says that roads within
40 kilometres of Addis Ababa were unsafe: a Residency near the
capItal was being stormed by " rebels," and aerodromes were
being sniped. The bad news from Albania and Libya and the
knowledge that the Italians in Abyssinia could expect no help
from outside were obviously having a bad effect on morale. A
few days before his capture he wrote: "The 5.79 will carr'!
out another action to-morrow. The flight will give us another
chance of admiring the disorganization which reigns in every part
of what ought to bc the backbone of our Empire defence, and the
enormous incapacity and ignorance of our commanders."
A.lmost the last entry in his diary records a conversation with 2
brother officer who said: " I, of course, don't know how a wo."
should be run, but if it's like this everywhere, unless the Germans
win, we certainly shan't." Apparently it was" like that"
everywhere. A circular telegram from Graziani, issued in Libya
in Novernber, ran:
.
"Troops in general continue to write home on the
prohibited subject of lice and fleas. Since the world began
these have always been the happy companions of troops.
There IS only one remedy therefore. Support them like
mon ks or undert".ke a d1.ily slaughter.
These puerilities
must cease. Moralize.-GKAZIANl."
46
IIIIIII!I"I!I!IIIIIIIIII~
NAA.006.0361
U.S.S.R.
,::,:,".:;:rllCMoscow wireless has announced
d
-, .
G."vernment prohibiting the transit of w' a ectree lof the :;Ovlet
C' R
'f
'
. step a ear n'a
U. • C';'>.D..
eh
mobvcs
for thIS
t 1ena s through the
.
.
G'
"J'
r
no
1,
•••••.•.••• erman, proteste( agamst SOme l)roJ'ccted t
.'tc ear.
f '1' Poss'bly
1
t ,e
.·t"'Tur k cy. If so, the Russians may have ranSl
0 ml Itary
r
f It t' 1 d
supp les
S R . h elng
. used as a corridor fa' e r _.
en It e to 01'
t'h' UT
<.c
_ .'S .~.
~ )Ject t 0
or Japan. According t .
r S~]PP les eIther to Germany
o press reports lrcrrnany
l'
send aeroplane parts across Siberia to' 'J' ' d was p anlllllg to
.'"
apan, an m return J'
was to sen d naval UIlltS to Germany It thO .
,Ipan
.
IS 15 true the new d
'
eCree
must cause extra annoyance to both tl G
By a whispering campaign and l1e ,ennansand the)apanese.
parations on her eastern fronti~rs G._}Y ostentahous mlht.ary presedulously fostering the belief that s~;~~? has for sOIlle trme been
on RUSSIa m the near future. It see i ~oIlt~~Platlllg an attack
attack would in fact soon take plac ~~u ~~s I ely that such an
made to frighten Russia, b a war
ne an. . at efforts werc being
collaboration. Thc Germ!n Amb.' d rv~, mto a closer economic
aftc.f what. appears to have been a (~~~~il~rv ..~s re~rn~d to Mase.ow
~10 ImmedIate increase in pressure on
lSlt to . erhn, portendmg
III order to postpone conflict with G.
.' Kremlm. Nevertheless,
willing to make further concession' s,eT',lllY, RUSSIa may well be
(,t
the
an excessive. measure of inte~nal ?on~roonf as ,they do not invol.vc
or transport m the U.S.S.R.
I 'y Germany of sUl'phes
Egypt
The arrival of a second Axis invasi
.
?f Egypt which alarmed the
bl~ . on on the western frontier
m the provision of shelt
pu lC and sharply reVIved l1ltcrest
much so tl'at "6000(10 ers, bPumps " nd other A.R.P. work so
.. -, ,
was orrowe d fr
th B" h
'
ment for these purposes, has roducc ~m e ntis Gove~n­
uch
pohtrcal CIrcles that the possibU'ty f d
uneasmess III hIgh
of the Cabinet has. '
agal'11
be
d
O.
Wd'
cnmg
o
d ] " ISCUSS
Tl the
K' pohtical basis
so far as to receive Mustaph p. h'- eN'
1e
lllg; even went
Wafd, who had for some'. ':' as, cl 1 ahas, the leader of the
as well as Ahmed Pasha tMwlehDceIA'Zl'dersona zngrata at the Palace
., leade~
a er , ,) ul. A ZIZ P
h "t'a 1Imy and'
H.1'Imy Pasha Issa-the
asa
Llbeml, and the lttchadists \'h;~)ectivelJ1' of theSaadlsts, the
may produce satisfactory re;ults t~ move Hl the nght direction
?';ileved to have consentd
' ~e more so as Nahas Pasha is
l'lflnister b t l
e to sel vc under the present I' .
. . ~ , u un ess the press
fl'
.
.'.
rune
pohtrcal progress may well 'b~r~l~w I
I11vaSlOn IS Increased,
may, however, push into the b~ckgr~ ~ethnew developments
,
un
e personal quarrel
ci
'!
47
. bemg
. aue
. d'm
th Senate
e , owing to the
.
I '·1 h arisen and 15
w ~lC 1 MiS ister's 'attempt to relegate Ali Pasha Ma~er, the antiPnmt'
~ b TOn ther of Ahmed Pasha Maher, to rural retirement.
B
n Isn
.J'~1ie,,~ the Ininds of the British and at the same time be compat±lJI~.~ththe independence of Iraq, and infonned the press that
?~i,,;itppeal was based on the cordial and brotherly relations exist{il{\hetween Egypt and Ir~q.
King Ibn Saud renewed his
.i\Sst;lrances of unchanged fnendshlp to H.M. Government and
remarked on the apparent failure of the Baghdadi Administragon to secure the support of some of the tribesmen in the Basra
.area.
Iraq
.
Early on the morning of Fnday,
2nd May,. t h e I ra~i Artilleryt
the ridge which dominates the Bntish aero rome ~
!
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWM
J'Iabbaniya opened fire on the cantonment. The
I
I (IU
ml
Ira thus passed out at diplomatlc control and the ash ~es
I
NAA.006.0362
to other parts of the country. Th;e BaghdadI Adm:nty'S a
The extension at Japanese military operations along the coast
tion which on 29th April had questioned the proPIC'e
a
of -the prmince of Chekiang may be: intended, as has been
Sir Kinahan Cornwallis's action in maklllg
on
alleged in Tokyo, to put a stop to the smuggling of goods into
and from free China. It may also be intended to increase the
behalf of H.M. Government before he had presente h' ISwi eel:~
r d
pressnre on Chinese morale, which was adversely affected by
of Credence as Ambassador, on 3rd May. seIzed 15
a Jparatus on 4th May declined to allo.w hIm to receIve oJ s~?
the Russo-japanese pact. Other aims of the campaign may be
except those en clair, and on 5th May forba e
to relieve the Japanese Navy, which has hitherto been chiefly
responsIble for the blockade of southern Chinese ports, and to
to fly the British flag over the Embassy. The progres~ of
hostilities is dealt with elsewhere III W.I.R . . Th? de!I{~ts '\
ensure that these ports WIll be avaIlable to japan Jf she embarks
di lomaey to restraiu the Baghdadi Adrmmstrahon a,l In ucet
On her mam southward advance.
'
l
t} respect even its own. declaratIOns. have so far fal ed a
Taken as a whole,. the Far Eastern situation shows little
-ch~g;e. Japan JS 1ll an advanced ;;~te of preparation,
effect any llllprovement m the SItuatIOn. On the. contra~,
aW~lting the sllltable moment for stnkIng south, possibly
the official broadcasting stahon. has become vo~al on lmes dln~~
might well have been prescnbed by Dr. Goebbels, an . h .
~galllst Malaya or Bunna, hut, partly oWlllg to political
nh May agency messages transmItted from Baghdad to VIC:Y
lllfluences, hesltatmg to do so yet, and hoping, if possible,
that the Administration _proposed to resume. dlploto settle the" Chin,1 incident" first. The japanese press has
matic relations with Ge~many. It IS mterestmg to nda°~ ~dt ever~
bee~ amng the sUIj!1eshon tha~ Mr. Matsuoka, the Foreign
1
mllllS
Mlm;;ter, should VlSlt the Umted States for a talk with
as late as 1st May RashId Ah, the hea~ of the 13agh
tration was assuring the TurkIsh Mlmster that he was det~~1l1ed
PresIdent Roosevelt on Amenean-japanese relations and on the
whole world situatIOn. Even if such a visit were to lake place it
to -ho~ his good faith, that the only steps taken. by t c raql
were in no way directed against the Bntish but
would not signify that Japan intends to modify her aggressive
designed merely tocalm the pubbe, and that h(' could not un - deSIgns, but rather that Mr. Matsuoka might try On hIS return
stand why the BntIsh appeared to dIstrust hlm_
. _ _.
to represent _to hIS Own people tha t Japap could pnrsue. those
in view of this It is possible that the d0111111ant rml.'tansts 111 ?eslgns (whIch would conflIct WIth Bnl1sh mterests) Wlth,?ut
Ea 'hdad may not have kept theIr CIVIlian accom~hces fully lUcu.rnng Ame!""" n lllt~rventIon. Also, he IS bcheved to chensh
of their intenlIons and. moved more qmckly than" IllUSIOns abont the possIbilIty of medIatIon lfl the w;,r 1ll Europe,
Rashid AlI had expected. OtherWIse these f'ssurances may be and he mIght hope to persnade some lllflue;nhal Amcncans to
com ared to lhose of the Germans to the Governments of the - share th:m Hv.lnmself has suggested that lllslead of his going
N tlferlands and Kelgium on the eve of the lllVaSlOn of these to Amenca, PresH]ent Roosevelt or Mr. CordeIl Hull should visit
: e t'· 'n May 1940 and may have heen given 111 a delIberate Japan.
' oun nes 1 1
"
.
Th"
dOl G
rnments'
I th
ti
t'
f J
. .
,',nen y ,ove
n e mean me same ~ec IOns 0 apanese OpUllon arc by no
'mitation of his p,,_ymaster in Berlm.
;110st closely concerned by these, new developments rea.cted to means satI,fied. eIther w~th the Russo-Japanese pact or ~th
thero ill differcnt ways.
The 1 urks pnvately put thclr g?od Mr. Matsuoka h'Inself. Some argue that the pact was too eaSIly
offices at the disposal of both sides. The EgyptIan Pnme negotiated to he of mnch worth, and that Russia waul? be only
M' "ter sent friendly advice to Baghdad suggestmg. that thC too ple~sed to sec Japan commg mto conflict WIth Bntain and
Treaty might be put in force in a way whIch would the Umted States. The more fiery and intransigent Japanese
spr~ad
a~y telegr~ms
sl~aholifm
repres;t~af11n~t
Far East
f
n~
~l1nounced
auth~rities
i..nf~rllled
:i\~~\~,Iraqi
g
d~~e
I
I
•
patriots are as. ever mistrustful of any .policy in any way
,avouring Russla. And recent d]sparagll1g observatIOn by
Mr. Matsuoka on the administrative methods of the Goverlli"TIent
in which he is a Minister-methods which he apparently would
like to see more closely modelled on those of the Nazis-have
aroused unfavourable comment in the more conservative papers,
and, it is reported, among his colleagues.
Reports continue to be received of German instructors and
technicians in Japan. That German aid is far from being an
unmixed blessing is shown by a recent report of the activities
in Japan of members of the Gestapo who are ferreting out
anti-Axis tendencies and drawing the attention of Japanese
authorities to persons suspected of them.
Even Japanese
officials feel that this is a little presumptuous. The more farsighted Japanese can hardly fail to see the possibilities of future
friction with Germany. The sharing of Indo-China's exportable
snpplies of strategic materials, particularly rubber, is a case in
point, for Germany estahlished prior claims on the French under
the Wiesbaden Armistice Agreement, and may not be altogether
enthusiastic over Japanese plans for southward expansion,
particularly if it were to extend in the direction of the Dutch East
Indies. Kokumin even declares that Russian or German
aggression should not extend to Iran or Iraq, which, as part of
an "Arabia for the Arabs," should form a "huffer zOlle"
between Asia and Europe. The Japanese Government, says the
paper, should" look beyond Singapore to the Indian Ocean and
the Persian Gulf. "
So far as her economic interests are concerned, Japan COll-tinues to look beyond the Pacific to Central and South America,
and there is evidence that she has made intensive efforts to
increase her purchases of metals in Mexico. Early this year a
Japanese mission offered four million ponnds of rayon, far below
Inarket price, in return for war nlatcrials, particularly rnica,
mercury, antimony and oil, and Japan is reported to h3.ve been
paying for Mexican lTICrcury considerabl:;l rnorc than the
New York price.
In China, as everywhere else, Nazi propaganda is active. At
Chungking it is endeavouring to exploit the depression which was
naturally caused by the Russo-Japanese pact, and which is not
lessened by the bad economic situation, with rice prices soaring;i
and the financial machinery in a disordered condition. Moreover, doubts are spre<J.ding as to the ability of Great Britain to
defeat Germany or to win quickly enough to succour China.
i
PART V: SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS
Bomber Command
: "A'hile the fu']ction of Coast<J.l Command is to search and 't 'k
close co-operation with the ROy<J.I Navy B
b C
sn e
, ';wor~ toa s'trate,grc plan aimed at the resour~cs~fnthe:e~~:::mand
, .at hIS W]l1 to reS1St. They strike the ene
d
. h~
y and
'h'
d
my own rn b factones
b ours,
"..h
<J.Id
, Ipyar. sand .aerodrornes., l'n ord er t0 s1ow down h]. '
,
t'
.
aipro llC 10n and hmder rernforcements.
s
j'", Bomber Command do not
fi e h'
. ..
.
/hlo day and night bomb
cofn tnh t elr acliv1tres ent1rely
,(. ""
th"
.
.
mg 0
IS nature, although of
',)
iJourse, th IS]S
maJn function .
L'
'.
'
" .d'·
I their
.
J' or rns tance, one group
. ... urmg
east
SIX
weeks
has
been
em
I
d
.
k'
. '
d
I
th
"
p oye ill attac rng sh]pyar s a ong
e coasts of German
F
.
1; Norway during daylight and has achi~' d ranc~, Holland and
During a recent daylight patr~l Bomb~~ Cc~~~~e~~b~l:u~c,:,ss:
n
obtamed dJrect hJts On two merchant vessels, one destro· e1m~
a battahon of German troops in HoI! d I!'
yer and
efforts such as this have definitel be ~]n t a ,m ~ne day, an,d
coastal shipping I 'd t II
y
g n 0 harass the enemy s
.
nCJ en a y every bomber has
t f
report all warships, when sighted by Wjl"
ms ruc lOns ,to
t ti
(0
. ,
1mmedIately t O t
n the other hand nothing is reported west f ] s
s_a on ·
mme b arrage on the East Coast.)
, 0 our
Bomber Com mand He<J.dqua rters has a direct t I h
.
e ep one line
to each of the Bomber [YfOUpS of which th
has d]rect lines to th~ Adm'iralt
War ere are sc.ven. .It also
Coas.tal Comm<J.nd and Fighter Coi'dmand O~~eBoAlb MGllStIy ,
cons]st of five operational and two adv~nced t nl or ,roups
. Four of the operational groups are employed at ~~~~~;]~ i~ro,!ps.
tiberatIOE" ~nd one IS:rollp is employed solely on dayiight 0 np~~~~
ns..
3C] group IS dlvJc!ed mto stations (the b'
~~s .mne stations) and most stations have tw Iggest group
nellmgton Bombers, Blenheims (which
I 0 sq,,,a rons.
c!ayhght coastal patrols)
Whitle s are a so emp'?j1e<,1 on
H<J.lifaxes and Manchesters ~re empl~~d. Hampdens, St,rlmgs,
1fl
At Bomber Command there is a ve
ffi'
.
nd .
Operations Room with larg~ se~le blalbo c'd'nt
.1mpreSS]ve
~p~ratlOns, . strength data, location of a;p:r~ti~;~fgb~~~~;
i~1 adro~". <l'hcurre::t weather forecast chart round the British
thee%~~tha c rrht s owmg moonhght at all times on e<J.ch day of
L
.
ere are a Duty Wmg Commander S
leader and Flight Lieutenant
watch all the time' t~adron
a SO aNaval Staff Officer attached to Bomber Com - . d ere]s
Th d l"b
.
m<J.n .
eel eratlOns of the WarCabinet first determine the major
h
on
50
~i 11111111I!i~111111111 Iii
NAA.OO6.0363
51
I
I
,I
I
I
direction of our air olfensive.
The Directorate of Bombing
Operations at the Air Ministry issue a directive to Bomber
Command based on the Cabinet decision. The operation of his
forces to fulfil this directive is the responsibility of the
A.O.C.-in-C., Bomber Command.
Plans for night opeljations are prepared in the Operations
Room by the Commander-in-Chief every forenoon, and orders,
are then issned to the groups, who in their turn issue them to the
selected stations. Plans arc usually prepared for two or more
alternative areas, and arc passed to the various groups, and the
decision rests with the groups as to which stations they employ
each night. The reason for the alternative areas is to offer a
choice, in case, at the time of the operation, the weather is,
unfavourable for attacking the prima.ry target. While the'
secondary targets arc in a different area from the primary, it is
preferable that both should require the same type of bombs
(i.e., H.E. or A.P., etc.) as " bombing up" is a long process;
a change-over of different types of bomb at the last minute canses
considerable delay.
.
Some knowledge in detailed planning 01 the night's operations
is helpful in appreciating the operational control which is
exercised, as this is somewhat intricate.
When a Squadron
Commander receives his orders to attack a particular target he
must consider many things. First of all, the distance he must
fly to reach his target and return to bases. From this he mus
determine the fuel required to get him there and back with an
adequate margin for contingencies. This in its hun raises fresh;
questions. HDW easily can he expect to locate and identify his
target?
Is there sufficient moon to make it easy or must h
budget for more than the normal 30-40 minutes in the target
area? When he returns to base, is the weather certain to be
good, or must he budget once more for the possibility of being
diverted to another aerodrome? If so, how much? Having
decided these questions and thus determined his fuel loa.d.
he can then, but not before, decide the bomb load he can
carry. Until these decisions are taken, the maintenance crew:
cannot begin their work on the preparation of the aircraft for the:
operation. Furthermore, when once the target is chosen. an
this preparatory work is put in hand, the target must not b
changed at short notice for another which requires a differen
luelload or bomb load.
Before crews proceed on operations, they are" briefed" in a
variety of ways. The Intelligence Room at Bomber Cornman
initiates a number of records which give vital information to th
pilots, and these records are duplicated in the various groups an
stations. There is, for instance, an " Opposition Map" whic
52
~lllllllli~I~I~IIIIIIIIII~
NAAOO6.0364
+-
o
o
N
o
Q
o
o
-\0
c<1
I
o
n
x
=
SUBMARINE
-
1lllllmllllll~11
KIEL
NAA.006.0365
I:{\,\'J
BUILDING AREA.
I
3
4
.
KJELER
FOH
DE.
'
.
5
__J-_~~1S
--::~
6
1
~
~,
7
-l-~~\~-17r-----#~_*---b-~----::-.~
I
~.
KIELER
THESE PERSPECTIVE APPROACHES ARE ALL GIVEN
ON A VISION ANGLE OF 45° TO TARGET CENTRE
All
NORTH POINTS ARE SHOWN IN PERSPECTIVE
I
_
~'
TARGET
~{}/,\j WOO OS
BUILT-UP AREAS
~ WATER
RAILWAYS
UIIIIII lill
240
0
NAA.OO6.0366
'""'~~
ALL NORTH POINTS ARE SHOWN IN PERSPECTIVE
REFERENCE
AT
I MILE
CIRCLE OF I MILE RAOIUS ANO
INTERVALS, FRON TARGET MAP.
I'
"
'.'
GERMANIA WERFT(F.KRUPP\I - KIELt.G
~ ermany).
Lat:
5+0
long'
"It,
10" 06' E·
Sea level.·
(.1,.cJll$; I
19'
t
N
,";l~
Sa.1.; I, b!o.M>o..
10·
7
~
"ZO·
oI.R..r. Reproduce<! 3/4-1
from 1l/1'l!3" IS!l9-*>
I: 100,000
to scate 01 "b3.'!l€.O.
111m
iI
NAA.OO6.0068
120'
230
records pictorially the opposition that our bo!ubers ha VB
encountered recently over enemy terntory, from mght fighters,
balloon barrage and Flak. .(A considerably reduced photograph
of this map accompanies this article.) Night fighter areas are
clearly shown and flags on this map denote where night interception of our aircraft has been reported. Balloon barrages that
have been reported Me recorded by a white headed pin, and those
which have been conflfmed by photographic reconnaissance by
a red headed pin. Flak over enemy territory must, of course, be
expected over towns, and the lines shown radiating out from
England indicate the routes reported free from Flak by our
bomber aircraft on previous night operations. Another map is
the " Order of Battle." On this is recorded the disposition of
the German Air Force in Germany and occupied countries, with
the Air Fleet (LuftfJotte and Fliegerkorps) boundaries and
Headquarters.
Finally, tbe pilots are given tbe Target Maps, the only item of
information which they may take with them to identify their
targets. These are in various colours, to represent woodland,
water, built-up areas, and other easily distinguishable features,
with the target area itself clearly marked in red. tI~4c;;,rWt.t-map
of. .Kiel, r"pTOduced.llere ,is ·an eJfactcopy; but printed
in two, instead of four colours.
The actual target in
this case WaS the submarine building area);
In addition to these maps such target photographs as are
available are examined carefully by the crews.
The Signals
Officer must inform the WIT Operators of frequencies to be
used for normal trafnc, for identification, and for W IT fixing,
homing and distress procedure. The Navigating Olllcer must
produce current details of the position and characteristics of the
many nayigational aids available, of which almost all are
changed nightly for security. The Meteorological Officer must
produce his forecast for consultation on the many operational
aspects which it raises. Then each Captain of Aircraft with his
Navigator must prepare his Flight Plan, select those landmarks
which will assist identification of the target, plan the rontes to
and from the target accordingly, plot the tracks on the maps and
then study them, and think about them, and study them some
more. Finally, certain broad considerations of timing and
height of attack must be co·ordinated, since it is obviously
undesirable to helVe certain aircraft approaching to attack while
others at higher altitudes/arc dropping flares which will silhouette
them as a visible target for A.A. defences.
All the above constitutes the detailed planning required.
Command planning, on the other hand, involves the selection of
the target, and, while there are various factors which may vary,
1..0
~
i
i
~111111I11!!1~1~lllllil illl
NAA.OO6.0369
53
the changing phases of war; the caprices of weather;
may make one area profit:>ble andl another useless; the
ffiiOOJG, as it waxes, may make vISIble certam targets whIch on a
would be impossible; but there is one factor which is
,",(kjv'Mlriding and that is the number of hours of darkness which
Thus, as the nights grow shorter, high speed is
to exploit the darkness. The modern aero engine can
nr~>uel an aeroplane at very high speeds, but it can do this only
a disproportionate increase in fuel consumption which may
as great as four times the normal economical rate.
The ordinary practice of strategic bombing requires many
routine, though always dangerous journeys. At any time,
however, even the dullest moment may be enlivened by an
unexpected turn of events. For example one of our heavy
bombers on the way to Berlin a few months ago became weighed
down with ice on the wings when only 100 miles over the
German frontier, and the pilot was forced to turn back. As he
reached the Dutch coast the weather improved and he
immediately decided to have a go at Emden, but an enemy
cruiser sighted at that moment was too tasty a morsel to be
missed. In a series of diving turns the bomber carne down to
attack and let !fa his first salvo of bombs. Immediately shells
were bursting aJ round the bonlber, then came a huge explosion
and the tail gunner felt a crashing blow on his head which
temporarily knocked him out; when he carne round he said that
it felt as if the top of his head had been blown away. Two
searchlights picked up the bomber, and the tail gunner, in an
attempt to put them out, grasped the turret control to swing his
guns round; but nothing happened as the turret was out of
action. He shouted through his inter-communication that he
had been hit, and the pilot twisted and turned the bomber to
avoid the anti-aircraft fire. A few minutes later the pilot made
another attempt and there were cheers from all the crew, even
from the wounded tail gunner, when it seemed that they had
scored a direct hit. All this time the tail gunner had stuck
doggedly to his post, but after the attack was over he moved tothe front cabin to get his wound dressed. They found a haHinch copper-plated bullet had struck his head: all he had said
was" it had made quite a neat hole in his helmet.' ,
When the bomber landed it was found that both tyres were
punctured, the floor of the fuselage was covered in oil from the
turret which had been hit, and there was a cannon hole in the
tail with many bullet holes to show how lucky the tail gunner
had been to get away with only a " neat hole" in his helmct.
There was also a large hole in one of the wings, about a foot of
the leadmg edge of the port rudder had been ripped away and
54
both wings were riddled with machine
.
had made a safe landing but oth
-gun bullets. ThIS bomher
Th
'1
, e r s are not always so lu k
e Plot of another bomber f
d
.
c y.
order to abandon aircraft and thatOtU~ that he had to give the
~ere only a few minutes
left before the inevitable crash T~
crew had to tug for dear life b~fore ~heuse ag~door. jammed: the
after the other they sat down on the st y co~ I ge~ It open. One
feet first. Then they had a curi
ep an et t emselves drop
them and held them against th~~s expenence: the wind caught
seconds; gradually they felt thIde
the aIrcraft for several
machme, until at last they w e'fse v:s lressed under the
descent. The wireless 0 erato ere re~ an could make their
found he was fallin intb a de r had an ~XIOUS moment when he
the cords and guidegthe arac~~~ wood, he Just managed to pull
the trees and landed in field
sO t~at ~e skImmed the top of
mg miles away from an whe .
no er 0 . the crew, after laridre, h'rapped hanseH up in his parachute and went to -I y
~rotesquely garbed i~ t:;~ °a~a~hu~y-staCk. Next morning, still
line to a signal cabin wher~ he er e, he walked alopg the railway
th:>t he was British, and the !ex:uaded the surpnsed sIgnalman
thiS strange visitor from the skies. express tram was stopped for
Ie
°t
l'
1
After the bomber returns the crew' .
.
fimshed. There is the interr~ ation b s job l~ by no means
whIch they tell him whethor t~
y an IntellIgence Officer in
think they did when they ~got ~he~ot tvthe targ8t and what they
filled m, one form for instance.
anous forms have to be
?perations, another 'giving intelli e~nt~V1l1g the result?f the
mformatJon must be recorded for lte O· mfDTIn,itJon. hJrther
of Battle. Intelligence is iven of allPpoSlhon Map and Order
but not encountered' alt g". I
'. aircraft seen m tho aIr
circumstances and t- .ternallvel y, enemy aircraft encount~red
b 11
, a c ICS emp oyed' detail f A A
. ,
a oon barrages, searchlights d: fty' s o . . artillery,
raIlways ~.,
etc 'actl'",'"y
at
' a, IVI on aerudromes
.
_ ,L
d any other' roads
mformatlOn.
. < sea or at. po rt·
S, an
useful,
Th]e following particulars may be .
emp oyed by Bomber Command: _
given of the aircraft
111111111111~llllllllllilln
NAA.006.0370
55
Stirling ..
Halifax
ivIanchester
~
i
.
I
,Fu~l .
705 gallons (837
into over-load
tanks),
751 gallons
(1,000 with
over~load tanks)
654 gallons
465 gallons
Gapaclt}.
I
I
I,
1·75
1·9
2,3
2,S
per
gallon.
Miles
_.--~__.:;;;;_;:.:::::w,"" ,~~,-,.-
,:
0;'"
,: ,;;;;::...._.......' 1
1.350
1,400
1,350
1,200
~~
"'~
8~
,;I
§--
z~
»=
»~
1 G.O. in front turret (Vickers);
4 Brownings in rear turret.
No beam guns.
in front turret: and 2 Vickers
firing 1 on each side.
2 guns firing aft in rear turret
(Brovrnings); 2 firing forward
2 upper and 2 under guns, Vickers
or Browning; 1 fixed gun in
front; 1 free gun firing aft
(can be shifted to fire broad~
side).
In rear turret, 2 Vickers G.O.;
1 front gun (Browning); 2
Brownings firing astern from
beneath.
Annaments.
,--~~"',"
'li'i~l!Itili'ii"111~bl1f:rri"t£li~
Range.
1
----r- '-1-----1----------,--
(Other particulars of these types cannot be given.)
7} ,
Ij
Whitley
145
150
(;
IS0-200
Wellingt01't
I
i'
,
T----
cruising speed
when loaded.
155
3
Crew.
4
I
--~----_;C::::iCal-r-
Hampde1l
Blenheim
Type.
--- T
-..--------------
~
"
~
~
?;~
t
L
o.
N O'i
fjCJ1 --'----~-
11I111111111111
NAA.006.0372
J
!
~
.--.
v--.
-.,.
•
-.
, --,
f
f
1
II jllll,I~II~":III:IIIIIII~ I ~I
NAA.006.0373
to forward to the Director of
Intelligence, through their Commanding Officers, naval
information or articles of general interest suitable for
inclusion in W.I.R.
OFFICERS ARE INVITED
DISTRIBUTION
Commanders~in-Chief
4 copies,
Flag Officers and Staffs (includIng Flag Officers-in-Chargeon Shore) 3 "
Battleships, battle cruisers and aircraft carriers
8 "
Cruisers; destroyer and submarine dep6t ships, armed merchant
cruisers and ocean boarding vessels
3
Flotilla leaders, landing craft carriers and anti-aircraft ships
2
Destroyers, monitors, sloops, corvettes, submarines, surveying
ships, repair ships, netlayers, minelayers, minesweepers, mine
destructor ships and river gunboats
1 copy.
Naval Officers-in-Charge on Shore
1 ..
..
..
Naval Control Service Officers at Home
Contraband Control Bases
Resident Naval Officers in United Kingdom
1
..
1
I
*.·AII mq1i.irie& w#1J r~!UenceJlo tilt distribution of W.I.R. are to bl.! addres$ed~o Ht.<ld
of A.JiUtar-y Brlmch, Trafalgar Quartet!!, Park R~tJ, Gru'tlwich, London, S.E.l0,
..
!IIII:: 11111~lill'llm IIII~
NAA. 006. 0374
This document is to be treated as
secret, to be passed by hand
from Officer to Officer and finally
<rellurlued to the Connnanding Officer.
not in nse it is to b. kept
il1na'~r lock and key.
Tbe subiectdiscussed in Officers'
p"'JY;,led no strangers are
H.M.S•..
Date received )
I
on board
f
Names of Officers to be passed to.
._~~-
'" """,.,,,' ..,,"" """" "I" ,/l~,: ..",." ...
,
-t "
'::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
...... ';
,
".......
,
. . . . • . . . . . . . . ··· ...••.••....• u,
.
.
, .......................•.•
.
.., ,
.
::'::::::::I·:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
.
,
................................
................
lodhe
I1dm~rally al
H.M. StaU011ef' Ojfitt: Press, HaN'DW.
I