relazione di fine tirocinio - Collegio Didattico di Ingegneria Civile

Commenti

Transcript

relazione di fine tirocinio - Collegio Didattico di Ingegneria Civile
RELAZIONE DI FINE
TIROCINIO
Luogo: Groningen, The Netherlands
Società: Wassenaar Ingenieurs
PSHA e DSHA dell’area di Groningen, studio del quadro fessurativo della chiesa di Zuidwolde
e proposta di rinforzi strutturali.
Francesco Banchini
RELATORE: Prof. Gianmarco De Felice, CORRELATORE: Geert Van Oost
Questo lavoro è il risultato di una collaborazione con “Wassenaar Ingenieurs” e “ABT Ingenieurs”
Francesco Banchini, 13/01/2016, Roma
Abstract
A seguito delle scosse verificatesi a causa dell’estrazione del gas nell’area intorno a Groningen migliaia di
edifici sono stati danneggiati, questo ha spinto il governo a fornirsi di una normativa antisismica sulla base
dell’Eurocodice 8.
Tra tutti gli edifici sensibili quelli in muratura hanno sicuramente riportato danni più evidenti ed hanno
associato un maggiore rischio di collasso quando sottoposti a scosse di maggiore intensità.
Il caso di studio della chiesa di Zuidwolde presenta delle criticità correlate allo spessore della muratura a
sacco e alla snellezza degli elementi verticali come ad esempio la torre campanaria.
Durante il mio periodo di stage mi sono occupato del quadro fessurativo del fabbricato e dell’analisi della
muratura, ho inoltre utilizzato il software “3Muri” per valutare la risposta sismica del manufatto e proporre
degli adeguamenti strutturali.
Il mio cliente “SOGK” “Stitching Oude Groninger Kerken” aveva espresso dei timori riguardo alla risposta
antisismica della muratura portante, in particolare riguardo ai meccanismi locali di collasso associati alla
spinta del tetto.
Durante il mio periodo di stage, in accordo con il mio relatore il Prof. De Felice ho iniziato la scrittura della
tesi di laurea magistrale proprio sullo studio della chiesa di Zuidwolde, maggiori informazioni possono
essere reperite nei file del lavoro di tesi.
Allegati
Allegato a questa relazione:
·
·
·
·
·
Screenshot del programma di calcolo “3Muri”;
Foto effettuate durante il sopralluogo alla chiesa di Zuidwolde;
Tavole del quadro fessurativo;
Schede sullo studio della muratura;
Linea temporale dello stage.
Description
Week
Introduction to the working place
Learning the software: Revit
Survey to the church of Zuidwolde
Learning the software: 3Muri
Master thesis deployment
Meeting with "ABT Ingenieurs" for the tower of the church
Meeting with "Seismeic Advise"
Analysis of the roof trusses
1
x
x
2
3
4
5
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
14/10/2014
07/10/2014
30/11/2014
23/11/2014
16/11/2014
09/11/2014
02/11/2014
26/10/2014
19/10/2014
Date
12/10/2014
05/10/2014
Project description Internship Francesco Banchini
Location: Wassenaar office, Groeningen, The Nederlands
Time span: ca. 11 weeks
6
7
8
9
10
11
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Global Description internship
I will join Wassenaar’s office for a period of ca.11 weeks. During this period i will work both in office and on the field, Wassennaar B.V. provided for me
the technical informations of a church that has suffered of structural damage due to earthquake generated by the use of the technique of fracking for
gas drilling operation. The field work consists of inspections on site (Kerk Usquert) for better understand the extent of the damage.
Research proposal:
In Wassenaar office in Groeningen they are currently involved with a large amount of project which need an earthquake resistance design, moreover
they don’t have an extensive guidelines ruling the solution of this kind of problems. My aim is to use Italian guidelines for seismic design and for
rehabilitation of hystorical buildings for proposing a proven technical solution for the site.
This project will be the main topic of my master thesis with the help of my correlator prof. Gianmarco De Felice.
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
1050 - 1200
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Masonry studiy - Plan view
Table A - "Monastery mop"
"Monastery mop"
1200 ca.
Table B - Roman turf stones
1200 - 1300
Table C - Rough bricks 13th century
1500 - 1525
Table D - Rough bricks 16th century
1854
Table E - Classics red bricks
1998
Table F - Masonry with Portland cement
Scale 1:100
Roman turf
stones
Rough bricks 13th
century
Rough bricks
16th century
Classic red bricks
Masonry with
Portland cement
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Masonry study - The northern facade of the tower
Scale 1:100
1050 - 1200
Table A - "Monastery mop"
1200 ca.
Table B - Roman turf stones
1200 - 1300
Table C - Rough bricks 13th century
1500 - 1525
Table D - Rough bricks 16th century
1854
Table E - Classics red bricks
1998
Table F - Masonry with Portland cement
"Monastery mop"
Roman turf
stones
Rough bricks 13th
century
Rough bricks
16th century
Classic red bricks
Masonry with
Portland cement
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
Northern View
Eastern View
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Masonry study -The tower
Scale 1:100
Southern View
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
3
2
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Crack pattern of the southern facade
Scale 1:100
3
12
Presumed cause of the cracks:
Shear failure of the
masonry due to the
presence of the openings
Global mechanism:
detachment of the tower
Shear failure of the piers
walls
2
7
4
6
1
Push of the truss on the
masonry
11
8
12
10
3
5
13
9
Subsidence of the soil
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Crack pattern of the northern facade
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
Scale 1:100
19
14
19
23
Presumed cause of the cracks:
Shear failure of the
masonry due to the
presence of the openings
Global mechanism:
detachment of the tower
22
Shear failure of the piers
walls
18
14
17
21
Push of the truss on the
masonry
16
19
23
15
20
Subsidence of the soil
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Crack pattern of eastern and western facade
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
26
Scale 1:100
26
25
25
Presumed cause of the cracks:
Shear failure of the
masonry due to the
presence of the openings
Global mechanism:
detachment of the tower
Shear failure of the piers
walls
23
26
25
24
Push of the truss on the
masonry
Subsidence of the soil
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Crack pattern ofSection B-B'
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
26
Scale 1:100
28
28
Presumed cause of the cracks:
29
Shear failure of the
masonry due to the
presence of the openings
Global mechanism:
detachment of the tower
27
26
Shear failure of the piers
walls
30
28
32
31
Push of the truss on the
masonry
Subsidence of the soil
ROMA Corso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile per la Protezione dai Rischi Naturali
TRE
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI
Tesi di Laurea magistrale - Analysis of the cracks and design of reinforcements for the church of Zuidwolde
Candidato: Francesco Banchini - Relatore: Prof. Ing. Gianmarco De Felice
25
Appendix: A study of the masonry and of the existing cracks
Crack pattern of section A-A'
Scale 1:100
33
Presumed cause of the cracks:
Shear failure of the
masonry due to the
presence of the openings
35
Global mechanism:
detachment of the tower
25
33
37
Shear failure of the piers
walls
36
34
Push of the truss on the
masonry
38
Subsidence of the soil
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
A
Monastery mop with a core of rubble stones
Hanging wall
thickness 65cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of large bricks, bad texture of the masonry with enough
vertical and horizontal offset of the stones. Presumed presence of diatones, thickness of the
hanging wall 30 cm ca., presence of rubble material in the core. Poor condition of the mortar.
Hanging wall made of the so called "monastery mop", large bricks cooked in wooden oven with
different temperatures, probably reused from an old building. Previous inspections showed a poor
condition of the material that has been reinforced in 1998.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 130 - 133 mm
h = 62 - 67 mm
l = 270 - 280 mm
Level of knowledge:
Test performed:
Notes:
l
s
LC1
Limited
fm
o
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
[N/cm2]
[N/cm2]
100,0
2,00
870,0
290,0
19
175,5
4,00
1174,5
391,5
19
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
B
Masonry made of Roman tuff with a core of rubble stones
Hanging wall - Roman Tuff
thickness 65cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall - Roman Tuff
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of roman bricks, good texture of the masonry with good
vertical and horizontal offset of the stones. Presumed presence of diatones, unknown thickness of
the hanging wall, presence of rubble material in the core. Good condition of the mortar.
Hanging wall made of roman tuff approximately 13th century, color sand. No chemical analysis on
the material. Unknown composition of the mortar. The bricks appear damaged on the outside of the
tower and in good condition on the inside, presumed cause: weathering.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 82 - 90 mm
h = 145 - 152 mm
l =360 - 430 mm
Level of knowledge:
Test performed:
Notes:
l
s
LC1
Limited
fm
o
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
[N/cm2]
[N/cm2]
140,0
2,80
1080
360,0
16
189,0
4,00
1458
486,0
16
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
C
Masonry made of 13th century bricks with a core of rubble stones
Hanging wall
thickness 65cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of 13th century stones, very bad texture of the masonry
with enough vertical and horizontal offset of the stones. Presence of diatones, thickness of the
hanging wall 30 cm ca., presence of rubble material in the core. Good condition of the mortar.
Hanging wall made bricks-stones. No chemical analysis on the material. Unknown composition of
the mortar. The bricks appeared very damaged after the inspections, they have been partly
replaced, partly reinforced. One of the part that has been more severed damaged and repaired.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 82 - 90 mm
h = 145 - 152 mm
l = 303 - 318 mm
Level of knowledge:
l
s
LC1
fm
o
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
[N/cm2]
[N/cm2]
Notes:
100,0
2,00
870,0
290,0
16
Under the bricks has been positioned a new foundations beam made of
concrete 40x40 cm.
117,0
2,00
783,0
261,0
19
Test performed:
Limited
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
D
Masonry made of 16th century bricks with a core of rubble stones
Hanging wall
thickness 65cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of 16th century classic bricks, good texture of the masonry
with good vertical and horizontal offset of the stones. Presence of diatones, unknown thickness of
the hanging wall, presence of rubble material in the core. Good condition of the mortar.
Hanging wall made classic red bricks. No chemical analysis on the material. Unknown composition
of the mortar. The bricks are impaired on the outside of the tower. During the renovation in 1998 the
bricks appeared severely damaged in the church walls.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 50 - 52 mm
h = 112 - 115 mm
l = 215 - 217 mm
Level of knowledge:
Test performed:
l
s
LC1
Limited
fm
[N/cm2]
o
[N/cm2]
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
Notes:
240
6,0
1500
500
18
The thickness of the tower walls is reducing of 2 bricks for each floor
of the tower.
378
8,0
2362,5
787,5
18
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
E
Masonry made of red bricks from 1854
Hanging wall
Wall reinforcement
from 1854
thickness 35cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall - Various materials
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of various materials reinforced with masonry from 1854.
Good texture of the masonry with good vertical and horizontal offset of the stones. From inspections
in 1998 the masonry was partly damaged. Presence of a core of rubble stones.
Reinforcements of different part of the wall made in 1854. No chemical analysis on the material.
Unknown composition of the mortar. In the apse, the whole wall has been made of this masonry
after the shortening of the church length.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 82 - 90 mm
h = 145 - 152 mm
l = 303 - 318 mm
Level of knowledge:
Test performed:
Notes:
l
s
LC1
Limited
fm
[N/cm2]
o
[N/cm2]
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
240,0
6,0
1500
500
18
540,0
11,0
3375
1125
18
Evaluation of the quality of the masonry
F
Masonry reinforced with Portland cement
Hanging wall - bricks
thickness 5cm ca.
thickness 65cm ca.
Interior
Outer
Rubble stones
Cement
coating
thickness 30cm ca.
Hanging wall - bricks
Prospect
SectionView
Front View
Internal and external hanging wall made of various bricks, excellent condition of the plaster outside
unknown inside. Unknown texture of the masonry of the hanging wall, presence of rubble material in
the core. Unknown condition of the mortar.
Hanging wall made of bricks with a Portland Cement coating applied in 1998, color white. No
chemical analysis on the material. Unknown composition of the mortar. The bricks inside are from
different ages and conditions, the coating has structural function.
Dimensions of the bricks:
h
s = 60 - 70 mm
h = 110 - 120 mm
l = 200 - 220 mm
Level of knowledge:
Test performed:
Notes:
l
s
LC1
Limited
fm
[N/cm2]
o
[N/cm2]
E
G
w
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kN/m3]
240,0
6,0
1500
500
18
378,0
8,0
2362,5
787,5
18

Documenti analoghi