TRANSPORT FOR LONDON BUSES – SUPPORTING REDUCTION

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TRANSPORT FOR LONDON BUSES – SUPPORTING REDUCTION
TRANSPORT FOR LONDON BUSES –
SUPPORTING REDUCTION IN
POLLUTION
Mike Weston
Director of Buses – Transport for London
Coordinato da:
Organizzato da:
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
Agenda
 The London bus network and its environmental
impact
 Environmental Challenges
Understanding the Impact
 The Solutions

 Roll-out
 Trials
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
2
The London Bus Network
Network contracted by TfL from
Private Operators
Buses operate 24 hours
per day, 7 days a week
19,500 bus stops
6.5 million journeys
per week day
9,000 buses
700 routes
750 new buses each
year
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
3
Environmental Challenges
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EU Limit Values of 40 µg/m3 for NO2
and PM
PM just below limit (though no safe
level)
NO2 is 3 times higher than limit value
in some areas
Mayor has targeted 60% reduction in
CO2 by 2025 from 1990 levels
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
4
Calculating Fleet Environmental Impacts
• TfL developed with Millbrook a ‘real
world’ drive cycle based on Route 159
from Brixton to Oxford Street
• Every new type of bus is tested to
ensure CO2, PM and NOx emissions
meet TfL’s requirements
• Enables TfL to model the impact of the
Bus Fleet on London emissions and
predict the impact of interventions
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
5
Fleet Emission Trends
7000
6000
600
5000
PM10 and CO2 emissions
p.a.
700
500
4000
400
3000
300
200
2000
100
1000
0
0
1997 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
6
p.a.
800
NOx emissions
PM10 - Tonnes
CO2 - Kilotonnes
NOx - Tonnes
London’s NO2 concentrations
Limit
Value
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LAEI 2010
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
7
NOx Emission Sources in London - 2010
Motorcycle
0%
Taxi
4%
Other transport
16%
HGV
25%
Road Transport
47%
Car
38%
Coach
5%
Non-transport
37%
Bus
17%
LGV
11%
28% of transport NOx emissions in Central London are from buses
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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SCR Retrofit and Euro VI Rollout
 From Dec 2015 all TfL Buses meet the


Euro IV standard for PM & NOx
2300 Euro III buses retrofitted with SCR
reducing NOx by 88%
Euro VI buses emit 95% less NOx than
Euro V
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
9
Power-train Electrification
Power-train electrification has an increasing role to
play in lowering carbon emissions and air pollution
from passenger transport vehicles
20% of the TfL Bus Fleet are already diesel-electric
hybrid
Further electrification of the bus fleet through full
electric and plug-in hybrid buses can offer significant
further emissions savings
This CO2 saving will increase with further
decarbonisation of the UK’s power generation base
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
10
CO2 Reduction – Rollout
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Hybrids chosen as they offered the most cost
effective means of CO2 reduction
Trials consisted of 56 buses across 8 major
operators with the monitoring and evaluation
period from 2006 to 2010
Four manufacturers – ADL, Volvo, Wrights and
Optare – single and double deck
30% CO2 saving to be demonstrated over MLTB
test cycle – Low Carbon Bus Certificate and 40%
for New Routemaster
Currently 1700 in service rising to 3,300 by 2020
(ULEZ)
Currently better for double deck than single deck
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
11
Future
Technology
Trials
Electric bus trials
 13 Optare Metro City’s in service on route H98 &
312
 Two BYD and two Irizar 12m electric buses in
service on route 507/521
 Route 507/521 will be fully electric later this year –
using 51 BYD/ADL buses
 Pure electric double deck trial underway–
challenge weight & range
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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Charging Infrastructure
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Operators bid for the entire cost of running a
route – includes charging infrastructure
Opportunity charging during the day – optimising
range/cost/weight vs charging infrastructure –
route dependant
Power supply upgrades normally required
Smart charging so that all vehicles are not charging
at the same time
Space and safety requirements in some garages
mean that operators may need to fit over-head
gantrys
Potential to connect to High Voltage London
Underground network at certain locations
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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BYD ebus performance data

A snapshot of typical average daily charging, operational hours and performance
monitoring data for two periods
Charge duration
5hrs
Daily operating
hours (on road)
9hrs
Daily battery
SOC used
Daily mileage
%
Daily energy
consumption
kWh
Specific energy
consumption
kWh per mile
42
126
66
1.91
103
1.69
Some Examples of Longer Operating Hours
7hrs

13hrs
57
174
Aim of this trial is to:
• gain experience, knowledge and build confidence to plan the optimised
deployment of electric buses in London
• monitor performance to validate the manufacturer’s claims of an urban
operating range of 250 km (156 miles) on a single charge – will this degrade
over time?
•
evaluate the potential fuel cost savings (75% claimed)
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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CO2 Impacts*
 BYD ebus (vs 12-m Euro VI Citaro)
• Average energy consumption: 1.8 kWh/mile (1.12 kWh/km)
• Average specific CO2 emissions: 528 g/km
 Optare MetroCity (vs 10.2-m Euro V Enviro200)
• Average energy consumption: 1.2 kWh/mile (0.75 kWh/km)
• Average specific CO2 emissions: 352 g/km
 TfL Euro VI single deck diesel bus fleet average specific CO2 emissions: 938
g/km (tailpipe; WTW + c.15%)
Pure electric single deck bus CO2 saving potential > 50%
Preliminary data; subject to verification & audit and based on 2012 UK grid carbon intensity factor, including upstream emissions from production of fuels used in electricity generation, and for efficiency losses
*
during electric vehicle charging and from electricity transmission and distribution (472.4 g/kWh)
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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TfL’s Wireless Charging Bus Demonstration Project
 TfL is trialling “plug-in” series
hybrid (or range-extended
electric) buses
 Induction charging used to
provide opportunity charging
 Infrastructure installed in TfL bus
stations at either end of
demonstration route
 Objective is to operate on grid
electricity as much as possible;
battery will provide a significant
amount of the energy required
 Flexibility of hybrid power-train
retained
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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Wireless Charging Bus Trials
• Contract awarded to Alexander Dennis
(ADL)
• 3 new adapted Enviro400H buses are
used for the trial
• The buses are wireless charged range
extended hybrid double deck buses in
service on route 69 (11km long)
Running time ~40-50 minutes
 Layover time up to 14 minutes
 TfL has set route-specific performance
targets (80% use of grid electricity)
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Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
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Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles
• Longer term strategy – cost
biggest barrier
• A fleet of eight hydrogen buses
• Possible extension of project up
to 2020 with two additional
vehicles to be introduced by
2017
• Approximately 750,000 km
travelled to date
• Tower Transit now undertaking
all maintenance with support
from Ballard and Wrightbus
• Potential to run a further route
of 20 buses pending funding
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
18
Emission Projections
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
19
ULEZ – TfL Buses
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
20
Summary and Conclusions
 Significant emissions reduction from the bus fleet has been
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already been demonstrated with much more planned
The retrofit of ’bespoke’ exhaust aftertreatment technology to
existing buses has led to substantial PM and NOx reduction
The majority of new buses now entering the fleet are hybrid so
even with growth in the network, CO2 is being reduced
Electric and hydrogen buses offer potential to move to zero
emissions policy in future
2° CONVEGNO Sistema Gomma nel Trasporto Passeggeri
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016
21
Grazie
per la cortese attenzione 
Mike Weston
Director of Buses (Transport for
London)
Coordinato da:
Organizzato da:
Roma – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, sala Emiciclo
5 - 6 maggio 2016