mzis sxivi musikaSi

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mzis sxivi musikaSi
maia oTiaSvili
irina miqaZe
mzis sxivi
musikaSi
X
`wyarosTvali~
Tbilisi, 2009 weli
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SemoqmedebiTi jgufi:
avtori da jgufis xelmZRvaneli - maia oTiaSvili
avtori - irina miqaZe
eTnomusikosi - marina xuxunaiSvili
Finale 2008-is gakveTilebis momzadeba - mixeil vawaZe
gitaris gakveTilebis mozadeba - Tamaz gabunia
musikaluri redaqtori - nana RvinianiZe
literaturuli redaqtori - Tamar faSaliSvili
mxatvar-dizainerebi:
TinaTin mRebriSvili
rati Tordia
kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa:
marina javaxiSvili
mixeil vawaZe
damkabadoneblebi:
rati Tordia
zaza gelaSvili
badri CugoSvili
fonogramebis avtorebi:
mixeil vawaZe
levan mizandari
audio reJisorebi:
mixeil vawaZe
mixeil kilosaniZe
`wyarosTvali~
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ISBN:
© `wyarosTvali~ 2009
© maia oTiaSvili
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dasawyisi...
`maradiuli mzis sxivi musikaSi!.. es Sen xar, volfgang
amadeus mocart!~ - es sityvebi XIX saukunis rus kompozitorsa
da pianists anton rubinSteins ekuTvnis. da marTlac, mocartis
musika aRafrTovanebda rogorc mis Tanamedroveebs, ise dRevandel msmenels...
Cveni saxelmZRvanelos saxelwodebac am sityvebisgan warmodgeba. wignze
muSaobisas bevrs vfiqrobdiT, vmsjelobdiT, vkamaTobdiT, _ Tqveni asakis
mozardebisTvis, ymawvilTaTvis rogori Tematika SegverCia, ra principiT
agvego musikis saxelmZRvanelo da gadavwyviteT, iseTi maRalmxatvruli
musikaluri nawarmoebebi SegverCia, romelTa mosmena ufro metad
gaaRvivebs Tqvens interess musikisadmi da SesaZloa TqvenSic
aRZras survili raime axlis Seqmnisa.
saTuTad SevarCieT yvela droisa da yvela Janris saukeTeso
kompozitorebis Semoqmedeba, moviZieT saintereso ambebi musikis
samyarodan, cnobebi gamoCenil SemsrulebelTa Sesaxeb.
SevarCieT da dagimzadeT simRerebis `minus~ fonogramebi,
romelTa Seswavlis Semdeg Tqvenc SegeZlebaT skolaSi saintereso
koncertis
Catareba.
dRevandel
gakveTilze,
romelsac
simbolurad `dasawyisi~ vuwodeT, sxvadasxva Janris sam musikalur
nawarmoebs movismenT: l. v. beThovenis me-9 simfoniis finals, lui
armstrongis `What a Wonderful World~-s da qarTul xalxur simRera
`Cakrulos~. es ukvdavi nawarmoebebi Cawerilia platinis diskze da dedamiwis
Sesaxeb sxvadasxva informaciasTan erTad gaSvebulia kosmosis ukidegano
sivrceSi, rogorc dedamiwis erTgvari savizito baraTi.
imedia, Cveni saxelmZRvanelo daexmareba TiToeul Tqvengans musikaluri
xelovnebis ukeT aRqmasa da SeswavlaSi da momavali cxovrebis gzis Rirseulad
gakvlevaSi.
1. rogor fiqrobT, ra niSniT SeirCa es sami nawarmoebi?
2. ra aerTianebT, ra aqvT saerTo am sruliad gansxvavebul
epoqebSi Seqmnil nawarmoebebs?
3. gansazRvreT maTi Janri da stili.
4. CamoTvaleT xelovnebis dargebi.
5. Tqven romel nawarmoebebs SearCevdiT kosmosSi gasagzavnad?
6. daasaxeleT Tqveni sayvareli musikaluri nawarmoebebi.
1. qarTuli xalxuri simRera `Cakrulo~
2. ludvig van beThoveni simfonia #9 finali
3. lui armstrongi `What a Wonderful World~
3
romeli simReraa uZvelesi?
xmelTaSuazRvispireTis uZveles
qalaq ijaritSi (amJamad siriis qalaqi ras-Samra), 1959 wels Catarebuli
arqeologiuri gaTxrebisas ipoves
3000 wlis winandeli Tixis firfita
lursmnuli damwerlobiT.am ucnauri Sumeruli arfa
firfitis saidumlos axsnas kaliforniis universitetis mecnieri, asiriologi enn kilmeri Seudga. man
warweris gaSifvras 15 weli moandoma. musikismcoduZvelesi simReris Tixis firfita
neTa da istorikosTa daxmarebiT kilmerma Soreuli winaprebis aTasobiT wlis winandeli musikaluri nawarmoebis aRdgena SesZlo.
firfitis zeda oTx striqonze simReris musika da teqsti ewera, bolo eqvs striqonze _ Sesrulebis wesi. manamde uZveles musikalur manuskriptad ZvelberZnuli papirusi iTvleboda. am papirusze Cawerili iyo ,,notebi~ evripides piesisaTvis
,,oreste” (Zv.w VI s.). kilmeris aRmoCeniT ,,sanoto damwerlobis” istoriam 1400 wliT
kidev adre gadaiwia. gamoirkva isic, rom asiriul-babilonur civilizaciaSi iyenebden Svidbgerian kilos, romelic Tanamedrove evropul musikaSic gvxvdeba.
gaimRere
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gaimRere da gaixsene notebi
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kaliforniis universitetis samma musikismcodnem xmelTaSuazRvis
uZvelesi civilizaciis sakulto himnebi stereo firfitaze Cawera.
firfitas hqvia ,,xma idumalebidan”. mkvdar ugartul enaze Cawerili es
himnebi miZRvnilia qalRmerTisadmi, romelsac uZveles droSi aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTis sanapiroze mcxovrebi ugartis mkvidrni
eTayvanebodnen. am simRerebis Sesruleba SeuZlia yvelas, visac elementaruli warmodgena aqvs musikaze. igi mxolod 2 notisgan Sedgeba. musiSumeruli arfa kaluri akompanementi liraze sruldeba, romelic gabmul maRal bgeras
gamoscems. igi im musikaluri sakravis zusti piria, romelzedac Zv. w me-15-14-ss-ebSi ukravdnen. me-20 s.-is 70-ian wlebSi kaliforniis universitetis musikaluri ganyofilebis Tavmjdomaris riCard krokeris azriT, es aris
msoflioSi uZvelesi simRera, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom igi 3400-3500 wlisaa. sainteresoa, rom am CanawerSi akompanements liraze Tavad ricard
krokeri akeTebs.
warmoidgine, rogori SeiZleba yofiliyo uZvelesi simRera da dawere notebiT
Sumeruli RvTaeba
uZvelesi simRera
manuskripti - laT. manuscriptum - Zveli xelnaweri
4
gakveTili I
Finale 2008
Finale 2008 aris musikaluri programa - erTgvari “solfejios maswavlebeli”. es
programa dagexmarebaT Tqveni sayvareli musikaluri nawarmoebi aaJReroT sxvadasxva
sakravebSi, an moisminoT simfoniuri orkestris SesrulebiT. Tqven SegiZliaT Tavad
marToT finali: akrifoT notebi, notebze akrefil simReras SeucvaloT tonaloba,
zoma, ritmi, grZlioba, gaaorkestroT musikaluri nawarmoebi.
jer kidev axlo warsulSi kompozitorebi TavianT sanoto xelnawerebs notis
gadamwerebs andobdnen.es Zalian Sromatevadi saqmianoba iyo. axalma kompiuterulma
musikalurma programebma es procesi ufro gaaadviles.
qvemoT warmodgenili iqneba mokle meToduri rekomendacia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor
gavxsnaT programa, SevqmnaT faili da SeviyvanoT CvenTvis sasurveli melodia.
gakveTilebSi mocemulia martivi magaliTebi, romlebic dagexmarebaT musikaluri
programa Finale 2008-is ufro Rrma da detalur SeswavlaSi.
programis dainstalirebis Semdeg Desktop-ze gamoCndeba Finale-is logo, romelic
ase gamoiyureba. mausze 2-jer swrafi xelis daWeriT gaixsneba Finale 2008.
es is fanjaraa, romelic pirvelad gamoCndeba ekranze. Tu Cven ukve gvaqvs
gamzadebuli faili SevdivarT Open-Si, romelic naxatze isriT aris miTiTebuli.
movZebniT Cvens mier gakeTebul am fails da mausze orjer TiTis daWeriT
gamoviZaxebT programaSi, xolo Tu Tqven qmniT axal fails, maSin SevdivarT Setup
Wizard-Si, romelic aseve isriT aris naxatze miTiTebuli.
akompanementi - frang. accompagnement melodiis Tanmxlebi musika erTi,
ramdenime sakraviT an orkestriT.
interpretacia - laT. Interpretatio raime azris axsna, ganmarteba. musikaluri
nawarmoebis Taviseburi, SemoqmedebiTi Sesruleba.
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baroko
Tanamedrove musikosi violaTi
barokos stili XVI s-is italiaSi arqiteqturaSi warmoiSva, xolo
XVII_XVIII s-Si baroko mTeli evropuli xelovnebis ZiriTad mimarTulebad iqca. ~barokko~ _ italiuri sityvaa da RvlarWnils, ucnaurs niSnavs.
am periodis arqiteqturuli stili grandiozuli, masiuri, mdidruli,
rTuli, RvlarWnili da dinamiuri formebiT gamoirCeva.
barokos musikac aseve dramatizmiT, kontrastulobiT, dinamizmiT da
zogjer gadaWarbebuli emociurobiTac gamoirCeva. am epoqam msoflios
araerT SesaniSnav mxatvars, arqiteqtorsa Tu musikoss gauTqva saxeli.
sakmarisia musikaSi baxis, hendelis, monteverdis, perselis, vivaldisa
da korelis gvarebis dasaxelebac. es aris axali epoqa musikaluri
xelovnebis istoriaSi, roca polifoniuri da homofoniurharmoniuli stili erTmaneTs Seerwya. am periodSi warmoiSva da
ganviTarda araerTi musikaluri Janri: opera, musikaluri drama, kantata, oratoria. Seiqmna instrumentuli musikis axali saxeebi _ fuga, konCerto grosso, solo
instrumentuli koncertebi, saansamblo
da solo sonatebi. am epoqis popularuli sakravebia: organi, klavesini, sxvadasxva simebiani da simebian-xemiani sakravebi--viola, barokos gitara, violino,
violonCello, kontrabasi. Casaberebidan popularulia
sxvadasxvagvari fleitebi, klarneti, hoboi, fagoti.kvlav
aRorZinda miviwyebuli lira. barokos epoqis musikaluri
Semoqmedebis mwvervalia baxis `kargad temperirebuli klaviri~, goldbergis variaciebi, `fugis xelovneba~, `maTes
pasioni~, mesa si-minori. am periodSia Seqmnili iseTi genialuri nawarmoebebi, rogorebicaa hendemusikosi violiT
lis oratoriidan `mesia~, vivaldis `weliwadis droni~ da sxv. mravali kompozitori qmnida nawarmoebebs
`neobarokos~ stilSi XX saukuneSic. barokos epoqis musika farTod sruldeba dResac. Tanamedrove musikosebi cdiloben, rom
nawarmoebis Tavdapirveli Sesrulebis manera aRadginon. iqmneba
Zveleburi sakravebisgan Seqmnili bevri ansambli, klavesinis simebs liTonis garda aseve Zuisgan akeTeben, aRorZinda interesi barokos xanis operisadmic. barokos stils garkveuli kavSiri
jazTanac aqvs. barokos musikac xSirad improvizaciulia.. misdami
did interess iCenen jazuri musikis didostatebi.
alfred Snitke Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi gamoCenili kompozitoria. misi Semoqmedebis
ZiriTadi Janrebia simfoniuri da kameruli: 5 simfonia, 4 saviolino koncerti, koncerti
hoboisa da arfisTvis, aseve safortepiano, altis, saviolonCelo
koncertebi, konCerto grosoebi. masSi Serwymulia klasikuri
tradiciebi
da
Tanamedrove
sakompozitoro
teqnikis
mravalferovani elementebi. Snitkes Semoqmedeba warsulisa da
Tanamedroveobis erTianobaa.
komopiztori mimarTavs Zvelebur musikalur formas da qmnis
kontrastebiT aRsavse, saintereso tembruli Seferilobisa da
mravalferovan emociur saxeebs.
i.s. baxi - saorkestro suita #3. aria
alfred Snitke - `suita Zvel stilSi~. fuga
YouTube.com - Schnittke “Suite in the Old Style”
6
alfred Snitke
antonio vivaldi
XVII saukunis udidesi italieli kompozitori,
virtuozi mevioline, diriJori da pedagogi antonio vivaldi veneciaSi mRvdelTmsaxuric iyo.
JRali Tmis gamo Tanamedroveni mas `wiTel abats~
eZaxdnen. antonio vivaldim mdidari musikaluri
memkvidreoba datova: operebi, kantatebi, simfoniebi, sonatebi. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki mis
SemoqmedebaSi instrumentuli koncertis Janria,
romelic barokos stilis erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSia
musikaSi.vivaldi saviolino koncertis fuZemdebeli da
konCerto grosos Janris didostatia. igi 450-ze meti
koncertis avtoria; violinos garda dawera koncertebi sxvadasxva
solo sakravebisTvis: violonCelo, fleita, hoboi, fagoti, valtorna, sayviri, mandolina. Seqmna uamravi `didi koncerti~ _ `konCerto grosso~. vivaldis bevri koncerti programulia, anu aqvs saxelwodeba, saTauri da zogjer literaturuli miZRvnac.
vivaldis Semoqmedebis mwvervalia saorkestro cikli ,,weliwadis droni’’ (1725) - programuli saorkestro musikis erT-erTi adreuli nimuSi.
masSi gaerTianebulia 4 koncerti solo violinosa da simebiani orkestrisaTvis.
musikaluri xazis ganviTareba aq violinos solosa da orkestris _ Tutti-is xmovanebis dapirispirebazea agebuli. Tutti italiurad `yvelas~ niSnavs.
am koncertebSi musika zustad mihyveba sonetebis saxeebs, romlebSic kompozitori TiToeuli koncertis Sinaarss gvixsnis: `gazafxuli~, `zafxuli~, `Semodgoma~, `zamTari~. fiqroben, rom am sonetebis avtori Tavad vivaldia.
vivaldi - Semoqmedi, energiuli, gonieri da pragmatuli adamiani - kargi impresarioc iyo, TviTon arCevda saopero da sabaleto dasis Semadgenlobas da TviTon
gascemda musikosebisTvis xelfassac ki.amave dros, Zalze sasiamovno, gulRia da
naTeli adamiani iyo. aseTivea misi musika.vivaldim didi gavlena moaxdina Tavis
araerT Tanamedroveze. misma musikam, gansakuTrebiT ki brwyinvale sakoncerto
stilma didi STabeWdileba moaxdina baxzec, romelmac vivaldis araerTi nawarmoebi gadaamuSava organisa da klavesinisaTvis da axleburi interpretaciiT
warmoadgina
isini.
dg
antonio vivaldi weliwadis droni
interpretacia - laT. interpretatio - raime nawarmoebis Taviseburi, SemoqmedebiTi Sesruleba.
1 . rogor JRers mTavari melodia?
2. rogor aris gadmocemuli Citebis mRera, nakadulis rakraki, Weqa-quxili?
3. sami saukunis win Seqmnili es musika ratom sruldeba dRes ase xSirad?
koncerti concertare laTinurad Sejibrs niSnavs, italiurad concerto harmonias,
SeTanxmebas niSnavs. koncerti aris musikaluri kompozicia, sadac erTi an ramdenime solisti ejibreba orkestrs.
konCerto groso italiurad did koncerts niSnavs. konCerto grossoSi sakravTa erTi jgufi koncertino ejibreba mTel orkestrs ripieno. instrumentuli musikis es saxeoba barokos
epoqaSi iyo gavrcelebuli. adreuli konCerto grossoebi Seqmna stradelam, Semdeg korelim, vivaldim, hendelma. konCerto grossos Janrisaa baxis ,,brandenburgis koncertebi~. konCerto grosso meXX saukuneSic iqmneboda. aRsaniSnavia rusi kompozitoris Snitkes konCerto grosoebi.
cikli - kyklos - berZnuli sityvaa da niSnavs wres. musikaluri forma, romelic Sedgeba ramdenime
damoukidebeli nawilisgan, romlebic erTi CanafiqriT arian gaerTianebulni. cikliuri formebia:
suita, koncerti, konCerto grosso, sonata, simfonia da sxv.
grafikuladgamoxate solo violinos pasaJebis melodiuri xazi
7
iohan sebastian baxi
iohan sebastian baxi kacobriobis istoriis erT-erTi yvelaze
genialuri germaneli kompozitoria. `baxi ki ara, okeanea Seni saxeli~ _ Tqva Tavis Tanamemamuleze l.v. beThovenma, radgan baxi
germanulad nakaduls niSnavs.baxis Semoqmedeba klasikuri polifoniuri musikis mwvervalia.
baxebis ramdenime Taobis warmomadgenlebi musikosebi iyvnen. misTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani iyo ojaxis musikaluri tradiciebi da
i.s. baxi (1685-1750) religia. baxs bevri Svili hyavda da Tavad zrunavda Svilebis musikalur ganaTlebaze.maTTvis specialurad qmnida nawarmoebebs.amitom dRes musikosTa yvela Taobas aqvs SesaZlebloba Seexos baxis genialur qmnilebebs.mis nawarmoebebs
ukraven damwyebi musikosebi da virtuozi Semsruleblebi.aseT nawarmoebTa Sorisaa
saklaviro nawarmoebebi- invenciebi,,kargad temperirebuli klaviris ‘‘ preludiebi da fugebi da sxv, romlebic
kompozitorma swored Tavisi SvilebisTvis Seqmna. baxis
sayvareli sakravi organi iyo. laifcigis wminda Tomas taZarSi ukravda da Txzavda Tavis genialur nawarmoebebs.
baxi brwyinvale improvizatori iyo da sicocxleSi swored
udides organistad iyo aRiarebuli, xolo rogorc kompozitori
is mxolod gardacvalebidan asi
wlis Semdeg daafases. 1829 wels
feliqs mendelsonis ZasisxmeviT
Sesrulda baxis oratoria `maTes
vnebani~, romelic ieso qristes cxovrebaze mogviTxrobs.
gasakviri araa, rom genialuri baxisTvis yvelaze axlobeli sakravi swored organi iyo _ ukidegano harmonibaxis organi
is, uaRresad mZlavri da diadi sakravi. msoflios saukeTeso organistebis sakoncerto repertuarSi mudam aris baxis sayovelTaod cnobili saorgano nawarmoebi
_ tokata da fuga re minori.nawarmoebi ori piesis _ tokatisa da fugisgan Sedgeba.
tokata italiurad Sexebas, dartymas niSnavs. es improvizaciuli xasiaTis virtuozuli piesaa, romelic umetesad klaviSiani sakravebisTvis iwereba. tokatas axasiaTebs mokle, Tanabari grZliobis bgerebis swrafi moZraoba.
baxs udides pativs scemdnen da etayvanebodnen venis klasikosebi, romantikosebi da Tanamedrove musikosebi. sainteresoa isic, rom jazis musikosebisTvis baxis
musika melodiis ganviTarebis erTgvari etaloni da nimuSia maT improvizaciebSi.
iohan sebastian baxi - tokata da fuga - re minori saorgano SesrulebiT tokata da fuga Tanamedrove interpretaciiT (rok-musika) mousmine musikas da Seadare es ori Sesruleba. Seni
ganwyoba daxate an dawere.
fuga - laT. Fuga - sirbili, gaqceva. mravalxmiani polifoniuri nawarmoebi
dafuZnebuli imitaciaze. fuga - umaRlesi polifoniuri formaa. fugam Tavisi
ganviTarebis umaRles mwvervals i.s. baxis da g.f.
hendelis SemoqmedebaSi miaRwia.
polifonia - berZ. Poly - mravali, phone - xma, mravalxmianobis saxe, sadac yvela xma
Tanabari mniSvnelobisaa. polifoniuri musikis formebia: invencia, kanoni, fuga.
skolaSi SegiZliaT moawyoT musikaluri kvireuli. i.s. baxis sxvadasxva
nawarmoebi SegiZliaT moisminoT ara mxolod musikis gakveTilze, aramed
kviris ganmavlobaSi sxva gakveTilebze, mag. maTematikis gakveTilze testebis kargad amoxsnaSi dagexmarebaT baxis genialuri musika
albert Svaiceri - germaneli filosofosi RvTismetveli, musikaTmcodne da organisti,
albert Svaiceri nobelis premiis laureati. Svaiceri iyo i.s. baxis Semoqmedebis mkvlevari. man daadastura,
rom baxis musika xels uwyos maTematikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebas.
1875-1965 w.w.
8
georg hendeli
,,CemTvis samwuxaro iqneboda, rom adamianebisTvis mxolod siamovneba mimeniWebina. me msurda isini ukeTesebi gamexada’’ _ hendeli
georg hendeli me-18 saukunis didi humanisti, polifoniuri musikis didostati, diriJori da organisti, genialuri germaneli kompozitoria.hendeli
Tavis SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobas germaniaSi iwyebs,
italiaSi yalibdeba rogorc saopero kompozitori, didebis mwvervals ki inglisSi aRwevs. samive es
qveyana Tavisad Tvlis hendels, Tumca yvelaze didi Rvawli man inglisis musikalur kulturas dasdo. londonSi brwyinvale warmatebebi moipova opera
,,rinaldos’’ pirvelive SesrulebisTanave. hendelis
georg hendeli (1685-1759)
gmiruli operebi dawerilia Zvelistoriul siuJetebze _ ,,iulius keisari’’, ,,radamisti’’, ,,Temur lengi’’ da sxv. xolo saukeTeso
oratoriebi ,sauli’’, ,,israeli egvipteSi,’’,,samsoni’’, ,,mesia’’bibliur siuJetebzea Seqmnili. swored amis gamo Seiyvara igi ingliselma msmenelma.maTi warmateba
araCveulebriv musikasTan erTad ganpirobebuli iyo bibliuri SinaarsiTac. im
periodSi biblia ingliselTaTvis sulieri cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawili, yvelaze gavrcelebuli da sayvareli sakiTxavi wigni iyo.ingliselebi TavianT
imdroindel gancdebs da grZnobebs bibliaSi moTxrobili ebraeli xalxis bedsa da
gancdebs ukavSirebdnen. maTTvis nacnob siuJetebSi mimzidveli iyo xalxissTvis
Tavganwirvisa da Tavisuflebiis ideebi. 1717 wels hendelma inglisis mefes miuZRvna fanfaruli xasiaTis saorkestro nawarmoebi _ suita ,,musika wyalze’’, romelic mdinare temzaze samefo flotis aRlumis dros Sesrulda. 1749 wels msgavsi
tipis suita `musika samefo foierverkisTvis~ grin-parkSi axenis zavis dadebasTan
dakavSirebiT dawera.es orive saorkestro suita eg. w. pleneruli musikis erT-erTi pirveli nimuSebia evropul profesiul musikaSi. am nawarmoebebs xSirad uwodeben ,,musikas Ria cis qveS’’ da isini hendelis erT-erTi yvelaze lamazi qmnilebebia.
hendelma isini gareT, londonis parkebsa da baRebSi, Ria cis qveS masobrivi SesrulebisaTvis dawera. aseTi musika farTo masebisaTvis misawvdomi, mxiaruli da sazeimo ganwyobisa iyo.
hendeli saocari SromismoyvareobiT gamoirCeoda. oratoria `mesia~ man sami kviraSi dawera. notebis gawaful gadamwers amdenive dro mxolod partituris gadawerisTvis dasWirdeboda! aseve mravalferovania hendelis memkvidreoba: 40 opera, 30
oratoria, saorgano koncertebi, konCerto grosoebi da mr.sxv. igi Tavisi drois
brwyinvale organistic iyo da Tavisi oratoriebis Sesrulebisas, Sesvenebis dros,
rogorc wesi, ukravda an diriJorobda sakuTar saorgano koncertebs da konCerto
grosoebs.
hendeli 1759 wels londonSi gardaicvala. misi sikvdili ingliselebma nacionaluri musikis udides danakargad aRiqves da didi pativiT dakrZales vestminsteris saabatoSi.
georg hendeli: oratoria - mesia,
`aleluia~.
mousmine musikas da Seni STabeWdileba daxate an dawere. ra
grZnobebs iwvevs hendelis musika: optimizmi, sevda, vaJkacuri
suli, mtkice nebisyofa, sinaTle - Semoxaze SenTvis misaRebi
gansazRvreba.
hendelis sanoto xelnaweri
9
yviTeli foTlebi
musika gia yanCelis
teqsti petre gruzinskis
yviTeli foTlebi
Tan miaqvs qars
daayris fifqebad
Sen saxlis kars.
geZaxi aravin
ara mcems xmas
yviTeli foTlebi
siCumes hgavs.
da mainc yviTeli
foTlebis mwams,
yviTeli foTlebi
siCumes hgavs.
j
& j œ Ç
bœ
j
j œ Ç
bœ
daukari da gamoicani simReris romeli nawilia, daadgine ra intervalia?
bœ
œ
œ
Ç.
udidesi qarTveli kompozitori gia yanCeli Tanamedrove
musikaluri kulturis erT-erTi gamorCeuli warmomadgenelia.
mis musikas msoflios udides sakoncerto darbazebSi warmatebiT asruleben cnobili orkestrebi, aRirebuli Semsruleblebi, sxvadasxava qveyanaSi tardeba saerTaSoriso festivalebi,
romlebic qarTveli kompozitoris Semoqmedebisadmia miZRvnili. yanCelis nawarmoebTa aseTi popularoba misi musikis iSviaT
siTboSi, silamazesa da TviTmyofobaSi mdgomareobs
gia yanCeli 1935wels daibada TbilisSi eqimis ojaxSi. mravali niWieri Tanatolis msgavsad, isic dadioda musikalur
skolaSi, magram mxolod ufrosebis xaTriT. musikis siyvaruli
odnav mogvianebiT gauCnda, roca pirvelad moismina cnobili jazuri kompozitorebis glen milerisa da diuk elingtonis musika. jazi misi
cxovrebis ganuyofeli Tanamgzavri gaxda. swored am musikis siyvarulma gadaawyvetina gia yanCels pirveli profesia- geologoba mietovebina da konservatoriaSi Caebarebina sakompozitoro
fakultetze. weris gamorCeuli maneris gamo ukve studenturi
nawarmoebebidanve daiwyo profesiuli kritikisa da farTo sazogadoebis daintereseba misi musikiT. gasuli saukunis 90ian wlebamde
yanCelis SemoqmedebaSi simfoniur musikas yvelaze
gia yanCeli. `yviTeli foTlebi~
mousmine `minus~ fonogramas da imRere TviTon.
azdaki _ ramaz CxikvaZe
speqtaklidan `kavkasiuri carcis wre~.
11
mniSvnelovani adgili ekava. am Janrma moutana mas saerTaSoriso aRiareba. farTo sazogadoebis siyvaruli da popularoba ki qarTvel kompozitors Teatralur da kinomusikidan
ewvia. am periodis nawarmoebebidan aRsaniSnavia: Svidi simfonia, opera `iyo mervesa welsa~, musika filmebisaTvis `araCveulebrivi gamofena~, `Serekilebi~, `cisferi mTebi~`rekordi~,
`roca ayvavda nuSi~, `mimino~, `ar idardo~. musika cnobili reJisoris robert sturuas mier rusTavelis saxelobis TeatrSi
dadgmuli speqtaklebisaTvis: `xanuma~, `kavkasiuri carcis
gia yanCeli da jansuR kaxiZe
wre~, `riCardIII~, `mefe liri~ da sxva.
1990wlidan gia yanCeli sazRvargareT moRvaweobs, Tumca xSirad Camodis samSobloSi da qarTvel msmenels axal nawarmoebebs acnobs. kompozitoris interesTa
sferoSi amjerad kameruli –vokaluri da instrumentuli musika Warbobs. maT Soris
aRsaniSnavia saorkestro cikli `cxovreba Sobis gareSe~, vokalur instrumentuli
qmnilebebi-`qaris mere~, diplipito~, `sio~da bolo wlebis erT-erTi
saukeTeso nawarmoebi- `stiqsi~altis,Sereuli gundisa da simfoniuri
orkestrisaTvis.
adreul periodSi daweril yanCelis nawarmoebTa Soris gamorCeuli adgili ukavia 1972wels Seqmnil mesame simfonias, romelic kompozitorma megobars - Tavisi nawarmoebebis pirvel da ubadlo Semsrulebels, gamoCenil qarTvel diriJors jansuR kaxiZes miuZRvna.
simfoniis Sinaarsis gaxsnaSi orkestrTan erTad did rols asrulebs
vokalis partiac, romlis melodias svanuri zari udevs safuZvlad. es
sada da Zalian lamazi motivi ufro metad xalxurad JRerda rodesac
mas udidesi momRerali hamlet gonaSvili asrulebda. misi ganumeo- hamlet gonaSvili
rebeli xma gansakuTrebul silamazes da gamomsaxvelobas hmatebda am simfonias.
erTxel, sazRvargareT Catarebul gia yanCelis Semoqmedebis saRamoze mesame simfonias ucxoeli musikosebi asrulebdnen. repeticiebze kompozitori bevrs ecada
momRerals vokalis partia Seesrulebina ise rogorc es Cafiqrebuli iyo, magram
uSedegod. bolos yanCelma vokalists simfonia gonaSvilis SesrulebiT moasmenina.
ucxoelma musikosma arafriT daijera, rom es momajadoebeli tembri adamianis xmas
ekuTvnoda. jansuR kaxiZe diriJorobis dros Tavad asrulebda vokalis partias am
tradicias agrZelebs misi Svili-aseve kompozitori da dirijori vaxtang kaxiZe.
gamoCenili diriJorebi
jansuR kaxiZe qarTveli diriJori, lotbari, kompozitori da momRerali,
rusTavelis premiis laureati.
1957 wels Camoayaliba ansambli „Svidkaca“, romelmac axalgazrdobis
meeqvse msoflio festivalze oqros medali moipova. jansuR kaxiZe iyo saqarTvelos sagundo kapelis samxatvro xelmZRvaneli, Tbilisis operisa da baletis Teatris mTavari diriJori da 1973 wlidan saqarTvelos saxelmwifo
simfoniuri orkestris ucvleli samxatvro xelmZRvaneli da mTavari diriJori. didi wvlili miuZRvis axalgazrdobis musikaluri aRzrdis saqmeSi _
gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi igi sistematiurad atarebda klasikuri musikis
saRamoebs. mas Seqmnili aqvs musika kinofilmebisTvis: „Serekilebi“, „pirveli
mercxali“ (g. yanCelTan erTad), „daTa TuTaSxia“ (b. kvernaZesTan erTad), ,,iavnana”, ,,raWa, Cemo siyvarulo”, ,,yvaryvare”, ,,samaniSvilis dedinacvali” da
jansuR kaxiZe 1936–2002
sxva. warmatebiT diriJorobda bavariis, londonis, parizis, milanis la–skalas, vaSingtonisa da bostonis, sidneisa da melburnis orkestrebs.
gia yanCeli. III simfonia
12
gakveTili II
F
failis Seqmna
Setup Wizard-is meniudan gamova Semdegi fanjara.
aq yvelaferi unda davtovoT xeluxleblad, garda erTisa:
isrebiT miTiTebul grafebSi moniSnulia furclis standartuli zomebi. xSir
SemTxvevaSi printerze amosabeWdad Cven viyenebT A4 formatis qaRalds, amitomac
am grafebidan CamoSlil meniuSi aucileblad unda movniSnoT A4 (2380 x 3366). Semdeg
vaZlevT Next > da gadavdivarT Semdeg etapze.
am gakveTilebze Tqven SegiZliaT Tavad SeiswavloT eqvssimian
gitaraze dakvra. TiToel gakveTilSi mocemulia
ZiriTadi akordi. am akordebis Tanmimdevrulad
Seswavlis Semdeg Tqven SesZlebT Tqveni sayvareli simReris gitaraze
Sesrulebas.
es eqvssimiani gitaris
grifia.
grifze gadaWimuk i l o e b i
lia eqvsi simi. grifi
dayofilia
araTanabar
nawilebad
kiloebad
1
(ladebad) . naxatze mo2
3
cemulia pirveli, meore
4
da mesame kilo, sadac
5
TiTebis daxmarebiT avi6
RebT ama Tu im akords.
cisferi xazebiT aRniSnulia simebi.
I
II III
s i m e b i
13
venis klasikosebi
Cven xSirad vaxsenebT sityvebs
klasika, klasikuri. laTinuri sityva
classicus ,,sanimuSos’’ niSnavs. klasikosebs
vuwodebT im adamianebs, romelTa
Semoqmedebac sayovelTaod aRiarebuli
da samagaliToa. klasikasa da klasikurs
uwodeben sruliad sxvadasxva dros
iozef haidni.
Seqmnil
xelovnebis
srulyofil,
mxatvari - ludvig
beThoveni 1803 wels,
misabaZ
da
maRalmxatvrul
qmnilebebs,
guTenbruni, 1770
qristian hornmanis naxati
romelTac drois gamocdas gauZles. XVIII
s-is II naxevarSi avstriaSi, venaSi daibada musikaluri mimarTuleba, romelsac venis
klasikuri skola ewoda. venis klasikosebma mTeli epoqa Seqmnes musikis istoriaSi.
eseni iyvnen: haidni, mocarti da beThoveni. amave skolis warmomadgenelia germaneli
kompozitori glukic. rasakvirvelia, maTi musika gansxvavdeba kidec erTmaneTisgan.
haidnis musikaSi sWarbobs naTeli, sixaruliT savse ganwyoba, mocartis SemoqmedebaSi
Zlieria
lirikul-dramatuli
beThoveni. simfonia # 5. I nawili
sawyisi, beThovenis musika ki
savseba brZolis, winaaRmdegobis
gadalaxvisa
da
gamarjvebis
paTosiT. is gmiruli
xasiaTisaa.
haidni. simfonia #94, II nawili
#
œœœ
& 42 œ œ œ œ
œœœœ
œœœ
œœœœ œœœ
œ œ #œ œ œ
Œ
venis klasikosebs aerTianebT humanizmi, optimizmi da
demokratiuloba. maT sabolood Camoyalibes simfoniis, sonatis,
simebiani kvartetis, koncertis klasikuri Janrebi, bevri ram Secvales
saopero JanrSi da simfoniuri orkestris axali tipi Seqmnes. haidns
uwodebdnen `simfoniisa da kvartetis mamas~. haidnis simfoniebi
erTgvari damakavSirebeli rgolia mocartis ukanasknel simfoniur
mocarti 1780 wels
Sedevrebsa da axalgazrda beThovenis simfoniebs Soris.
haidni, mocarti da beThoveni erTmaneTs icnobdnen, pativs scemdnen da
erTmaneTis niWiTa da SemoqmedebiT aRfrTovanebulebi iyvnen. haidni da mocarti
megobrobdnen kidec, maT erTad kvartetebic daukravT.
kvartetebis wera haidnma maswavlao _ ambobda mocarti da Tavisi 6 kvarteti
warweriT: `Cems Zvirfas megobars, haidns~ miuZRvna. beThovenma ki haidns 3 didi
safortepiano sonata uZRvna.
mocarts aqvs naTqvami haidnis Sesaxeb: `aravis aqvs unari ixumros
an ganacvifros, gaacinos an aaRelvos ise laRad, uSualod, rogorc es
haidns SeuZlia~.
haidnic didad afasebda mocarts. opera `don Juani~ rom moismina,
Tavisi drois udidesi kompozitoria uwoda mas. beThovenis gacnobis
Semdeg ki haidni werda: `misi niWis Zala da ideebis sidiade arsebuli
œ
& 42 œ œ œ œ œ
mocartebis ojaxi
14
mocarti. opera `don-Juani~. don-Juanis aria
œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ Œ
haidni: http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/haidni,_iozef
mocarti: http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/ mocarti
beThoveni: http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/ beThoveni
wesebis viwro CarCoebSi veranairad ver eteva... is
iseT nawarmoebebs qmnis, rom male iZulebuli viqnebi
kompozitorobas Tavi davanebo~.
`SexedeT am Wabuks! igi male mTels msoflios
aalaparakebs~.-mimarTa mocartma auditorias, roca
mocartis mier SeTavazebul Temaze beThovenma brwyinvale
improvizacia Seqmna da msmenelTa aRtaceba daimsaxura,
Tavisi didi fantaziiT, siTamamiTa da Sesrulebis
mocartis xelnaweri
axleburi mRelvare maneriT.
am samma udidesma xelovanma mTeli epoqa Seqmna msoflio musikis istoriaSi. venis
klasikosTa Semoqmedebam gza gaukvala momavali Taobebis kompozitorebs. haidnma
Camoayaliba klasikuri simfoniuri orkestris Semadgenloba.
mocarti. simfonia # 40, I nawili.
beThovenis xelnaweri
haidnis orkestri
&c Ç
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
gaimRere da gamoicani, ra nawarmoebia.
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
j
œ Ç
œ.
haidnis simfonia #94 II nawili
mocarti reqviemi - Lacrimoza
beThoveni. me-7 simfonia.II nawili.
gaecani am kompozitorTa biografiasa da Semoqmedebas da
gamarTe prezentacia Temaze
`venis klasikosebi~
patara mocartis
qandakeba londonSi
15
antonin dvorJaki
`raoden patara ar unda iyos eri, is ar daiRupeba,
Tu mas Tavisi xelovneba eqneba~.
a. dvorJaki
`ubralo Cexi musikosi~ - ase uwodebda sakuTar Tavs XIX s-is II naxevris gamoCenili kompozitori, diriJori, Cexuri erovnuli
klasikuri musikis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli antonin dvorJaki.
misi mravalferovani Semoqmedebidan gansakuTrebiT popularulia orkestrisTvis dawerili `slavuri cekvebi~, saviantonin dorJaki
olonCelo koncerti, IX simfonia. es nawarmoebebi mudmivad
(1841-1904)
JRers msoflios saukeTeso sakoncerto darbazebSi.
dvorJaki 1892-95 w.w.-Si niu-iorkis e rovnuli konservatoriis direqtorad
muSaobda. amerikaSi yofnisas Seiswavla manamde misTvis sruliad ucxo xalxuri
musika da moixibla misi sisadaviTa da guliTadobiT. gansakuTrebiT amerikel
zangTa sasuliero simRerebi – spiriCuelsi moswonda. kompozitori werda: `me
axla darwmunebuli var, rom am qveynis momaval musikas safuZvlad swored zanguri simRerebi unda daedos. minda gavakeTo yvelaferi, raTa yuradReba mieqces am araCveulebriv
musikalur saganZurs~. aq Seqmna man Tavisi IX simfonia, romelsac `axali samyarodan~ uwoda. mas zogjer `amerikulsac~ uwodeben.
dvorJakis IX simfonia, klasikuri simfoniebis msgavsad 4 nawilisgan Sedgeba.masSi kompozitorma gadmosca misTvis axali samyarosgan _ zanguri da indielTa folklorisgan,
iqauri adamianebisa da bunebisgan miRebuli STabeWdilebebi. misi II nawili – Largo – ki STagonebulia amerikeli mwerlis longfelos nawarmoebiT ,,simRera haiavataze’’, romelic
Crdiloamerikel indielTa cxovrebaze mogviTxrobs. misi saocnebo xasiaTis Tema dvorJakis musikis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro STagonebuli furcelia. masSi zanguri da slavuri
elementebia gadajaWvuli da gadmocemulia ganwyoba poemis im Tavisa, sadac aRwerilia indielTa tomis beladis haiavatas sayvareli meuRlis minegagis dakrZalva.
es simfonia Tavisi mxatvruli saxeebiTa da xasiaTiT – romantikuli musikis SesaniSnavi
nimuSia. misi musikaluri Temebi gamoirCeva melodiurobiT, emociurobiT da uSualobiT.
pirveli nawilis damxmare Tema
meore nawili - agebulia spiriCuelsis Temaze
daadgine tonaloba da gaimRere or xmaSi
simfoniaSi am Temas inglisuri qaraxsa asrulebs
dvorJaki SesaniSnavi pedagogi iyo. erTxel man moswavleebs hkiTxa: - iciT, vin iyo mocarti?
axalgazrdebma saxvadasxva pasuxebi gasces maswavlebels.
- mocarti – klasikosia. - saopero komopiztoria. - simfonistia.
- haidnis mimdevari da romantikuli musikis mauwyebeli...
pasuxebi grZeldeboda, dvorJaki ki sdumda da uaryofis niSnad aqnevda Tavs. aman Segirdebi
Zalian daabnia. bolos dvorJakma erT-erT mowafes xeli mohkida, fanjarasTan miiyvana, cisken gaaxeda da hkiTxa:
- ras xedav?
mowafe uxerxulad SeiSmuSna: mapatieT, verafers, pativcemulo.
- rao, mzes ver xedav?
dvorJaki moscilda fanjaras da sruli seriozulobiT da STagonebiT Tqva:
- daimaxsovreT: mocarti – es mzea.
18
http://musicmp3.spb.ru/album/2222/symphony_no_9_from_the_new_world.htm
inglisuri qaraxsa
antonin dvorJaki simfonia #9 Sedi internet misamarTze da
mousmine simfoniis oTxive nawils
banis gasaRebi
banis anu `fa~ gasaRebSi iwereba saSualo da dabali registris bgerebi. es bgerebi
moicavs manZils kontroqtavis do-dan pirveli oqtavis do-mde.
Semoxaze es oqtavebi
subkontr- kontroqtava
oqtava
didi oqtava mcire oqtava
I oqtava
II oqtava
III oqtava
IV oqtava
V oqtava
arasruli
`fa~ gasaRebs uwodeben imitom, rom misi grafikuli moxazuloba iwyeba mcire
oqtavis fa-dan.
?
?
w
fa
ai, rogor daixvewa saukuneebis manZilze grafikulad banis da violinos - `fa~ da `sol~ - gasaRebebi
didi oqtava
w
? w
w
w
w
w
mcire oqtava
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
X saukuneSi italielma pedagogma da Teoretikosma gvido arecoelma Seqmna
axali sanoto niSnebi da oTxxaziani sanoto sistema. aqamde notebi gamoisaxeboda
berZnuli asoebiTa da specialuri niSnebiT _ nevmebiT erT xazze. aseTi sanoto
Canawerebis wakiTxva gvido arecoelis mowafeebs Zalian uWirdaT. amitom gvido
arecoelma musikalur bgerebs sanoto xazebze da xazebs Soris miuCina adgili. 1026
wels igi romis papis iniciativiT gacxadda pirvelad sajarod musikaluri reforma.
musikosebma reforma moiwones da miiRes.
dawere banis gasaRebis notebi
didi oqtavis notebi
do
?
re
?
mi
?
?
fa
?
? w
w
w
w
?
re
w
?
mi
w
?
w
fa
w
sol
?
w
la
w
?
la
w
w
?
si
w
?
si
?
patara oqtavis notebi
do
sol
w
do
?
w
19
gakveTili III
musikaluri sakravebis arCeva
es fanjara dayofilia sam ganyofilebad. naxatze moniSnulia (Keyboards), xolo
mis gaswvriv meore ganyofilebaSi gamotanilia is sakravebi, romelic ekuTvnis Keyboard-is banks. Tu gvinda gadmovitanoT Piano, Keyboard-is gaswvriv meore ganyofilebaSi movniSnavT am sakravs.
sanam TiTebiT simebs SevexebiT da SevecdebiT akordebis
Seswavlas, Tavdapirvelad gitaris awyoba viswavloT. amaSi
Cven fortepiano dagvexmareba. sanoto CanawerSi mocemulia
TiToeuli simis Sesabamisi noti: I simi - mi JRers I oqtavaSi, II simi - si JRers mcire
oqtavaSi, III simi - sol JRers mcire oqtavaSi, IV simi - re JRers mcire oqtavaSi, V simi
gitaris
- la JRers did oqtavaSi, VI simi
- mi JRers awyoba
did oqtavaSi. daukariT es notebi erTi
oqtaviT qveviT da aawyeT gitara.
JRers
pirvel oqtavaSi
w
JRers
mcire oqtavaSi
JRers
mcire oqtavaSi
mi
si
sol
&
I simi
subkontr- kontroqtava
oqtava
w
II simi
w
JRers
mcire oqtavaSi
JRers
did oqtavaSi
w
la
re
III simi
didi oqtava mcire oqtava
I oqtava
IV simi
II oqtava
JRers
did oqtavaSi
w
V simi
III oqtava
w
mi
VI simi
IV oqtava
V oqtava
arasruli
23
imereTi
imereTi aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos sazRvarze mdebareobs. igi esazRvreba qarTls, samegrelos,
raWas, leCxums, gurias. `imereTSi~ mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelo igulisxmeboda Zvelad, erT-erTi kuTxis saxelwodebad ki mogvianebiT Camoyalibda. imereTi iyofa zemo da qvemo imereTad.
imereTSia saqarTvelos erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqi quTaisi, romelic antikur wyaroebSic ki aris moxseniebuli da yovelTvis Cveni
qveynis kulturuli da ekonomikuri centri iyo. aq aris bagratis
taZari (X_XIs.), gelaTis samonastro kompleqsi (XIIs.).
Tavisi mdebareobis gamo imereTs mWidro urTierToba hqonda
rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan, ramac Tavis
mxriv gavlena iqonia imerul musikalur kulturazec. igi Sualedur adgils ikavebs aRmosavleTisa
da dasavleTis musikalur SemoqmedebaSi.
imereTSi gavrcelebulia isto- imeruli fanduri
riuli, sufruli da saweso Janris
simRerebi. maTi umravlesoba samxmiania. sagundo
simRerebi sruldeba erTi an ori gundis (orpiruli) monacvleobiT. Sromis simRerebis yvelaze
gavrcelebuli saxeobaa `naduri”, romelic gurul-aWagelaTis samonastro kompleqsi. XII s. rul amave tipis simRerebs
enaTesaveba. `nadurebi” iwyeba dinjad, simRera TandaTan Cqardeba da ori gundis monacvleobiT SesrulebasTan erTad
dinamiur, swraf xasiaTs iZens. `nadi” mezoblebisa da axloblebis urTierTdaxmarebis gavrcelebuli forma iyo mTel
saqarTveloSi.
imeruli simRerebi sakmaod rTulia. gansakuTrebiT qvedaviT kakabaZi
moimeruli, romelic guruls uaxlovdeba. aq gavrcelebulia:
`alifaSa,” `vaxtanguri,” `naduri,” `xelxvavi,” romlebic guria-aWaraSic gvxvdeba.
zemoimeruli simRerebi qarTl-kaxurs uaxlovdeba. aq gavrcelebuli `Tebrole
midis wyalzeda,” `gafrindi Savo mercxalo,” `Wona,” `iavnana,” `gonja”_ qarTlSic
gvxvdeba.
gansxvavdeba zemoimeruli da qvemoimeruli `mayrulebic”.
gamorCeuli da Zalze TviTmyofadi adgili ukavia mgzavrul-laSqrul simRerebs, romlebic sxarti energiuli da rTuli Sesasrulebelia, mag: `cxenosnuri,”
`imeruli mgzavruli,” `keisruli,” `deli-dela” da a.S.
mkvircxli xasiaTiT gamoirCeoda saoxunjo simRerebi: `oTxmoci wlis bebia”,
`Cemo naTlidedao,” `imeruli saoxunjo” da sxv.
gavrcelebuli xalxuri sakravebia Conguri, fanduri (qarTlidan Semosuli), gitara.
cxenosnuri
25
imeruli saoxunjo
haral, varali, varalo,
harali da varalo, he!
gogos veparebodi, herelelo,
akvans vefarebodi, herelelo,
qalebma Seqmnes putuni, - herelelo,
me gareT gamovkunkuldi, herelelo.
gogom tyeSi damipira, he...
Citis bude vici meo, he...
erTi-ori qe makoca, he...
misi gulis Wirimeo, he...
Wylinti yvelis Wama miyvars, he...
kbilis gakraWunebao, he...
lamaz gogos kocna miyvars, he...
gulSi Caxutunebao, he...
wisqvils puri davurige, he...
wamovida mindobiTo, he...
Tqven waxvalT da Cven davrCebiT, he...
brZandebodeT mSvidobiTo, he...
r
2
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
&4 R R R R R R R œ
œ œ œ œ œ œr œj
R R R R R
gaimRere
ha - ral
va - ra - li,
va - ra - lo,
ha - ra - li
da
va - ra - lo
Ç
he!
anzor kavsaZe (1930–2008) _ qarTveli
lotbari, saqarTvelos saxalxo artisti,
daibada WiaTuraSi. daamTavra Tbilisis
saxelmwifo konservatoriis sagundo–sadiriJoro ganyofileba. swavlis
paralelurad eweoda sadiriJoro moRvaweobas. 1951 wlidan saqarTvelos radios
kapelis diriJori da momReralia, Semdeg konservatoriasTan arsebuli gundisa
da saxelmwifo filarmoniis kapelis diriJori. 1957–66 ww. saqarTvelos xalxuri
simRerisa da cekvis saxelmwifo damsaxurebuli ansamblis mTavari diriJori da
samxatvro xelmZRvanelia. igi cnobili lotbaris sandro kavsaZis SviliSvilia.
qarTveli lotbarebi
- iswavleT gitaris awyoba? axla gavecnoT TiTebis
dasaxelebebs: mag. saCvenebeli TiTi - 1, Sua TiTi - 2,
araTiTi - 3, neka TiTi - 4, cera TiTi - ceri.
bare - saCvenebeli TiTiT mTlianad ifareba eqvsive simi da
gamoisaxeba ase
=
26
guria
guria dasavleT saqarTvelos samxreT
nawilSi mdebareobs. ozurgeTi, lanCxuTi da
Coxatauri misi raionuli centrebia, romlebic samxreTidan aWaras, aRmosavleTiT imereTs, CrdiloeTiT samegrelos esazRvrebian. gurias dasavleTiT Savi zRva akravs. misi koxta soflebi
gaSenebulia kolxeTis dablobze, aseve aWara-guriis mTianeTis ferdobebze, sadac
cxovrobs laRi, xalisiani, cocxali, mxiaruli da stumarTmoyvare xalxi.
gurulisTvis simRera cxovrebis mniSvnelovani nawili iyo. igi mReroda yvelgan: gzaSi, omSi, mindorSi Sromis dros, bunebis wiaRSi, sufrasTan lxinis dros. simReriTve iqarvebda dardsa da mwuxarebas glova-tirilis dros, rodesac sruldeboda samgloviaro galoba - zari. gurulebis simRera polifoniuria, ganviTarebis
maRali doniT gamoirCeva da unikaluri movlenaa ara mxolod qarTuli, aramed
msoflio musikalur kulturaSi. mravali profesionali musikosi aRfrTovanebula saxalxo momRerlebis mier Sesrulebul urTulesi simRerebiT.
guruli simRera ZiriTadad samxmiania, Tumca gvxvdeba erTxmiani, orxmiani da
oTxxmiani sasimRero nimuSebi. oTxxmianoba gvxvdeba Sromis simRera `nadurSi”. `naduri” anu `yanuri” uSualod Sromis procesSi _ yanis Toxnis (daTesvis), margvlis
(gabarvis) dros Sesasrulebeli simReraa. simReriT nadi ufro xalisiT, dauRalavad da swrafad muSaobs, vidre usimRerod. nads iwvevdnen agreTve tyidan sawnaxlis,
saSeni masalis an SeSis gadmosatanad, romlis drosac imRereboda `elesa”.
## 3
V # 4
ad libitum
‡
# # # 3 solo
4œ Ç
V
? # # # 43
e - le
‡
‡
-
œ
Ç
sai
da
Ç.
Tutti
‡
e
Ç.
-
-
¿ ~~
sa ~~
¿ ~~~
Ç.
Œ
Œ
¿ ~ ~~~ Œ
U
Œ
U
Œ
U
Œ
‡
œ
Ç
e - le
‡
simindis aRebisas an garCevisas `kalos xelxvavi” imRereboda.
j j
b
œ œ
V b b c J J œJ Jœ œJ Jœ œ œ
œ
J
Cvens
œ
J
j j j j j j
œ œ œ œ œ œ
ka - lo - ze
? b b c œJ Jœ œJ œ œ œ œ œ
b
J J J J J
œ
J
œ
J
œ
J
j
b
V b b c œJ Jœ œJ Jœ œJ Jœ Jœ œ
wmi - nda gri - gol mo - bZan - de - ba
j j j
œ œ œ œj œj œj œj œj
dab - Zan - de - ba
j
œ œJ
œ
J
œ
J
œ
J
gurul simRerebSi gamorCeuli xmaa krimanWuli. igi ara marto qarTuli, aramed
msoflio musikaluri folkloris iSviaTi movlenaa. gurul
simRerebSi mas Zalze didi mniSvneloba eniWeba da simRerebic am xmis mixedviT iyofa krimanWulian an ukrimanWilo simRerebad. krimanWuli maRali xmaa da misi Sesruleba udides ostatobas, specifiuri yelismieri bgerebis gamocemas moiTxovs.
krini manWuli _ ase aixsneba am xmis saxelwodeba.
œ œ
œ œ
œ R R œ
2
R
R
J
J
V4
i - ri - a
u - ru - a
œ
œ
œ
œ
J œJ J œJ J Jœ J Jœ
i - a
u - a
ir - va
ur - va
gaimRere krimanWuli
œ œ
œ œ
R R œR œ R R œR œ
R
R
i - ri - a - ho
u - ru - a - ho
31
krimanWuls hgavs `gamyivanic~. maRali xmaa `wvrilic~. es xma
urTuels vokalur teqnikas saWiroebs.
œ b œR œ œ Rœ œ œ Rœ œ œ Rœ n œR œ œR œR œJ œR œR œJ œR Rœ œJ œR œR
J
R J
R J
R J
c
V J
œ
V J
hov
œ œ œ.
R R J
œ œ
R J
i - a
ho
hov - i - a hov - i - a hov - i - a hov - i - a
-
ho
ho
œ
J
Conguri
hov - i - a hov - i - a hov - i - a hov - i - a
ho
œ
w
ho
ho
krimanWuliani simRerebia: `xasanbegura”, `alifaSa” `Svidkaca,” `vaxtanguri,” nadurebi da sxv.
guruli simRerebis Sua xmas damwyebs, xSirad `mTqmelsac”
uwodeben. igi funqciiT wamyvani xmaa, xSirad iwyebs simReras,
mihyavs sityvieri teqsti. sxva xmebTan SedarebiT naklebad moZravia.
guruli simReris bani gansxvavdeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos simReris banisagan. igi Zalze moZravia, energiuli da cocxali.
oTxxmian simRerebSi zemoT naxseneb xmebs emateba maRali bani_ Semxmobari,
romelic naklebad moZravi xmaa. simRerebs ZiriTadad sami momRerali
(trio) asrulebs. zogjer erTmaneTs momReralTa ori jgufi enacvleba.
aseT simReras orpiruli ewodeba. zemoT dasaxelebuli simRerebis garda guriaSi popularulia: `Savi SaSvi”, `wamokruli”, `RiRini”, `abadela”,
`mxiaruli”, `ieriSi”, `ferxuli” da sxv.
guriaSi Zalze gavrcelebuli sakravia Conguri. Conguri oTxsimiania.
masze ukravdnen qalebic da kacebic. misi TanxlebiT sruldeboda samkurnalo, satrfialo, saoxunjo simRerebi, Sairebi, nanebi, sacekvaoebi.
mag: `sabodiSo”, `mival guriaSi,” dila” da a.S.
guriaSi SemogvrCa eqvsReriani Casaberi sakravi _ soinari.
aqve unda avRniSnoT, rom momRerali guriaSi didad dafasebuli da
pativsacemi pirovneba iyo. cnobili guruli momRerlebi iyvnen: Zmebi
soinari
erqomaiSvilebi, v. simoniSvili, CavleiSvili, maxaraZe, sixaruliZeebi,
xuxunaiSvilebi, saluqvaZeebi, berZeniSvili da mravali sxva.
dila
dila aris ca laJvardi da,
mzisa sxiviT ifereba da,
da qurdulad mimalula
TviT mTvare da varskvlavT kreba da.
xuxunaiSvilebis ansambli `Svidkaca~.
1913 w.
mobibine vard-yvavili
gulmkerds iSlis,ifurCqneba,
gamoiRviZa qveyanam,
samejlisod emzadeba.
mival guriaSi.
32
gurulebi
Across The Universe
W
ords are flowing out like endless rain into a paper cup,
They slither wildly as they slip away across the universe
Pools of sorrow, waves of joy are drifting through my open mind,
Possessing and caressing me.
Jai guru deva, om
Nothing’s gonna change my world, Nothing’s gonna change my world.
Nothing’s gonna change my world, Nothing’s gonna change my world.
Images of broken light which dance before me like a million eyes,
They call me on and on across the universe,
Thoughts meander like a restless wind inside a letter box
niverse
They tumble blindly as they make their way Across the universe
Jai guru deva, om,
Nothing’s gonna change my world...
Sounds of laughter shades of life are ringing
Through my opened ears inciting and inviting me
Limitless undying Love which shines around me like a
million suns, It calls me on and on
Across the universe
Jai guru deva, om,
Nothing’s gonna change my world...
Jai guru deva, Jai guru deva . . .
gaimRere SenTviTon
j j j j
##
& # 42 œ œ œ œ
Words are
j
œ œj œj œj
flo - wing
out like end - less
##
& # œj œj œj œj œj œj œj œj
slit - her wild - ly
as
## j j j j
& # œ œ œ œ
pools of
Waves of
##
& # œj œj œj œj
##
& # œ œ œ
-
##
& # œ
-
change
##
& # œ
change
they slip
res - sing
Ç
my
me.
Ç
va,
œ
joy are
j
œ œj œj œj
ca
-
a
rain - in
to
a
j j j j
œ œ œ œ
way
a - cross
the
pa - per cap
They
j
œ œ œ œ
u - ni - verse
j
œ œj œj œj œj œj œj œj œj œ œ
sor - row,
ses - sing and
j j j j j
j j
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
world
œ
my
Ç
Ç
Ja - i
.. œ
J
world
Pos -
Ç
gu - ru
de -
No - thing's
œ
J
gon
-
na
No - thing's
gon
-
na
j
œ
Ç
œ
o - pen mind,
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Ç
om
œ
drif - ting through my
j j
œ œ
œ
J
j
œ
j
œ
œ
J
j
œ
Ç
Yellow Submarine _ `biTlzis~ simRera, albomi da multfilmi
34
..
The Beatles
`biTlzis~ gamorCeuloba marto mis saxelwodebaSi ki ar aris, aramed
liverpuluri kvartetis musikalur JanrTa mravalferovnebasa da saocar
melodiurobaSiac. `biTlzebamde~ Tavis SemoqmedebaSi aravis hqonia rokis, pop musikis, qanTris, bluzis, simfoniur da kameruli musikis JanrTa
aseTi srulyofili Serwyma. TviTon gansajeT: `biTlzi~ msoflios yvela
drois rok da pop musikis saukeTeso SemsrulebelTa Soris erTpirovnulad liderobs, xolo maT mier 1967 wels gamoSvebuli
albomi ”Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” (`serJant
peperis martoxela gulTa orkestri~) dRemde yvela
drois saukeTeso rok da pop albomTa Soris pirvel adgilzea. amave 1967 wels kidev erTi saintereso ram moxda
- pirdapir tele-eTerSi `biTlzis~ cnobili simRerisa
”All You Need is Love”-is premiera Sedga (”yvelaferi rac
gWirdeba - esaa seyvaruli”), romelsac mTel msoflioSi 400 milioni adamiani uyurebda. am gasaocar sanax- yvela drois saukeTeso
aobaSi `biTlzTan~ erTad monawileo- albomi Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely
bas iRebdnen rok musikis sxva cnobili Hearts Club Band (1967 w.)
musikosebic. lenon - makartnis es brwyinvale simRera zogadsakacobrio siyvarulsa da mSvidobas qadagebda da sazogadoebaSi mSvidobis himnad iqca.
`biTlzis~ Semoqmedebis aRwerisas ar SeiZleba gverdi
avuaroT maTi menejeris jorj martinis Rvawls, romelic
xSirad `mexuTe biTladac~ ki iTvleboda. swored misi damsaxurebaa `biTlzis~ simRerebSi CarTuli saorkestro
jorj martini
foni da simfoniuri aranJirebebi. cnobilia, rom `biTlzis~
wevrebi TavianT nawarmoebebs notebze ar werdnen, samagierod es maTi xelovnebiT moxiblulma sxva musikosebma gaakeTes. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom
2008 wels ~biTlzis~ simRera “Across the Universe” kosmosSi gaagzavnes.
`biTlzis~ simRerebi
Eleanor Rigby warmoadgens erTgvar miniaturas simebiani kvartetisaTvis vokalis TanxlebiT.
SemorCenilia am simReris originaluri ”minus” fonogramac, romelic Tavis mxriv Zalian sainteresoa. Sesulia albomSi Revolver (1966 w.)
”Because” (`radgan~). gasaocari harmoniulobiTaa Seqmnili `biTlzis~ es ulamazesi da mravalxmiani simRara, romelsac isini oTx xmaSi asruleben klavesinis TanxlebiTa da rTuli polifoniuri
svlebiT. es simRera, romelic klasikuri musikis Janrsac ki SegviZlia mivakuTvnoT, mogvagonebs
didi sevdiT gamsWvalul sagundo sagalobels. Sesulia albomSi Abbey Road (1969 w.)
“Piggies” (`goWunebi~) dawerilia jorj harisonis mier da Sesulia
”biTlzis” 1968 wlis ormag albomSi ”White Album” (”TeTri albomi”). es
saxumaro tipis xalisiani simRera Seqmnilia renesansis periodis salonuri saklavesino musikis JanrSi. swored klavesini miuyveba fonad am
simReras, romelic Tavis mxriv evropuli folkloris iers sZens mas.
“Julia” ase erqva jon lenonis dedas, romelmac moere msoflio omis
dros qmrisgan mitovebulma, faSistebis masiuri dabombvis dros liverpulis samSobiaroSi erTaderTi vaJiSvili joni gaaCina. cxovrebis
ukuRmarTobis gamo is iZulebuli gaxda wasuliyo da joni Tavisi dis
jon lenoni dedamisTan – mimisaTvis daetovebina, romelmac aRzarda patara joni. gavida dro
juliasTan erTad
da julia dabrunda liverpulSi, SvilTan. es dReebi mozardi jonis mexsierebaSi ubednieres periodad CaibeWda. magram male julia tragikulad daiRupa. es iyo 1958 wels.
10 wlis Semdeg lenoni Tavis sevdian simReraSi gaixsenebs dedamiss. es simRerac `TeTr albomSia~ Sesuli.
sxvadasxva stilSi dawerili `biTlzis~ simRerebi:
Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da - saxumaro, Piggies - piesa klavesinisaTvis, I Want You - bluzi, Helter-Skelter - mZime
roki, Good Night - iavnana, It’s All Too Much - eleqtronuli musika, All Together Now - sabavSvo, Yellow Submarine - marSi, Within You, Without You - induri raga . . .
35
afrikuli dolebi
fragmentebi lourens grinis wignidan
`Zveli afrikis ukanaskneli saidumloebani~
dolebi afrikis erT-erTi saswaulia. dolebis dakvris gareSe
afrikaSi araferi xdeba. dolis xmas miaqvs axali ambavi erTi
soflidan meoreSi.
`RmerTma pirveli medole, monadire da mWedeli Seqmna~, _
gvamcnobs dasavleT afrikis erT-erTi udidesi tomis Tqmuleba.
didi pirovnebaa medole dasavleT afrikaSi. bevr tomSi mas sxva
afrikeli doli
movaleoba arc akisria. dasavleT afrikaSi yvelaze daxelovnebuli
jembe
medoleebi arian. maTi dolebi TiTqmis laparakoben.
dasavleT afrikis zogierT xalxs swams, rom medoles SeuZlia axali ambebi Tavis
gardacvlil winaprebsac gadasces.
`ram, ram, ram, bum, tep, bum!~ _ yuri daugdeT dolebis
velur musikas. dolebis gareSe ar xdeba arc nadiroba, arc
dakrZalva, arc molaparakeba, arc cekvebi. doli afrikelisTvis
gramafonicaa, orkestric, radioc, telefonica da telegrafic.
ra manZilze ismis dolis xma? mdinare kongoze, CanCqer stenlis
raionSi iyo doli, romlis xma oc kilometrze mdebare iatokSic
ismoda.
did manZilze cnobaTa gadacemis SesaniSnavi SemTxveva a
cnobili belgiis kongoSi pirveli msoflio omis dros, rodesac
gubernatori cnobebs belgiis armiis Sesaxeb aRmosavleT
afrikeli medole
afrikidan iRebda _ dolebma amcnes mas brZolis mimdinareobis,
belgielebis ugzo-ukvlod dakargvis ambavi.
dolebis daxmarebiT SeiZleba gadasce ara mxolod martivi cnobebi
dabadebis,qorwilis, sikvdilis, xanZris, kaliebis Semosevis, nadirobis, lxinis,
TeTrkaniani adamianis moaxloebis Sesaxeb, aramed afrikels SeuZlia dolze Tavisi
tomis mTeli istoria daukras.
zogierTi tomi dols aRmerTebs da mas msxverplad palmis Rvinosa da nanadirevs
dasartyam sakravebze SemsrulebelTa ansambli.
38
swiravs. rodesac medole kvdeba, misi suli dolSi gadasaxldebao, ase swamT afrikelebs.
ingliseli mogzauri jobsoni werda: `afrikelebi erTi dRiTac
ar asveneben TavianT dolebs. Cveulebad aqvT yovel saRamos erTi
da igive adgilas Segroveba da rodesac stomaqebs karga magrad
amoivseben kocons daanTeben da dausruleblad ukraven dolebs,
yvirian, mRerian, xmauroben. ase grZeldeba gaTenebamde.”
`bum... bum... bum!~ _ sadRac medole ukravs, dgas palmis foTlebis
qveS da dahkravs uzarmazar dols _ 12 futi sigrZis uSvelebel,
amoRrutnul mors. am mors ucnauri CuqurTmebi amSvenebs.
grZeli xvreli da ,,tuCebi~ bgeris tonalobas aregulireben. es
Zveli gasaocari xelovneba iseTsave codnas moiTxovs rogorsac
zarebis Camosxma. ,,tuCebi“ mamakacisa da qalis xmas baZaven. dolis
moCuqurTmebisas erTma arasworma Strixma SeiZleba mravali Tvis
naSromi wyalSi Cayaros.
musikaTmcodneebi aseT xis dolebs gongebs uwodeben. yvela
dolze spilos yuris tyavia gadaWimuli. arsebobs dolis kurTxevis
garkveuli ceremoniac, romlis drosac ostats saCuqrad nanadirevs,
da oqros qviSas miarTmeven xolme.
mamakacis dols dabali xma aqvs. qalis doli maRal bgerebs
gamoscems.
nigeriaSi 5 dolisgan Semdgari kompleqtebic aqvT, e.w. ,,ojaxi~.
dolebs Soris yvelaze dids xari ewodeba. dolebis bgerebi qaTmebis
kriaxs, lekvis wkmutuns, leopardis Rrenas da spilos yvirils
mogvagonebs. sacekvao musikis dasakravad dolebs xSirad kvaxisgan
amzadebdnen.
axlo manZilze ambis gadasacemad didi antilopebis rqebs, an
spilos eSvebs iyenebdnen. TiToeuls
Tavisi toni da talRis sigrZe hqonda.
`tim, tom, bum, ta-ra-rat, bum~... Ramis
siCumeSi sadRac afrikelebi cekvaven
am uZveles ritmze. ismis susti pasuxi,
`bum..ta..ra..ratbum!~ TeTrkanians esmis
xmebi, sxva araferi. afrikels ki esmis da
kidec gaegeba.
daukari es ritmebi dasartyam sakravze
2/4 da 3/4 zomebSi TviTon Seqmeni ritmuli suraTebi
www. youtube.com/master drammer henri craubi and kaao on camberwall green
www. youtube.com/billy cobbam stratus
39
martoxela fifqi
teqsti irakli doliZis
musika maia oTiaSvilis
sixarulis wami
zamTars ubams mxars,
moawydeba Rame
da gawewavs qars.
misamReri
martoxela fifqi
moawydeba cas,
siyvarulis meti
ara gvinda ra.
SemovrCebiT martod
sevdiT gamTbar xmas,
dazamTrdeba isev
gagviTeTrebs Tmas.
misamReri...
j j
& b c œj œ œ œj œ
daukari da gaimRere TviTon
œ
si - xa - ru lis wa - mi
zam - Tars u - bams mxars,
j
& b œ œJ œJ Jœ Ç
da
ga - we - wavs qars,
œ
siy - va - ru - lis
me
j
œ
j
œ
œ œ œj œ œ
J J
J
œ
j
œ
j
œ
mar to - xe - la fif - qi
j
œ
& b œj
j œj œj j œ
œ
œ
j
œ œj œj œj Ç
œ
-
ti
a - ra
œ
mo - ad - ge - ba Ra - me
j
j œj œj œ Ç
œ
mo - awy - de - ba cas
j
œ
j
œ
gvin - da
Ç
ra.
mousmine simReris `minus~ fonogramas da imRere TviTon.
xareba
irakli farjiani (1950-1991) - XX
s.-is 80-iani wlebis qarTveli
mxatvari. man Tavisi xeliT
gadawera da moxata saxareba. es
patara miniaturebi swored am
saxarebidanaa.
40
impresionizmi
estampi - frang. Estampe gamosaxulebis
anabeWdi
qaRaldze.
eskizi - frang. Esquisse - raime
nawarmoebis winaswari monaxazi, Canaxati.
kekuioki - ingl. Cake Walk - namcxvriT svla,
namcxvari iyo jildo saukeTeso mocekvavisTvis.
42
edgar dega - `balerinebi~
1874 wels axali ideebiT gaerTianebuli mxatvrebis
jgufma, romelTa Soris iyvnen eduard mane, klod mone, ougust
renuari, parizSi gamofena moawyo. klod mones erT-erTi
suraTis saxelwodeba ,,mzis amosvla.STabeWdileba’’gaxda
klod mone - `STabeWdileba~
sababi imisa, rom erT kritikoss am axalgazrda mxatvrebisTvis
,,impresionistebi’’- ,,STabeWdilebis mxatvrebi’’ ewodebina. franguli sityva
impression - STabeWdilebas niSnavs. impresionisti mxatvrebi Ria cis qveS muSaobdnen
da cdilobdnen gare samyarodan miRebuli STabeWdilebebi tiloebze gadaetanaT,
aesaxaT SegrZnebebi, romelsac haeris umciresi rxeva anda sagnebze mzis sxivebis
moxvedrisas miRebuli gamosaxuleba iwvevs. impresionistuli ferwera feradovani
da sinaTliT savsea. am mimarTulebam gavlena musikazec moaxdina. ramdenime wlis
Semdeg termini `impresionizmi~ musikalur xelovnebaSic damkvidrda.
1887 wels, erT-erTma recenzentma, 25 wlis damwyebi frangi kompozitori
klod debiusi gaakritika formis zedmeti Tavisuflebis gamo da mas niSnis
mogebiT `impresionisti~ uwoda. ase gaxda SemdgomSi saxelganTqmuli
kompozitori, pianisti da diriJori debiusi - musikaSi axali
mimarTulebis
fuZemdebli,
romlis
Semoqmedebamac
mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina XX saukunis musikaluri
xelovnebis ganviTarebaze. debiusis musika gamoirCeva axali
ferebiT, poeturobiT, daxvewili da faqizi gemovnebiT.
wamyvani gaxda harmonia, mniSvnelovani roli ekisreba
orkestris feradovan JReradobas. debiusis musikaSic
ferweris msgavsad, yuradReba eqceva wamier, cvalebad,
gardamaval ganwyobilebebsa da STabeWdilebebs.
debiusis
bevri
nawarmoebi
programulia.isini
STagonebulia poeziis,ferweris nimuSebiTa da bunebis
suaTebiT.vxvdebiT
musikaluri
peizaJis
SesaniSnav
nimuSebs. zogierT maTgans kompozitorma mxatvrobasTan
dakavSirebuli saxelebi- ,,estampebi’’, ,,eskizebi’’ uwoda. ,,saRamos
klod debusi
haerSi
bgerebi da surnelebani livliveben’’- ase aRwera debiusim Tavisi
1862-1818
erT-erTi safortepiano preludia. misi preludiebis saxelwodebebis
umravlesobac aseve poeturi striqonebiviT JRers: ,,mTvaris Suqi’’, ,,CaZiruli
taZari’’, `nabijebi Tovlze~, `feriebi- momxiblavi mocekvaveebi~, ,,selisferTmiani
qaliSvili’’ da sxv. nawarmoebebis xasiaTs zogjer tempis aRniSvna ki ara, aramed
iseTi miniSnebebi, gansazRvravs, rogoricaa ,,naxevarixmiT’’, ,,CurCuliT’’,
,,mReradad’’ da a.S. aRniSnuli popularuli safortepiano preludiebis garda,
debiusis cnobili nawarmoebebia: opera ,,peliasi da melizanda’’, romansebi, simebiani
kvartetebi,simfoniuri nawarmoebebi ,,favnis dasveneba naSuadRevs’’,,noqturnebi’’,
,,zRva’’. debiusim araerTi nawarmoebi dawera bavSvebisTvis, maT Soris baleti
,,saTamaSoebis yuTi’’, safortepiano piesebis cikli ,,sabavSvo kuTxe’’. debiusis
Semoqmedeba imiTac aris saintereso, rom man XX saukunis kompozitorTa Soris
erT-erTma pirvelma Seitana klasikur safortepiano musikaSi im droisaTvis axali
jazuri ritmebi. swored ,,sabavSvo kuTxis’’ finalSi-,,Tojinebis kekiuioki’’- JRers
me-20 saukunis dasawyisis amerikel zangTa moduri cekva.
debiusi: safortepiano preludia,,mTvaris Suqi’’.
`Tojinebis kekuioki~
moismine musika da Seadare es ori nawarmoebi erTmaneTs.
romeli impresionisti mxatvrebi iciT?
ra iciT maT Sesaxeb? mogwonT..? impresionizms riTi
gamoarCevdiT sxva mimarTulebebisgan?
safortepiano savarjiSoebi _ jazi
daukari da daadgine tonaloba, aRmoaCine samxmovanebis bgerebi
1
3
3
&4 œ œ œ
.
F
? 3 Ç.
4
5
I
j
œ œ.
Ç.
legato
Ç.
3
. œ œ
œ
œ
&J
J œ œ
?
Ç.
Ç.
II
%
.. ..
‡
œ
œ
œ #œ
Ç.
j‰ Œ
œ
j‰ Œ
œ
Ç.
Œ
Œ
1
2 5
4
5
5
3
4
2
5
3
4 1
4
4
1
5
4
U
& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ÇÇÇ
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?
1
Æ
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¬
f-p
œ b œ œ œ .. ..
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5
5
..
12
5
5
3
Ç.
Ç.
& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ
œ
œ œœ
¬ ¬
?
œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ
5
j œ œ œ œ. œ
œ
1 3
œ. œ œ œ œ œ
.
œ
œ
œ œ . Ç.
gaimRere banis partia
‡
&C
f legato
?C
œ œ œ #œ
4
5
3
2
sempre “ basso
j
œ œ.
j
œ œ œ œ œ. œ
5
œ
4
œ
U
Ç
fi
3
Æœ œ2
œ
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œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ¬œ
f-f
œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ
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4
5
>œ œ œ œ. œ .
œ . >œ œ.
œ
œ
œ
œ
n
œ
#
œ
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œ
.. ..
f legato - ita. Legato - niSnavs gadabmiT
Sesrulebas.
.. .. œ œ œ # œ
œ bœ œ œ
 - ita. Mezzo forte - arc ise xmamaRla.
43
moris raveli
XX saukunis cnobili frangi kompozitoris moris ravelis
Semoqmedebac impresionizms ukavSirdeba, Tumca zogierT
nawarmoebSi neoklasicisturi tendenciebic iCens Tavs. misi musika
harmoniis feradovnebisa da daxvewili formebis garda didi
melodiurobiT da mkveTri, nairferovani ritmebiT gamoirCeva.
ravels deda espaneli baski hyavda, amitom misTvis frangulTan
moris raveli
erTad axlobli iyo espanuri saxeebi, ritmebi da intonaciebi.
1975-1937
ravelis saukeTeso nawrmoebebad miCneuliasafortepiano piesebi ,,wylis TamaSi’’,
,,anarekli’’, ,,kuperenis akldama’’, pavana, ori saforepiano koncerti, saorkestro
,,qoreografiuli valsi’’, ,,espanuri rafsodia’’, opera ,,espanuri saaTi’’, operabaleti,, bavSvi da jadoqroba’’. raveli orkestris saukeTeso mcodne iyo. misi
brwyinvale saorkestro ostatoba vlindeba baletSi `dafnisi da qloa~, ,espanur
rafsodiasa da albaT mis yvelaze farTod cnobili nawarmoebSi `bolero~. bolero
espanuriwarmoSobis zomieri moZraobis cekvaa, romlis damaxasiaTebeli ritmi
kastanetebiT an TiTebiT aris xazgasmuli.
gamoxate ritmuli suraTi taSiT
œ
œ œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ œ
3
œ
œ
œ œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ œ
œ
3
espanur Temas kompozitorma maSinac mimarTa, roca gamoCenilma balerina
ida rubinSteinma ravels espanur Temaze sabaleto musikis Seqmna SeukveTa.
Tavdapirvelad qoreografiul suraTad Cafiqrebuli musika, XX saukunis
msoflio simfoniuri musikis erT-erT popularuli nawarmoebi gaxda.
igi xSirad sruldeba rogorc damoukidebeli sakoncerto- saorkestro
nawarmoebi, aseve sxvadasxvagvari qoreografiuli interpretaciebiT.
,,bolero’’ Sedioda XX saukunis dasawyisis cnobili balerinas ana pavlovas,
maia pliseckaias da aseve sxva Tanamedrove mocekvaveTa repertuarSi. 60ian wlebSi ,,bolero’’ Tbilisis operisa da baletis TeatrSic idgmeboda
qarTuli baletis korifes vaxtang Wabukianis qoreografiiT. gamorCeulia
Tanamedroveobis gamoCenili frangi qoreografis moris beJariseuli
dadgmebi.
ida rubinSteini.
l. baqstis Teatraluri
eskizi. 1911w.
debiusi - baleti `wminda
sebastiani~
& 43 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ç
daukari da gaimRere melodia
œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœ œ
ravelis ,,bolero’’ SesaniSnavi nimuSia imisa, Tu rogor
srulyofilad da uCveulod SeiZleba simfoniuri orkestris
SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba. cnobilma rusma kompozitorma
sergei prokofievma ,,boleros’’,,sakompozitoro xelovnebis
saocreba’’ uwoda. ucvleli tempisa da ucvleli ritmuli
suraTis fonze erTi da igive melodias sxvadasxva solo
sakravebi monacvleobiT asruleben. `bolero~ erT Temaze
agebuli 18 saorkestro variaciisagan Semdgari nawarmoebia.
sadRac Soridan, siCumidan gaismis patara dolis xma, romelic
TandaTan Zlierdeba. swored is xdeba mTeli `boleros~ ritmuli
moZraobis safuZveli. mis fonze melodias iwyebs fleita,
Semdeg klarneti, fagoti, hoboi, liTonis Casaberebi, simebian44
moris raveli XX
saukunis 20-ian wlebSi
k a s t a n e t e b i
xemianebi, arfa, Celesta...
Semdeg maTi
gaerTianebuli tembrebi
JRers.
TandaTan imatebs JReradobis siZliere - dinamika -
-dan -mde. da bolos
nawarmoebi mTeli orkestris
mZlavr tutti-ze mTavrdeba.
moris raveli - `bolero~
mousmine musikas da grafikuli
melodiis moZraoba da dinamika.
xaziT
gamosaxe
daiTvale, ramdeni variaciaa.
musikis am gamomsaxveli saSualebebidan romeli
icvleba da romeli rCeba ucvleli:
melodia, ritmi, tempi, tembri, dinamika.
icvleba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ucvlelia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tuluz lotreki `boleros mocekvave~
gaixsene
ra aris variacia? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ra aris solo?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ra aris tutti?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CamoTvale dinamiuri niSnebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
scena `bolerodan~
Celesta - Celesta - italiuri sityvaa da ciurs niSnavs. igi
dasartyam-klaviSian sakravTa jgufsaa. Celesta garegnulad
mcire zomis pianinos hgavs. igi gamoigones XIX s.-is bolos
safrangeTSi. aqvs nazi, gamWvirvale, zariviT xma. Celesta
petre Caikovskim gamoiyena baltSi `maknatuna~ (`feria draJes
cekvaSi~). am sakravs XX s.-is kompozitorebmac (bartoki,
SostakoviCi) mimarTes. Celesta JRers ravelis `boleroSic~.

Celesta
- pianisimo - ormagi piano. niSnavs Zalian Cumad JReras, Sesrulebas.
 - fortisimo - ormagi forte. niSnavs Zalian xmamaRla JReras, Sesrulebas.
    - dinamiuri niSnebi.
gamoicani da daasaxele sakravebi
45
jaz i
XX saukunis musikalur xelovnebaSi
uamravi axali stili, saxeoba Tu Janri gaCnda.
esenia: saestrado, pop musika, saavtoro musika, rok- musika... gansakuTrebuli adgili aqvs
Tanamedrove musikalur mimarTulebebs Soris. jazs ukavia. jazis istoria – XX saukunis istoriis nawilia. ra aris jazi? - am kiTxvas erTerTi udidesi jazuri musikosi lui armstrongi
pasuxobs: ,,Tu Tqven, am musikis mosmenisas fexs ar
abakunebT, verasdros gaigebT ra aris jazi’’
jazi’’. jazis Tavisebureba isaa, rom igi ori musikaluri
kulturis pirmSoa. evropuli- ,,TeTri’’kulturis gavlena mis melodiasa da harmoniaSi igrZnoba, xolo rTuli ritmika, bgeris meryevi simRle,
erTgvari ,,usufTao’’, xrinwiani, odnav uxeSi xmovaneba, Sesrulebis procesSi musikaSi mTeli arsebiT ,,Cafloba’’- es yovelive afrikuli kulturis gavlenaa. jazis safuZveli improvizaciaa.jazmeni warmoudgenelia
improvizaciuli unaris gareSe.Tioeuli Semsrulebeli da instrumenti
damoukidebeli da Tavisufalia, SezRuduli ar aris winaswar dawerili
partiiT. improvizaciuloba uZvelesi droidan axasiaTebs musikalur xelovnebas, upirvelesad xalxur Semoqmedebas, gansakuTrebiT aRmosavlurs. Sua saukuneebSi improvizaciuloba erTgvarad aikrZala da mxolod
barokos epoqaSi aRorZinda isev. gaixseneT am
epoqis gamoCenili kompozitor-Semsruleblebi, romlebic araCveulebrivi improvizaciuli
niWiT gamoirCeodnen. amitomac araa gasakviri,
rom Tanamedrove jazis musikosebi aRmerTeben
baxs. misi musika melodiis ganviTarebis erTgvari etaloni, nimuSia jazur improvizaciebSi. amgvarad, Sesrulebis Tavisufali manera,
improvizaciuloba, roca musika Sesrulebis
momentSi iqmneba, gansakuTrebuli ritmuloba
- maxvili, daxvewili sinkopirebuli ritmebi
_ ai, ra aris jazi.
jazbendi
jazze gansxvavebuli azri arsebobda,
dadebiTi da uaryofiTic. cnobili frangi kompozitori darius mio ambobda, rom igi jaziT musikis sawyisebs, adamianis sulis siRrmeebs uaxlovdeba
da rom es musika romelime genialur nawarmoebze nakleb ar aRelvebs mas.
musikosebi dRemde davoben - jazi msubuqi musikaa Tu seriozuli. jazis Sesaxeb SesaniSnavad Tqva gamoCenilma amerikelma kompozitorma leonard berstainma: ,,me miyvars jazi imis gamo, rom igi arasdros aris bolomde
sevdiani da arc bolomde mxiaruli. TviT yvelaze giJur, mxiarul jazSic
ki raRac sevda igrZnoba. me miyvars jazi misi iumoris gamoc. igi TiTqosda
TamaSobs notebiT, TamaSobs da erToba bgerebiT..~
skot joplini `regtaimi~ mousmine musikas da aRniSne
ra sakravebi JRers.
46
bluzi da spiriCuelsi
sityva jazi inglisur enaSi - jazz - zangebis gamamxnevebel wamoZaxils niSnavs. SesaZlebelia misi saxeli dakavSirebuli iyos im xanad gavrcelebul gamoTqmasTan: ,,jazing
it af~ — aRmafreniT, energiulad dakvra... jazis samSoblo
amerikaa. aq, ,,axal samyaroSi’’, rogorc adre amerikas uwodebdnen, sxvadasxva xalxTa ena, bibliuri fsalmunebi,
lui armstrongi
inglisuri himnebi, Sotlandiuri baladebi, italiuri madrigalebi, espanuri romansebi, franguli menuetebi, afrikeli zangebis uCveulo simRerebi, dolebis saocari ritmebi da improvizaciebi ireoda erTmaneTSi. jazi axal orleanSi daibada.am
50 000-kacian qalaqSi, romelsac `parizs misisipizec~ uwodebdnen, sami saopero dasi
da ramdenime simfoniuri orkestri arsebobda. axal orleanSi ZiriTadad kreolebi cxovrobdnen _ ganaTlebiTa da kulturiT TeTrkanianebTan
axlos mdgomni, xolo sisxliT zangebi. aq SeiZleboda mogesminaT TeTrebisa da zangebis musika _ saopero ariebi, klasikuri
safortepiano nawarmoebebi, vodevilebis popularuli simRerebi, bluzi, regTaimi. Sedegad XX saukunis dasawyisSi warmoiSva
sruliad axali musika _ jazi.
jazuri musikis safuZvlad miCneulia spiriCuelsi, bluzi da
regTaimi.
spiriCuelsi sasuliero sagundo himnia. igi bibliur siuJetebsa da teqstebzea agebuli. simReras Tan sdevs cekva, taSi,
fexiT bakuni, tanis Tavisufali moZraobebi. simReris intonacia
skot joplini xSirad kiTxviTi formisaa.
`regTaimis mefe~
gaimRere spiriCuelsi
duk elingtoni
bluzi amerikel zangTa sevdiani, mwuxare xalxuri simRera. bluzebs xSirad banjos an gitaris TanxlebiT mRerodnen. rogorc erTma Savkanianma bluzmenma Tqva: ,,bluzi – es
aris roca kargi adamiani cudad grZnobs Tavs’’.
spiriCuelsisgan gansxvavebiT, bluzi solo simReraa da
pirad, dramatul gancdebs gadmoscems, Tumca misTvis arc
iumori da ironiaa ucxo. xalxuri simReris msgavsad, bluzis musika da sityvebic improvziaciulia. axasiaTebs poliritmia, sinkopirebuli ritmi, momRerlis xmis an sakravis
specifikuri tembruli Seferiloba.
bluzis gansakuTrebul melodias qmnis e.w. sevdiani
tonaloba _ bluzis gama.
es CvenTvis cnobili gamaa
ns
r b
m arsebobs,
rs b bs r
m
m CCveulebrivi
br
m ss
x
jazisTvis ki gansakuTrebuli
gama
romelic
am
gamis
saxeSecvlili variantia. Tu gamaSi davadablebT sam nots miviRebT gamas eg.w. `cisferi~, `sevdiani~ notebiT.
bluzis notebi
47
am notebis gamoyenebiT miviRebT bluzis gamas
Cawere da gaimRere bluzis gama
diuk elingtoni
axla ki mocemul pirvel nimuSSi CavsvaT `bluzis~ bgerebi da vnaxavT rom sul
sxvagvar JReradobas miviRebT.
es melodia ki Tavad aqcieT bluzad _ gamoiyeneT bluzis `cisferi~ bgerebi
daukari da gaimRere bluzis melodia
d ukari bluzis akordebi da moigone melodia
da
daukari
mogvianebiT bluzis sasimRero manera sxvadasxva mimarTulebebiT ganviTarda:
ritm-end-bluzi, ,,souli’’, ,,fanki’’, svingi, rok-en-roli da sxv.
bluzi popularuli gaxda inglisSi 50-iani wlebis dasawyisSi,roca iq amerikuli ritm-end-bluzis warmomadgenlebi Cavidnen. es iyo ,,inglisuri bluzis’’ bumi,
bluz-rokis niSnebi mogvianebiT rok-musikaSic gaCnda. popularuli jgufebi iyo:
,,roling stounzi’’, ,,diif farfli’’, ,,led zepelingi’’, `pink floidi~ da sxva.
zanguri spiriCuelsi _ `locva~ mahalia jeqsonis SesrulebiT.
dasavluri bluzi lui armstrongis SesrulebiT.
_ rogor daaxasiaTebdi: 1.spiriCuelsi 2. bluzi 3. reg-taimi
miusadage sityvebi: mxiaruli, sevdiani, seriozuli.
spiriCuelsi inglisuri sityvaa da sasulieros, religiurs niSnavs. Crdiloamerikel
zangTa religiuri da Sromis simRerebi.
bluzi inglisuri sityvaa blues, bluedevilis
_ melanqolias, sevdas niSnavs.
regTaimi inglisuri sityvaa da niSnavs wyvetil ritms. amerikuli
samejliso cekva romelic moduri iyo XX saukunis dasawyisSi.
jazbendi Tavdapirvelad zangebis quCis orkestri, mogvianebiT
restornebis, sacekvao darbazebis, sakoncerto estradebis orkestri.
bit _ inglisuri sityva beat niSnavs dartymas.
beat time _ jazSi taqtis Zlieri drois aRniSvna.
mahalia jeqsoni
48
jorj gerSvini
gerSvinis avtoportreti
albaT bevr Tqvengans smenia simRera `Summertime~, magram ar icis vin aris misi avtori. es iyo amerikeli kompozitori jorj gerSvini. uCveulod warimarTa am musikosis
bedi.mas ar daumTavrebia arc musikaluri koleji da arc
konservatoria. did xelovnebaSi Sesvla sruliad gaukvalavi gzebiT SesZlo.
mas pativs scemdnen rogorc simfojazis musikosebi,
aseve XX s.-is udidesi klasikosebi – raxmaninovi, raveli, Sonbergi, prokofievi... gerSvinisTvis mTavari skola
is musika iyo, romelic JRerda mis yofaSi _ sasule
orkestrebi, Teatris, kinos musika, cekvebis cocxali ritmebi, sevdini zanguri spiriCuelsi. Tavad gerSvini werda:
`xalxuri Semoqmedebis garda, sicocxles ganagrZobs mxolod is musika, romelic
zogadsakacobrio azrebsa da grZnobebs gamoxatavso~. aseTia gerSvinis musika da
amaSia misi musikis sicocxlisunarianobis saidumloc.
gerSvini axalgazrdobaSi sanoto maRaziaSi muSaobda, sadac ukravda da reklamas uwevda Tanamedrove musikis msubuqi Janris nimuSebs. man Tavisi araCveulebrivi
improvizaciuli niWis wyalobiT Zalian male miipyro musikaluri sazogadoebis
yuradReba. 18 wlisam pirvelad dawera musika popularuli Teatraluri warmodgenisTvis. roca gerSvinis saxelma brodveize gaibrwyina da amerikis qalaqebSi
misi simRerebis swavla daiwyes jer 20 wlisac ar iyo, da ukve Teatraluri samyaros
erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli figura gaxda niu-iorkSi, Semdeg ki londonsa da
parizSi.
msubuqi Janris cnobil musikoss pol uitmens pirvelad daebada azri _ Seetana
jazuri musikis elementebi simfoniur musikaSi. `jazis simfonizaciis~ ideam niuiorkSi bevri gaitaca. swored gerSvins daavales Seeqmna fortepianosa da orkestrisTvis msxvili simfoniuri nawarmoebi, romelic jazur Temebze iqneboda agebuli. da ai, 1924 wels daibada `rafsodia bluzis ferSi~, romlis Semdegac popularuli
simRerebis avtori gerSvini – zogad erovnuli mniSvnelobis kompozitor-simfonistad iqca. amis Semdeg gerSvini gaemgzavra parizSi, 20-iani wlebis modernistuli
xelovnebis `meqaSi~, sadac I msoflio omis Semdeg, sxvadasxva qveynidan Casuli bevri
gamoCenili xelovani cxovrobda. aq gaicno moris raveli da misgan gakveTilebis
miReba isurva. `sjobs pirvelxarisxovan gerSvinad darCeT, vidre meorexarisxovan ravelad iqceT~ _ aseTi pasuxi miiRo saxelovani kompozitorisgan
t
g axalgazrda
lg
d
gerSvinma.
gerSvini ar SeuSinda moswavlis rolSi yofnas da kon-trapunqtisa da Teoriis seriozuli Seswavla daiwyo. ram-denime klasikuri Janris nawarmoebic Seqmna. maTgan aRsan-iSnavia safortepiano koncerti (1925). gerSvinis udides
s
miRwevad misi musikaluri drama - `porgi da besi~ iTvleba,,
romelic scildeba 20-30-iani wlebis evropis musikalur
r
tradiciebs. am operis Seqmnis survili daibada haivardis
s
gaxmaurebuli piesis `porgis~ naxvis Semdeg. piesa Raribii
zangebis cxovrebas aRwerda. igi sruliad gansxvavdebodaa
evropuli modernizmisganac da brodveis msubuqi Janris
s
esTetikisganac. gerSvini aSS-s samxreT StatebSi gaemgza-vra da ramdenime Tve uRaribes zangebTan erTad gaatara,,
cxovrobda maTi cxovrebiT, Seiswavla maTi musikis, me-52
t
tyvelebis,
yofis Taviseburebani, mReroda maTTan erTad,
zangebsac SeuyvardaT igi. albaT, did pativad unda CaiTz
valos is faqti, rom gerSvini maT gundSi `damwyebis~ partiav
s
sac asrulebda, rac `TeTri~ adamianis mimarT didi ndobis
niSani iyo. aq Tavs iCens spiriCuelsis, lirikuli bluzisa da
n
regtaimis kilo-harmoniuli intonaciebi da ritmebi.
r
ase daibada pirveli erovnuli amerikuli opera `porgi
da besi~ _ kompozitoris Semoqmedebis mwvervali. am operd
aam didi roli iTamaSa amerikuli kulturis istoriaSi. misi
premiera 1935 wels, brodveize Sedga.
p
`Rhapsody in Blue~ _ rafsodia bluzis stilSi fortepianosa
da orkestrisaTvis.-1924w.
n
am nawarmoebis partituraze, romelic gerSvinma cnobil
zang
kompozitors, cnobili bliuzebis avtors uiliam henz
dis uZRvna, gerSvinma aseTi warwera gaakeTa: `uiliam hendis, romlis adreuli bliuzebi win uswreben Cems am nawarmoebs~.
gerSvins surda musikaSi amerikelTa cxovreba, maTi ganwyoba da Tavisi drois
suliskveTeba aesaxa, amitomac sruliad bunebrivi iyo, rom mimarTa improvizaciul
jazs – amerikelTaTvis ase sayvarel xelovnebas. rafsodia Seiqmna sam kviraSi.mis
pirvel Sesrulebas daeswrnen gamoCenili musikosebi: raxmaninovi,kreisleri, xeifeci, stakovski.
`rafsodia~ mogvagonebs 1-nawilian klasikur koncerts fortepianosa da orkestrisTvis. Tumca orkestris SemadgenlobaSi Setanili saqsofonebis
jgufi da jazisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sesrulebis
Tavisufali,uSualo manera am nawarmoebis uCveulo
stilze metyvelebs. misi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia sxvadasxva xasiaTis - lirikuli, himnuri, groteskuli,
sacekvao epizodebis xSiri cvla, ritmuli mravalferovneba da Tavisufleba, mkveTri melodika da jazuri aqcentebi. masSi jazisa da gasarTobi musikis
elementebi, afro-amerikuli folklori Serwymulia
listisa da raxmaninovis brwyinvale safortepiano
stilTan.
gerSvinis sanoto xelnaweri
gerSvini rafsodia bluzis stilSi
raxmaninovi. rafsodia paganinis Temaze
imsj e le T
imsjeleT
mousmineT gerSvinisa da raxmaninovis rafsodiebs da SeadareT erTmaneTs.
_ SeiZleba 70-80 wlis win Seqmnili es musika klasikad miviCnioT?
_ klasika _ klasikuroba – klasikuri musika – ras niSnavs es cnebebi TqvenTvis?
_ rogor xelovnebas miiCnevT klasikurad?
CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cnobili klasikosi kompozitorebi.
_ ra gansxvavebaa Tqvenis azriT, klasicizmsa da klasikurs Soris?
rafsodia _ berZnuli sityva Rhapsody. xalxuri epikuri simRera. Tavisufali formis musikaluri nawarmoebi, romelic agebulia xalxuri simRerebisa da cekvebis, an xalxuris msgavs
Temebze. cnobilia listis ,,ungruli rafsodiebi’’, dvorJakis ,,slavuri
rafsodia’’, ravelis ,,espanuri~, raxmaninovis rafsodia paganinis Temaze.
53
simRera Tbilisze
teqsti petre gruzinskis
musika revaz laRiZis
netav sad aris kidev ca, uZirod lurji xalasi
swored iseTi rogorc Senia
naiarevi warsulis nangrevi nariyalasi
WaRarasaviT SemogrCenia
Tbiliso, mzis da vardebis mxareo
uSenod sicocxlec ar minda
sad aris sxvagan axali varazi
sad aris WaRara mTawminda
Cavivli mtkvarTan xeivans da gazafxulis mayrebi
gegebebian mwvane Wadrebi aq ar imRero Znelia
aq xom foTlebic mRerian da ca firuzze lurji feria
Tbiliso, mzis da vardebis mxareo
Tbiliso, mzis da vardebis mxareo
uSenod sicocxlec ar minda
cnobili qarTveli kompozitori revaz laRiZe im rCeul adamianTa ricxvs miekuTvneba,
romelTac Tavis samSobloSi xalxis gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli moipoves. es siyvaruli
didma xelovanma Tavisi araCveulebrivi musikiTa da gansakuTrebuli adamianuri TvisebebiT daimsaxura.
revaz laRiZis lamazi, melodiuri, emociiTa da siyvaruliT savse musikis
STagonebis wyaro- rogorc Tavadac ambobda- misi samSoblo, misi mTa-bari da
misi mdidari xalxuri simRera iyo. kompozitors mTeli saqarTvelo fexiT
Semouvlia. zepirad icoda TiToeuli kuTxe da misi cxovrebis wesi. amas mouwodebda mozardebsac: `ekranidan, wigniT ver SeigrZnob mamuls. eqskursiiT sakuTar xalxs ver gaicnob. fexiT unda iwanwalo, unda igrZno Seni miwa.
aseve xalxur simReras ver iswavli notebiT, igi xalxma unda
gaswavlos. niWieri kaci saqmes gaakeTebs, magram mwvervalebs ver daipyrobs Tu mSobliuri simReris tradiciebs ar
daeyrdnoba~. laRiZis kidev erTi didi siyvaruli Tevzaoba da nadiroba
yofila. es gatacebac mSobliuri kuTxis ukeT gacnobis, misi kidev erTxel
monaxulebis sababi iyo uTuod.
r.lariZe 1921 wlis 10 ivlissaa dabadebuli. musika bavSvobidan uyvarda,
musikalur skolaSic dadioda da violinoze dakvras swavlobda. magram fexburTis TamaSi kidev ufro metad moswonda, Tanac eTakileboda quCaSi violinos yuTiT siaruli da musikis swavlasac Tavi male mianeba; gadawyvetili
hqonda eqimi an inJineri gamosuliyo. Tumca keTili da Wkviani adamianebis
mondomebiT musikasTan kavSiri ar gauwyvetia da sabolood konservatoriaSic ki Cairicxa
sakompozicio fakultetze gamoCenili kompozitoris andria balanCivaZis klasSi. revaz
laRiZe yovelTvis keTilad igonebda im xalxs, vinc mas sxvadasxva dros aswavlida da rCevebs aZlevda. did niWTan erTad kompozitori didi SromismoyvareobiTac gamoirCeoda.
laRiZes uamravi nawarmoebi aqvs dawerili sxvadasxva JanrSi. maT Sorisaa opera `lela~,
kantata `saqarTvelo~, vokalur-instrumentuli poema `melis varZia~, simfoniuri poema
`samSoblosaTvis~, simfoniuri suraTi `saWidao~, piesebi portepianosaTvis, CelosaTvis
da kidev mravali sagundo Tu instrumentuli piesebi. magram gansakuTrebuli adgili mis cxovrebaSi sasimRero Janrs ekava. simReraa is
sfero, did kompozitors SemoqmedebiTi gzis dasawyisSive rom mou-
57
tana aRiareba. yvelasaTvis cnobili `simRera Tbilisze~
ki, romlis teqsti cnobil poets petre gruzinskis ekuTvnis, didi xania Cveni dedaqalaqis musikalur emblemad iqca
da dResac, drois svlas am melodiiT migvaniSnebs saaTi
Tbilisis centralur moedanze.
aranakleb popularulia laRiZis simRerebi sxvadasxva
kinofilmebidan: `darkveTelo qalo~ ” (filmi “gangaSi”),
simRera “megobrobaze” (“keTili adamianebi”) , “gogov
gogov” (“sabudareli Wabuki”) , valsi (“yvavili Tovlze”),
biZina kvernaZe da revaz laRiZe
“karkuCiT
Camoiyvanes“
(“xevisberi goCa”) – es is simRerebia, romlebic dRes
filmebis gareSec cocxloben. r. laRiZis simRerebs amRerebul sikeTes uwodeben. maTi mosmenisas sikeTiT, siTboTi gvevseba gulebi da ukeTesebi vxdebiT. qarTulma
sazogadoebam 2000wels, gardacvalebidan 19 wlis Semdeg
revaz laRiZe `saukunis kompozitorad~ aRiara.
r. laRiZe - `simRera Tbilisze~
revaz laRiZe da berZeni momRerali iovana
_ `simRera Tbilisze~ muSaobis dros
mousmine simReris `minus~ fonogramas
da imRere TviTon.
gaimRere da iswavle `Sen xar venaxis~ I xma
Sen xar venaxi
&c Ç
&œ
a
&Ç
da
& Ç
58
mze
-
Ç
Ç
Sen
ve
xar
xlad
a
Ç
-
Ta
œ
xar
œ
œ
œ
-
yva
-
œ
I xma
-
-
-
Ç
ve
Ç
vi
œ œ œ œ Ç
da
œ
na
-
œ
-
bu
œ
Tvi
œ œ
-
œ
-
-
œ œ
-
-
œ
œ
xi
-
-
-
œ
li
œ
œ
œ
siT
œ œ œ
gab - rwyin -
œ
œ
ve - bu
Ç
U
Ç
Ç
U
-
w
li.
..
XIX s-is dasawyisSi diri-
ejsjKpsjt!yfmpwofcb Jorobis istoriaSi gardatex-
is xana dadga. orskestris saTaveSi movida adamiani, romelic
diriJorobisas romelime instrumentze ki ar ukravda, aramed
mxolod diriJorobiT iyo dakavebuli, yvela Semsrulebeli mxolod mas emorCileboda. `axla orkestric iseve ar aireva, rogorc ar aireva xelis TiTebi~, - ambobda gamoCenili germaneli
kompozitori veberi.
adre diriJorebi orkestrisaken zurgiT da msmenelisken
saxiT idgnen. axla ki piriqiT _ orkestrisken Semobrundnen.
pirvelebma es nabiji mendelsonma da vagnerma gadadges. da rac
mTavaria, XIX s-dan diriJoroba saSemsruleblo xelovnebis damoukidebel dargad iqca. vagnerma gamijna marjvena da marcxena
xelis funqciebi: marjvena xeli – joxiT aRniSnavs temps, ritms.
marcxena ki imas, Tu rodis unda daiwyos ama Tu im sakravma dakvra. vagneris gavleniT XIX s. II naxevarSi Camoyalibda diriJorinterpretatoris tipi, romelic musikas individualuri xedviT
asrulebda.
simfoniuri orkestris diriJorobisas umravlesoba joxs iyenebs, xolo gundis xelmZRvanelebi xeliT diriJorobas irCeven.
ra amocanebi aqvs diriJors?
diriJorisTvis mTavaria orkestri ritmulad da Sewyobilad
ukravdes. rogor unda miaRwio amas? warmoidgineT, rom diriJori joxis an xelis aqneviT aRniSnavs `erTs~, anu im dros, roca
musika unda daiwyos. magram moaswreben ki musikosebi momzadebas?
maT xom erTsa da imave wams unda SeZlon dawyeba. fagotistma anda
mesayvirem bgeris aRebis win filtvebi haeri unda aivsos, meviorixard vagneri
linem xemi aswios, anu TiToeul maTgans momzadeba sWirdeba. amitom orkestris yvela musikosma dakvra droulad rom daiwyos, diriJorma `brZaneba~ winaswar unda gasces da asec xdeba. am miTiTeba-brZanebas `auftaqti~ ewodeba
da is diriJorobis erT-erTi safuZvelia. diriJoris umTavresi
amocanaa srulad gadmosces avtoris Canafiqri, musikosTa gansxvavebuli xasiaTebi erT harmoniul organizmad aqcios. man
musikosebs erTmaneTTan SeTanxmebulad dakvra unda aswavlos.
diriJori orkestris sulia. man nawarmoebi SemsruleblebTan erTad unda iswavlos, mianiSnos, Tu rodis da sad unda Sevides esa Tu is sakravi, mianiSnos tempi (Cqara, nela), dinamika
– (xmamaRla, Cumad). diriJors unda hqondes kargi, maxvili smena, SemoqmedebiTi fantazia da ganaTleba,
inteleqti, zogadi musikaluri kultura,
icodes musikisa da xelovnebis sxva dargebis
gustav maleri
istoria, erkveodes nawarmoebis stilsa da
epoqaSi.
leonard bernstaini `vestsaidis istoria~ - cekva
amerika
leonard bernstaini
72
gakveTili XII
nawarmoebis aJRereba
nawarmoebis aJRereba SesaZlebelia rogorc muSaobis dros,ise misi dasrulebis
Semdeg.ubralod saWiroa mausiT davawveT Play-s da Finale daiwyebs Cveni brZanebis
Sesrulebas.
magaliTad gvinda,rom nawarmoebi aJRerdes Sua nawilidan_me-18 taqtidan. am
SemTxvevaSi mausiT vaWerT Playback Settings
gaixsneba aseTi tipis fanjara:
Semdeg suraTze vnaxavT Tu ra moqmedeba unda
CavataroT am fanjaraSi.
pirvel
suraTze
isriT
miniSnebulia grafa,sadac vwerT
im cifrs, romeli taqtidanac
gvinda rom aJRerdes nawarmoebi,
magaliTad 18.
suraTi 1
meore suraTze aseve isari
gvaCvenebs grafas, oRond aq vwerT cifrs, Tu romeli
taqtis CaTvliT gvinda nawarmoebis aJRereba. magaliTad
32.
suraTi 2
am meniudan nebismier dros SegviZlia SevcvaloT monacemebi Cvenive survilis
mixedviT. da bolos, ra Tqma unda vaZlevT brZanebas.
am gakveTilSi SeviswavliT akords - si
maJorul samxmovanebas.
H-dur, si-maJori
&
####
# cw
w
w
##
& # ## w
w
w
w
w
w
w
gaimRere gama si maJori
w
daukari da gaimRere samxmovanebis bgerebi
axla igive akordi daukari gitaraze
da gaavarjiSe TiTebi.
73
dafne
adamianebi uZvelesi droidan miiCnevdnen, rom musikas
saswaulmoqmedi Zala aqvs. isini
qmnidnen miTebs, legendebsa da
Tqmulebebs gmirebze, poetebze,
musikosebze. saukuneTa siRrmidan moaRwia Cvenamde legendarulma saxelebma. msoflio kultura warmoudgenelia berZnulromauli miTologiis gareSe aRorZinebis xanidan moyolebuli mwerlebma, mxatvrebma, moqandakeebma, kompozitorebma xom
swored am miTebidan isesxes siuJetebi sakuTari nawarmoebebisaTvis. imisaTvis, rom gavigoT Zveli da Tanamedrove xelovneba,
unda vicodeT antikuri miTologiac. miTologia cxovrebas ganagrZobs Tanamedrove metyvelebaSi, magaliTad gamoTqmebi: sizifes Sroma, titanuri Sroma, panikuri SiSi, olimpiuri simSvide...
adamians miTebSi surda Seecno gare samyaro, sakuTari Tavi. miTis Seqmna adamianisTvis iyo pirveli nabiji Semoqmedebisa da
sakuTari Tavis Secnobisaken. TandaTan calkeuli legendebi,
da dafne. marmarilos
himnebi Tu simRerebi, romelTac moxetiale momRerlebi-aede- apolo
qandakeba, moqandake bernini
bi asrulebdnen, gaerTiandnen iseT did poemebad, rogorebicaa
(1598-1680)
homerosis `iliada~ da `odisea~.
ai, ras mogviTxrobs ZvelberZnuli miTi feria dafneze.
feria dafne mdinaris RmerTis qaliSvili iyo. igi apolons Seuyvarda, magram feria apolons yovelTvis gaurboda. erTxelac, roca apoloni wamoewia mas, feriam xelebi cisken aRmarTa da RmerTs Seevedra xed eqcia. RmerTebma ismines misi vedreba
da dafne xed aqcies. apolonma ki es xe Tavis wminda xed gaixada (mcenare dafnas saxeli mxolod qarTulSi da berZnulSia erTnairi). am xis cisken aRmarTuli totebi da
foTlebi TiTqos feria dafnes cisken aRmarTuli
xelebia. `dafnes~ siuJeti gamoyenebulia xelovnebis araerT sferoSi. igi safuZvlad daedo
renesansis, barokos da Tanamedrove xelovanTa
nawarmoebebs. musikis istoriaSi pirveli operac
,,dafnea’’. igi 1594 wels Seiqmna italiis qalaq
florenciaSi da sakarnavalo zeimze daidga. misi
avtorebi arian poeti otavio rinuCini da kompozitori jakomo peri. swored am nawarmoebiT daedo
saTave musikis axal Janrs _ operas. samwuxarod,
mis partituras Cvenamde ar mouRwevia. Semdeg
rinuCinis teqstze ,,dafnes’’ axali varianti Seqmna mantuis saopero skolis warmomadgenelma
marko galianom. mogvianebiT es miTologiuri
siuJeti daedo safuZvlad italieli alesandro
skarlatis, germaneli Sutcis operebsac, XX saukuneSi ki cnobili germaneli kompozitoris rixapolo da dafne.
ard Strausis operas _ `dafne~.
moqandake janbatista Tijepola (1698)
gaixsene
ra aris opera?...............................................................................................................................
ra aris partitura?.....................................................................................................................
ra aris aria?..................................................................................................................................
75
meri daviTaSvili
qarTveli kompozitoris meri daviTaSvilis sabavSvo
simRerebi qarTuli sabavSvo sasimRero xelovnebis `mocimcme
margalitebi~, yvelas bavSvobas gvaxsenebs. ramdeni Taoba
gaizarda am simRerebze? kolegebi xSirad iakob gogebaSvils
adareben da eubnebian: rac gogebaSvilma bavSvebisaTvis
dedaeniT SeZlo, Sen igive musikaSi Seni sabavSvo simRerebiT
gaakeTeo. swored amitomac Rirseulad daimsaxura iakob
gogebaSvilis saxelobis premia. konservatoriaSi andria
balanCivaZis mowafe Semdeg Tavadac gamoCenili kompozitori
gaxda. usazRvrod uyvars saqarTvelo, Tavisi xalxi, istoria,
meri daviTaSvili
xalxuri simRera. musikis garda gatacebulia mogzaurobiT fexiT moiara mTeli saqarTvelo, misi yvela kuTxe-kunWuli. Tavis mowafeebsac amas
aswavlis da urCevs.
simRerebi: `dila mSvidobisa~, `davibane piri~, `es sawyali
kurdReli~, `anao, ana-banao~, `matarebeli~, sabavSvo operebi
- `nacarqeqia~ da `qajana~, musika kinofilmisaTvis `manana~,
multfilmebisaTvis `CxikvTa qorwili~, `wuna da wruwuna~,
`naxevarwiwila~, `rwyili da WianWvela~ meri daviTaSvilis
saukeTeso nawarmoebebia.
sabavSvo musikis aRiarebuli kompozitori meri daviTaSvili,
saqarTvelos saxalxo artisti, rusTavelis premiis laureati,
dResac agrZelebs SemoqmedebiT da pedagogiur moRvaweobas. man vaJa-fSavela didi siamovnebiT mogvca interviu Cveni saxelmZRvanelosTvis. ai, `CxikvTa qorwili~
ras urCevs is momaval Taobas:
`Zvirfas
ufrosklaselebs
vusurveb
mSvidobian,
aSenebul
saqarTveloSi bednierad icxovron da momavalSi erTgulad emsaxuron
sa
mmas.
a
d
damoukidebel cxovrebas axalgazrda momzadebuli unda Sexvdes:
airCios sayvareli specialoba, daagrovos codna, raTa misi cxovreba sainteresod
warimarTos.erT-erT megzurad musika airCios, romelsac ZaluZs siamovnebasTan
erTad ganuviTaros gemovneba da iseTi Cvevebi SesZinos, romelic amorCeul
specialobaSi daexmareba.
saocari fenomenia musika,romelsac didi sixaruli da bedniereba SeuZlia moutanos
yvelas, vinc mas eziareba.amisTvis adamians musikis elementaruli ganaTleba mainc
unda hqondes miRebuli, man is mainc unda moaxerxos,rom kargi msmeneli gaxdes.
isminos xSirad klasikuri da folkloruli Sedevrebi, xSirad iaros koncertebze,
operaSi.saqarTvelo xom msoflioSi cnobili folkloris samSobloa.mRera yvela
qarTvels SeuZlia.ai ,aqedan SeiZleba daiwyos axalgazrdam musikis gacnoba,romelic
,ueWvelia, siyvarulSi gadaizrdeba da did bednierebas moutans mas.
musikas SeuZlia adamians namdvili megzuroba da megobroba gauwios cxovrebaSi.~
meri daviTaSvili - nawyvetebi multfilmidan `CxikvTa qorwili~
kadrebi multfilmebidan `wuna da wruwuna~ da `CxikvTa qorwili~
78
rixard Strausi
rixard Strausi germanuli musikaluri kulturis
udidesi warmomadgenelia - kompozitori, diriJori
da udidesi xelovania. Strauss XIX-XX s-is musikaluri cxovrebis ~mematianes~ uwodeben. kompozitoris
xangrZlivi SemoqmedebiTi gza jer kidev vagneris sicocxleSi daiwyo da meore msoflio omis mere dasrulda.
r. Strausis Semoqmedeba ar miekuTvneba erT romelime mimdinareobas. igi Tavdapirvelad romantizmiT
iwyebs, berliozis, vagnerisa da listis mimdevaria,
Semdeg eqspresionistad, realistad da Semoqmedebis
dasasruls neoklasikosad gvevlineba. mis simfoniur
SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili adamians – gmirs
ekuTvnis. amiT is beThovens hgavs. yovelive amis gamo germaneli
mwerali romen rolani rixard Strauss ~ukanasknel did klasikoss~ uwodebda, debiusi ki - mis musikas `mziT gasxivosnebuls~.
rixard Strausis Semoqmedeba mravalferovania _ 15 opera,
2 baleti, vokalur-instrumentuli, safortepiano nawarmoebebi, 2 simfonia da 8 simfoniuri poema. maT Sorisaa
cnobili simfoniur poema ~don-kixoti~, e.w. ~poema-ilustracia~, romelsac safuZvlad servantesis
amave saxelwodebis romani daedo. Strausis ~donkixoti~ programuli nawarmoebia: is kinos principiTaa agebuli, romantikuli xasiaTis
10 fantastiuri variaciaa, ~musikaluri kinosuraTebis~ rigia simfoniuri
orkestris TiToeuli sakravi romanis
moqmed gmirad iqceva da musikis eniT
gviambobs don-kixotis, sanCo-pansasa rixard Strausi sadiriJoro pultTan
da sxvaTa Tavgadasavals. don-kixotis
saxes violonCelo axmovanebs, sanCo-pansas _ alti. TanmimdevrobiT
msmenelis Tvalwin Caivlis sxvadasxva scena: don-kixoti ebrZvis qar.Strausis
`don-kixoti~
ris wisqvilebs, don-kixoti Ramis sadarajoze, mTvarian Rames dulsigamocema 1946
neaze meocnebe don-kixoti da sxva...
wlis gamocema
bolos X variacia _ ~don-kixotis SebrZoleba TeTri mTvaris raindTan, damarcxeba da Sin dabruneba. simfoniuri poema ~don-kixoti~, romelic kompozitorma 1897 wels dawera, misi erT-erTi yvelaze lirikuli nawarmoebia.
~rixard Strausis Semoqmedeba evropuli musikis ukanaskneli RirsSesaniSnavi
movlenaa~ – werda masze romen rolani.
1949 wels xandazmuli kompozitori Tavis saxlSi q.
garmiSSi gardaicvala. imxanad
misi popularoba mTels evropas swvdeboda. r. Strausi mravaljer iyo arCeuli sxvadasxva
qveynis akademiebis wevrad.
Strausis sanoto xelnaweri
rixard Strausis saxli garmiSSi
84
2002 wels iaponiaSi, q. macimotoSi,
sadac yovel wels imarTeba simfoniuri
musikis festivali, rixard Strausis
`don-kixoti~ Seasrules iseTma didma musikosebma, rogorebic arian rusi
violonCelisti mstislav rostrapoviCi da iaponeli diriJori seiji oZava.
rastrapoviCma, romelic am partiis
ubadlo Semsruleblad iTvleba, ga- pablo pikaso mstislav rostrapoviCi
nacxada, rom ukanasknelad daukravda `don-kixoti~
am nawarmoebs. iaponiis saxelmwifo televizia aseT sanaxaobas rasakvirvelia ver gamotovebda da dagawyvita koncerti filmad gadaeRo. rastrapoviCis moTxovniT am film-koncertis gadasaRebad iaponiaSi qarTveli kinoreJisori
zurab inaSvili miiwvies. reJisorma esapaneTSi imogzaura, `don-kixotis~ mSobliuri
adgilebi moiara da aTi fantastiuri variaciis aTi musikaluri kinosuraTi Seqmna.
imogzaura germaniaSi, q. garmiSSi, moinaxula Strausis saxli, sadac axla kompozitoris muzeumia da misi SviliSvili cxovrobs. reJisorma firze aRibeWda simfoniuri poemis `don-kixotis~ notebis xelnaweric. ase
`gacocxlda~ Strausis genialuri musika. qarTveli
reJisoris gadaRebul am saintereso filmSi TiTqos
erTad moiyares Tavi espanelma mweralma servantesma, germanelma kompoztorma Strausma, iaponelma
diriJorma seiji oZavam da rusma violonCelistma
mstislav rostropoviCma.
rixard Strausi simfoniuri
poema `don-kixoti~
mstislav rostrapoviCi da
zura inaSvili filmze muSaobisas
simfoniuri poema - erTnawiliani programuli xasiaTis nawarmoebi simfoniuri
orkestrisaTvis.
programuli musika - aRweriTi an TxrobiTi xasiaTis instrumentuli musikaa,
romelsac safuZvlad udevs raime literaturuli siuJeti. programuloba aisaxeba
nawarmoebis saTaurSi, an TandarTul specialur literaturul komentarebSi.
siuJetis wyaro SeiZleba iyos istoriuli ambavi, legenda,Tqmuleba,zRaprulfantastikuri ambavi, peizaJuri Canaxati, xelovnebis raime nimuSi. zogjer programis
siuJets Tavad kompozitori Txzavs. kompozitorebi programul nawarmoebebSi
asaxaven aseve bunebis xmebs: tyis Srials, wyaros rakraks, zRvis Relvas, Weqaquxilsa Tu Citebis galobas.
1. romeli programuli nawarmoebebi mogismeniaT?
2. ra aris maTSi asaxuli?
kadrebi dokumenturi filmidan gamoTxoveba `don-kixotTan~.
seiji oZava da mstislav rostropoviCi.
85

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